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ANGLO-AMERICANS - BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS

PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS LIBERAL LIBERTINE LIBERTARIAN:
Storyline: The royal rake tempers his lusts not one whit in moving from regal to plebeian to popular realms, while etching a unique profile on the thrones, House seats, and musical chairs he has held, as a champion of his own progressive and successive self interests.

Bob Geldof (Robert Frederick Xenon Geldof) (1951) - Irish musician and political activist. Outer: Grandfather was a Belgian immigrant. Father was a traveling textile salesman. Raised in a Roman Catholic household, with two older sisters. His mother died suddenly of a brain hemorrhage when he was 7, which would be the most traumatic event of his life. Raised by his sisters, he experienced a lonely childhood, and was often at odds with his sire. Always wanted to be a rock star in recompense for the missing pieces of his early life. 6’2”, 150 lbs. Left school at 17, and worked at a variety of jobs, including busker, meatpeacker and roadworker, before briefly moving to Canada and becoming a music journalist for an underground Vancouver music review. Returned to Ireland in 1975, and together with a group of unemployed mates, with no musical experience between them, formed a pub group, the Boomtown Rats, as a lead singer, and quickly became known for his loud, demonstrative sound. The unruly group, which combined reggae with mod-rock, fit perfectly into the punk scene, and by 1978, it had established itself as a commercial success. The following year they became an international phenomenon with “I Don’t Like Mondays,” the plaint of an American serial killer for her mindless murderous spree. In 1981, he began the first of many charity benefits, which would come to define his larger career. Inspired U2 singer Bono to do the same through the show, and the two would separately go on to become rock’s most prominent voices in trying to change the world and raise consciousness through benefit concerts. In 1984, he created Band Aid, as a means of directing the world’s attention to starving Ethiopian children, and the ‘Aid’ concept would go on to serve comedians and other entertainers for a host of causes, involving as they did large audiences for the basic concerts, and then electronic recreations of them through various media, including TV, radio and albums. Like Bono, he would focus on African relief, and would find enormous support for his efforts, not only from his audiences, but from the media outlets who broadcast and recorded them, and saw their own little goldmines of good works and profit in the energy generated by his marathon shows. ‘Live Aid,’ in particular, staged in 1985 in venues in both the U.S. and U.K. would generate £150 million in famine relief, causing him to be knighted afterwards, although the appellation of ‘Sir’ before his name was denied him, since he was not a citizen of the Commonwealth. Co-penned his autobiography, “Is That It?” as a result of all the attention, despite only being in his mid-30s at the time. The money he raised, however, would fall into ambiguous hands in some cases, furthering, rather than halting, the oppressive circumstance for which it was goodheartedly intended. At the end of the 1970s, he met teenaged Paula Yates, who would later become his wife as well as a rock journalist, after evincing an early obsession with him. The duo got married in 1986 and had a daughter, although not necessarily in that order, and would later add two more of the same to their brood, including Peaches, who would quickly become a DJ and a model, as well as tabloid fodder, through her hearty partying, drug use and shoplifting as a teenage drama queen, and Pixie, who would follow in her sibling’s unsteady footsteps. Left the Boomtown Rats in 1986 for a solo career, while also working as a DJ, although musical expression would gradually take a back seat to all his other enterprises. Because of his various infidelities, his wife eventually left him in 1995 for another musician, Australian rock star, Michael Hutchence, and they would divorce in 1996. The following year, Hutchence hanged himself in part over the bitter custody dispute that ensued, which subsequently caused him to go to court to get full custody of his daughters and become an advocate of fathers’ rights. Yates would overdose on heroin in 2000, and he would get custody of the daughter she had by Hutchence as well. A serial seducer, he would have a long string of amours, while ultimate settling in England. In 1992, he co-founded Planet 24, a TV production company, which he ultimately sold, then launched an online travel business, which he also trafficked, netting some $17 million, and making him quite rich. Took up the cudgels for Africa again following the turn of the century, and became one of the commissioners of Africa on a panel that undertook a year long study of the continent’s complex problems. Created a series of free concerts called the Live 8 project to raise awareness in various venues in Europe, Canada, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the U.S. with a veritable all-star lineup, as a prelude to a G8 summit meeting of the major economic powers of the world. Criticized for not including African acts, as well as serving as a shill for the British Labour Party’s political interests, although he brushed off both negative assessments. Less interested in performing as he has gotten older, he has put most of his energy after century’s turn in campaigning for debt relief along with Bono, although continues to sporadically release albums and give concerts, despite an embarrassing lack of interest in the latter. Raised some eyebrows by praising Pres. George Bush’s Africa policies in 2007, and unlike many other activists is a proponent of nuclear energy. Despite his considerable wealth, he wound up the subject of a suit by his former fellow bandmates for withholding profits from them. Lost his daughter Peaches to heroin, the drug of death, in 2014, in the same way his wife had earlier died, and has continually beat himself up over it. In 2015, he married his longtime inamorata, French actress Jeanne Marine, after nearly 20 years together. Inner: As in all his lives in this series, a study in contrasts and contradictions, despite a genuine desire to make the world a better and more aware place. Excellent organizer, with a finely-attuned social sense, and ironically, to many, a better ear for political and economic realities than musical melodies. Temperamental, argumentative, thoroughly uninhibited and earthy, with a boomtown gift for making his wishes manifest. Activist lifetime of grabbing a public stage for himself, and then quickly turning it from the pop to the political, to become a self-styled crusader for world economic equality, while trying, as usual, to elevate everyone else, including, for once, himself. David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor (1863-1945) - Welsh Prime Minister and statesman. Outer: Mother was the daughter of a minister, father was a Welsh school headmaster turned farmer who died of pneumonia when his son was one, leaving the family in poverty. The middle of three, with an older sister and a younger brother born posthumously after his sire’s death. Grew up in the household of his mother’s brother, a shoemaker and later a minister, who gave his nephew many of his Liberal beliefs. Educated locally, as well as at home. Articled to a firm of solicitors at the age of 14, he set up his own practice in 1885 and quickly established a reputation via the courts, ultimately taking his brother in with him, while becoming active politically. Tall, broad-shouldered, and extremely well-endowed, with a silver voice and a magnetic personality. After many affairs, he married Margaret Owen, the daughter of a prosperous farmer and deacon in 1888, 5 children from the union, with a son Gwilym, and a daughter, Megan, both following in his political footsteps, while he continued his compulsively seductive ways throughout his marriage, including a hushed-up pregnancy with a Liberal Party activist only months after his wedding. Entered Parliament in 1890 as a Liberal with radical, anti-imperialist sympathies, and held the same seat for 55 years. Made his maiden speech his first year on temperance reform. Unscrupulous, but a highly effective legislator, debater and reformer, becoming a leader of the radical wing of the party. Nearly lynched in Birmingham for his opposition to the Boer War. Became a Cabinet member in 1905, where he helped settle strikes, then President of the Board of Trade, before suffering the death of a daughter at 17 in 1907. The following year he became chancellor of the Exchequer in the ministry of his political foe Herbert Asquith, where he introduced state pensions for the first time, and rode roughshod over the landed aristocracy, winning him the subsequent reputation as the father of the British Welfare State. Formed a ‘People’s Budget,’ which ultimately curtailed the power of the House of Lords after precipitating a constitutional crisis. Suffered damage to his reputation through some financial shenanigans, although WW I proved a boon for his career, when he was made minister of munitions, using unorthodox methods to supply front-line British troops. Resigned in protest over the direction of the war, then succeeded Asquith as Prime Minister of a coalition government in 1916, becoming the first and only Welshman to hold that post. Saved from death when he was called away from the ship that eventually was sunk by a mine, claiming the life of Gen. Horatio Kitchener (Charles Bronson). Aggressive and imaginative, albeit a controversial leader during WW I, he was not a particularly good military strategist, overseeing some costly blunders, although his coalition government won a huge majority in 1918, after the conflict, while he was viewed as a national hero for the systems he inaugurated. Signed the Treaty of Versailles, while clashing with his Allied partners over their call for crushing reparations for defeated Germany, then reluctantly oversaw Irish independence in 1921, reversing his original policy to the undying hatred of the more recalcitrant Tories in Parliament. Resigned in 1922 after a party revolt, thanks to a belief in his own indispensability, which caused his ultimate fall. Headed a weakened Liberal party in the later half of the 1920s. Wrote his memoirs in the 1930s, tried to institute an American-style New Deal, which failed to capture anyone’s imagination, and revealed his racist overview of the rest of the undeveloped world. In mid-decade, he gave German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler, a hearty thumbs-up, before later realizing the error of his assessment, and declined a position in the WW II War Cabinet, stating he thought Britain’s chances of winning were dim. The latter part of his career was long, sad and anticlimactic. After his loyal wife’s death, he married his personal secretary and longtime mistress, Frances Stevenson in 1943, after she had been with him for 3 decades, in what had been a double life for him, and continual lies and deception on her part, including an abortion early in their relationship, as well as another one later on. Stevenson finally producing a longed-for daughter in 1929, whom she proceeded to adopt for appearance sake, although the child’s paternity would remain in question, since she was having her one and only other affair at the time, with someone else in his office. Elevated to the peerage 2 months before his death from cancer. Inner: Self-assured, charming, witty, and a notorious libertine, who was known as “the Welsh Wizard.” Audacious, high-spirited, hubristic with an irrepressible sense of humor and a scathing wit. Lusty lifetime of pursuing his own self-interest on a national political level, until his own failed sense of infallibility did him in. Charles James Fox (1749-1806) - British statesman and orator. Outer: 2nd surviving son of a pleasure-loving aristocrat of leisure who ran through a fortune, then married Caroline Lennox (Christina Ricci), daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Richmond, and known as a woman of loose repute, in what would prove an extremely happy union, despite the near two decade difference in their ages. Descended from Charles II (Peter O’Toole) of England and Henri IV (Franklin Delano Roosevelt) of France on his mother’s side. A child prodigy who could read in Greek, French, Latin and Italian, as well as English, he also had a passion for mathematics. Educated at Hertford College, Oxford, where he developed a lifelong love for the classics. His sire actively encouraged his sense of dissoluteness, and he incurred huge gambling debts, which his father settled just before his death. Dark, fat and hairy, albeit a compulsive bustle-chaser. Wound up with two illegitimate children, a deaf son, and a dimwitted daughter whom he supported. Bet on virtually everything, and ultimately owed £120,000, a phenomenal sum for the time. Later, political friends finally freed him from debt and gave him a comfortable income, allowing him to abandon his addiction in gratitude afterwards. Entered Parliament in 1768, when his father procured him a seat. George III (Jeffrey Archer) took a strong dislike to him, and he spent most of his career in Opposition to the king’s government, waging a long vendetta against him. Became a Whig leader in Commons, violently opposing England’s war with the American colonists. An extremely forceful speaker, he was appointed the first foreign secretary in England’s his/story. Resigned rather than serving under the king’s choice for prime minister following the American Revolution, and forced an unpopular coalition government on him, with himself as co-secretary of state. Twice went bankrupt during the 1780s, but was saved from going under financially by his friends. Supported the king’s dissolute son, the future George IV (Warren Beatty), which further enraged the sovereign, and the coalition soon fell. An enthusiast for the French Revolution, although he recognized its horrors as well. Political foe of Wm. Pitt the Younger (J. William Fulbright), whom he refused to accommodate. Great political talent, foe of oppression, albeit no democrat, believing in aristocratic rule based on property ownership. In 1795, he secretly married Elizabeth Armistead (Paula Yates), a former courtesan with whom he had lived with for a dozen years, in a mutually supportive union, in which she served as his prime confidante and closest friend. No children, and the union, which was well-known anyway, was finally revealed 7 years later, after the couple took a trip to France. Became foreign secretary again in 1806, with the desire to abolish the slave trade and negotiate peace with France, but his health was failing. Needed a wheelchair for his gout at the end, and he soon followed Pitt in death, winding up buried beside him in Westminster Abbey. Inner: Charming libertine and great champion of liberty. No real sense of judgment, but possessed endless charm and generosity, with a real gift for friendship. Loved by his friends, and despised by his enemies, and had the good fortune to have an intimate partner with whom he could completely every element of his life for his last 16 years. Libertarian lifetime of bringing his sense of largesse to his own ruling class sensibilities, while acting as his own worst enemy in his recalcitrant stands against standing authority. Thomas Wharton, 1st Marquess of Wharton (1648-1715) - British Politician. Outer: Father was a baron, Puritan Parliamentarian and soldier, who spent time in the Tower of London. Raised in Puritanical fashion, and spent the rest of his life in rebellion against his upbringing, with a reputation as a libertine and gambler that followed him throughout his career. After traveling, he entered Parliament in 1673. The same year, he married Nan Lee, the daughter of a baronet, no children from the union. His wife’s handsome dowry supported his fascination with thoroughbred horses. Held various posts connected with the royal court, and retained his power throughout his lifetime, albeit was mistrusted for his libertinism. Spared no expense for his elections, buying ale for his constituents, while fighting 2 political duels. A political enemy of James II (Martin Sheen), he composed a satiric ballad against him. A supporter of William III (Lyndon Johnson), when he came to power in 1688, he enjoyed several posts under him. Thoroughly despised by Queen Anne (Princess Anne), who deprived him of his posts, when she ascended the throne in 1702, although he maintained influence in Whig circles, while becoming lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and then Opposition leader to the Tory government, before ending his career as lord privy seal. Inner: Fun-loving, mischief-making. Reputation for lying, known facetiously as ‘Honest Tom Wharton.’ Occupied by both vice and politics. Bawdy and profane, he was viewed as villainous and insolent. Transition lifetime of making the bridge in the realm of power from French to English culture, while maintaining his pleasure-loving demeanor, and proving to be a peripheral politician when not ensconced in royal robes. Francois I (1494-1547) - King of France. Known as ‘le grand roi Francois.’ Outer: Only son of a French count who was first cousin to the king. His father died when he was 2, and he was brought up by his ambitious mother, Louise of Savoy, to whom he always knelt whenever he addressed her. Very attached to his sister, the brilliant Marguerite of Navarre (Eleanor Roosevelt). Grew up undisciplined, with a strong sense of chivalry. Athletic with elegant manners. Married at 20, to Claude (Kathy Acker), the hunchbacked eldest daughter of his predecessor, Louis XII (Bernard Kouchner), 7 children including his short-lived dauphin, Francis (Richard Pryor), his successor Henri II (Robert Downey, Jr.), his favorite Charles (Ryan O’Neal) and the equally short-lived Madeleine (Peaches Geldof), who would sit on the throne of Scotland for a few brief months. Ascended to the throne at the age of 20. Brave in battle, he constantly toured his realm, showing himself to his subjects, who had never seen their king, while familiarizing himself with the length and breadth of his realm. Emptied the prisons, while dispensing largess on his flock. Loved ostentatious display, and saw himself as a Renaissance ideal, maintaining a magnificent, scholarly court. Huge, broad-shouldered, acromegalic, and near-sighted with a mephistophelian look about him. Patron of artists, building and learning, Leonardo da Vinci (Gordon Parks) died in his arms. Had many mistresses, several of whom held power at court, including his closest squeeze, Anne de Pisseleu d’Heilly (Paula Yates), as well as a host of illegitimate children. Continually involved in foreign wars, many of them failures, while bringing the French Renaissance to its fullest flower. His prodigality and failed foreign conquests foreshadowed the future French court. Victim of the ambitions of HRE Charles V (Napoleon Bonaparte), who ultimately undid him. Held prisoner by the latter in Madrid in 1525, where he composed sad songs and his health began to fail. Recovered, but his open personality changed, and he began to suffer mood swings and other physical and emotional inconsistencies. Abdicated while still in prison, before concluding a harsh treaty that released him in 1526, although his 2 sons were held hostage for 4 more years, while he reclaimed the throne. After his first wife’s death, he was betrothed by proxy to Eleanor of Hapbsburg, the widow of the king of Portugal, to seal a reconciliation with Charles. Both unions were happy, despite his many infidelities. Emptied his treasuries ransoming his sons, and the toll of his defeat by Charles made him prematurely old, exacerbated by the death of his mother. Forced to deal with the growing religious fanaticism of his own country, his last years were extremely sad, as he was borne about on a litter, while he was forced to experience the deaths of the Dauphin and his most beloved son. Probably died of syphilis. Inner: Lusty, energetic, and libidinous monarch, comparable to contemporary Henry VIII (Maxwell Beaverbrook), who enjoyed a similar life-span. Quick-minded, excellent memory, although not particularly realistic in his projections. Outgoing, honest, inexhaustible, trusting, albeit a poor politician. Had a great love of glory and grandeur, and wished France to be foremost in Europe in both war and artistic expression. Larger-than-life lifetime of extending his shining personality onto a brilliant court while culturally enhancing his kingdom, themes he had also successfully accomplished in the past, only to fall victim to the greater will of his enemy, and in so doing, fall victim to his own failings as well. Charles of Burgundy (1433-1477) - French duke. Known as Charles the Bold. Outer: Son of Philippe the Good (FDR), the Duke of Burgundy. Mother was a Portuguese princess. Friend of the dauphin, later Louis XI (Adolf Hitler), who spent 5 years in Burgundy before his accession. Showed himself to be a good student, as well as an enthusiastic participant in war exercises. Married in his early 20s to Catherine of France, the daughter of a Bourbon noble, who died 8 years after their union. Given the reins of government by his sire in 1465, because of his failing health, and immediately entered into a lifelong struggle with Louis XI over the autonomy of his duchy, which he wanted to make into a kingdom, with himself as monarch. Showed his bravery in battle, and enjoyed early success, which made Louis nervous, Succeeded his father in his early 30s, freed his possessions from French control and organized them as a state. Eschewed the wastefulness of his father’s court in favor of rebuilding his army and administrating his territories, although still maintained a lavish court, with a trained network of servants. Took foreign mercenaries into his pay, while continually trying to extend his influence and power. Contentiously involved himself with a variety of rulers over territories, thanks to Louis having incited them against him. Made an alliance with Edward IV (Errol Flynn) of England, marrying his sister Margaret of York (Elizabeth Taylor) in his mid-30s. In between, he had another marriage with a French noblewoman, Isabella of Bourbon (Paula Yates). A daughter from this marriage, Mary of Burgundy (Peaches Geldof) married the HRE Maximilian I (Charles de Gaulle). Continued doing back and forth battle with Louis, while centralizing his government, hiring mercenaries, and taxing his parliament heavily. When Louis accused him of treason in 1471, he invaded France with a large army, and took possession of Nesle, while massacring its inhabitants. Ravaged the country as far as Rouen, but was forced to retire, without having done anything of use towards his own aims. The last 3 years of his life saw his ambitions muted. Ultimately killed in battle and his body was mutilated, as were his dreams, and Burgundy ceased to be a state with his death. Inner: Impetuous, gallant, kingly and morally austere. Knew how to touch the hearts of his subjects, despite his incredible harshness against his enemies in battle. Intelligent, witty and cultured, a true Renaissance prince, but also obstinate, and unwilling to compromise or adapt. Chivalrous lifetime of living the romantic Renaissance ideal, replete with an early death that shattered all his dreams, while continuing the process of opening himself up to more of his inner humanity. Dagobert I (605-639) Known as ‘le bon roi Dagobert.’ - King of France. Outer: Father was the Frankish king, Clotaire II (FDR). Succeeded him at the age of 18, to begin a 10 year reign. Maintained an extravagant and brilliant court, while extending his kingdom through treaties and warfare to become monarch of all the Franks in 629. Well-served by his chief adviser. Moved the capital to Paris, in order to govern his lands more centrally. Patronized arts and learning, and the kingdom flourished under him for a while, despite his tendencies towards debauchery and excessive display. The last of the Merovingians to direct his own armies, he was also generous to the Church, although he also used it as a source of revenue for his own luxuriant tastes. Had at least 3 wives, as well as a countless host of concubines, 2 sons succeeded him as kings. Allowed royal authority to revert back to the hands of the aristocracy. Stabbed in the eye while sleeping. Last of the line of the legendary Merovech to exercise personal rule, and when he died, after a 16 year reign, a royal rot set in, and he was followed by a series of puppet monarchs, while the real rulers were the Mayors of the Palace. Inner: Greedy, dissolute, imperious, but with a sense of fair play. During his era, the legend of his ancestor, Merovech, the founder of the Merovingian line, rose springing from a supernatural seahorse, as a reflection of his own larger-than-life glory. Integrated lifetime of spectacular display and prosperous rule, a monarch well-matched with his age and time. Marcus Commodus (161-192) - Roman emperor. Outer: Son of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (Martin Heidigger), one of a pair of twins, the other dying young. 10th of 14 children, and the only son to survive infancy. Extremely handsome, dissolute and vicious, as well as left-handed, one of the few emperors so endowed. Made Caesar at 5 and Imperator at 10. Became joint emperor with his father the following year and then sole emperor at the age of 19, after 3 years of military action. Married at 16 to Bruttia Crispina (Pala Yates), the daughter of a commander. After accusing his wife of adultery, she was banished to Capri a decade later, then executed, no children from the union. Maintained a harem of 600 concubines, equally divided between young women and boys. Initially used his father’s advisers, then reversed his sire’s policies by effecting a treaty with his enemies. Ruled through his favorites, while remaining hostile to the Senate. Uncovered a plot to murder him by close associates including his sister, and was extremely suspicious afterwards, littering his reign with the bodies of his subordinates, while allowing no one else, save himself, centerstage. A self-obsessed athlete, who wished to be worshiped as a god, he renamed the months after all his titles. Believed himself a manifestation of Hercules, adopting both his dress of lion skins and weapons. Set up elaborate gladiatorial combats, with himself competing in staged events, and descended into megalomaniacal madness. Charged the Roman treasury huge sums for each of his appearances, which numbered over 700, and virtually bankrupted it. Always rubbed the blood of his victims into his hair. Particularly loved hurling weapons at animals in the arena from a safe distance. When it was revealed that he intended to appear as a consul in gladiatorial costume, he was poisoned and then strangled in his own tub by one of his wrestlers with the appropriate name of Narcissus, the Grecian god of self-absorption. His reign ushered in a century of martial law where armies made and deposed his subsequent successors. Inner: Unbalanced, unintegrated and increasingly unable to countenance any realities other than his projected own. Easily influenced by others, prone to his own darkness. Ironically, the son of an extremely rational father, showing himself to be an apostle of irrationality. Acting-out lifetime of living out the madness of absolute megalomania, allowing only one/half of his twin energies to the fore as reflection of the self-absorbed martial empire he had inherited, and also as a release for himself. Gaius Glaucia (?-100BZ) - Roman politician. Outer: Closely associated with populist politician Lucius Saturninus (Aneurin Bevan), employing the same methods of combining popular legislation, with strong-arm street tactics to support their senatorial moves. Along with him, he was able to withstand a movement by Quintus Metellus (Boris Johnson) to expel both from the Senate in 102 BZ, when they attempted to push their legislation through by popular violence. Elected tribune in 101 BZ and praetor, or magistrate, the following year. Broke with constitutional rules, when he tried standing for the consulship in 100 BZ, and instigated the violent death of a rival. Along with Saturninus and their followers, he was arrested on Capitoline Hill, and locked in the Senate house. Their enemies then tore off the roof, and stoned them to death from above. Inner: Muscle-flexing lifetime of showing a complete disregard for republican law’n’order, by using any means possible to implement his programs, in his ongoing libertine and licentious lessons around rule.

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PATHWAY OF THE MISTRESS/MATE AS MAJOR MISCHIEF-MAKER:
Storyline: The polymorphous partner entwines herself with the same longtime family members in various guises as a means of expressing her own sense of personal power, although finds it very difficult when she loses her true loves to the dark hand of death, and is forced to soldier on alone.

Paula Yates (1959-2000) - British journalist and TV personality. Outer: Mother was showgirl, actress and erotic novelist Elaine Smith, who used the nom d’illusion of Heller Toren for her various enterprises. Father was thought to be Jess Yates, an English documentary director, children's TV programmer and religious television host known as “the Bishop,” until a DNA test proved her real sire was popular but volatile English TV host Hughie Green, who had had a secret obsession with her, ever since he first saw her on the telly. Lived mostly with her mother in an unsettled household, with periods spent in Malta and Majorca. Her parents separated and divorced in 1975, after her nominal sire lost his job the previous annum, when it was revealed he was involved with a much younger actress. Went to schools in Wales, as well as one in Majorca, and became obsessed with Boomtown Rats lead singer Bob Geldof as a teenager. Slim and blonde. The duo eventually married in 1986, after a decade together and had three daughters, including Peaches Geldof, who would fashion a public career for herself as well, following her mother’s premature death, and Pixie, who would do the same. Posed for Penthouse magazine in 1978, then became a rock journalist, with a column called “Natural Blonde” in the Record Mirror. Followed both her fathers’ footsteps by becoming a TV host and co-presenter, and also wrote two books on motherhood. Gained notoriety for her “on the bed” interviews for the daily morning show,“The Big Breakfast,” produced by her husband’s production company. After doing a bed interview with Australian rock singer, Michael Hutchence, she left her husband for him, and the pair divorced in 1996. A bitter custody dispute between her and Geldof would ensue, which would be partially responsible for the hanging suicide of Hutchence, after the pair produced another daughter. Completely thrown by his death, she attempted suicide herself, and never really recovered from the loss. The following year Geldof won full custody of their three daughters, while she was forced to fight with the Hutchence family for custody of her remaining child, as well as some of his estate. Struggled mightily with grief, financial difficulties and growing addiction problems, while seeking psychiatric help for her overwhelming problems. Found out her father was not who she thought he was, adding to her own sense of insecurity, as her life grew ever smaller and more out-of-control. Ultimately died on the 10th birthday of her second youngest daughter of an accidental overdose of heroin. Inner: Highly emotional, and equal parts self-destructive and self-expressive. Drama queen lifetime of finally stepping stage center, only to be undone once again by an early exiting mate, and allowing her sense of abandonment to overwhelm and destroy her. Katherine O’Shea (Katherine Wood) (1846-1921) - English political helpmate. Outer: Father was a baronet, while one older brother became a field marshal. Known as Katie to her close associates. Against her mother’s wishes, she married adventurer William O’Shea in 1867. No children from the union. Her extravagant husband, an officer in the Hussars at the time of their wedding, subsequently went into debt and sold his commission to buy into his uncle’s bank in Madrid. The duo settled in Spain, only to see him have a fallout with his uncle, forcing them to return to London, where they started a stud farm, which quickly went bankrupt. The duo then returned to Spain, where her husband managed a sulfur mine for a year and a half, until it, too, folded. The pair were kept going during these failures by a wealthy aunt, before she finally separated from her husband in 1875, and moved in with the former in Kent as a companion, after she had become widowed. Her husband stayed in London, and saw her only on rare visits, while he pursued his own political career. Met Irish politician Charles Parnell (Bono) in 1880, in what would prove to be an instance of love at first sight. Although her husband initially challenged him to a duel, he probably saw that at some point the connection could prove politically advantageous to him, and let the matter drop. Proved to be extremely useful to Parnell in his political dealings because of her family connections and close support. The duo subsequently produced three children, with two daughters surviving infancy. In 1886, Parnell moved in with her, and at the same time forced his party to accept her husband as a candidate for Galway, despite the opposition of many. In 1889, her husband extracted his revenge by filing for divorce with Parnell as a corespondent, making their relationship a public matter. The revelation was more than enough to end Parnell’s effectiveness as a politician, as he was deserted by many of his supporters. With his health ruined and his public life all but over, he married her in 1891, although he died five months later in her arms, the victim of an inflammation of the lungs, as well as a genetic disposition among the male members of his family, including his father and grandfather, to make early exits. Experienced chronic emotional breakdowns afterwards, with the heart largely having gone out of her life, despite living another three decades. Wrote a biography of Parnell in 1914, and spent her remaining years in obscurity. Parnell’s former bodyguard would become her protector, and also penned two pro-Parnell volumes much later defending the actions of his employer. Inner: Effervescent and adventurous, although ultimately domestic at heart, with an inability to countenance life without a close partner. Unhappy ending lifetime of following her heart with her alternate family member, before being forced to suffer a long, gloomy aftermath without him, like most of her go-rounds in this series. Elizabeth Armistead (Elizabeth Brigid Cane) (1750-1842) - British courtesan. Outer: Her beginnings are totally obscured. May have taken her name from an early protector. Probably started her working girl’s life in a high class brothel. Appeared on the stage for a short time, before deciding she would be better served exploiting her sexuality for both fun and profit. Briefly involved with the Prince of Wales (Warren Beatty), before deciding she needed someone who handled his finances better, and wound up serially with two dukes, an earl, and a viscount among others, while accruing considerable wealth for herself, including two houses and a host of servants. In her early 30s, she became reacquainted with Whig politician Charles James Fox (Bob Geldof), who was a year older than she. In the small society they operated, she had already been mistress to several of his friends. A good listener, she immediately won both his love and trust after they became lovers, and he treated her as an equal and valuable ally. The two became monogamous, although she harbored doubts about whether he would continue to support her. Threatened to move to the continent and take her chances there, but he professed his love for her, and she decided to stay, even though his gambling had rendered him impecunious. Used her own skills to keep him afloat, and his friends eventually helped them right themselves financially, at which point he gave up his gambling addiction. As well as being deeply in love, both were best of friends, and wound up serving as one of the inspiring celebrity love stories of the century, although until they fully acknowledged their union, they couldn’t be seen together at private functions. Finally, after 12 years together, they married in 1802, and she was soon accepted, more or less, in ruling circles. Remained his closest friend and adviser for the remaining few years they had together. After Fox’s death in 1806, many of her former protectors supported her for her remaining three-and-a half decades, as she once again had to deal with outliving her primary partner by many a year, albeit in better circumstances than other go-rounds in this series. Inner: Had a great gift for friendship, and like her spouse, loved to read, proving to be an ideal companion on all levels. More rounded lifetime than usual of being blessed by both love and support all the way through, thanks to a highly pleasing nature, and the ability to generate genuine affection from all the lives she touched. Anne de Pisseleu d’Heilly (1508-1580) - French duchess and royal mistress. Outer: From a large family. Father was a nobleman, who would benefit greatly from his daughter’s position at court, as would her many siblings. Her mother died when she was quite young, and her sire remarried. Received an excellent education from her stepmother, studying both art and literature, as well as math, science and the social graces, giving her a solid background to serve as a maid of honor to Louise of Savoy, the mother of king Francois I (Bob Geldof), and a patroness of the arts herself. Won the support of the queen mother, and through her, she became the king’s mistress while in her mid-teens, and was able to keep him entranced his entire life. Known for being both witty and cultured, she was married for practical purposes in 1533 to the governor of Brittany, who was made a duke, but had great trouble in maintaining his position at court through his limited finances. Became the Duchess of d’Etampes through her spouse’s elevation, and subsequently always referred to herself by that title. Proved an extremely valuable ally and adviser to the king, during the latter part of his reign. Close to his sister, Margaret d’Angouleme (Eleanor Roosevelt), and a stimulating friend to her as well, with mutual literary interests. Despite her unfaithfulness, and her propensity for involving herself in intrigues, she would remain the king’s closest confidante throughout the rest of his life. Always open to new ideas, she also was tolerant of the new Protestant sects, particularly Lutheranism and Calvinism, and after the king’s death, she became an adherent of them. Helped her own family through her position at court, with her brothers becoming bishops, and two of her sisters abbesses. Following the king’s death in 1547, she was dismissed from the court by his successor Henri II’s (Robert Downey, Jr.) highly competitive mistress, Diane de Poitiers (Mary Pickford), who used her earlier plotting to turn royal opinion against her. Thrown into prison, and had all her jewelry seized, while her supporters were sent scurrying. Her family was stripped of their titles, and even her husband lost his duchy. Ultimately outlived her rival by 14 years, but the damage the former had done proved permanent, and she was forced to live out the rest of her long life in obscurity. Inner: Cultured and witty, with a propensity for intrigue that would ultimately backfire, when she ran into a younger mirror image of herself. Up’n’down lifetime of serving her longtime partner from a subsidiary position, and then suffering her usual long aftermath, of disconnected loneliness. Isabella (1436-1465) - French duchess. Outer: From a cadet branch of the ruling Capetian line. Father was a French duke, mother was the daughter of the duke of Burgundy. In 1454, she married Charles of Charolais (Bob Geldof), soon to be the duke of Burgundy, who, for once, proved to be a faithful husband to her, while she was cousin to him. One daughter from the union, Mary of Burgundy (Peaches Geldof). Became entwined with the affairs of the throne through the Dauphin, the future Louis XI (Adolph Hitler), serving as godmother to his short-lived son, and then aid and support of his abandoned wife, Charlotte (Eva Braun), for a time, despite the future’s king’s continual manipulations around her duchy. Did an early fadeout, much to her husband’s sorrow, in a reverse of her subsequent need to experience longtime disconnection, in order to either see or totally avoid herself. Inner: Abbreviated lifetime of exiting early in order to allow her longtime partner to feel the pain of her absence, before embarking on a multi-century run of playing with love and heartloss, and dealing with their many decades aftermaths both with and without proper support. Bruttia Crispina (164-c187) - Roman empress. Outer: From a powerful and wealthy political family. On the paternal side, her ancestors were connected to the imperial court. Father was twice a consul, and fought alongside the emperor Marcus Aurelius (Martin Heidigger). One brother became a consul. Raised in Rome, she married the future emperor Commodus (Bob Geldof) when she was around 14, in an arranged union by the progenitors of each. Although quite beautiful, she was both vain and haughty, and her husband quickly came to dislike her for those traits. Two years after they were wed, Commodus became emperor, and she received the title of Augusta, although her position was largely powerless. Her husband maintained a harem of some 600 concubines, including both women and boys, and she exerted no influence over him. After she became pregnant in 182, she was accused of adultery by her increasingly unstable spouse, in order to get rid of her, and she was summarily exiled and eventually executed, although her year of death is unknown, and may have actually been after her spouse’s assassination in 192. Inner: Highborn lifetime of serving as a pawn to the political maneuverings of others, while cojoining with a longtime mate at his most capricious and unloving.

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PATHWAY OF THE PUBLIC PERSONALITY AS ONGOING FLAMEOUT TO FAME:
Storyline: The high-profile groupie continues to lurch into the spotlight without any overt noticeable skills, other than a preternatural penchant for publicity, to see once again, if her drug’n’drink fueled obsession with fame can carry her past an equal masochistic pull towards punishing self-obliteration.

Pixie Geldof (Little Pixie Geldof) (1990) - English model and party girl. Outer: Mother was journalist and TV personality Paula Yates, father was r’n’r activist Bob Geldof. Youngest of three sisters, including model, DJ and partygoer, Peaches Geldof, who would serve as her protector and template once she stepped into the early limelight. One other half-sister would join the family, after her mother’s accidental drug overdose in 2000, and the former’s father’s suicide. Grew up in a high profile household, and eagerly stepped into the spotlight created by her older sister, to become a style icon, model and British tabloid fodder at the tender age of 17, while still in private school. Tales of wild partying would make her an early infotainment item, as she once again grapples with fame and notoriety, as well as potential flameout, in the early phases of her life. Served as the face of a variety of products, and is also the lead singer of her band, Violet. Lost her sister Peaches in 2014. Inner: Publicity-hungry and very much into the spotlight. Repeat lifetime of living fast, while hoping not to die young, in her ongoing dance with the twin devils of fame and misfortune. Nancy Spungeon (1958-1978) - American groupie. Outer: From a middle-class Jewish family. Born one and a half months prematurely, she was hyper as a child and tantrum-prone, as well as abusive to her brother and sister. The victim of violent nightmares, she once tried to stab her baby-sitter with a pair of scissors. Suffered from depression, and often expressed to her mother the wish to die. Always felt that she would be famous one day, despite no overt talent for anything other than achieving altered states via a cornucopia of pharmacopeia. Her ultimate drug of choice would be heroin, which she would be misusing by the age of 15. Hospitalized and placed in correctional facilities during her growing up, which did little to ameliorate her inexorable draws toward self-destruction. 5’1”, with bleached blonde hair. Left home at 17 and moved to NYC, where she worked as a stripper and occasionally as a prostitute to support her ongoing drug habit. An aggressive fan of the punk scene, she became a groupie, sleeping with a variety of high profile stars, as a means of reflective glory on her part. With a friend she moved to London in her late teens, where she worked briefly as a prostitute, while trying to bag a big name in the punk scene over there. Met bass guitarist Sid Vicious, a remarkably untalented musician with the Sex Pistols, the hot band of the moment, after a violent bar interlude, and the duo immediately became an item, moving in together, while sharing an affinity for public brawls, court appearances, and a constant state of high via heroin. Proved to be an extremely disruptive force in the subsequent one and only U.S. appearance of the Sex Pistols, who broke up during the disastrous tour. Moved with Vicious to NYC’s Chelsea Hotel, as the latter tried to establish himself in the U.S., with herself acting as his manager, although both elicited little interest in his atrocious musicianship. The couple descended into dissolute poverty and drug abuse, until finally she was found in her panties and bra lying next to the toilet on the bathroom floor, dead of a single knife wound to the stomach. Even though it was his knife, Vicious remembered nothing of the circumstance, having blacked out. The real murderer was probably a drug dealer, who took advantage of their mutual narcotized state. After being charged with murder and let out on bail, Vicious died of a heroin overdose four months following her death, in what was probably a deliberate suicidal gesture. The duo would later be immortalized in the movie Sid and Nancy, with Gary Oldman playing the part of her inamorata, and Chloe Webb assaying her. Her mother would also write a biography of her entitled, “And I Don’t Want to Live This Life.” Inner: Extraordinarily angry and self-destructive, giving early indication of her virtually inevitable end. Footnote lifetime of carrying her own personal suicidal sense of self to its logical extreme, resulting in an ignominious ending that may or may not have finally ex”pungeoned” her need for masochistic self-flagellation. Mary Nolan (Mary Imogene Robertson) (1905-1948) - American actress and dancer. Outer: Mother died when she was 3, and her father was largely a nonexistent figure in her life. Grew up in poverty doing farm labor, before coming to NYC in her mid-teens, where she worked as model. Discovered by impresario Florenz Ziegfeld (Robert Evans), she became a dancer in his yearly “Follies” under the name of Imogene Wilson. 5’5”. A large-eyed blonde beauty, she soon established herself as an effervescent party girl of the first order, with the sobriquet of ‘Bubbles,’ and an equal drive for both fame and infamy. Became involved with comedian Frank Tinney, a Ziegfeld headliner, who was also married at the time. The abusive Tinney beat her unmercifully, causing her to be hospitalized, which ended her Broadway career, since she elicited little sympathy as a homewrecker. Went to Germany for two years afterwards, and enjoyed modest success in the silent film industry there, under the name Imogene Robertson, before heading to Hollywood in 1927, while rechristening herself by her final stage name of Mary Nolan. Over the next several years she appeared in a number of films, with some top name stars, until 1932, when her career abruptly ended. Finding herself broke and unemployable, she sued Tinney for beating her, and also did the same with producer Edward Mannix for the same. In 1937, she was jailed for failing to pay a dress bill. Moved back to the NY and regained her health at the Actor’s Fund Home, before returning to Hollywood, where she lived with her sister in obscurity. During this time, she married and separated from Wallace McCreary, a peripheral Hollywood figure. Her one prized possession was a huge antique piano once owned by Rudolph Valentino (John Travolta), which took up her small bungalow livingroom. Turned to drugs and heroin for solace towards life’s end, while pursuing her masochistic ways once again. Sold the rights to her life story in both screenplay and novel form, and saw an initial installment appear in a magazine. Suffered severe health problems, including a chronic gall bladder ailment, until she finally died of cardiac arrest and liver disease, in her early 40s, while weighing only 90 pounds. Inner: Extremely masochistic, with a penchant, as in all her go-rounds in this series, for both publicity and self-punishment, with the latter, as always, winning out. Motherless lifetime of brief show business success, and then a long spiral downward, with little seemingly learned, since she would repeat many of its elements over again in her subsequent resurrections as a pursuer of abuse as a means of ultimately defining her lack of love for herself.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS VOX OF THE PEOPLE:
Storyline: The popular populist employs an adroit tongue, a love of controversy and a genuine concern for commonality to remake himself into a messianic voice of the earthly voiceless and a continual vocal reminder that the downtrodden count as much as the upscale here.

Bono Vox (Paul Hewson) (1960) - Irish singer, songwriter and social activist. Outer: Father was a Catholic postal worker, mother was a Protestant. Raised as a Protestant. Wild and angry as a youth, he was called an “AntiChrist.” Mother died when he was 15, not close to either parent. 5’7”. Channeled his anger and aggression into the arts, with an initial interest in acting. Got into his first group through personal charisma, rather than talent, via a note on a school bulletin board. Took his name from a hearing aid store, Bono Vox. Formed the group U2, named after a spy plane that was shot down the year he was born. Gave up acting in favor of music, although initially had more energy and commitment than musical ability. The group became well-known by their third album, but. despite their success, he felt they had no real musical base. Started listening to black American southern blues, unconsciously touching back on his earlier existence. Made a B&W documentary of the group’s pilgrimage through the American musical landscape, although critics found their journey condescending. His political posturing was also seen as pompous, thanks to his lectures onstage and off, which were often rambling and inarticulate. Married Alison Stewart in 1982, 4 children from the union. Got more earthy in the late 1980s, with non-political rock’n’roll concerns. Became simplified and less mannered in his later music, with a desire to reach a larger audience, through more conventional marketing and a broader appeal, giving U2 legitimate claim as the world’s greatest rock’n’roll band. Thanks to a desire to save the world, and a gift for straight-talk, he has managed to harness many of the world’s leaders into his orbit, actively and effectively going after high-placed political figures and plutocrats to cancel 3rd world debt. Through his success, he has been able to maintain homes in three countries, the U.S., France and Ireland, but despite that ostentation, his focus has remained on trying to eradicate poverty. Meanwhile, the band has managed to maintain good relations with one another through 2 highly public decades, no mean feat in the egocentric world of r’n’r, as it continues to challenge itself musically. U2 was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2005, one of the few bands still active to achieve that feat, and the same year he launched an all-organic clothing line called Edun. 2005 also saw him named as one of Time magazine’s co-persons of the year, for his activist work, and in 2006, as added applause, U2 swept the Grammys with 5 awards, while he was awarded an honorary British knighthood, without the ‘Sir’ appended to his name, since he is not a British citizen. Suffered partial paralysis before a tour in 2010, although it was relieved by emergency back surgery. Also has had glaucoma for two decades, which is why he wears sunglasses all the time. In 2014, a high-energy bicycle accident in NYC’s Central Park, left him with a facial fracture, a broken arm and a shattered shoulder requiring extensive reconstructive surgery, as well as a need for extensive therapy. Inner: Radical Christian, naturally rebellious, constantly on the move. Excellent grasp of details, able to comprehend complex economic and social situations, Messianic complex lifetime of trying to integrate his anger, spirituality and music into a viable ouevre, as well as turning himself into a global force for world betterment. Aneurin Bevan (1897-1960) - Welsh politician and orator. Outer: Mother was the daughter of a colliery blacksmith, and the formidable linchpin of the family. Father was a Welsh coal miner. 6th of 10 children, with two brothers dying in infancy, his oldest sibling lasting only until 8, and a well-loved younger sister passing on in her teens. Known as Nye, he was sturdy and pragmatic, although an intense stammer hindered his schooling. Grew up in the company town of the Tredegar Iron and Coal Company, for which all the male members of his family worked, while receiving a workingman’s education from older locals, who imbued him with Marxist theory and helped eradicate his stammer. Labored in the mines for 9 years, beginning at 14, then had to leave because of an eye disease, and became a union agitator for the South Wales Miners’ Federation. Through the union, he won 2 years at the Marxist-oriented Central Labour College in London, although felt formal education was a waste of time, and couldn’t wait to return home as an activist. Nearly 6’, with blue-grey eyes and black hair. Went through a period of unemployment before becoming a lodge dispute agent in 1926. Had a strong physical presence and a magnetic personality, with a brilliant gift for conversation and a charming manner that made him eminently likable, even to his enemies. A powerful orator, he operated best without any written material. Entered national politics as a left-wing Labourite in 1929, holding his seat until his death, evincing occasional explosions of anger, that indicated an instability and lack of control which would mar his career. Much preferred the company of writers, actors and journalists to politicians, and was not adverse to high living, despite his workingman’s roots. Unafraid to do battle with his like-minded confreres, and was later expelled from his party in 1939 after one such outburst. Married fellow socialist Jennie Lee, a miner’s daughter and member of the Scottish Independent Labor Party in 1934, and spent the decade as an obdurate champion of the working-class, looking to unite all the leftist factions under one socialist banner. His wife was an equally fiery orator, who eventually became a journalist, and, though he wanted offspring, she insisted otherwise, dedicating her life to a public career. Spent WW II as the editor of a Socialist newspaper and in strong opposition to the Conservative government throughout the conflict, and became Minister of Health in the post-War Labour government, in which he developed the National Health Service, despite great opposition. Became Minister of Labour and National Service, but resigned his position in 1951 when changes were introduced into his free health service program. In the shadow cabinet of the Opposition for the next 2 years, during which time he visited Russia and China. In the 1950s, he harangued the emptiness of Britain’s focus on the material, and failure to realize capitalism’s inherent evils. In 1952, he penned his semi-autobiographical credo, “In Place of Fear.” Failed in a bid for party leadership, then ended his career as shadow foreign secretary. Opposed unilateral nuclear disarmament, and became deputy party leader in 1959, enjoying one final shining hour in a speech he gave at a party conference reaffirming all the old Labour Party aspirations without going into specifics. Died of stomach cancer. His wife later wrote a mutual biography in 1980, “My Life With Nye.” Inner: Charming, practical, extremely self-assured, petulant, egotistical and extremely contentious in one brittle political bundle. Reveled in being controversial and was highly critical of friend and foe alike. Loved to argue, sometimes for the sheer sake of argument, and was a gifted debater. Strong believer in the core tenets of socialism, preaching public ownership and social consciousness. Populist lifetime of literally rising from the underground to become a highly articulate, as well as contentious, voice of the masses. Charles Parnell (Charles Stewart Parnell) (1846-1891) - Irish nationalist. Outer: Son of an aristocratic Anglo-Irish Protestant landowner. Mother was the daughter of an American naval hero, Charles Stewart, after whom he was named. 7th child. Went to 3 English boarding schools where he was unhappy, while also being sent home for a stretch with typhoid. Following his father’s death in 1859, he inherited the family estate. Wound up his formal education by being suspended from Magdalene College, Cambridge for a minor breach, after evincing a continuous disinterest in English schooling. Became involved in Irish politics, then a hotbed of contentiousness that was perfect for his gifts, and was elected to the British Parliament in 1875, as a member of the Home Rule Party, which had been set up for Irish governmental autonomy. Projected a handsome presence and magnetic personality, and soon showed himself a master of parliamentary procedure. Made a fast name for himself as a well-spoken Irish nationalist, and an equal disparager of the House of Commons. Became president of the Home Rule Confederation of Great Britain in 1877, and Ireland’s most notable politician. After visiting America, he became president of the National Land League, organizing agitation over unjust land laws, which turned increasingly violent. Played power politics with the British system and held unprecedented sway over his followers both inside and outside the House of Commons, while accommodating an amalgam of disparate supporters for a decade with his provocative antics. In 1880, he met Katherine O’Shea (Paula Yates), the separated wife of one of his colleagues, who challenged him to a duel over her, although it was never fought. By 1886 they were living together in her home, two surviving daughters from the union. While their relationship was common political knowledge, it was unknown to the public-at-large. Arrested for his incendiary speeches in 1881, and jailed in Ireland, he became known as the “uncrowned king of Ireland,” as his popularity soared. Released the following year, but then charged with terrorism in loose connection with the brutal Phoenix Park murders of 2 British officials, which he disavowed. Successfully toyed with succeeding governments, bringing down one, while making his agenda of the utmost Parliamentary importance. His health began to fail in the mid-1880s, and he lost some of his effectiveness over his last 5 active years. When his inamorata’s husband publicly divorced his wife in 1890, naming him as a corespondent, it signaled that the conclusion of his public life was nigh. Stood up to various violent charges but his political career was ended after dual denouncements by Roman Catholics and previously supportive English liberals. His health failed in trying to mend the breech in his support, as he became more and more reckless and incendiary. Finally married O’Shea but died five months afterwards in her arms of inflammation of the lungs, nine days after giving a speech in torrential rain. Given a magnificent funeral, and eventually had a street named after him in Dublin. Inner: Haughty and sensitive, he was a mediocre speaker, but a master tactician and strong personality, exploiting the issues of the day to give him virtual royal status among his constituents. Aloof on the surface, but proud and passionate beneath with a great desire for social justice. Wave-making lifetime of shaking up the establishment with his ingrained ability at finding the emotional core of the issues of his time, in yet another go-round of rocking the boat in the name of waking up the populace to their presumed potential. John Wilkes (1725-1797) - British journalist and politician. Outer: 2nd son of a successful malt distiller, and one of 5 children. Educated at an academy in Hertford, then privately tutored. Extremely ugly, with a strong squint, a cooked jutting jaw, a high forehead, and a flattened nose, but he compensated for his unprepossessing physicality with a deft charm. Said, “it only took a half hour to talk away my face.” In 1747, he married Mary Mead, an heiress 10 years his senior, who his parents had chosen for him, which gave him a comfortable living, although he dissipated it, and the 2 separated after a few years. One daughter from union, Polly, whom he claimed to be the love of his life, and with whom he maintained an extremely close relationship. Also had 2 illegitimate children later on, thanks to early his nonstop pursuit of the pleasures of the flesh, while acting as an enthusiastic member of the “Medmenham Monks,” a profligate group given to debauchery, orgies and Black Masses. Took to politics with the same passion, although he lost his first election to Parliament in 1754 despite bribing a captain to unload a shipment of opposing voters in Norway rather than London. Won a seat in 1757 through further bribery, which put him deeper in debt. Began a political newspaper, the North Briton in 1762, and began indulging in reckless slander, enflaming English hatred for the Scots, while excoriating the king’s ministers. Arrested in 1763 and tossed in the Tower of London, but was released a week later, much to the public’s delight. Countersued and won, and continued to test the limits of free expression. Fought a duel with a fellow House member, then was expelled from that legislative body for publishing an obscene parody he had co-written years earlier, although he went to Paris to visit his daughter and chose not to return. Tried in absentia, expelled from Parliament and pronounced a libelous, obscene outlaw. Spent 4 years in profligate pursuits upon the Continent, mostly in Paris, waiting for a change in ministry. Ever deeper in debt, he returned to England in 1768. Somehow, he was not arrested and instead, was re-elected to Parliament for Middlesex, riding on a strong anti-ministerial sentiment, thanks to the strong support of workers and tradesmen. Gave himself up and his outlawry was reversed on a technicality. Agreed to a fine and a jail term, but such was his popularity, that a committee paid the former, while a steady stream of visitors, including a host of female admirers, made the latter quite pleasant. Continued his inflammatory journalism, and was once more expelled from Parliament in 1769 under cloudy constitutional circumstances. At the same time, he had become a hero of the American colonists, who saw his name synonymous with liberty and opposition to an oppressive government. While still incarcerated, he pursued a political career in London, holding various city posts. Eventually became Lord Mayor in 1774, while serving as a radical champion for liberty and fighting for common rights. Re-elected to Parliament in 1774, but his rabble-rousing began to be viewed as insincere and from 1779 onward, his popularity began to wane. Opposed the government in its struggles with the American colonies and continued to be re-elected on his radical platform from his base in Middlesex, but the issues that once made him a central figure were now peripheral and he eventually retired from Parliament, and faded from public view. Inner: Pleasure-loving, reckless, irresponsible. Witty, charming, well-mannered, malicious, incisive and dilettantish, although a mediocre debater, because he prepared too carefully to be effective. Far stronger with the pen than his own formal voice. Rabble-rousing lifetime of turning his contentious personality and need for a cause to that of liberty for the press, and once again, overspending his contentious coin and overstaying his welcome in the public arena. John Lilburne (1614?-1667) - British pamphleteer and revolutionary. Outer: From a family of gentry, mother was the daughter of the yeoman of the wardrobe to the queen, and his contentious father had been one of the last to demand trial by battle in a civil suit. Apprenticed to a London cloth merchant for 6 years, while becoming a Puritan, and in Opposition to the Anglican High Church policies of the government. Married, with a large family. Arrested for smuggling Puritan pamphlets into the country from the Netherlands. In 1638, he was brought before the Star Chamber for printing an unlicensed book, fined, publicly whipped, pilloried and imprisoned for 2 years. Wrote The Work of the Beast, an account of his barbarous treatment. On his release, he became a political agitator and led public demonstrations against the Anglican bishops. Became a captain in the Parliamentary army during the Civil War, fought with distinction, repeatedly criticized his fellow army officers, was almost tried for treason, and was taken prisoner, and exchanged. Rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel but resigned his commission and became a leader of the Levellers, Puritan believers in universal equality and the abolition of the nobility and the monarchy. Called “Free-born John,” he put his considerable energy into Leveller propaganda and its radical program of placing everyone on the same societal level. Imprisoned for his activities for most of 1645-1647, after which, the army crushed his movement. Remained popular, however, and was acquitted twice of high treason. The second acquittal put him back in prison because of his continued popularity and potential for agitating the masses. Released after he had converted to the Quaker faith in 1655 and no longer posed a public threat. Died 2 years later. Inner: Contentious and provocative, with his ongoing gift for rousing public sentiment in his favor, no matter the cause. Leveller lifetime of entering the common realm by birth, after many ennobled go-rounds, and reinventing himself as an effective voice of the voiceless, only to ultimately spend his power, as he has done in all the lives in this series. Owen Glendower (Owain Glyndwr) - (c1354-c1316) - Welsh rebel. Outer: Descended from the princes of Powys, father was a manor holder. The story was told that the horses in his father’s stable were all standing in blood when he was born, although it was probably apocryphal. On his sire’s death, he inherited several manors in northern Wales. Studied law at Westminster College in London, probably called to the bar, and married a daughter of a justice, 6 children from union. Fought with the forces of Richard II (Richard Nixon) against the Scots, before serving his political enemy and ultimate usurper, Henry Bolingbroke (David Cameron), continuing in the latter’s service until he became Henry IV. Returned to Wales to find his country in economic shambles because of English policy, and began agitating. In 1400, a violent feud with a noble neighbor inspired an uprising in northern Wales, and it quickly became a struggle for Welsh independence. Formed an alliance with Henry’s most powerful opponents, and by 1404, had control of most of Wales. Proclaimed himself ‘Prince of Wales,’ and established an independent Welsh Parliament, while formulating his own foreign and ecclesiastical policies. By the following year, however, his supremacy had successfully been challenged by Henry’s son, the future Henry V (Winston Churchill), who captured his own sons. Although France sent allies, he had lost his main strongholds by 1409, and by 1413 his wife and relations were captured. Forced to admit to the king’s grace and obedience in 1415, he disappeared from the records the following year. Inner: Contentious, rebellious and charismatic, although he took on an aggressive enemy far too powerful for him. Bellicose lifetime of taking it to the streets one final time before switching over to his pernicious pen and sharp mind as weaponry for avenging the oppressed and leveling the playing-field against the privileged dispossessors of common folk. Brian Boru (941-1014) - Irish king. Outer: Son of an Irish tribal chief, who was a splendid fighter. One of 2 brothers who continued their father’s battles against the Danes, waging guerrilla warfare, while suffering impossible hardships. While his brother, Mahon, eventually made peace with the Danes, he refused to do so, even when reduced to 15 men. Made Mahon reconsider, and the 2 laid successful seige to Munster, and were able to hold it. Mahon became king of Munster for 9 years before being butchered by a band of conspirators, and the Danes began returning. Reluctantly became king, avenged his brother, and reclaimed, consolidated and unified Munster. Then began invading neighbor states to add to his territories, winning control of the southern half of Ireland, and adding Boru or ‘tribute’ to his name. Proved himself a good and wise ruler, sending abroad for books, establishing professorships all over the kingdom, building churches, and punishing the lawless unmercifully with hacked off limbs and organs. Brought law, order and learning to his domain, but plots, insurrections and murders continued, with the Danish presence still a periodic threat. Became high king in 1002, eventually winning the submission of every lesser chief. The various factions of the north, including the King of Leinster, with Danish backing, united against him in 1013, and though he was too old to fight, his son won a decisive victory, before he was hacked to death by his enemies, while kneeling to pray in a tent on the battlefield, after they had slaughtered his surrounding guard. Inner: Living legend. Lively, stout, able, fierce and friendly. Magnificent and munificent, a devout Christian, and a good and brave ruler. Larger-than-life lifetime of combining his warrior sensibilities with his sharp mind to etch out a memorable and unique existence that uninhibitedly celebrated his aggressive, but charming, contentiousness. Lucius Verus (Lucius Ceionius Commodus) (130-169) - Roman emperor. Outer: Son of a senator whom the Emperor Hadrian (Charles de Gaulle) adopted as his successor. Tall, handsome, with a genial face and blonde hair. After his father’s death in 138, he was re-adopted by Antonius Pius (Bernard Kouchner) along with Marcus Aurelius (Martin Heidigger), after Hadrian had directed him to do so. Held various posts until becoming joint emperor with Marcus Aurelius in 161, who adopted him, setting the precedent for the later dualistic rule of empire. Viewed as a lightweight in comparison to Aurelius, but was an accomplished orator, despite a halting style of speech. Also had a gift for poetry, and enjoyed both intelligent and athletic companionship. Entrusted with the supreme command in a war against the Parthians, which took up most of his reign. Able to inspire his subordinates, although his pleasure-loving ways made his progress into enemy territory slow. Once there, however, he proved victorious in a succession of battles, while his co-emperor allowed him his glories and purposefully did not compete with him. Married Lucilla, the daughter of his colleague in 164, 3 children from the union. After concluding his campaign, he returned to Rome in 166, but his troops decimated the empire with a plague that they had carried from the east, which they spread all the way to Greece and Asia Minor. A barbarian horde also added another form of infestation, and in 167, he went on campaign again with his co-emperor. After a successful show of force, his soldiers were once more plagued by plague, and they set out for Rome, but he died of an apoplectic fit on the return journey. Inner: Intelligent and athletic, enjoyed the pleasures of both the mind and the body, and knew how to successfully delegate duties. Had the gift of exposition and expression as well, although was completely overshadowed by his far more powerful and talented colleague. Foundation lifetime of manifesting his sense of unsettled interior on an entire population, with similar destructive results, as harbinger of his ongoing role as plaguer of complacency. Lucius Saturninus (Lucius Appuleius Saturninus) (?-100BZ) - Roman politician. Outer: Grandson of a praetor. Made quaestor, or magistrate, and placed in charge of grain supply in 104BZ during a time of rising prices. Lowered the cost of the monthly grain ration to win the support of the proletariat, while more conservative elements, including Quintus Metellus (Boris Johnson) tried to expel him and his cohort, Gaius Glaucia (Bob Geldof) from the senate, although he won acquittal on their capital charge. Replaced in a humiliating move, he became an adversary of the senate establishment, taking up the cudgels of the earlier reformer, Gaius Gracchus (Al Sharpton). Linked himself to the highly influential Marius (Adolf Hitler), and served as tribune twice, carrying agrarian laws that provided land for his veterans of the African and Germanic wars. In return, he employed the assistance of the veterans in passing controversial legislation through organized violence by their ranks. Stirred up popular patriotic sentiment by insulting the ambassadors of the king of Pontus. His violent, crowd-pleasing actions enhanced his popularity, as he grew more independent of Marius, while extending his colonization program. Recognized as an extremist threat by Marius, he broke with him, as the consular elections in the year 100BZ descended into disorder, with one of the candidates murdered. Seized, along with Glaucia and their followers on Capitoline Hill, and locked in the Senate house. Their enemies then tore off the roof, and stoned them to death from above. Most of his radical legislation was then rescinded afterwards. Inner: Strong-willed, violent and populist, a tyrant at heart. Little sense of statesmanship or willingness to abide by republican order. Mayhem-inspiring lifetime of employing his considerable violent will to republican institutions, only to meet a hyper-violent end, in keeping with his rabble-rousing ways.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN/POET AS SCIENTIFIC HUMANIST:
Storyline: The former acidulously acid-witted acid-head continues to show an ongoing fascination with science and the future in his ongoing alternate roles down through western annals as charismatic scientist, conservative politician, and visionary novelist extraordinaire.
Alastair Reynolds - (Alastair Preston Reynolds) (1966) - Welsh scientist and science fiction writer. Outer: Father was a civil engineer who took his family to Cornwall when his son was small. Initially loved to watch banana boats coming and going in his native Barry, Wales, using the sea as a spur to his incipient imagination. Began writing as soon as he could hold a pen, with a love for science fiction, both in its filmic and magazine form. One younger sister. Suffered severe asthma as a child, which made him quite unathletic, as well as bookish, since he spent quite a bit of time in hospitals on a drip or in an oxygen tent, which allowed him the pleasure of his own extended company and thoughts, away from school. As a schoolboy he showed a flair for both writing and drawing, while his fascination with physics eventually dictated his life’s early pathway. Despite a weakness in math, he continued his scientific pursuits, reading astronomy and physics and graduating Newcastle Univ. in 1988. Moved to Scotland afterwards, and spent three years getting his PhD in astronomy from the Univ. of St. Andrews. Began publishing short stories while a graduate student, concentrating on hard science. Eventually took up running in his 20s as an antidote to his condition. Moved to Noordwijk in the Netherlands in 1991, where he was a research fellow at the European Space Agency for three years, then spent another two as a post-doctoral researcher at Utrecht Univ. while publishing his first four novels. His short stories during this period were repeatedly rejected until 1995, where he began a more series phase of his writing. Worked on S-Cam, the world’s most advanced optical camera while at ESA, and met his French-born wife, Josette, there as well. The duo were married in 2004, at which point both were eager to return to his native Wales. No children from the union. Came back to Wales in 2008, living near Cardiff, at which point he had published 8 novels as well as a host of shorter stories. One of the settings for his work is the future Revelation Space universe, in the years 2427 to 2727 which is neither dystopian or utopian as in his previous life’s oeuvre, but rather filled with the same ambiguities as our current highly dualistic world. Has enjoyed a dedicated following as well as won several awards, and in 2009, signed a deal worth £1 million for ten books over a decade period. Inner: Loves to project on future technologies based on current science, and is not afraid to explore the deep future. Usually pursues several different story lines which eventually dovetail at the end. Enjoys horseback riding and classical guitar as relaxants, while trying to keep the science in his projections plausible and possible. Futurist lifetime of continuing his imaginative delving into the outer limits of science via novelistic means, as an ongoing ardent explorer of his various projections of worlds to come. Aldous Huxley (1893-1963) - British writer. Outer: From an illustrious literary and scientific family. Grandson of biologist Thomas H. Huxley (Konrad Lorenz), who was known as “Darwin’s Bulldog,” for his fierce support of the theory of evolution. Grandnephew of poet and critic Matthew Arnold (Stephen Spender) through his mother. Father was a biographer and man of letters, and his mother was an educator who died in 1908. Third of 4 children, with his older brother noted biologist Julian Huxley, his middle brother a suicide in 1914, and a younger sister. His father’s remarriage produced two more sons, including Nobel Prize winner physiologist Andrew Huxley. Used his sire’s botanical laboratory as an early educational tool, then went to Hillside, which his mother supervised until she became terminally ill. Educated at Eton College, where he developed an eye disease at the age of 17, that made the pursuit of a scientific career impossible, and also later exempted him from military duty in WW I. Nearly blind for several years, he had just enough eyesight to read with some difficulty, and after it sufficiently returned, he graduated from Balliol College, Oxford, where he studied English literature, and decided to pursue a literary career. On graduating, he taught French and French culture at Eton for a year, where one of his pupils was George Orwell (Yann Martell), the future author of 1984, and the two maintained a life-long contact, in their divergent views of the future. 6’4 1/2”, and lean. Worked briefly for the Air Ministry in WW I, and during the fray, spent much time at the estate, Garsington, of Lady Ottoline Morrell (Maureen Dowd), where he met his future wife, Maria Nys. The duo were married in 1919, and had one child, Matthew, an epidemiologist, while maintaining an open union. Published several volumes of poetry, beginning in his early 20s, and also worked on the periodical Athenaeum, before turning to the novel, as his primary means of expression. His first two works, Crome Yellow and Antic Hay, were witty and often malicious satires on English highbrow society, garnered from his time at Garsington. From 1923, he traveled, living in Italy, and initially penned several satiric thrusts, where he concentrated far more on form than substance. Wrote his best remembered work, Brave New World in 1932, limning a dystopian view of the dehumanized future to come. Moved to southern France, where he befriended writer D.H. Lawrence (Leonard Cohen) and edited his letters. In 1938, he emigrated to Southern California and became part of the English literary expatriate scene there, exploring Hindu mysticism, via Vedantism, and writing about it, while penning several film scripts, including Pride and Prejudice, despite an aversion to the movies. In the late 1930s, he began using the Bates method, an exercise program, to improve his eyesight, which helped him enormously, and as always, penned a book on it, “The Art of Seeing.” Applied for U.S. citizenship after WW II, but was denied it, because of his pacifism, and refusal to bear arms for his adopted country. Nevertheless, he remained in America as a permanent expatriate. A fascination with psychical research led to his experimentation with the mind-altering drugs mescaline and LSD, and he wrote about his experiences in The Doors of Perception, in 1954, while taking the tack of a scientist in his ongoing fascination with the possibilities of the human mind. Continued his explorations and writings for the remainder of his life. His wife died of breast cancer in 1955, and the following year he married writer Laura Archera, who ultimately did a biography of him, while outliving him by over four decades, during which time she devoted herself to promoting his works. Discovered he had cancer in 1960, although he remained active, both writing and speaking at several prestigious schools, while forewarning of the possibility of a drugged society made to happily embrace its servitude, a theme he had explored in Brave New World. On his deathbed, he asked his wife via a written note, since he could no longer speak, for 100 mm. of LSD, and sailed off in a state of heightened awareness. Died of laryngeal cancer the day John F. Kennedy was assassinated. Buried in his native Surrey. Inner: Witty, charming and erudite with a pessimistic view of his fellow biological bipeds. Uninterested in novelistic portrayals, barely sketching in his characters. Detested mass culture and popular entertainments, and was seen as snobbish and superior by his peers. Saw everything as predetermined, but believed in free will, and had an overview where everything was dualistic to him. Great curiosity, and a scientist at heart, eagerly exploring the doors of perception with the same fascination he has brought to all his other investigations in the realm of human knowledge. Lysergic-tinged lifetime of being thwarted in his original aim to be a scientist, only to bring that discipline to bear later on in self-exploration, in his ongoing desire to continue to add to the wealth of human knowledge, from a highly rational political, scientific and novelistic viewpoint. Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-1881) - British Prime Minister and writer. Known as “Dizzy.” Outer: His family had been driven from Spain during the Inquisition centuries before, on his father’s side, while he was of Italian descent on his mother’s. Eldest son and 2nd of 5 children, with an older sister and three younger brothers, one of whom died as an infant. Always had a fascination with older women, through the feeling his own mother didn’t appreciate him as much as he felt she should have. His sire, Isaac D’Israeli, was a Sephardic Jew who was a distinguished author, although skeptical about matters religious, and after quarreling with his local synagogue, he had his children baptised into the Church of England when his son was 12 years, unconsciously allowing him a political career, since Jews were excluded from Parliament until 1858. Educated in private schools, then at 17, he was articled to a firm of solicitors for 3 years, although had no aspiration to be a lawyer, seeing it as a compromise on his wish to be “a great man.” Also harbored romantic fantasies of being another Lord Byron (Bernardo Bertolucci), in the literary realm. A desire for both wealth and fame led to a disastrous speculation in mining shares, which put him so in debt, it took until late middle age to get out of it. Started a newspaper which failed, then was widely criticised for lampooning his benefactor in an anonymous novel, after its true authorship was revealed. Suffered a nervous breakdown, and was indolent for 4 years. In 1830, he traveled in the Mediterranean countries and the Middle East for almost a year and a half, which gave him his larger view of the world, as well as supplied him with further novelistic fodder. Used his charm and foppish affectations to ingratiate himself in London society afterwards. Lost his first three electoral bids as a radical Romantic individualist, then pronounced himself a Conservative, although his dandyism, debts and open liaison with a married woman did not help his Tory image. Nevertheless, he was finally rewarded with a seat in Parliament in 1837. Made his maiden speech the same year on MPs’ privileges. Initially far too overwrought and literary as a speaker, he eventually found an effective voice, both ironical and witty, for himself. Married Mary Anne Lewis, a talkative rich widow 12 years his senior in 1839, in a union that would be affectionate on both sides, as well as highly satisfactory in their mutual admiration society for him, although he remained a lady’s man his entire life, with a seductive charm that always made everyone in his presence feel as if they were extremely important. His wife also paid his considerable debts, although he continued to build them up again, thanks to a proclivity for accepting ruinous interest rates. Denied a cabinet post in PM Robert Peel’s (Tony Blair) government, he joined “Young England,” a group of conservatives, who had a romantic, aristocratic and nostalgic view of political power, in contrast with Peel’s dull pragmatics. Cemented his reputation with the novel Coningsby, which gave his group cachet, and brought him fame, despite being a largely political tract, which nevertheless, brought his ideas to the public. Used his flair for irony and invective to ultimately unpeel Peel from power, and when the latter resigned in 1846, he became the leader of the Opposition. Won re-election and purchased a manor, and became Chancellor of the Exchequer, despite having little expertise in finances, and still being quite in debt. Held the post each time the Tories came to power, and in 1868, he finally realized his life’s dream and became Prime Minister. Forced to resign soon after, however, when the Liberals came back in office, under the auspices of William Gladstone (J. William Fulbright). Worked both politically and novelistically to redefine Toryism to make it more palatable to the public, while suffering more than his share of anti-Semitic slings and arrows in the press, including grotesque caricatures. His wife died of cancer in 1872, causing him to put his complete focus on politics, and within 2 years, thanks to his reorganizational efforts, he had his second ministry. Formed a strong cabinet, and was a great favorite of Queen Victoria (Mary Renault), who relished his charming attentions. Effected reforms that helped the country’s workers, and purchased the Suez Canal, which enhancing Britain’s imperialist standing. Suffered from gout and bronchitis, and his health made his leadership role in the House of Commons difficult. Accepted a peerage, as Earl of Beaconsfield, and switched to the House of Lords, finishing off his career focusing on foreign affairs. Declined a dukedom from the queen, but accepted the Order of the Garter, then saw his final hurrah awash in foreign policy failure, as the Conservatives were voted out of office in 1880. Caught a chill the following year, and died with his hair still dark at the end. Inner: Charming, witty, and highly socialized, although also moody, sensitive and solitary by nature. An extremely effective communicator, equally adept at oral argument, as he was on the printed page. Saw both Judaism and England as complimentary hallmarks of civilization, while always identifying with power over powerlessness. Once remarked to a young Jewish friend, “You and I belong to a race that can do everything but fail.” Proud of his ancestry, and never failed to let people know about it, while viewing it as racial, rather than religious. Dizzying lifetime of desiring to make a great mark on his world, with charm, wit and dedication, despite numerous failures in the process, but the ability to be loved by all but his enemies while doing so. George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (1628-1667) - English politician and scientist. Outer: Father was the decadent 1st duke, (Warren Beatty), who was a close adviser of Charles I (George VI) and wound up assassinated some four months before his son was born. Mother was Katherine Manners (Annette Bening), daughter of the duke of Rutland, and an extremely wealthy heiress. Oldest surviving of three sons, and younger brother of Mary Villiers (Julie Christie). After his father’s death, and his mother’s announcing she was a Catholic, he was brought up in the king’s household, and became a close friend of his eldest son and heir, the future Charles II (Peter O’Toole). Received his MA from Trinity College, Oxford in 1642, and much later served as chancellor of the University. Did military service, and traveled in Italy, while gaining a similar reputation as his royal companion as a debauchee. When the king was beheaded in 1649, he took up arms with Charles, and fought beside him, before going into exile separately from him. Returned illegally to England in 1657, and married Mary, the daughter of Thomas Fairfax (Omar Bradley), despite her being promised to another, causing much consternation, before being imprisoned by the Commonwealth government until 1659. On the Restoration the following year, he recovered his estates, and held numerous posts, including privy councillor from 1662 to 1667. Dabbled in chemistry, and also spent much time building and laying out his gardens. Showed an impetuous, capricious, brawling nature, and was briefly imprisoned in 1667. The following year he seduced a countess, then mortally wounded her husband in a duel, but was pardoned by the sympathetic king. Wrote verses and satires, and a burlesque on contemporary dramatists, “The Rehearsal,” which was performed quite often in the 18th century, and continually updated because of its topical allusions. Helped bring about the downfall of the king’s chancellor, and initially had great influence on the monarch, as a member of the Cabal, a group of 5 ministers whose initials spelled out the word, and who made a treatied alliance with France against Holland. His unpredictable nature, however, soon took him out of the loop, and in 1674, he was dismissed from his various posts for alleged Catholic sympathies. Sided with the opposition leader, and then in 1681, he withdrew to his estates, spending the rest of his life there, in a state of deep depression. In declining health his last decade he caught a chill caught hunting, and was taken to an inn, there to die amidst squalor and neglect, as a curious final testament to his life. Since he left no issue, his title went extinct with him. Inner: Impetuous, capricious, brilliant and witty. Amateur scientist, and fulltime lothario. Like father, like son lifetime of adding the pleasure-seeking sensualist to his impressive resume, while opening himself up to both his emotions and physicality, having satisfied the scientist within in his previous go-rounds, and was now far more interested in his larger, and far more flawed humanity. Francis Bacon, viscount St. Albans (1561-1626) - British philosopher and politician. Outer: Younger of 2 sons of Nicholas Bacon, an important self-made government official, who had initially been a sheep-reeve’s son. His wife, Anne Cooke, was his second, and the daughter of the tutor to Edward VI (Cecil Beaton). Educated at home, with his pious mother playing an important role, through her mastery of a host of languages. Along with his brother he attended Trinity College, Cambridge, although ill health hampered his studies, because of a weak constitution which plagued him his entire life. Developed a distaste while there for the scientific method of the time, finding it too guess-worthy. Moved to Paris for 3 years as a member of the English ambassador’s entourage. After his father’s death in 1579, he returned to an extremely disappointing inheritance, thanks to his being the youngest son of his father’s two families, which also consisted of a number of half-brothers, putting him in financial straits for most of the rest of his life. Studied law at Gray’s Inn, becoming a barrister in 1582. Held various posts, and began limning his philosophical ideas in tracts, while dreaming of political power. Became an MP two years later, but his greater desires largely eluded him, until he put quill to paper, and showed a lucid political intelligence, inspiring Robert Devereaux (Ethan Hawke), a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I (Mae West) to become his patron in 1591, although at century’s turn he was Queen’s counsel in the former’s trial, drawing up his denouncement as a traitor. In 1593, he fell into disgrace for offending the queen via one of his stances, and was once again given much time to think and write, and work on his gardens. Had to hustle anew at the accession of James I (Kenneth Tynan) for influence, but was immediately knighted, and was active as a letter-writer, and opinion-maker. In 1606, he married Alice Barnham, who was barely 14 at the time, and the daughter of a wealthy London alderman. From 1608 to 1620, he worked on his magnum opus, Novum Organum, which rewrote scientific method, in a trinity of steps - description, classification and rejection - so that truths could be directly observed, categorized and then pared down to their essence, a methodology which would have enormous influence. Held numerous legal posts, and was made attorney general in 1613, following his well-received and well-wrought written advice to the king. Also penned The New Atlantis, a brave new world utopian look at the future. Served both Parliament and the court, as well as himself, with his letters, and was also aided by George Villiers, the future 1st Duke of Buckingham (Warren Beatty), and a favorite of the king, as well as his succeeding life’s disappeared father. The two, however, would have a falling out over the duke’s daughter’s impending marriage to a former enemy of his, Edward Coke, although they eventually would patch things up. Disliked innovation, and thought instead in terms of royal prerogative, proving himself extremely useful to his sovereign, so that in 1618, he realized his earlier wishes, by being made lord chancellor, as well as a viscount. In 1621, he fell from power, after being doubly charged with bribery. Both ill and unable to defend himself, he resigned, incurred a large fine, spent a short time in the Tower of London, and then the rest of his life in writing, having the full time at the end to concentrate on what would be his life’s true contribution to the ongoing knowledge of humanity, a continual theme of his. Wrote a digest of laws, a his/story of Great Britain and biographies of the Tudor monarchs to augment the libraries of England. Never received a full pardon, which galled him. One night, wondering if snow stopped the putrefaction process, he bought a hen, stuffed it with snow, and then caught a chill, which developed into bronchitis, and shortly afterwards, he became a putrified process himself. Inner: Cold and obsequious to those more powerful than he. Also seen as arrogant and pompous by those who disliked him. Probably bisexual, with rumors of pederasty clouding his contemporary reputation. Practical, pragmatic and empirical, greatly aiding scientific and philosophical thought for centuries to come. Felt all knowledge was his province. Eloquent writer and speaker, with a sizzling mind. Witty, although not charming, thanks to a seriousness of intent and a dry sense of humor. Bring-home-the-bacon lifetime of being given the space to explore his usual political draws, without them overwhelming him, giving him the space to limn his considerable thoughts and ideas on paper, which would make him a figure of the centuries, rather than a mere creature of his own time. Robert Grosseteste (1175-1253) - English bishop and scholar. Outer: Of humble birth, he entered the Franciscan order, and was educated at Oxford, and probably in Paris. Held several archdeacon posts, and was made prebendary of Lincoln in 1221. Became the chancellor of Oxford in his 40s, and the first rector of Franciscans in 1224, eventually resigning his various posts in 1232. Translated both Arabic and Greek philosophical and scientific works, wrote his own theses on theology, philosophy and husbandry, and commentaries on Aristotle (J. Robert Oppenheimer) and Boethius (Thomas Jefferson), while also penning poems in French. Had an enormous effect on Franciscan thought as a theological lecturer, while also writing scriptural commentaries. Became bishop of Lincoln in 1235, and proved himself disputatious with the clergy, the papacy and the king, in his unbending refusal to allow political benefices override spiritual concerns. Preached in Lyons against papal abuses, argued in front of a papal curia, and was suspended by the pope for refusing to appoint an Italian to a benefice. As a final act of disobedience he refused to induct the pope’s nephew into a Lincoln canonry, and died soon after. Inner: Continually looking for rational order, in what would prove to be a very emotional political climate. Felt the Church superseded the state, and was a firm believer in a centralized and hierarchical Church, in keeping with his desire for rational order. Great love of learning, and an important re-introducer of Grecian and Arabic thought and scientific knowledge to western Europe. Professorial lifetime of being an unbending champion of the logic of the supremacy of the Church, in accord with his belief that it best reflected the consummate mind and spirit of humanity. Roger of Salisbury (1070-1139) - English prelate and politician. Known as “Roger the Great”. Outer: Of humble origins. Became a priest, and while serving in a little chapel near Caen, gave a service that was so quick, it impressed the English king, Henry I (Joseph Kennedy, Jr.), who was in attendance, and saw him as a perfect soldier’s chaplain. Henry went on to serially make him chancellor in 1101, and the following year bishop of Salisbury, although he wasn’t consecrated for another 6 years. Renewed and adorned the cathedral, and built several castles. In the contest for the throne following Henry’s death in 1135, he took the side of Stephen (George VI), and was a key factor in his early success in securing the crown and keeping it. Remodeled the administrative system, and continued as a judiciar under him while exerting great influence over the government, which aroused the jealousy and the enmity of the barons of his party. Summoned by Stephen and arrested in 1139, he was forced to surrender his castles and have his power greatly curtailed. Died shortly afterwards of vexation at his ill-usage. Inner: Highly competent, and equally ambitious. Steppingstone lifetime of switching over to the largely secular side in his continued desire to experience power, from a prelate/politican’s viewpoint, while eschewing his usual scientific curiosity in trying to make order out of the secular world from a purely administrative standpoint, only to be ultimately frustrated in his aims. Sylvester II (Gerbert of Aurilliac) (c945-1003) - French Pope. Outer: From a humble background. Received a solid education in his native France, while showing an exceptional proficiency in mathematics, astronomy and the elements of music, and would go on to contribute greatly to the mass knowledge of the west in those and other spheres. Became a monk, and was taken to Spain in 967, where he availed himself of an excellent library and continued his education through it in Vichy. In 970, he was taken to Rome, where he impressed the pope with his erudition and brilliance, and was introduced to the HRE Otto I (Mohandas Gandhi). Studied dialectic at Reims, and was soon appointed head of the cathedral school by the archbishop, where he gained great renown as a highly original teacher, and reorganized their studies in logic and dialectics. Invited to the court of Otto II (Shah Massoud) in 980, he further added to his reputation in debate with a jealous rival, and the delighted emperor made him bishop of Bobbio, in Italy. Despite the great library there, he was made to feel his foreignness, and lack of administration skills, and, after a rebellion on the emperor’s death, he hastened back to Reims in 984. Added politics to his curriculum vitae, afterwards, helping to elect the first of the Capetian line to the throne, Hugh Capet (Steven Spielberg), becoming his secretary and adviser, before having to deal with mischief from a rival and fleeing. Returned in 991 as archbishop, then had to go to Rome to defend the legitimacy of his election, but the new pope rejected his plea. Met up with the newly crowned Otto III (Ayman al-Zawahiri), and in 997, after further difficulty with his clergy, left Reims for Otto’s court in Aachen, and never returned to France again. Became a teacher and musician in the emperor’s chapel, and in 998, he was made archbishop of Ravenna in Italy. A year later, he became the first Frenchman elevated to the papacy, taking on the name Sylvester II. Showed himself to be an upholder of the traditional rights of the papacy, when earlier he had assailed them. An active reformer, he denounced abuses, demanded celibacy, and acted in a high-handed manner, taking on the view that his elevated position was now unassailable. Worked in close concert with the emperor in helping him effect his wishes around various thrones in Central Europe in order to make the continent a truly Christian empire, and also extended the reach of the papacy to Europe’s north, creating Poland’s first archbishop. The Romans, however, revolted over his imperious ways, and he and the emperor were forced to flee the city in 1001, with the emperor dying the following year. Allowed to return in 1002 as a spiritual, rather than a political leader, by the patrician in charge of the Eternal City, he died the following year. Became a legendary figure after his death, gaining a magical, and in some circles, demonic, reputation for his extraordinary mind. Inner: Excellent teacher and scholar, adding immeasurably to western science, with his introduction of Hindu-Arabic numerals, including the 0, heretofore missing from western mathematics, as well as the abacus. Witty, charming and extremely learned. An enthusiastic librarian, he avidly collected manuscripts, and wound up a seminal figure of his century, for his intellectual achievements. Eggheaded lifetime of exploring power, knowledge and scientific research, his own holy trinity of interests, which he would continue to pursue in various guises down through the next millennium.

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PATHWAY OF THE SCRIBE/POLITICIAN AS ARDENT CONTROVERSIALIST:
Storyline: The philosophic polymath returns to the realm he’s most comfortable with, cerebrally wrestling with the moral issues of his times, after a brief stab at stage center of the far less lofty sphere of practical politics, while abjuring his earlier sense of the divine.

Christopher Hitchens (1949-2011) - English/American writer. Outer: Father was a reserved and distant British naval officer, who eventually became a bookkeeper, while his mother ultimately committed suicide in an Athens hotel room with her lover. One younger brother, Peter, who became a conservative journalist, creating a contentious lifelong relationship twixt the two. Discovered he was part-Jewish on his matrilineal side from his grandmother, when he was an adult, and parlayed that piece of information into an anti-Israeli obsession with a similar distaste for all things Judaic. His brother, however, revealed that the family barely had any Hebraic blood. Grew up in a conservative household dominated by military tradition. Became the first member of his family to attend private school as well as to go on to university. Matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, where he studied philosophy, politics and economics, and received a third-class degree. Joined the Labour Party in 1965, only to be expelled for his anti-Vietnam War sentiments, which drove him towards socialism, as a post-Trotskyite, and confirmed leftist. Worked as a foreign correspondent in Cyprus, and subsequently made the globe part of his extended habitat, while paying particular writerly attention to many of its political black holes, getting a first hand view of sore oppressed cultures, so as to understand them from direct experience. Began writing for The New Statesman in the 1970s, and established himself as a trenchant social critic, with organized religion as his particular bete noir. In 1981, he married Eleni Meleagrou, a Greek Cypriot, son and daughter from the union. Subsequently emigrated to the U.S., where he became a contributor to The Nation, finding easy targets with the Reagan administration and its various policies, both domestic and foreign, as well his successor’s, George H. W. Bush, bitterly condemning his Persian Gulf military foray, before later having a change of heart. An intellectual gadfly, his pen-for-hire would include Vanity Fair, the Atlantic Monthly, and the NY Times Book Review, in his constant courting of controversy with his various contumelies, as well as his abrupt changes of heart. In the wake of his sometimes poisonous pen, would lie a litter of former allies, outraged by his various betrayals from their perspective. Following the fatwa placed on his friend Salman Rushdie in 1989, he coined the term Islamofascism, and was a highly vocal critic of all manifestations of religious extremism ever since. Divorced in 1989, he married a second time in 1991 to Carol Blue, one daughter from the union. Continued his presidential jeremiads with the ascendancy of Bill Clinton, labeling him a rapist and liar, while drifting away from his leftist views to the point where he was a supporter of George W. Bush’s martial misadventures in Iraq, seeing its dictator Saddam Hussein as someone who had to be crushed. Enthusiastically battered the saintly image of Mother Theresa in one book, while vigorously attacking the three pillars of monotheism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam in a variety of works, including God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. A ubiquitous presence on American TV talk shows as a self-appointed voice of rational atheism, he flirted with neoconservatism, while considering his various changing viewpoints consistent with the changing world. A liberal imbiber of alcohol, he eventually gave up cigarettes in a nod to his ongoing health, while remaining a heated polemicist with the facility for eliciting irate invective from all sides of the political spectrum. In a 2010 memoir, “Hitch-22”, he admitted to relations with boys and men during his schooldays and at college, while hinting at his physical, but never his cerebral, impotence. Afterwards, he announced he had esophageal cancer, and the following year succumbed in a hospital to pneumonia, while remaining adamantly godless to the end. Inner: Highly opinionated, and a deliberate courter of controversy, while at the same time extremely social, and easily bored. A longtime highly functioning alcoholic, who was no fan of womanhood, or religiosity, with a remarkably closed mind on both subjects. Quite familiar with scriptures, seeing them as a pathway to enjoying classical secular writing. In God we distrust lifetime of hoisting his highbrow dukes as well as many a glassful of spirits and taking on all comers for the sheer spirited thrill of cerebral engagement, while curiously obviating many of the stances of his previous go-round in this series, as if his earlier life as Balfour was one more of his long list of antagonists. Arthur J. Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (Arthur James Balfour) (1848-1930) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Eldest son and 3rd of 8 children of an MP, while his mother was from the distinguished Cecil family, dating back to Elizabethan times. Came into a life of social and intellectual privilege. Nephew of Robert Gascoygne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Margaret Thatcher), who served as his mentor, after his father died when he was 7. Educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. His brother Francis became a renowned embryologist before dying in a mountaineering accident, while another sibling, Eustace was a talented architect who drank himself to death. Over 6’ with blue eyes and a languid, droopy appearance, and was seen initially as decadent and effeminate. Never married after his affianced, his cousin May Lyttleton, died of typhus in 1875. Afterwards, he celebrated her death each year. His subsequent household would be run by his unmarried sister Alice. Probably largely asexual, although he did have friendships with women. Initially far more interested in music and poetry than politics, but he entered Parliament in 1874 as a Conservative on leaving college, and made his maiden speech 2 years later on Indian silver currency. In 1878, he became private secretary to his uncle, who was then Foreign Secretary, and accompanied him to the Congress of Berlin, which gave him a taste of international politics. Gained his initial recognition via several philosophic tomes, beginning with A Defense of Philosophic Doubt in 1879, and followed by The Foundations of Belief, and Theism and Humanism, while also publishing a paper that suggested faith was equally important to science as it was to religion. Interested in both subjects throughout his life. In 1885, he joined Randolph Churchill’s (Leslie Hore-Belisha) 4th party, which was instrumental in bringing down the liberal ministry of William Gladstone (J. William Fulbright). Initially not taken seriously as a politician, largely because of his upper crust background, and his decided interests in other subjects. Despite being an excellent debater, with a clear, logical delivery, his Conservative aristocratic outlook severely limited his social vision. Nevertheless, he would wind up spending half a century in government, serving in two of his uncle’s ministries, as Secretary for Scotland, and then Ireland, where he proved himself via restoring the rule of law, earning the sobriquet of “Bloody Balfour,” in the process. Thanks to his land development legislation, he managed to contain Irish conflict for a generation. Held several university rectorships and chancellordoms, and was a member of the Royal Society, beginning in 1888. In 1891, he became First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Commons. Harbored an interest in the paranormal, and was president of the Society for Psychical Research in the early 1890s. Also was an enthusiastic golfer, finding it a perfect antidote for his constant cerebrations. Towards the end of the decade, he was put in charge of the Foreign Office, where his record was mixed, thanks to drain of the Boer War. When his uncle retired due to ill health, he succeeded him as Prime Minister in 1902, holding the office for 3 years, and in the process, became the first of his office to own an automobile. Focused on domestic, rather than foreign policy, but had difficulties with his economic programs and the budget. Also had poor relations with the newly crowned Edward VII (Prince William), as well as a divided cabinet on the issue of free trade, and was finally forced to resign in 1905. Subsequently lost his seat in the Labour landslide that followed, but regained it in a by-election soon after. Continued to lead his party until 1911. During WW I, he became First Lord of the Admiralty and then Foreign Secretary, issuing the Balfour Declaration in 1917, which pledged British support for the Zionist movement, and Palestine as a homeland for the Jewish peoples, despite a negative attitude towards them. Motivated by a desire to have Europe expunged of its Jewish population, and a homeland elsewhere, which had made him suggest Uganda for similar purposes back in 1905, while trying to cut off Hebraic immigration to Britain at the same time. Resigned as Foreign Secretary after the war, but continued in government off and on as Lord President of the Council, until a year before his death. Eventually became immobilized by phlebitis, despite enjoying good health up until the nearend. Died of circulatory failure, and his title was passed to one of his brothers. Inner: Highly cerebral and articulate, with a strength of character that was not originally seen when he was younger. Active and enthusiastic athlete. A creature of his own station, with his intellect and larger vision blinkered by his privileged upbringing. A joiner of many clubs and societies, as well as an officer of them, thanks to his wide range of interests. Hand’s-on lifetime of being thrust into the center of government, after earlier being a theorist of saidsame, proving to be far more conservative and traditional than his previous purviews, which had been forged by his stance as an outsider. James Mill (1773-1836) - Scottish his/storian, economist and philosopher. Outer: Mother was from a good family, which had been tainted by its Jacobite support, and insisted on an excellent education for her oldest son. She also made him change his name from the Scottish Milne to Mill, in order to make their family more English-sounding. Kept her son away from other children, so that he could devote all of his time to study. Father was a mild-mannered and devout shoemaker and small farmer. Eldest of 3, with the other two resenting the attention and money lavished on him. Showed himself to be bright and precocious, and impressed all his teachers, from the local parish school on up. After an extended stay at Montrose Academy, he accompanied the daughter of a local wealthy family to Edinburgh as a tutor, and entered the university there, where he proved himself a distinguished Greek scholar, while also studying moral philosophy, his/story, political economy and the classics. Fell in love with his tutorial charge, although was in no position to marry her, and she wed someone of her own class, only to die soon after in childbirth, to his everlasting grief, as well as his hatred of the inbred aristocracy. In his mid-20s, he was licensed as a Presbyterian preacher, per his mother’s wishes, although he met with little initial success at his calling. Worked as a tutor, while continuing his self-education in a whole variety of subjects. Finally left Scotland in 1802, at which point his mother died, and went to London with his earlier benefactor, Sir John Stuart. Proved himself a veritable fount of information, producing hundreds of articles and over 1000 editorials, in his frugal need to support his subsequent growing family, although much of his writing would prove both dry and didactic. In 1805, he married Harriet Burrow, whose widowed mother maintained a lunatic asylum. The first of his nine children was John Stuart Mill (John Maynard Keynes), a noted philosopher and thinker in his own right, whose education he strenuously supervised to mirror his own, giving him daily lessons, which the latter would pass on to his siblings, who lived in fear of their father’s intellectual disfavor. Concurrent with his son’s birth he began History of British India, a three volume affair, which took him 12 years to complete. In 1808, he began a fruitful association with philosopher and economist Jeremy Bentham, and helped him disseminate his Utilitarian ideas, which posited that the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the fundamental and self-evident principle of morality. The duo, however, would become increasingly estranged, thanks to the eccentricities of the latter, who supported him, but at an emotional price. Nevertheless, the group that formed around them, would prove extremely effective in effecting reforms. When his History of India was published in 1818, it raised his financial status considerably. The following year, he received a civil service appointment at East India House, in the prestigious department of the examiner of Indian correspondence. Continued to rise in rank, and eventually became head of the examiner’s office in 1830, with a handsome salary to match. In the interim, he proved a seminal figure in his encouragement of economic thought, in his nonstop need to spread the gospel of his own thoughts. As a critic, however, he was often the subject of other critics, who sniped at him for his deductive reasoning. Ultimately wrote 5 books, and more than a thousand essays and reviews, on a host of subjects from penology to education to political philosophy. Long subject to gout, he suffered a hemorrhage of the lungs and a year later died of bronchitis. Inner: Extremely logical and forceful, very much his mother’s son, with a precise intellect, and a gift for clear, careful exposition. Highly industrious, deductive, and eloquent as well, with a great need to continually put pen to paper. Because of his professorial role with his family, his homelife was often quite strained, although he was warm and cordial with others, particularly the young men who sought out his teacherly company. Far more effective orally than in his writings, which often did not reflect his contagious enthusiasm for ideas, many of which were unworkable. Dedicated lover of the Greek philosopher Plato, and like him, viewed intellectuality as the highest form of expression, and sensuality as the lowest. Hypercerebral lifetime of completely immersing himself in the ideals of ideas, per the Scottish Enlightenment, to become a goad and polemicist, with the goal of changing the world via the logic and clarity of clearly expressed thought. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713) - British statesman. Outer: Grandson of the 1st earl, who became his legal guardian. His father, the 2nd earl, was slightly subnormal mentally. Mother was the daughter of an earl, as well. Suffered frail health as a child, and had a governess who spoke fluent Latin and Greek, while his early education was directed by John Locke (Reinhold Neibuhr), who had negotiated his parents’ marriage. His grandfather, who was his formal guardian, fell to financial ruin when he was 10. Unhappy at Winchester College, where he was sent at age 12 as a warden’s boarder, and was subsequently mocked for his grandfather’s failings. Took a tour of Italy 3 years later, which ended his formal schooling. Returned to England following the “Glorious Revolution,” of 1688 and spent the next several years in quiet study, particularly the classical authors of antiquity. Elected to Parliament at 24 as a Whig, but ill health caused him to resign 3 years later, thanks to his asthmatic sensitivity to the foul London air. Went to the Netherlands for a year, which he found much more conducive to his philosophic inquiries, because of the society he kept, before returning to England. Attended sessions of the House of Lords, and succeeded his father in his late 20s, as the 3rd earl. Showed independence of mind, and was active during the reign of William III (Lyndon Johnson), although declined an offer to be Secretary of State because of health reasons. Saw he would have considerably less influence with the latter’s successor, Queen Anne (Princess Anne), and retired, although maintained his keen interest in politics. In 1703, he returned to the Netherlands for another year, and more stimulation, which improved his health considerably, then retired to his estate in his early 30s, and devoted himself to study and writing, although consumption slowly began turning him into an invalid. Turned his attention to philosophy, establishing himself as one of the primary English deists through his writings. In his late 30s, he married to please his friends, and did not see his wife, Jane Ewer, a gentleman’s daughter, until the match was settled, although it proved to be a happy one. One son from union, his heir, the 4th earl. Began publishing anonymously, advocating wit and humor as the ideal antidote to fanaticism. Died in Naples, where he went for his health. Propounded a benevolent, moral universe, where humans had an innate moral sense, but only a limited view of the truth. Influenced a variety of thinkers across the European continent in the century to come. Inner: Generous, amiable, Whig aristocrat, lover of liberty. Bombastic, with a turgid writing style. Lofty and ardent, as a dedicated church-goer, although disliked priests. Saw morality as separate from theology, and was an incipient utilitarian, in viewing all actions in terms of promoting the greater good. A great fan of stoic philosopher Marcus Aurelius (Martin Heidigger), whom he assiduously studied. Constrained lifetime of a weak body, allowing him to retreat into his mind, while choosing philosophic religiosity over politics, rather than trying to integrate them.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS CONTINUOUS IRON LADY:
Storyline: The querulous queen finally abandons her thrones for an uncommon take on commonality, showing herself as resolute, dynamic and willful without a sceptre in hand, as she ever was with one.

Margaret Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven (Margaret Roberts) (1925-2013) - British Prime Minister and chemist. Known as “the Iron Lady.” Outer: From modest origins. Daughter of a grocer and Methodist lay preacher who was later twice elected mayor, and encouraged her sense of independence. One older sister. Educated at a local girls’ schools and won an exhibition at Somerville College, Oxford, where she studied chemistry, with a focus on crystallography. Became the third woman president of the Univ. Conservative Association, then worked as a research chemist for a plastics firm, helping to develop methods for preserving ice cream. In 1951, she married Dennis Thatcher, the divorced, albeit prosperous, manager of a paint business, who proved immensely supportive of her, with the motto, “Always present, never there.” Twin children from the union, including son Michael, who would become involved in several questionable undertakings. Left her job to study law, and became a barrister in 1953, switching from criminal to tax law. After losing her first election, she won a seat in Parliament in 1959 and experienced a steady rise through the Conservative party, including a seat on Edward Heath’s cabinet in 1970 as Secretary of State for Education and Science, although he would become a subsequent bitter enemy of hers after a party fight against his own selection for head, led her to become its leader in 1975, despite representing a minority view. In 1979, she led her party to victory and became England’s first woman Prime Minister, serving for 11 years. Focused on private enterprise and the curtailment of the British welfare state, while raising her popularity through a short successful war with Argentina in 1982. Her competitive pro-capitalist stances cost many industrial workers their jobs, although she always managed a plurality come election time, with a considerable 100+ seat margin in Commons, thanks in part to creating the illusion of an ownership society, with reduced rate flats, making Tories out of the newly minted home owners. Proved recalcitrant with unions, and strikers, particularly the miners’ union, thanks to stockpiling coal beforehand, and wound up breaking the back of trade unionism in the country through her refusal to deal with them, despite a yearlong strike, which saw many members splinter off and return to work through economic necessity. Avoided European union or any threat to British sovereignty, while cultivating close relations with the U.S.A., particularly the Reagan administration. Had her hotel room bombed by the IRA the day before her 59th birthday, although escaped injury. Fiercely anti-communist her entire political life, she allowed America to use British bases for cruise missiles, which raised the hackles of the anti-nuke crowd, but also was genuinely supportive of the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev, as a reformist Soviet leader. Set in motion Hong Kong’s release from British colonial control, and continually took the stance of free enterprise and lack of state interference as the answer to all economic problems, while selling off most of the large utilities which had been in the public domain. Dismantled the Welfare State, while also doing great damage to the British manufacturing base, and in the process, putting a lot of her former worker’s permanently on the dole. Confrontational and unafraid of taking hardline stances, she won the sobriquet of ‘The Iron Lady,’ and became the first 20th Century Prime Minister to serve 3 terms in the post, before party infighting, and a faltering economy, eroded her support and she was forced to retire in favor of a hand-picked successor, John Major, with whom she later publicly disagreed. Had great difficulty in leaving office, staring at 10 Downing Street with tearstained cheeks as her limousine drove her off the last time. Able to establish good working relations with other super/power leaders while in office, and continued to make her presence felt afterwards. Raised to the peerage on her retirement, then finally and fully retired in 2002 after a series of small strokes, which cost her her short term memory, and plunged her into mild dementia. Wrote the first volume of her memoirs, The Downing Street Years, then followed that with Statecraft, in which her Anglophile prejudices abounded. Died of a stroke while reading in bed in a luxury hotel suite she had been occupying for several months following a bladder operation. The news of her passing occasioned several small riots, as her divisive legacy continued to sit in the craw of many Britons, although she was heaped with praise in her official funeral services Inner: Dominating personality, huge ego, with strong traditionalist views despite being a modernizer. Self-assured, highly opinionated, natural leader, naturally intimidating. Stickler for parliamentary protocol, uncomfortable with women, disturbed by homophiles. Driven, excellent command of information, extremely hardworking, but also vindictive, holding onto old wounds. Placed a strong emphasis on divisions, rather than connections. Astutely remarked, “If you want something said, ask a man. If you want something done, ask a woman.” Iron-willed lifetime of making her presence known from non-aristocratic origins, showing herself to be an archetypal empress even in a democratic state. Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903) - British Prime Minister. Outer: From an aristocratic family that descended from Lord Burghley (Hubert Humphrey) during the time of Elizabeth I (Mae West). Father was the 2nd Marquess, while his mother was the heiress to several large estates. 3rd son and 5th child of six. One older brother was debilitated his whole life. Had a lonely childhood, thanks to his distant father, while his mother made her early exit when he was 10. Frail and shy as a child, he was prone to depression, and took to both reading and botany as an escape. Educated at Eton, but was bullied there, thanks to his unathletic ungainliness, and eventually was tutored at home, showing an aptitude for scholarship. Extremely nearsighted, 6’4”, originally thin and stooped, later fully fleshed. Went to Christ Church, Oxford, but his ongoing health problems proved an obstacle, and after two years, went on a world tour, visiting South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Returned in a much improved condition, with a focus for his professional life, in external foreign affairs, as a staunch imperialist. Graduated Oxford with a degree in mathematics, and entered Parliament in 1853, giving his maiden speech the following year. In 1857, he married Georgina Caroline Alderson, the daughter of a judge, 5 sons and 3 daughters from the union. His father had naysayed the marriage, deeming her of inferior social standing, and cut back his financial allowance. His wife, however, proved to be a perfect mate for him, raising their large brood, while also showing compassion for the poor on his estate, as well as organizing and teaching at school for the underprivileged in London. Began writing for political journals, in order to supplement his reduced income, and soon had the reputation as an incisive analyst. In 1866, he was named Secretary of State for India, under the Earl of Derby (Edward Heath), but resigned within the year in protest of extending the electoral franchise there. In 1868, he assumed his father’s title on the latter’s death, and entered the House of Lords. A year later, he became Chancellor of Oxford Univ. Built a laboratory at his ancestral home of Hatfield House, and experimented with electricity there, as well as chemistry, while intermingling with the scientific community of the day. When the Conservatives came back to power under Benjamin Disraeli (Aldous Huxley) in 1874, he once more became Secretary of State for India. Despite initial differences twixt the two, he became Foreign Secretary 4 years later, with his nephew Arthur Balfour acting his own secretary. Helped gain peace in the Balkans at the Congress of Berlin, while showing himself to be a gifted diplomat, and wound up as leader of the Conservative Party on Disraeli’s death in 1881. In 1885, he reluctantly became prime minister of a minority government, for a very brief run of only a couple of months. Returned to office the following year, and took advantage of the opposing party’s internal struggles to fashion a far stronger 2nd government over the next 6 years. Focused on foreign affairs, particularly British interests in Africa, while taking a largely laissez-faire attitude towards domestic policy, by giving his own ministers free reign. Breaking with the tradition of holding the post of First Lord of the Treasury along with his ministership, he undertook the difficult dual role of Foreign Secretary. Kept England out of conflict with its fellow continental imperial powers, and also built up the country’s defense, in lieu of making temporary alliances. Helped established the African colony of Rhodesia, and its capital city was named Salisbury after him. Able to appease the interest of other European powers in Africa as well. Became Prime Minister for a third time in 1895, at which point, he was a well-loved figure, despite his ongoing innate reserve. Fell victim to the Boer War, which broke out in South Africa in 1899, and thoroughly split his cabinet. His wife died the same year, and he suffered a few months break from office in 1900, before forming his fourth and final ministry, although did not serve as Foreign Secretary in the last. Ill health led to his resignation in 1902, shortly after peace was made with the Boers, and his nephew Balfour replaced him. Became the last of the peers to head the British government, and, in a sense, concluded the first several centuries of his aristocratic office, proving a durable and longlasting leader. Inner: Reserved, sarcastic and distant, with an unusually caustic tongue. Modest, courteous, with strong religious faith, went to chapel first thing virtually every morning. Portly, with a bad manner, and a noticeably unfashionable lifestyle, since society bored him. Despised demagogues, and disliked experts, although respected people of good character, seeing it more important than intellect. Gender-switching and looking-backward lifetime of counterbalancing his iron lady side with a conservative, traditionalist male one, to become a strong voice of a vanishing aristocratic past in a transitional century that would never again quite produce his like. Ulrika Eleanora (1688-1720) - Queen of Sweden. Outer: Father was Carl IX (Harry Cohn) of Sweden, mother was the daughter of the king of Denmark and Norway, and she was named after her. One of 7 siblings. Had a royal upbringing, and proved to be an extremely headstrong, albeit homely child. Married a Calvinist German landgrave in her late 20s, who wanted to use her to gain the throne, no children from the union. After the death of her older sister in 1708, she became heir apparent to the throne. At 30, she was elected queen on the death of her brilliant, but short-lived and unmarried, warrior brother, Charles XII (Georgi Zhukov), but refused a constitutional limitation of her powers to rule jointly with the reigning executive and legislative bodies of government. Abdicated after 15 months in favor of her husband, the future Frederick I, with whom she shared strong rapport, despite his many affairs, and he ascended to the throne in 1720. The king, in turn, gave up significant powers to Parliament, inaugurating an age of freedom, which she was able to accept, since her spouse showed more interest in amusing himself than affairs of state. Under their joint constitutional rule Sweden prospered, coming back from the economic devastation brought on by the constant wars of their predecessor. Predeceased her husband by a decade. Inner: Despotic character, unwilling to share power with anyone save her husband, to whom she was devoted. Partnership lifetime of being denied queenly authority, save in concert with a mate who had little desire to exercise his own royal prerogative, in her own gradual descent from an earlier sense of absolutism, in preparation for redesigning herself for the egalitarian age to come. Margaret I (1353-1412) Scandinavian queen. Outer: Only surviving child of the king of Denmark. At the age of 6, she was betrothed to Haakon, the Norwegian king, as a means of countering other ducal claims to the Scandinavian thrones. When hostilities between all the factions finally petered in 1363, she and he were wed in Sweden, a throne which her husband also coveted. A powerful duke turned monarch, however, wound up bearing it from 1364 to 1389. Spent her childhood at the Norwegian court, under the tutelage of the daughter of a Swedish saint, and proved herself to be far superior to her husband, and eventually, in essence, the ruler of the country. One son from union, Olaf, born in 1370. On her father’s death in 1375, she succeeded in getting her son elected to the Danish throne, and she became regent for him. Afterwards, he succeeded his father as king of Norway on the latter’s death in 1380. While she and her son were plotting to wage war on the third part of the Scandinavian trifecta, Olaf suddenly died at the age of 17, and she now reigned alone over the two realms, proving herself willful, clever and tyrannical, as she skillfully and diplomatically tapped into the discontent of the Swedish nobles, to try to add that country to her extended regal reach. Adopted her 6 year old great-nephew Eric as heir, and then after gaining vast Swedish domains, defeated and captured her rival king in 1389, and was elected ‘Lady and Mistress’ of Sweden, uniting all three Scandinavian kingdoms under her, although her rival’s supporters did not surrender Stockholm until century’s nearend. Her heir, Eric, who went on to marry the daughter of King Henry IV (Leslie Hore-Belisha) of England, was made king of Denmark in 1389, and in 1396, was elected to the kingship of the other two combined realms. The following year, she instituted the Union of Kalmar, which upheld the absolutism of the hereditary monarchy, instead of the election of kings, which some nobles preferred, to perpetually unite Scandinavia, but it soon proved an unworkable union, despite lasting a little over a century. Despite the crowning of Eric, she remained the real ruler, centralizing the power of the throne, at the expense of other elements. Ruthlessly taxed in excess, as well appropriated some church lands, while still maintaining good relations with the Holy See. Continually tried to stop German expansion into her realms, and secured her southern Denmark borders. Known by her subjects as, ‘the Lady King,’ for her firm grip on the throne. Died suddenly of the plague in the midst of an armed conflict with German interests. Inner: Strong, willful and resolute, using every trick available to her, diplomacy, tradition and thunderous might. It’s good to be queen lifetime of being given sole power of an extended queendom, and enjoying it to the hilt, as an apex point on her ongoing arc through the monarchy, before ultimately plummeting back down to plebian status at millennium’s nearend, as she tests the limits of power in a patriarchal world while encased in the corseted body of a willful matriarch. Cartimandua (fl. 1st. cent AZ) - British tribal queen. Outer: Of noble birth, her name meant ‘sleek pony.’ Became queen of the Brigantes, at the time the largest tribe in the British Isles. Married to a certain Venutius, who served as her consort, although she maintained power in her own right, since the Britons of the time had a number of fierce female leaders. Willing to make peace with the Romans in exchange for being a client ruler, when they invaded the British Isles in 43AZ, although several elements of her tribe staged revolts against the agreement. Used Roman support to put them down, then to show her loyalty to the Eternal City, in 51AZ she handed over a neighboring tribal leader, Caratacus, a premier military leader, who had sought asylum with her. Her consort was outraged at the move, calling her a traitor, and twice tried to overthrow her over during the next five year period, although the two were uneasily reconciled, and managed another 12 years together. Did not join in the rebellion of Boudicca (Beryl Markham) when the Iceni rose against the Romans in 61 AZ. Continued to use Roman backing to cement her own position, and in 69BZ, after her consort tried to overthrow her yet again, she divorced him and married his armor bearer. When her spouse revolted soon after, she was unable, even with Roman help, to contain him, and she disappears shortly afterwards from both his’n’herstory. Her husband briefly ruled the Brigantes as an independent kingdom, before falling to the swords of the Romans, at which point they annexed the whole sorry lot. Looked on quite negatively by contemporary and subsequent chroniclers, despite the difficulties of her position, and her need for dexterous deviousness to maintain her near two decade hold on a large and difficult tribe during high duress times. Inner: Cunning and highly politic. More than willing to compromise and manipulate to maintain power, leaving her with a traitorous reputation to subsequent his/storians, despite all the inherent difficulties she faced in maintaining her position. Manipulative lifetime of dealing with the realpolitik of subjugated rule, allowing her a near two decade run amidst calumnies galore, before ultimately being forced to ignominiously hightail it out of his’n’herstory, necessitating further thrones for her to sit upon, in order to assuage the loss of this one.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS MORALISTIC PARLIAMENTARIAN:
Storyline: The cerebral ethicist remains a creature of his times and their beliefs, in his various transatlantic incarnations, showing a contradictory high road nature and a host of low road prejudices, while trying to reconcile the two through a highly activist interest in world affairs, and a desire to reshape the globe according to his own moral imperatives.

mJ. William Fulbright (James William Fulbright) (1905-1995) - American politician. Outer: Mother was an outspoken newspaper columnist, father was a farmer and wealthy businessman. Family moved to Fayetteville, Arkansas when he was 3. Mother maintained a lively salon, surrounding the Univ. of Arkansas. Had a sheltered, stimulating childhood. Graduated from the Univ. of Arkansas at 20, and then was a Rhodes scholar at Oxford, earning an MA in 1931. Married Elizabeth Kremer Williams, a Philadelphia socialite in 1932, 2 daughters. After getting his law degree, at George Washington Univ. Law School, he worked for the antitrust division of the Justice Dept. for a year, then taught law at George Washington. Returned to his original alma mater and became the college’s president in 1939, where he fought to raise the standards, but resigned two years later in a dispute with the Arkansas governor. Won a seat in the House of Reps in 1942, where he sponsored a resolution for U.S. participation in the future United Nations. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1942, and then won re-election 4 more times, serving until 1974. In 1946, he established the Fulbright scholarship program between U.S. and foreign countries. Made headlines by opining that Pres. Harry S. Truman should resign and give the responsibility of government to the party with current popular support, which earned him the former’s undying ire. Served as a singular figure of integrity during the McCarthy era, who dubbed him ‘Senator Halfbright,’ but also resisted desegregation and the civil rights of African-Americans, maintaining his seat in the Senate through his backward social views combined with his forward international ones. Championed détente with the Soviet Union throughout his career. Chairman of the powerful Foreign Relations Committee for 15 years, starting in 1959, where he was a staunch anti-communist although later vigorously opposed the Vietnam War, finally losing his seat at war’s end. Remained in Washington afterwards, and joined a prestigious law firm where his clientele included the Japanese government and the United Arab Emirates. Served as a mentor to future president Bill Clinton, who was one of his staff members, although the two often exasperated one another. Authored several books on a variety of subjects. Wife died in 1986, married an executive director of the Fulbright Alumni Association in 1990. Had a stroke in 1988, and a more severe one in 1993. Revealed after his retirement, a firm belief in the efficacy of English parliamentary rule in preference to the American constitutional separation of powers. Died at home from a stroke, that he suffered 3 weeks earlier. Inner: Bookish, sometimes supercilious, and a continual scold. Dedicated to peace and wary of power. Had an all-abiding interest in foreign affairs, with a view that the U.S. should serve as a moral beacon for the world. Saw Vietnam in totally moralistic terms, and the U.S. as a bully, abridging its position as a beacon for negligible political purpose. Great believer in educated, enlightened leadership. Halfbright lifetime of continuing to develop his worldview, while remaining a bigot and supremacist at heart, which may necessitate a return as a minority to give him a fuller sense of his fellow humans, and a deeper and more morally inclusive overview of the denizens of this planet. mWilliam Gladstone (William Ewart Gladstone) (1807-1898) - British statesman and orator. Outer: Of Scottish descent. Fifth child and fourth and youngest son of a self-made Liverpool businessman with thwarted higher political ambitions, after serving as an MP for 9 years. Mother, who was his second wife, was of the lesser gentry. The latter along with a sister, who was also his godmother, were evangelical pietists, after long illnesses on their parts. Because of their influence, he originally wanted to take orders, but his father dissuaded him, wishing to live vicariously through his son. The family’s money was based in part on slave labor sugar plantations in the West Indies. Read widely from childhood on, and also maintained a daily diary his entire life, without particularly delving into his private processes. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he was president of the Oxford Union Society, and was an outstanding student. Went on a grand tour of continental Europe with his brother afterwards, and then began his political career as a Tory MP in 1832, and the following year entered Lincoln’s Inn. Made his maiden speech in 1833, on terms of emancipation of slaves in the West Indies. Slowly evolved from an ultra-conservative into a liberal, through his highly principled overview. Always moved in the best circles and evinced a formidable intellectuality, while believing politics was a field for moral forces. Published two tomes during the decade, and in 1840, took part in the founding of Trinity College, Glenallen. After two rejections by others, in 1839, he married Catherine Glynne, the daughter of a baronet, whose family was a member of the Whig uppercrust, 8 children from the union, including one liberal politician, and one daughter who died at 5. His happy marriage to a wife quite his opposite in her apolitical, familial interests and relaxed and untidy mien, gave him a secure base, although from 1840, he used a penitential whip or scourge on himself in moments of spiritual distress, as well as to relieve himself of the temptations of pornography, thanks to his wife’s frequent childbearing periods and absences, during which time she helped her own sister through a series of 14 pregnancies. Rose steadily via a variety of posts, while continually making his opinions and oppositions known on every issue facing Parliament, thanks to a magnetic sense of oratory, and a delight in creating controversy. Joined Robert Peel’s (Tony Blair) cabinet in 1843, although resigned 2 years later, then vacated his seat on becoming secretary of state for colonies, before running again from Oxford Univ. and maintaining his seat for the next 18 years. In 1845, he became involved with the Engagement, a secret lay religious group, which started him on an obsession with rescuing prostitutes, an avocation he pursued even when he became Prime Minister, as a means of tempering his own sexual desires. Always the imperious shaper of policy, and a humanitarian in procedures if not in personal practice, he held numerous other offices and eventually became Prime Minister in 1866, a position he held four times, from 1866 to 1874, 1880 to 1885, 1886, and 1892 to 1894, to become a prime shaper of Victorian England, as a champion of individual liberty and a foe of political and economic restraints. The Queen, herself, despised him as a “half-mad firebrand,” while his primary opponent was the far more charming Benjamin Disraeli (Aldous Huxley), whom he instensely disliked. A woman who dined with both on succeeding evenings stated the former made her feel he was the most important figure in the world, while the latter made her feel she was the omni-important. Anti-Catholic, but pro-Irish, conservative reformist, and an aristocratic representative of an industrial district, he was a mass of effective contradictions, in a long showcase life of his considerable political talents. Known as the “Grand Old Man” to his working-class supporters, for his ethical and reformist stances. Retired after losing the support of his cabinet, he busied himself by editing the works of Bishop Joseph Butler, an earlier prelate whom he had long revered. Gave one last speech in 1896 denouncing Turkish atrocities in Armenia, then died two years later of cancer of the palate. Buried in the statesman’s corner of Westminster Abbey. Inner: Demagogic by nature, and the very apotheosis of British liberalism and benign imperial concern for the rest of the benighted world. Serious and prayerful, and a Homeric scholar, seeing the Greek writer as a secular counterbalance to Holy Scriptures. Father, more or less, of the British welfare state, with a dedication to free markets and limited government. Chewed his food 32 times to the mouthful and felled trees on his estate to release his considerable tensions. Loved the theater, and enjoyed the company of actors and actresses, while reading widely in European literature and engaging in extensive correspondence with European scholars on a variety of subjects. Moral imperative lifetime of being at the center of six decades of British politics as a means of giving highly articulate voice to his ongoing ambition of making the world a far more ethical place for his having been in it. mWilliam Pitt, the Younger (1759-1806) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Second son of William Pitt the Elder (Al Sharpton). Mother was the sister of former PM George Grenville. Delicate and precocious, he was educated at home by his father with the express purpose of entering politics. Had a long neck and sharp nose. Entered Pembroke Hall, Cambridge at 14 and was present at his father’s collapse in Parliament in 1778. Experienced relative poverty afterwards, thanks to his sire’s excesses, and was called to the bar 2 years later. Entered Parliament at age 22, through deal-making, and showed a remarkable self-confidence, despite his initial subordinate position. Became chancellor of the exchequer the following year, and was made Prime Minister in 1783 by the George III (Jeffrey Archer), and served in that position for the next 18 years. His appointment was greeted with considerable derision, although he was able to secure a parliamentary majority the following year. Engaged in a lifelong rivalry with the libidinous Charles James Fox (Bob Geldof), his opposite in every way. Never married. Fought one duel, but both he and his opponent fired into the air. Saw his popularity rise with his policies, and weathered the king’s subsequent first bout of insanity in 1788, without losing his office to a regency. His liberal policies ended when Great Britain became involved in the French Revolutionary Wars in the 1790s, despite his desire for peace and neutrality. Proved himself an eloquent liberal royalist, eloquent, and beholden to the king rather than his party, so that he was forced to resign after a near two-decade run in power, when the king opposed his call for Catholic Emancipation in Ireland. Recalled in 1804 under the threat of a Napoleonic invasion, but his 2nd ministry lasted only two years and undermined his health, and he died soon after resigning it from overwork, anxiety, and his ongoing addiction to port, as a compensation for the pressures of office. Inner: Withdrawn, solemn, with absolute no interest in women, but an all-abiding passion for politics as a moderate progressive. Great believer in himself, although he lacked the vision to truly deal with the social problems of his time. In the arena lifetime of being given both the bloodlines and practical education for the prime ministership without the pitbull body to allow him to weather defeat and resurrect as he would in his next far longer and more effective run at the same office. mHugh Latimer (c1485-1555) - British prelate and martyr. Outer: Father was a prosperous yeoman farmer. Went to Cambridge Univ. in 1500, and became a fellow of Clare Hall. Ordained and built a solid reputation as a Roman Catholic Cambridge preacher, while wrestling with himself over Martin Luther’s (Martin Luther King) protestant doctrines, after having been introduced to by a group of young Cambridge divines. Refused to refute them in 1525, and was compelled to explain himself before Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (Henry Kissinger), and was dismissed, although given the liberty to preach throughout England. Made his famous ‘on the card,’ sermon in 1529, and by the following year, was a master in theology at Oxford. Gained the favor of Henry VIII (Maxwell Beaverbrook) by supporting the annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon (Mary Renault), and received the benefice of West Kingdom in Wiltshire for doing so. Despite having spiritual friends in high places, he was accused of heresy and brought before a convocation by the bishop of London, where he was excommunicated and imprisoned, although was later absolved after making a full submission. Made bishop of Worcester in 1535, and preached Queen Jane Seymour’s (Jane Seymour) funeral sermon two years later. Seen as a reformer, although was not active in the movement. Encouraged Puritanism in his diocese, then resigned his bishopric because he could not support the governmental religious position, and also had lost his main support at court. Kept in custody in the Tower of London for nearly a year, and then after 8 years silence, made his famous ‘on the plough’ sermon in 1548. On the accession of the Catholic Mary I (Rose Kennedy), he was arrested for treason and condemned to the Tower of London in 1553. Sent to Oxford the following year, along with Nicholas Ridley and Thomas Cranmer (Malcolm Boyd) to appear before the leading divines of the university, and was condemned as a heretic and burned at the stake, where he issued his immortal dying line, “...we shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England as I trust shall never be put out.” Inner: Powerful orator, deeply religious. Martyred lifetime of having his spiritual integrity sorely tested before blazing out in the full glory of deliberately sacrificing himself to the greater glory of his beliefs. mWilliam of Wykeham (1324-1404) - British prelate and statesman. Outer: From a poor family, but was educated at Winchester Cathedral Priory through the patronage of his local Lord of the Manor. Became secretary to the latter afterwards, and through dint of his noticeable skills and intelligence, he was brought to court in his early 20s, and ultimately entered the service of Edward III (Duke of Wellington) in his early 30s, becoming his most trusted adviser. Made bishop of Winchester in his early 40s after being appointed chancellor of England in 1364, but lost the latter post through the anti-clerical machinations of John of Gaunt (Lyndon Johnson), who assumed power in the king’s senility. The 2 became bitter foes, with Gaunt pressing charges of corruption against him. As bishop, he proved extremely diligent in reforming abuses in the monasteries and religious houses throughout his diocese. Founded Winchester and New College, Oxford, as well as a prepatory school for boys for the former, as a means of dispensing the largesse of his diocese in the most effective and beneficial way possible. Eventually pardoned by Richard II (Richard Nixon), whom he served as chancellor for 2 years to end his active career. Finally retired in 1391, at which point he took no more active role in public affairs, save for appearing in Parliament when Richard was deposed, and several days later when Henry IV (Leslie Hore-Belisha) was acknowledged as the new monarch. Continued to discharge his episcopal duties until 4 days before his death. Inner: Emaciated, pious, liberal, austere and frugal, although extremely generous and prudent with the powers and moneys at his disposal. Had a high reputation for sanctity, and as a learned soul. Strong desire to both teach and hold power. Principled lifetime of entering politics at its highest levels as a spiritual adviser, and learning to remain focused on personal objectives, despite the devious manipulations of others. mPhilipp (Philipp von Schwaben) (1178-1208) - German Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Of the Hohenstaufen line. Youngest son of HRE Friedrich I (J.P. Morgan). Destined for a church career, he became provost of the cathedral at Aachen, then was elected bishop of Wurzburg in his early teens. After the death of one of his brothers, he abandoned his ecclesiastical career, while another brother, HRE Heinrich VI (Jean Paul Getty) made him Duke of Tuscany, then Swabia. In 1197, he married Irene Angelina, the daughter of the Byzantine emperor, 4 daughters from union. When Heinrich died in 1197, his son, the future emperor Friedrich II (Yukio Mishima) was only 2, and the German princes were unwilling to accept the boy as king. Those favorable to the Hohenstaufens elected him German king in 1198, while those opposed elected Otto IV (Chris Patten) from the rival Welf dynasty. In the civil war that followed, the Hohenstaufens initially prevailed, although the pope recognized his rival and excommunicated him. A series of Otto’s supporters defected over to him, and in 1205 he was crowned by the archbishop of Cologne. After Cologne, which had sided with Otto, was captured in 1207, he offered his 10 year old daughter in marriage to Otto as well as territory, and a truce was arranged between the duo that lasted a year. In 1208 the pope recognized him as king and promised to crown him as emperor. As he was preparing to move his armies against Otto, he was murdered by a German noble whom he had refused to give one of his daughters in marriage. Inner: Gentle, generous, pious, mild-mannered, learned and brave. Expanding lifetime of switching to the political realm in order to get the full experience of the emperor/pope duality of power in medieval Europe, only to be undone before gaining a full taste of it. mEdward (c1003-1066) - English king. Known as Edward the Confessor. Outer: Elder son of Athelstan II (Bob Hope) and his second wife, Emma (Mae West). Lived in Normandy from the age of 10 and was brought up at the monastery of Ely. An albino, and of middle-height. Resided at the court of his half-brother, Hardecanute (Guy Burgess), who brought him to England in 1041, perhaps to be his heir, after a quarter century exile. Crowned in 1043, and recognized by William of Normandy, later William I (Mohandas Gandhi) of England, as well as by the Germans and the French. Surrounded himself with his Norman favorites and was unduly influenced by them. In 1045, he reluctantly married Edith, the daughter of Godwin of Essex (Chris Patten), an English earl, although she divorced him and went to a nunnery in 1051 when her father was exiled, only to later return to court when her power-tripping sire and he reconciled. The marriage was childless. Highly partial to monasticism, while trusting the administration of his government to Normans, which created an intrigue-filled court. Obsessively religious, he built Westminster Abbey as the price of papal absolution when he broke his vow to make a pilgrimage to Rome. It was consecrated in 1065, but he was too ill to attend. Virtually all English monarchs from William on down would be crowned there, and it would serve as the most lasting element of his reign. Quarreled with Godwin, entertained William I at his court, then reconciled with the former, after he planned an invasion of England. Intended to make a nephew his heir, but the succession problem ultimately precipitated the Battle of Hastings, when the House of Normandy succeeded to the throne. When he was dying, he asked his ex-wife to care for her brother Harold II (Moshe Dayan), but she promptly deserted his cause. Also made dire predictions on his deathbed about the kingdom. Canonized in 1161. Inner: Deeply religious, but inept, and out of his depth. Gracious, always dignified, moderate in habits, charitable, compassionate and devout. Childlike nature with a poor sense of judgment, a largely ineffectual, shadowy figure. Did, however, have the ability to heal by touching. Highly ineffective lifetime of trying to transliterate his saintly nature into rule, while serving as only an interim figure between the end of Anglo-Saxon rule in England and the beginning of its Norman replacement.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS LONG-TERM LEADER:
Storyline: The modest MP is far more effective behind the scenes than front-row center, thanks to an uncharismatic but pragmatic character, so that his ultimate reputation after his departure from office winds up far higher than when he was in it.

Clement Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee (1883-1967) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Father was a solicitor. 7th of 8 children, with four brothers and three sisters. Had a conventional middle-class upbringing. Went to a boys’ predatory school, and eventually matriculated at University College, Oxford, gaining a Second Class Honors BA in Modern History in 1904. Two years later he was called to the bar at Inner Temple. Abandoned his career as a barrister, however, to become a social worker in the East End of London. Joined the Labour Party, and served in WWI. In 1922, he married Violet Miller, also the end-product of a large family. Three daughters and a son from the close union, with his spouse a companion rather than a political influence. Rose through the rank and file of the party, allowing him to absorb the culture and ethos of Labour from the bottom up. The same year he married, he became an MP for Stepney and served as a junior minister in the 1924 and 1929-1931 Ramsay MacDonald governments. In 1935, he rose to Party leader largely by default, since his more charismatic rivals had lost their seats to Tories in the 1931 election. Held the post for two decades, with plots galore to unseat him coming to naught all during that period. Advocated pacifism and appeasement during the 1930s, then became a strong critic of Neville Chamberlain (Ed Millibrand) in 1938, for his similar stance with Nazi Germany. Served as a Deputy Prime Minister during WW II in Winston Churchill’s (Boris Johnson) coalition government, as the first person to hold that title. Then succeeded him when Labour swept to power in a landslide election in 1945, much to Churchill’s chagrin. A Keynesian in economics, he was also a keen advocate of nationalizing public utilities and major industries. Oversaw the creation of the National Health Service, while viewing his role as more of an umpire than a leader, thanks to a cabinet of powerful personalities with agendas of their own, including usurping his leadership role. The British Nationality Act of 1948 granted every subject of the British Empire the right to I've and work in Britain without a visa, which would later create tensions galore between Asian immigrants and native-borns. Played a critical role in supporting Ernest Bevin’s Cold Was diplomacy and accelerating independence for India, as the UK’s colonial empire diminished considerably in the post-war world. British india, Burma and Ceylon were all granted independence and the British Mandate of Palestine ended, paving the way for the modern state of Israel. After Labour was defeated in the 1951 election, and Churchill returned to power, his own influence declined precipitously, as the Party broke into many factions. Resigned as leader in 1955, and accepted a peerage. Lost his wife three years before his passing from pneumonia in a hospital, thanks in no small part to his being a heavy pipe and cigarette smoker throughout his life. Cremated and had his ashes buried in Westminster Abbey. Penned two books, “The Labour Party in Perspective” in 1937 and his memoir, “As It Happened” in 1954. Inner: Quiet, unassuming and agnostic, often giving monosyllabic answers to the press, in his disregard for the need for public relations in order to enhance his own leadership image. Saw himself as left-of-center. Decidedly uncharismatic, thanks to a behind-the-scenes approach to governance, which depended on consensus rather than forceful will on his part. Practical pilot lifetime of helping create Great Britain’s welfare state, and dissolve its long-held empire, as a pragmatic leader guiding his nation into a far lesser global role, where its cultural rather than its political influence would hold sway in the post-WW II world. William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville (1859-1934) - British Prime Minister. Outer: From a family of politicians. Father was Whig Prime Minister, George Grenville (Hugh Gaitskell). Mother was the daughter of a Tory statesman, after whom he was named. Third son and sixth of nine children, with all five sons entering Parliament. Educated at Eton and Christ Church College, Oxford. Graduated in 1780 after winning the Chancellor’s prize for Latin Verse. Trained for the bar but never entered since he became a Whig MP in 1782 to the family’s borough of Buckingham and made his maiden speech on the Irish question.. The same year, he married Anne Pitt, the daughter of Thomas Pitt, a wealthy merchant who was grandfather of the political Pitt clan. The two families were intertwined since the latter’s grandson, William Pitt the Elder (J. William Fulbright) had married his aunt Hester Grenville, making him cousins with Pitt the Younger (Al Sharpton). No children from his own marriage, with his wife outliving him by almost three decades. Held continual ministerial offices during his parliamentary career, including Chief Secretary for Ireland, at the same time a brother was Lord Lieutenant there. Pitt the Younger offered him posts throughout his run as PM. Played an instrumental role in the negotiation that led to the Vergennes treaty of 1786, which partially established free trade between Britain and France. Speaker of the House of Commons in 1789, then Home Secretary before being raised to the peerage in 1790 as Baron Grenville of Buckinghamshire. Took over as Foreign Secretary in 1791, while advocating British neutrality as the best means of avoiding conflict, but when evolutionary France declared war on Britain, he supported the first coalition of European powers against it. Also supported repressive domestic legislation to maintain order. Resigned his post when George III (Jeffrey Archer) proved hostile to Catholic Emancipation. Had little confidence in the interim PM Henry Addington (Ed Milliband), and fell out with Pitt over his own political friendship with the controversial Charles James Fox (Bob Geldof) so that when the latter returned to power he refused to accept office with him without Fox. On Pitt’s death, which coincided with Fox’s, he became Prime Minister for a very short run from 1806 to 1807, in what was called “the Ministry of All Talents.” since his cabinet crossed party lines. Continued to support Catholic Emancipation, and when the king refused to consider it, he resigned with a great sense of relief, although not before steering the Abolition of the slave trade legislation through Parliament. Spent the latter part of his career in Opposition to the three ministries who followed him, while continuing to support the principles of free trade and contest the Corn Laws which created high tariffs on grain, and were favored by Conservative landowners. By 1822, he had virtually retired from politics, and and spent his last decade in precipitous decline, amusing himself with literary pursuits. After a series of strokes, passed on, while his title died with him. Inner: Highly intelligent and academically gifted, with a keen interest in classical literature. Principled and willing to oppose unfair governmental practices. Hostile to the idea of revolution and repressive against any hint that Great Britain might go the way of revolutionary France. Suffered a poor public image, just as his father had. Avid landscaper and gardener, and a collector of china, prints and pictures. Well-read bibliophile, and a keen student of his/story. Duty-bound lifetime of being born directly into power, and trying to use it as a means of bettering Britain according to his ongoing vision of fairness, only to ultimately find himself at odds with the frustrations surrounding his high office and spending most of the latter part of his life in Opposition to his successors.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS TORY BIBLIOPHILE:
Storyline: The moderate middle-of-the-roader shows more of a skill at editorship than political infighting, in a dual run marked by modest achievement in the latter realm, and far more skill in the former, as a duty-bound exemplar of the privileged classes’ need to perform public service.

Harold Macmillan, Earl of Stockton and Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden (Maurice Harold Macmillan) (1894-1986) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Grandson of the co-founder of the publishing house of Macmillan & Co. Mother was an American widow of a painter who had died a decade prior to her second union. Fluent in French, she passed her burning ambitions onto her sons, proving to be the dominant parental figure, over her retiring, distant mate. Youngest of 3 boys of the co-heir to the family firm, with his older brothers quite a bit senior. Shy and sensitive as a child, he retained his sire’s reserve. Brought up in a strongly religious atmosphere, by his bossy and possessive mother. Won a scholarship to Eton, although pneumonia almost felled him there, turning him into a lifelong hypochondriac. Rumor also had it, he was expelled for sodomy. Later tutored at home to insure his mother’s desire he go to Balliol College, Oxford, where he was serially elected secretary then treasurer of the Oxford Union. 6’, 165 lbs. After recovering from appendicitis, he was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant in the King’s Royal Rifle Corps, at the outbreak of WW I, in order to assert his independence from his mother. Wounded five times, while showing himself to be quite brave in battle, he was severely injured in 1916 in the pelvis and thigh and lay for a day in shell hole intermittently reading “Prometheus” in the original Greek. Spent the reminder of the war in and out of hospitals, and was probably saved from a lingering death by his mother’s intercession with military procedures. Had no desire to return to Oxford afterwards, because of the loss of so many fellow classmates, nor did he wish to enter the family firm. Through his mother’s influence, he wound up on the staff of the 9th Duke of Devonshire, then the governor-general of Canada. Married one of the latter’s daughters, Dorothy Evelyn Cavendish, in 1920, and joined the family firm. One son and three daughters from the union, although the last one was fathered at the end of the decade by a notorious bisexual Tory. Refused to divorce his wife because of both religious conviction and an abiding love for her. The duo eventually compromised with her remaining a publicly political wife in a celibate union, thanks to his own low libido. Lost his first election bid as a Conservative in 1923, but won the same seat the following annum, to begin a near four decade career in the House of Commons. Remained an active partner in the family firm, and garnered the reputation of being more of an ideas person than an executor of policy. Suffered a nervous breakdown in 1930 following the birth of his wife’s final daughter, but rebounded in 1931 by recapturing the seat he had lost in 1929. Continued in the publishing industry, while focusing on economic interests as a backbencher, showing himself to be a Keynesian, albeit with more of an interventionist sense of capital management. In 1938, he published The Middle Way, which summed up his own centrist political philosophy. During WW II, he served in the wartime coalition government in several posts, including government rep to the Allies in the Mediterranean area, working closely with Gen. Dwight Eisenhower. Lost his seat in the post-war Labour landslide, although soon gained another one. In 1951, he became Minister of Housing in the Conservative government, before being made Minister of Defense in 1954. Served Prime Minister Anthony Eden as Foreign Secretary, then as Chancellor of Exchequer, before succeeding him on his resignation in early 1957. Installed some 35 family members, including 7 cabinet officials in his government, in an act of supreme nepotism, then handily led the Conservatives to Parliamentary victory in 1959. Earned the nickname “Supermac,” for steering Britain through the difficult transition of its post-imperial period, and governed largely by consensus, with a focus on economic issues. Oversaw the independence of several of Britain’s African colonies, exemplified by his famous “winds of change” speech in 1960. Forced to institute a wage freeze, and lost both popularity and the support of his party, necessitating a huge cabinet shake-up in 1962. Maintained solid relations with the U.S., although he failed in making Britain a member of the Common Market. The call-girl scandal of his minister John Profumo tarnished his government, and he was finally brought down by economic failures, compounded by a false diagnosis of inoperable prostate cancer. Resigned in the fall of 1963 and was succeed by his Foreign Secretary, Alex Douglas-Home. Refused a peerage and retired in 1964, to take up the chairmanship of his family’s publishing house. Two years later, his wife died. Wrote his extensive memoirs, a six volume affair, although they were poorly received. Remained a critical public voice for his last two decades, particularly against the privitization policies of Margaret Thatcher, and in 1984, on his 90th birthday, he finally accepted a title. Made Earl of Stockton, choosing the working-class district which first elected him to Parliament and Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden. Died after a brief illness in his 92nd year, the oldest Prime Minister of record up to that time. Inner: Liked to be known as “the Great Commoner,” thanks to a paternalistic view of those beneath him. Embodied a dedication to duty by the privileged. Thoughtful, quietly religious, sensitive and amusing, with a feel for British civilization and institutions. Cerebral and unfailingly, with a great love for books. Disliked for his self-centered ways, with a curious inability to listen to others, and a far greater interest in foreign than domestic affairs. Also harbored a strong a strong sense of camaraderie, from his war experiences. Middle way lifetime of using compromise in order to balance an unfulfilling marriage, a dominating mother and a love of letters, with a public life not wholly of his own choosing. Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh Earl of Shaftebury (1801-1885) - British politician, social reformer and philanthropist. Outer: Father was the 6th Earl of Shaftesbury. Mother was the 4th daughter of the Duke of Marlborough. The former was distant and harsh with him, giving him an unhappy childhood. Through the influence of a servant, he became an evangelical, which would become the overwhelmingly dominate feature of his life. Known early on as Lord Ashley. Educated at Harrow and Christ Church College, Oxford where he obtained a first class in classics in 1822. A decade later he received his M.A. and in 1841, was made a Doctor of Civil :Law. In 1826, he was elected a Conservative MP for Woodstock, and in one of his earliest speeches urged improvement on laws regarding the treatment of the insane. Became chairman of the Lunacy Commissioners and held that office until his death, showing a clear preference for philanthropic reform throughout his political life. In 1830, he wed Emily Cowper, the daughter of an earl. Six sons and four daughters from the happy union, with most suffering from ill health. Sat for Dorset from 1831 to 1845. In that year, he authored parliamentary acts to strengthen controls against unjust institutionalization. Conducted similar campaigns against the employment of small boys as chimney sweeps and in 1875, after repeated efforts, secured passage of an statute that licensed the trade. His focus on the working conditions of children in textile mills, would prove his most important legislation, as he steadily lessened working hours to ten hours a day, which ultimately led to the Ten Hours Act of 1847 In the 1840s, he adopted the Ragged School movement, which offered basic education and housing for thousands of homeless children in London. Resigned his seat in 1846, and was elected the following annum for the city of Bath. Served as commissioner of the new Board of Health from 1848 to 1854, which brought about his Lodging House Act. It provided for public licenses and inspection of lodgings, as well as the creation of the Sanitary Commission. Largely aloof from politics, per se, as a creature from another century entirely, with his whole focus on the poor and disadvantaged, and little interest in the politics of his time. Died of inflammation of the lungs, and was venerated following his demise as a figure of exemplary attributes. Inner: Hostile to both modernism, and secularism as well as the Roman Catholic Church. Felt a Christ-like compulsion to labor among the poor and downtrodden showing deep compassion for those who had nothing to call their own. An anachronistic character, with negative feelings about trade unionism and socialism and anything that smacked of his present circumstances.. Fervent reformer lifetime of focusing his entire public existence on the poor and dispossessed as a creature out-of-time, while harboring little interest in the larger political landscape of his times. William Wake (1657-1737) - British Archbishop of Canterbury. Outer: Father was a figure of considerable property. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford, graduating with a BA in 1876, an MA in 1678 and a Doctor of Divinity in 1689. The previous year, he married Etheldreda Hovell, a coheiress of a Norfolk knight, and together the duo had at least 5 daughters. Ordained afterwards, and in 1682, went to Paris as chaplain to the ambassador to the court of France, which gave him a lifelong interest in the affairs of the French church. Earned the reputation of a scholar, and collated some Paris manuscripts of the Greek Testament per the wishes of the bishop of Oxford, showing a keen eye for changes, because of earlier censures. Returned home in 1685, and in 1688 was chosen preacher of Gray’s Inn, holding that office for 8 years. Following the Glorious Revolution and overthrow of the Catholic James II (Martin Sheen), he was made chaplain in ordinary to the Protestant monarchs, William (Lyndon Johnson) and Mary (Ladybird Johnson). The following year he was appointed to a canonry in Christ Church, Oxford His next post was the rectory of St. James’s, Westminster, before becoming Dean of Exeter and bishop of Lincoln in 1705. Translated afterwards to Canterbury and in 1716, he became Archbishop of Canterbury, following the death of Thomas Tenison, who had been his mentor. Held that position for the next 21 years until his own death. Negotiated with leading French churchmen about a union of the Gallican and English Protestant churches, against Rome. Proved to be an erudite steward, while showing himself charitable towards Nonconformists. Penned numerous texts, with the ‘State of the Church and Clergy of England…Historically Deduced” published in 1703 the most important. Lost his wife in 1735 and two years later, he died at his official home, Lambeth Palace, London just two days short of his 79th birthday. Inner: Had great industry, as well as an extremely tolerant spirit. Read widely, and was a bibliophile, as well as a prolific writer. Bookish lifetime of exercising his fascination with the Word as well as the written word while doing his duty, as he saw fit as a primary custodian of the Anglican church, before returning in reformist mode to address social imbalances per the compassionate dictates of the prophet Jesus.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS MAN OF MANY SORROWS:
Storyline: The loss-plagued leader continually loses those closest to him, while also forfeiting positions of high office, in his ongoing need to temper his internal distemper with unhinged and unhappy intimates, as well as ongoing misreadings of the tides of his/story.

Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon (1897-1977) - British Prime Minister. Outer: From a very conservative landowning family. Father was a wealthy aristocrat, while his mother was deranged, and ultimately squandered away the family estate. His sire was also given to to violent outbursts of temper, which terrified his children. The 3rd of 4 sons, and 4th of 5 children. Two brothers, the eldest and youngest, to whom he was extremely close, were killed during WW I, while he became a teenaged officer in the trenches, and at 21, the youngest brigade-major in the British army. Made no impression on Eton, and did not remember his schooldays fondly. After being educated in oriental languages at Christ Church, Oxford, he wound up fluent in French, German and Persian, and also spoke Russian and Arabic. Handsome, slim, impeccable and dignified, and something of a fashion plate, ultimately introducing the black homburg, which became known as an Anthony Eden. Lost his first election, then in 1923, he became a Conservative MP. The same year, he unhappily married Beatrice Beckett, the daughter of a banker. Three sons from the union, with one dying shortly after birth. Subsequently used work as an antidote to both his wife and his mother, as his career put great strains on his marriage. Held several posts during the 1920s, then had his first ministerial position in 1931 as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs. Supported the League of Nations in his desire for peace, and saw quite clearly that fascist Italy and Nazi Germany would rile up the continent once again. Made Foreign Secretary in 1935, he initially supported a hand’s-off policy with Europe’s various volatile governments, but resigned in 1938 because of the appeasement course of England with Italy. Subsequently seen as cowardly by his fellow politicians for refusing to vote on the government’s appeasement policy with Germany, although remained a popular political figure in the country-at-large. Briefly re-enlisted in the army around the outbreak of WW II, before rejoining the government. Became Secretary of State for War, then wartime Foreign Secretary under the overshadowing presence of Prime Minister Winston Churchill (Boris Johnson(, who conducted most of Britain’s high profile negotiations himself, while using his loyal lieutenant’s expertise in foreign affairs in order to do so. In 1942, he was made leader of the House of Commons, and also served as a liaison with the troublesome French exile leader Charles de Gaulle, during the latter stages of the war. Following Labour’s victory after WW II, he became Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party, while remaining loyal to Churchill, who many felt should have retied. Lost his eldest son in the final days of the war, which devastated him, while his unhappy marriage finally unraveled. When Churchill was re-instituted as Prime Minister in 1951, he became Foreign Minister for a third time, although for the first time, actually had control over foreign policy, thanks to the figurehead status of the former. Ably dealt with Britain’s reduced role in the postwar world, while officially divorcing his wife in 1950 on grounds of desertion. Two years later he happily married Churchill’s niece, Clarissa Spencer-Churchill, who was over two decades his junior. The following annum, he underwent gall bladder surgery, but suffered a bile duct injury, and never fully recovered from it, which would undermine the last part of his career. The complications would be symbolic of the bile, gall and anger he had long held within. When Churchill finally retired in 1955, he succeeded him as Prime Minister, focusing on his arena of expertise, foreign policy, while leaving domestic issues to his lieutenants. Called a snap election immediately after his instatement and won, increasing his majority, although showed himself remarkably naive around the press, suffering unduly from its slings and arrows. Forced to resign over illness precipitated by his own failures in the Suez Crisis of 1956, which heralded Britain’s final fall as a colonial power. Stepping down in early 1957, he was succeeded by Harold Macmillan, while his brief tenure was subsequently viewed as one of the low points of Britain’s 20th century. In 1961, he was made Earl of Avon. Wrote three volumes of reminiscences, including his well-acclaimed Another World, in 1976. The following year he was taken ill while visiting America, and was flown home, where he died of liver cancer. Inner: Charming, fashionable, and the very picture of the suave, handsome diplomat. Ill-tempered like his father, despite his long diplomatic career, thanks to both his mother and his first wife, and his ongoing difficulties with thoroughly integrating the feminine within. Many-tongued lifetime of dealing with private unhappiness through public service, only to continue his loss-laden ways, in his ongoing struggles to find a happy medium between the various spheres of his existence. George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen (1784-1860) - Scottish/British Prime Minister. Outer: From an old adventurous Scottish family. Eldest son of a Scottish lord, who died when he was 7, while his mother passed on four years later. Had two prime ministers as guardians, and was educated at Harrow and St. John’s College, Cambridge, graduating in 1804. Succeeded to the family title in 1801, on his grandfather’s death, and also traveled all over Europe prior to his matriculation. Founded the Athenian Society on his return to Scotland, after excavating reliefs in Athens. Appalled at the lives of his countrymen on his return, after his elevating travels, and the life he had come to know in the south of England. In 1805, he married Catherine Elizabeth Hamilton, although after 7 years, his wife died, and he wore mourning for her the rest of his life. One son and three daughters from the union, all of whom predeceased him. Extremely close with his daughters, none of whom reached 20, in yet another heartbreaking series of losses for himself. Married the widow of his wife’s brother in 1815, in an attempt at resuscitating her, although failed to do so in an unsatisfactory union for both of them, and she, too, died young, at the age of 41. Once described her as “certainly one of the most stupid persons I ever met with.” 4 sons and a daughter from the second union, while his second mate proved extremely jealousy of her three stepdaughters, while they briefly lived. Took his seat in the House of Lords as a representative Tory peer the same year he first married. Following his wife’s demise, he joined the Foreign Service, and helped negotiate some of the treaties at the end and nearend of the Napoleonic wars. On his return home, he was made a peer of the United Kingdom, as Viscount Gordon, although he maintained a far lower public profile over the next 13 years. Became Foreign Secretary in the ministry of the Duke of Wellington in 1829, but resigned 3 years later in a dispute with the latter over reform. Held the same post with Robert Peel (Tony Blair) from 1841 to 1846, settling two disagreements with the U.S., before resigning along with Peel over the controversial Corn Laws. With the death of the latter in 1850, he was the acknowledged leader of the Conservatives, and in 1852, he became Prime Minister, but his indecision in office over the Crimean War, and his inability to stand up to the overshadowing figure of Henry Palmerston (Maxwell Beaverbrook), precipitated his downfall, and he resigned in 1855. Lived like a Scottish magnate afterwards, with his children addressing him as “His Lordship.” Occasionally took part in debates in the House of Lords after his resignation, speaking for the last time 2 years before his death. Inner: Scholarly, spare, grave, reserved and highly moral and formal. A dull speaker, despite his obvious superior intelligence. Cold, but a good companion to those who knew him well. An amateur botanist and agriculturalist, with a longtime fascination for classical antiquities. Loss-laden lifetime of suffering much personal dispossession, with parents, beloved wife, four of his children and his ultimate position all denied him, within the context of his ongoing fascination with, but inability to handle, great power.

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PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST TURNED POLITICIAN:
Storyline: The.former field marshal decides to pursue politics as a career, after extremely successful stints in the military, as a means of expanding his own sense of power in the various venues available to him.

Alec Douglas-Hume, 14th Earl of Home (1903-1995) - Scottish/English Prime Minister. Outer: From an old established Scottish family. Eldest son of the 13th Earl of Home. Mother was the daughter of an earl. Known as Lord Dunglass until he succeeded his sire in 1951. Went to Eton, where he showed his athletic ability, while he was effortlessly well-liked by everyone, teacher and fellow student alike. Went to Christ Church, Oxford, then embarked on a political career, failing to win his first try at office in 1929 in a Labour district. In 1931, he won as an MP for South Lanark in Scotland and held that seat until 1945. During this time he served as parliamentary private secretary to PM Neville Chamberlain (Ed Milliband) where he supported his appeasement policy with Germany, although was forgiven for this misreading of dictator Adolf Hitler’s true intents. In 1936, he wed Elizabeth Alington, the daughter of the headmaster of Eton and chaplain to George V (Prince Harry). His wife avoided the limelight, and produced one son and four daughters, before exiting five years before her long-lived husband. Served as an officer in the Lanarkshire Yeomanry, but a back injury limited his activity during the war, so as to place his entire focus on politics, rather than his adept martial artistry of his hidden past. Entered Commons in 1950, and re-won his seat, although the following year, on his sire’s death, he had to enter the House of Lords. Did not stand out in the slightest during this period, with little grasp of the grave economic situation in Britain during the post-war period. Under Winston Churchill (Boris Johnson) he was made minister of state at the Scottish office for four years, before holding several posts under succeeding administrations, including Foreign Secretary from 1960 to 1963. Became Conservative leader of the House of Lords from 1957 to 1960, although his authority came about in a cloud of recriminations, with his elevation contested by several fellow Tories, so that ultimately he was selected because he was less of a figure of disunity than anyone else. Renounced his earldom, per standard practice and became PM in 1963, but had difficulty in forming a cabinet and resigned almost exactly a year later when Labour won the general election. Because of the upheaval in his selection, he arranged for his successor to be selected by less secretive methods by Conservative members of Commons, then remained leader of the Opposition for less than a year, before resigning. Became Foreign Secretary in 1970 under Edward Heath, the first member of the House of Lords in 20 years to hold that post. After Heath’s defeat in 1974, he returned to the House of Lords and re-accepted his peerage, as Baron Home of the Hirsel. In awe of Margaret Thatcher, considering her head and shoulders above all Conservatives during her lengthy term of office. Served as governor of I Zingari, a cricket team between 1977 and 1989, and penned three volumes, an autobiography “The Way the Wind Blows,” in 1979, as well as a follow-up tome on shooting and fishing and one containing his correspondence with his grandson. An avid sportsman, he spent most of his latter years in Scotland, withdrawing completely from politics on the death of his wife in 1990. Died at home and was buried in Scotland. Inner: Unobtrusive and undemanding, with good conservative instincts as a centrist. Figure of seriousness and integrity, with little of the orator about him. Plain-spoken and unimaginative, and an outdoorsman, with a love of cricket and racing, as well as hunting and fishing. Transition lifetime of switching venues from the physical battlefield to the emotional theater of operations of Parliament, in what would largely be a learning experience for him, in negotiating the tricky turf of issues, images and political infighting. Sir Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde (Colin McIver) (1792-1863) - Scottish field marshall. Outer: Father was a cabinet maker. Mother was a member of the Campbell clan, the name he ultimately adopted. Oldest of four children, with his mother and one of his twin sisters dying during his childhood. Educated at the expense of an uncle who sent him to the Royal Military and Naval Academy at Gosport. Commissioned as an ensign in a Foot regiment in 1808. Fought in the Peninsular War in Portugal, and wound up contracting malaria in a disastrous Netherlands campaign the following annum. Served with distinction in Gibraltar, then was wounded thrice in Spain, while rising to the rank of captain. Briefly went to Nova Scotia, then transferred to the Fusiliers after Waterloo, to avoid being put on half-pay, while still suffering from his wounds. Became aide-de-camp to the governor of the South American colony of Guyana in 1823, although his part in putting down a slave revolt is ill-recorded. Returned to England and was posted in Ireland, ultimately becoming a commanding office of a Foot regiment in 1835. Fought in China during the First Opium War in 1842, and, after almost 30 years as a captain, finally became a colonel and commandant of Hong Kong. At the same time he was made aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria (Mary Renault). In 1847, he was given brigade command in Lahore, India, leading troops during the Second Anglo-Sikh War. Resigned in disgust when asked by the Governor-General James Dalhousie (Rupert Murdoch) to invade the Swat Valley. Later accepted the command of the Highland Brigade at the outbreak of the Crimean War in 1854. Promoted to lieutenant-general, as well as Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, he led successful defensive maneuvers, before returning to England. At the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny in 1857, he was given command of all British forces in India. Raised to the peerage as Baron Clyde of Clydesdale for his decisive dealing with the situation, and remained in charge until the Mutiny had been completely put down. Left India with great regret because of failing health. Returned to England in 1860, and retired, while being given a pension of £2000 a year by the East India Company in one of its last acts. Promoted to Field Marshall in 1862, he died the following year and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Never married and had no offspring, so that his title went extinct with him. Inner: Extremely conscientious, constantly driving himself since his entire career depended on his actions, rather than help from titled relatives, like many of his fellow officers. Lacked social connections so that his rise in rank was extremely slow, forcing him to ultimately wear himself out in his call to duty. Self-made lifetime of rising in rank completely on his own merits, while once again using India as the core of his military career, and tempering his earlier temper because of his reduced status. Sir Eyre Coote (1726-1783) - Irish general and MP. Outer: From an old family of French extraction, with the original name probably Coutes. Son of an Irish Protestant clergyman. Little is known of his early life. Probably received a standard education of the time. Gazetted in 1744 as an ensign in a foot regiment, and two years later, served against the failed 1745 Jacobite uprising in Scotland, only to be routed and tried for cowardice. Went back on duty and was sent to India. Joined with the brilliant guerrilla leader Robert Clive (Ayman al-Zawahri) fighting against indigenous and French forces. Argued so vehemently with Clive after their victory over who should re-occupy a retaken city that the two almost came to violent blows, and wound up bitter enemies afterwards. Following victory in the Battle of Plassey, he pursued the remnants of one French force for 400 miles over extremely difficult terrain, damaging his health. Won the rank of lieutenant colonel and command of the 84th regiment for the feat. Fought successfully in southern india and was given command of East India Company forces in Bengal in 1761. Returned to England the following year and was an MP for Maryborough in the Irish House of Commons then for Leicester in the British House of Commons in 1768, while marrying Susanna Hutchinson, the daughter of the governor of St. Helena in 1763. No children from the union. Returned to Bengal in 1769 as a full colonel but quarreled with the civil government and came back to England, where he was knighted in 1771. In 1779, he returned to India to serve as commander-in-chief while relinquishing his Parliamentary seat, having shown little interest in it while occupying it. Elevated to lieutenant general, he spent several years battling Prince Hyder Ali of Mysore, finally defeating him in 1781, in an extraordinary martial feat, thereby saving southern India for the empire. Exhausted from his battles, he relinquished his command and retired to Calcutta. Called back to duty, he returned to Madras, knowing he had one foot in the grave and died soon after of a stroke. His wife brought his body back to England, where it was buried. A victory monument was erected to him in Westminster Abbey by the East India Company. Inner: Tempestuous but effective soldier. Contentious with his fellow British officers, but beloved of the sepoy troops who served under him, who called him Coote Bahadur or ‘the Brave.’ Volatile lifetime of continually facing almost insurmountable difficulties on the battlefield, showing his true martial mettle during physical battle while finding emotional in-fighting far more draining.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS MODERATE IDEOLOGUE:
Storyline: The liberal Labourite shows a certain intransigence in his beliefs as party steward, trying to keep post-war Britain on a reformist footing without stepping, according to his moderate beliefs, into the deep muck of far-leftism.

Hugh Gairskell (Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell) (1906-1963) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Third and youngest child of a civil servant posted in India. Mother was the daughter of a consul-general in Shanghai. Had a middle-class upbringing, spending periods of time in Burma. Educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford, where he earned first class honors in politics, philosophy and economics in 1927, while becoming interested in socialism. The year before he graduated he assisted the workers in Oxford during a nine day general strike. Became a teacher, spending ten years as such, beginning his career lecturing to Nottingham miners for a year in what would be his first extended contact with working class life. Taught economics and politics at Univ. College, London, becoming a reader in political economy in 1938. For one academic year, 1933, he was in Vienna, where he witnessed the suppression of social democratic workers, which made him hostile to conservatism, although he rejected Marxism outright. In 1937, he married Dora Creditor, a Latvian-born Jewess divorcee with one son, two daughters from the union. An inconstant husband, he had several affairs, including one with Ann Fleming, the wife of author Ian Fleming, the creator of James Bond, when the latter stopped sleeping with her because of birth scars. Lost his first election as a Labour Party candidate for MP for Chatham in 1935, although continued to make speeches and involve himself in politics, advocating collective security against fascism, as well as social equality, but eschewed the idea of outright revolution. Joined the civil service on a temporary basis during WW II, serving in several ministries. In 1945, he won the seat for Leeds South, and held it the rest of his life. Given several ministries in the Clement Atlee government, rising to Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1950, where he made changes in the free National Health Service. In 1951, the Conservatives returned to power, which ended his run in governmental offices. When Atlee resigned in 1955, he became head of the Labour Party, beating out Aneurin Bevan (Bono Vox), the head of its most radical wing. Proved a moderate steward, opposing the multi-nation invasion of the Suez Canal in 1956, while modifying his party’s stance towards the nationalization of industry and amending the National Health Service’s totally free care with some charges for budget purposes, which caused Bevan to resign, a circumstance he actively pursued. When the Conservatives soundly trounced Labour in the 1959 election, he came under considerable attack, as the party began dividing into factions. A strong supporter of NATO, he made his most famous speech against Bevan’s endorsement of unilateral nuclear disarmament, vowing to “fight and fight and fight again to save the party we love,” which gave him control of Labour once again. Became ill with with lupus erythematosus, an inflammatory autoimmune dis-sease and died suddenly in s London hospital. Some conspiracy theorists also felt that his death was the product of a KGB plot to insure the ascendency of Harold Wilson, who was a far more sympathetic socialist. Inner: Conciliator, although willing to fight for his beliefs, which were the product of an orderly mind. Articulate, although he despised emotional oratory, and a liberal at heart, looking to effect reform through reasoned means. Strongly anti-communist and a critic of the broader left, while largely intolerant of those who disagreed with him. Serious in pubic, albeit fun-loving in private. Gaitkeeper lifetime of Labour stewardship, as a moderate trying to keep his party away from socialistic extremes, while evincing a serious public personality, and a far looser private one. John Russell, 1st Earl Russell (1792-1879) - British Prime Minister. Outer: From a family that had risen in power during Tudor times, and had long established themselves as a leading Whig clan, participating strongly in every English movement for several centuries. Direct descendant of Charles II (Peter O’Toole) through his paternal grandmother. Born prematurely and initially of delicate health. Father was the 6th Duke of Bedford, a Whig politician who once served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Mother was the daughter of a viscount, who died when her youngest son was 9. Had two older brothers, and ten half-siblings from his sire’s second marriage. Briefly educated at Westminster before being taught by tutors. Went to Edinburgh Univ. and did a continental tour, before being elected as a Whig MP for the borough of Tavistock, which was controlled by his family, in 1813, Resigned four years later on health grounds, then returned the following annum. Held a number of seats, including the City of London from 1841 to 1861. Proved a passionate supporter of parliamentary reform, although often found his will thwarted. Helped write the 1832 Great Reform Bill, which increased the voting rolls, after introducing it to Parliament thrice. In 1835, he wed a widow, Adelaide, Lady Ribblesdale, whose husband had died three years earlier. Two daughters from the union, which abruptly ended when his wife passed on in 1838. Three years later he wed Lady Frances Ann-Maria Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, the daughter of an earl. Three sons and a daughter from the second union. Held several cabinet posts including Home Secretary and Leader of the House of Commons in 1835. In 1839, he was appointed Colonial Secretary, and then leader of the Opposition, when Viscount Melbourne’s (Harold Nicholson) Whig party fell in 1841. After the resignation of Conservative MP Robert Peel (Tony Blair) in 1846, he became Prime Minister. Proved ineffectual as a leader, unable to unite a fractious party, or get much of the legislation he wished passed. Able, however, to liberalize trade and limit women’s working hours. Also improved pay for teachers. Forced to resign in 1851 by his Foreign Secretary, Henry John Temple, Lord Palmerston (James Packer). Remained in the cabinet, serving briefly as Foreign Secretary, and then minister without portfolio under the next two PMs, including Palmerston. In 1861, he was created Earl Russell. When Palmerston suddenly died in 1865, he formed a second government, although received no support from his cabinet and the followed year he resigned with little regret, taking no active government posts afterwards, although he continued to attend the House of Lords. Lost his eldest son in 1876, and briefly raised the latter’s two sons, including philosopher Bertrand Russell. Wheelchair bound at life’s end, he died from natural causes. while his wife outlived him by two decades. Wrote essays on his/story and government, as well as a novel and play before his active ministry life. Penned a biography of Charles James Fox (Bob Geldof), as well. Inner: Cerebral and kindly, albeit somewhat out of his depth in the power realm, finding considerable difficulty in actualizing his reformist will. Weak hand upon the tiller lifetime of dealing with a long-lived, albeit fragile constitution, while often struggling to turn his liberal intentions into palpable law. George Grenville (1712-1770) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Father was a Whig MP. Mother was the daughter of a baronet and MP. 2nd of five sons, all of whom sat in Parliament, while his sister married William Pitt the elder (J. William Fulbright) to make for a full Whig house for the family. His parents wanted him to become a lawyer. As such, he was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford before being called to the bar in 1736. In 1741 he was elected as a Whig MP for Buckingham, a pocket borough of his uncle, Richard Viscount Cobham, making him part of the faction known as “Cobham’s Cubs,” which included Pitt the Elder. After Robert Walpole’s (Joschka Fischer) government fell in 1742, he entered the Henry Pelham (Ed Milliband) ministery, In 1749, he married Elizabeth Wyndham, the grand-daughter of the Duke of Somerset, who disapproved of the match and only left her a very small stipend in his will. Four sons and five daughters from the union, including the future PM William Wyndham Grenville (Clement Attlee). After being dismissed from his cabinet post in 1755 by the Duke of Newcastle (Trevor Noah) administration, he returned a year later as Treasurer to the Navy. where he gained a reputation as an expert on procedural matters. In 1761, he was made Leader of the House of Commons. His ally, and the king’s favorite, the Earl of Bute (Eugene McCarthy) firmed a government the following year when Newcastle resigned, and he was made Secretary of State for the Northern Dept. When Bute opened preliminary peace talks with France over their dual continent war, without consulting his cabinet, he opposed him, and wound up demoted to First Lord of the Admiralty, a position he had to take since he had no private income following a break with his brother, Lord Temple, the previous year. After the Peace of Paris was signed, he foolishly supported Bute’s Cider Tax to pay off the national debt, bringing him ridicule. Much to his surprise, Bute asked him to take over the Prime Ministership in 1763, which he did, inheriting much of his cabinet as well as his intractable problems. Introduced a spate of taxes for the American colonies, including the Stamp Act, to pay off the debt, which stirred much resentment there. Had to deal with riots by silk-weavers as well as contumely from the king, George III (Jeffrey Archer0 over removing the name of his queen in the Regency Bill, which was introduced in case the monarch could no longer rule. Asked to resign in 1765 and went into Opposition afterwards, never to hold office again. Opposed all measures of conciliation for the American colonies, as his negative stances lost him more and more credibility as a politician. Suffered from a recurring respiratory illness throughout his life which caused him to leave London for months at a time. Finally succumbed to a blood disorder on the opening day of Parliament. Inner: Self-righteous, intransigent and contradictory with little real thought around the consequences of his actions. Had little sense of finesse, or much political imagination, and was largely ineloquent. Contentious lifetime of ultimately finding himself on the outs for his various stances and personality defects, as a fractious figure unwilling or unable to find common cause with many of his colleagues.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS MIXED-RECORD LEADER:
Storyline: The long-lasting Labourite rises from working-class roots to inherit an economically beleaguered nation, which he is unable to remedy, causing him much consternation despite his ongoing genuine desire to reform and uplift his beloved country.

James Callaghan (Leonard James Callaghan) (1912-2005) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Paternal grandmother was Jewish. Father was Catholic and a Royal Navy Chief Petty Officer of Irish descent, who died suddenly of a heart attack when his son was 9. Mother was a Baptist, a religion he would follow. The younger of two with an older sister. Grew up in poverty, and could not afford university, despite gaining a Senior Oxford Certificate, which made gaining a decent education one of his political passions. Became a clerk for the Inland Revenue at 17. Worked as a tax collector and helped form a trade union for fellow collectors, serving as a member of its national executive board. 6’1”. In 1931, he joined the Labour Party. Five years later, he became a full-time union official, before resigning from his Civil Service duties. in 1938, he wed Audrey Elizabeth Moulton, a fellow Sunday School teacher at their local Baptist church. Two daughters and a son from the union, with the eldest, Margaret, ultimately becoming Leader of the House of Lords from 1998 to 2001. Joined the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve as a seaman in WW II in 1942, and two years later, was elevated to lieutenant. Discharged after TB was discovered, and worked with the admiralty afterwards, writing a service manual entitled “The Enemy Japan.” On leave, he ran for Parliament for Cardiff South, and in the Labour sweep of 1945, won a seat from there that he would hold until 1987. Held several secretarial posts, and was popular with his fellow Labourites, so that he was elected to every shadow cabinet from 1951 to 1964, until Harold Wilson was elected PM. In 1964, as Wilson’s Chancellor of the Exchequer, he decided not to devalue the pound, which proved disastrous economically. Forced to do so three years later and felt obliged to resign. Became Home Secretary afterwards, which helped restore his reputation. Sent troops in 1969 to quell the sectarian violence in North Ireland, initially to protect the Catholic minority. When Wilson resigned unexpectedly, he replaced him as the least divisive candidate. Served as PM from 1976 to 1979, during which time he had to deal with a sterling crisis, while being forced to accept Liberal support when Labour lost its small majority. Able to introduce a number of worker reforms as well as involving the government in the curriculum of state schools, but was damaged by what was known as the “Winter of Discontent” during 1978 over pay policy, as well as double-digit inflation, numerous strikes, the failure of essential services and rising unemployment. After miscalculating on when to call a new election the following annum, he was forced to do so under less propitious circumstances, which the Tories won, ushering in the long Margaret Thatcher era, which came to power under the slogan of “Labour Isn’t Working.” Made a Knight of the Garter the same annum. Resigned his leadership the following year, while insuring MPs alone would dictate his successors, via electoral college reform. Became Father of the House as the longest continuously serving member of Commons. Remained an MP until the 1987 general election, before retiring after 42 years of continuous service, to spend time on his Sussex farm with his family. The same year, he was elevated to the House of Lords as Baron Callaghan of Cardiff. Died of lobar pneumonia, cardiac failure and kidney failure on the eve of his 91st birthday, and eleven days after his wife, ending their 67 year marriage. Ultimately became the longest-living PM. Cremated with his ashes scattered around the base of the Peter Pan statue near the Great Ormond Street Hospital, where his wife had been chair of the board of governors. Penned his autobiography “Time and Chance,” in 1987. Inner: The single figure to hold the highest four positions in the British government, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary, Foreign Secretary and PM. Had difficulty with economic issues, a field over which he had little real grasp, in his serial lessons surrounding leadership, and thought his stint at the top would be ill-remembered. Spoke rarely, but when he did it was usually tellingly. Working-class hero and zero lifetime of ultimately dealing with an arena that he had little expertise in, in his ongoing education surrounding leadership and its many facets. Edward Cardwell, Viscount Caldwell (1813-1886) - British statesman. Outer: Father was a Liverpool merchant. Educated at Winchester and then Balliol College, Oxford, where he received his BA in 1835, his MA in 1838 and his Doctorate of Civil Law in 1863. Called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1838, but had little interest in being a barrister. That same year he married Annie Parker, daughter of a merchant, no children from the union. Entered the House of Commons in 1842 for Clitherow, then switched seats for Liverpool from 1847 to 1852. Held numerous ministerial posts, including president of the Board of Trade and chief secretary for Ireland. From 1864 to 1868 he was secretary of state for the colonies, and inaugurated the policy of withdrawing all imperial troops in times of peace for economic reasons. Created the Colonial Laws Validity Act of 1865, a milestone in imperial constitutional law. in 1868, he became secretary for was under William Gladstone (J. William Fulbright), and as such was considered the greatest British military reformer of the 19th century, with a particular concern for the private soldier. Modernized the organization and equipment of the army, despite strenuous opposition at home, while abolishing flogging in peacetime, and shortening the term of enlistment to six years active duty and six years reserve, helping to create a large well-prepared back-up force. Abolished the purchase of military commissions in 1871, which had allowed rich men and their sons high rank they didn’t deserve, guaranteeing a fighting force based on merit rather than social position, despite almost universal opposition from senior officers. His efforts however, made severe demands on his health. Invested as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1873 and the following year he was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Caldwell of Ellerbeck. Since he had no issue, on his death his title became extinct with him. Inner: Known for a keen and lively intelligence, rather than an imaginative mind. Courteous, tactful and a decent administrator, combining conscientiousness and enthusiasm so as to be a loyal servant of the needs of the empire. Reformist lifetime of elevating the British army to one of merit rather than social position, while trying to avoid the personal mistakes of his previous go-round in this series. William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (1736-1809) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Father was the 2nd Duke of Portland. Mother was an earl’s heiress. Eldest son and third of six children, and the inheritor of estates from his maternal side. Educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, receiving an MA in 1757. Tall, dignified and handsome. Had a brief affair in 1764 with the future wife of the Duke of Gloucester, and the following annum entwined with Anne Liddell, the outrageous;y uninhibited wife of the Duke of Grafton (Matthew Vaughn) causing continual antagonism twixt the two future PMs. Entered the House of Commons as a Whig MP from Weobley in 1761, but, on the death of his sire the following year, he inherited his title and was elevated to the House of Lords, without ever making a speech in Commons. In fact, he rarely spoke in Parliament at all, as an associate of the Whig aristocrats lead by the Marquess of Rockingham (Nelson Rockefeller). In 1765, he was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household, holding that office in the next ministry the following year, at which point he married Lady Dorothy Cavendish, the daughter of the Duke of Devonshire (Hugh Carey), who briefly became PM in 1756, three daughters and four sons from the union. When Grafton rose in power, he found his position untenable and resigned, and spent the next 18 years in parliamentary Opposition. During this period he became involved in a long legal battle over lands in Carlisle. Despite ultimately having the case decided in his favor in 1776 he was virtually bankrupt because of legal costs. To add to his problems, he had to pay an exorbitant rent to live at his mother’s property, and eventually had to sell land to keep himself financially afloat In 1782, he became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the second Rockingham administration, only to see the latter die later that year. Resigned his post but became the leader of the Rockinghamites via election. Appointed nominal prime minister in 1783, only to run afoul of George III (Jeffrey Archer) who dismissed his ministry later that year. Went into Opposition and remained so until 1794, while being deeply disturbed by the French Revolution, and anything and anyone who smacked of radicalism in the UK. During that time he was appointed Chancellor of Oxford Univ. but refused the Order of the Garter, and also served as president of London’s Foundling Hospital, a fashionable charity which dealt with abandoned children in London. Distanced himself from the Foxite Whigs, and the same year accepted the post of Home Secretary in Pitt the Younger’s (J. William Fulbright) government. That year there were food riots because of grain shortages and, in sympathy, he refused to eat any breads made of more than a minimum amount of wheat. The following annum he arranged for substantial number of troops stationed outside London to quell further social unrest. When he appointed a friend as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and the latter announced that Catholics should be given full equality of rights, he recalled him, which left the Irish feeling betrayed by him. In 1800, he tried to get an act of union with Ireland passed, only to run into opposition form the king. Remained in office, while moving to the post of Lord President of the Council, which caused him serious financial problems because of the lower income for the second position. Finally retired after Pitt’s death in 1806. In March of that year, he underwent major abdominal surgery to have kidney stones removed. The following annum he was asked to become Prime Minister again, insisting he was still a Whig, despite heading a Tory government. The 24 years between his two prime ministerial terms would remain a record. Aged and infirm at this juncture, he was largely a figurehead the second time around. Called for and won general election, then left his ministers to do what they wanted, including fighting a celebrated duel between two of them, George Canning (Chris Patten) and Robert Castlereagh (David Cameron), which his misguidance was partially responsible for. Never spoke in Parliament during his second ministry, as a hands-off leader, and wound up with a completely divided and dysfunctional cabinet. Resigned soon afterwards, and had an apoplectic seizure, dying soon afterwards. Inner: Hardworking, charitable and a good organizer, albeit overshadowed by more charismatic personalities. Ultimately held every title short of prince, as a duke, marquess, earl, viscount and baron. Limited in his leadership abilities, which he would address by being a reformer in subsequent go-rounds. Loose hand on the tiller lifetime of being thrust into a leadership role without the inherent skills to be one, a failing he would try to deal with in his subsequent delvings into the realm of power politics.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS HIGHLY CEREBRAL STEWARD:
Storyline: The sapient socialist comes to power during a time of great economic stress, and manages to steer clear of numerous obstacles, before finally being forced from office through the sheer dint of the non-stop crises facing him.

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx (1916-1995) - British Prime Minister. Outer: From a lower middle-class family. Second son. of an industrial chemist. who was active in Liberal and Labour politics. Mother had earlier been a schoolteacher. Showed early brilliance in the classroom, winning a county scholarship to secondary school, then a his/story scholarship to Jesus College, Oxford, where he spent most of his time on his studies. Short and plumpish. Won several academic prizes, and gained a first-class honors degree, while winning elected to a junior research fellowship at Univ. College. Worked with his master, William Beveridge, in a study of unemployment and gradually became a convinced socialist. In 1940, he married Gladys Mary Baldwin, a Congregationalist minister’s daughter, at which point he began considering a political rather than academic career. Two sons from the union, which was colored by his wife’s dislike of politics. Drafted into civil service at the outset of WW II, he became director of economics and statistics at the Ministry of Fuel and Power, before being chosen as secretary of an inquiry into the coal mining industry, which led to his penning “New Deal For Coal,” a minor classic on the nationalization of coal. The book led to his Parliamentary career, beginning in 1945, with a change in seats in 1950 because of redistribution, which he held until his retirement in 1983. Rose rapidly via Labour Party posts, and at the age of 31, joined the Atlee cabinet as president of the Board of Trade, as one of the youngest ever to hold such a position. Removed hundred of controls covering consumer goods, industrial equipment and foreign supply purchases, which played well with the press and public, although some of the backbenchers felt he was a right-winger in socialist sheep’s clothing. Resigned in protest from the government in 1951 over the budget, and co-authored a pamphlet, “One Way Only,” a socialist argument against revisionist politics, as the Tories came to power. Joined the shadow cabinet as an effective chancellor, while hovering between moderate left and moderate right, and winning party distrust as an opportunist. When Labour Party head Hugh Gaitskell suddenly died in 1963, he replaced him, and via adroit speech-making around the socialist alternative to mismanaged Tory rule, he barely won the 1964 elections as Prime Minister, by five seats. Forced to deal with continuous economic crises, but managed a better plurality in 1966, before a seaman’s strike made things considerably worse, with inflation running amok and crisis the mode of the day, including a devaluation of the pound in 1967. A variety of stances, such as ceding to trade union powers, and his failed foreign policies, led to the fall of his government in 1970. Took him quite a while to retain his confidence afterwards, while holding the Labour Party together amidst tensions and potential splits over a variety of issues. Knew instinctively how to find compromise formulas and retook the reins of government from Edward Heath in 1974, despite not expecting to win, in what was far more of a loss for the Conservatives than a win for him. Managed four governments all told, winning four of five general elections, before finally resigning in 1976, shortly after his 60th birthday. Not given the customary peerage after leaving office as a PM, since he wished to remain an MP, although was relatively quiet as such. After the 1983 election, he was finally created Baron Wilson of Rievaulx. Died from colon cancer and Alzheimer’s, and his epitaph read “Tempus Imperator Rerum” or “Time the Commander of All Things.” Inner: Highly intelligent with a natural gift for public life and a committed social view which he expostulated upon in print. Had an innate sense of decency, as well as a tendency to drift, although was able to make Labour a natural party of government and maintain some sense of unity within it. Often photographed with a pipe in his mouth, and wished to be seen as a man of the people. Highbrow lifetime of bringing his acute intelligence to bear on Labour politics, as its cerebral shepherd through difficult economic times, in a mixed-bag go-round, testing both his powers of analysis and his leadership skills. Sir William Harcourt (William George Granville Venable Vernon Harcourt) (1827-1904) - British politician, lawyer and journalist. Outer: From a long line connected to the great houses of England. Paternal grandfather was the Archbishop of York. Second son of a minister and the daughter of a colonel. Had an unhappy childhood in a Tory household. Educated at home by a Swiss governess, then went to a private school at 8, before being tutored in the classics, since his father denied him a public school education. Went to Trinity College, Cambridge, as a mathematics major, which he soured on and graduated with first-class honors in the classics. Began writing in support of the Liberal Party, and although his father wished a political career for him, he opted for the law and journalism. Entered Lincoln’s Inn and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1854. Quickly established himself as a speaker of note, while writing for the Saturday Review, as a liberal follower of William Gladstone (J. William Fulbright). in 1859, he married Maria Theresa Lister, daughter of a novelist, two sons from the union, which ended with his wife’s death in childbirth in 1863. Practiced railway law, and was an outspoken proponent for Britain’s neutrality in the American Civil War, while condemning public sympathy for the Confederate States. Served as a Queen’s Counsel in 1866, and three years later, became a professor of international law, at the Univ. of Cambridge. in 1868, he entered the House of Commons as a Liberal member for Oxford, and was made solicitor general and knighted in 1873, ultimately serving in various ministerial cabinets for five Prime Ministers, including Home Secretary, only to be defeated for the post by a corrupt opponent. Married Elizabeth Cabot Motley, the daughter of an American his/storian in 1876, in a second union for both of them, having both lost their first spouses. One son from the union, Robert, who became a diplomat, playwright and Liberal Party politician. A firm believer in law and order, he came into conflict with Irish MPs, while inheriting leadership of the Liberal Party on Gladstone’s retirement in 1894, and the fall of the latter’s successor, Archibald Primrose, 5th earl of Rosebery (Jeffrey Archer), with whom he was often in disagreement, the following annum. Served as a representative for Derby until another defeat in 1895, at which point, he switched seats and continued his career as a Parliamentarian. Briefly the head of the Liberal Party from 1896 to 1898, when it was out of power, and remained a strong critic of imperialistic policy. Instituted the death tax on wealthy landowners, which would come back to haunt him, after he inherited a family estate from his nephew and suddenly found himself in financial arrears because of the tax. Found dead in bed by a servant after announcing he would not run again for Parliament. His wife would subsequently outlive him by nearly a quarter of a century. Inner: Excellent debater, using humor to good verbal advantage, although his intellectuality caused the public to view him as aloof and emotionally not engaged in the various causes he espoused. Largely disillusioned by the end of his career with the whole political process. From the head rather than the heart lifetime of using his considerable intellect in service of Liberal politics, while ultimately being thwarted from his desire for the prime ministership, which he would redress his next time around in this series. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (1621-1683) - British politician. Outer: From a wealthy gentry background, with his progenitor a baronet and Parliamentarian. The oldest of three, with a brother and sister. Lost his mother at the age of 7 and his father, who had remarried, when he was 10. Brought up by guardians specified in his sire’s will, although he lost part of his inherited estate to his father’s considerable gambling debts, along with machinations around them by the Court of Wards, although still had sufficient lands and connections to allow him an ultimate career in politics. Inherited his father’s baronetcy and attended Exeter College, Oxford, although left without degree after fomenting a minor riot there. Also was educated at Lincoln’s Inn, although never practiced law. In 1639, he wed Margaret Spencer, the daughter of the king’s lord keeper, and moved to London to live with her family. At the same he was elected to the Short Parliament during the contentious days leading up to the English Civil War, but he was not allowed to assume his seat in the Long Parliament. Eventually took up arms for the king in 1643, before siding with the Parliamentarians, because of his anti-Catholic sentiments, and his feeling they were becoming too predominant in the royalist cause. ill health deterred his military activities and his subsequent affairs from 1645 to 1652 were largely focused on his private commercial interests, with a sugar plantation in Barbados. In 1650, following his first wife’s death, he wed Lady Frances Cecil, the earl of Exeter’s sister. One son from the union, who became the 2nd earl of Shaftesbury, as well as a daughter who died at 19. Despite opposing the regicide of the king in 1649, he was able to return to Parliament in 1653, after convincing its more conservative members to support Oliver Cromwell (Robert Kennedy) and the creation of a Commonwealth. Received an appointment to the Council of State through those efforts, and was elected to Parliament in 1654. A widower once again in 1654, he also fell out with the Cromwell administration, finding it far too militaristic for his tastes. In 1655, he wed Margaret Spencer, the niece of the earl of Southampton, a royalist, although gave no indication he was interested in a restoration of the crown to a royal head. In 1653, he was one of 8 lords given a huge tract of land in North America, which eventually became the province of Carolina. Following the death of Cromwell in 1658, he was one of 12 commissioners sent to Holland to retrieve Charles II (Peter O’Toole) back to England, and became a member of the King’s Privy Council at his Restoration. Held various offices for the next 13 years, while being elevated to Earl of Shaftesbury in 1672. Blocked from high office because of his earlier equivocations, although eventually he became lord chancellor the same year he was made an earl. Enjoyed the company of philosopher John Locke (G.E. Moore) as a household guest during this period, and with him later penned the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina. Sympathized with Protestant non-conformists, while harboring strong anti-Catholic sentiments, and because of them, was ultimately dismissed by Charles when he refused to support his brother James’s (Martin Sheen) marriage to Mary of Modena (Demi Moore). Political enemy of the future 1st earl of Danby (Edward Heath) all during this time. Became a contrarian, opposing Charles’s policies, and when Titus Oates (Ann Coulter) came forth with a bogus Popish Plot in 1678, purportedly to put James on the throne, after assassinating Charles, he took full advantage of the ensuing chaos, in order to pass the Exclusion Bill, which would have prevented James’s’ succession. The bill was rejected in the House of Lords, and he lost both power and support because of it. In 1681, he was remanded to the Tower of London on suspicion of high treason. The government’s case against him, however, was weak, and the charges were dropped. Wanted an uprising, while mulling the possibility of assassinating both Charles and John, which came to no avail. Having no other recourse, he fled the country, as his health deteriorated markedly. After drawing up a will, he died soon afterwards, broken and defeated. His body was shipped back to England, and he was buried in the village of Dorset. Inner: Highly intelligent, charming, charismatic and cultivated with a philosophical bent. An opportunist, with strong religious prejudices, which would ultimately undo him. Defender of the rule of law, and believer in Arianism, or the tenet that the prophet Jesus was a lesser figure than God the father. Individuated all he did, feeling what was expedient for him must be expedient for the nation at large as well. The political as personal lifetime of transitioning from a relatively liberal upholder of law to a rabid anti-Catholic, as a high-minded figure mired in base ambitions, making for a conflicted character destined ultimately for a bad end.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS SELF-REMADE MAN:
Storyline: The crypto-aristo rises from a humble station to reclaim the high office that he had earlier thrice held, while stripping himself of his earlier superficialities, to become a far stiffer and more focused, albeit less effective, version of himself.
Edward Heath
(1916-2005) - British politician. Outer: From a working-class background. Father was a carpenter, who became a master-builder, and a successful small businessman. Mother was a maid. One younger brother. Known as ‘Ted’ or ‘Teddy’ when he was younger. From his teens onward, he conducted Christmas carol concerts in Kent, until the near end of his life. Did not attend Britain’s prestigious public schools, but won a county scholarship, which enabled him to study at Balliol College, Oxford. A talented organist, he won the school’s organ scholarship, and eventually graduated in 1939 with secondary majors in philosophy, politics and economics. Deliberately Oxfordized his accent, making for a strange amalgam of his native Kentish with faux upper class speech patterns, although his vowels would always betray his true origins. Reshaped his sense of style and culture as well, in a deliberate attempt at totally remaking himself into an emblem of furled umbrella Tory conservatism. Despite an awkward sense of sociality, he was elected President of the school’s Conservative Assoc., then became Secretary and finally Librarian of the Oxford Union. Held other college offices as well, while showing himself to be a maverick in his support and criticism of a variety of governmental policies, including his naysaying to its appeasement of Adolf Hitler’s obvious continental ambitions. Won a scholarship to Gray’s Inn, in preparation for a career in the law, but WW II changed his plans. Traveled widely in Europe during his undergraduate days, getting a firsthand look at Nazism, which appalled him, and was on a debating tour of the U.S., when WW II broke out. Commissioned in the Royal Artillery, he ultimately rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel, and then remained active in the reserves into the 1950s. Became a civil servant in the Ministry of Civil Aviation, but resigned in 1947, to focus on a political career. After serving as an editor and a banker, he was elected to Parliament in 1950 by a scant 133 votes. Made Opposition Whip the following year, he ultimately became Chief party Whip under Anthony Eden in 1955. Helped secure the premiership for Harold Macmillan after Eden’s resignation in 1957, and later served as his Minister of Labour, following the Conservative’s success in the elections of 1959. Made Lord Privy Seal the following annum, although failed to gain England a place in the continent’s Common Market, which ultimately cost him the party leadership on Macmillan’s retirement in 1963. Held several positions under the latter’s successor, Alex Douglas-Home, and after his party’s losses in the 1964 elections, he emerged as its leader in 1965, holding that position for a decade, while serving as a distinct anomaly from the aristocrats who had formally led them. An active yachtsman, he bought his first yacht in 1969, and won a race in that year, before captaining Britain’s winning Admiral Cup team in 1971. Gained the Prime Ministership in 1970, in an upset, but failed to convincingly fill his office, thanks to all the problems of the time. Took on the militant trade unions to ill effect, and did little to curtail welfare spending. Noticeably ill-at-ease in crowds and bone dry in manner, he did little to impress the press, as well. Northern Ireland proved a bloody blot on his record, with the Troubles there at a violent zenith, although he was able to gain entrance for Britain into the Common Market. Installed a grand piano at 10 Downing Street, and was a great supporter of the performing arts, proving far more effective as a cultural maven than a political leader. Also served as a conductor for a variety of European orchestras throughout his career. Resigned in 1974, and a minority Labour government headed by Harold Wilson succeeded him. The following year, he lost his position as head of the highly vulnerable Conservative Party to Margaret Thatcher, although he continued to remain active in politics, particularly international venues. Wrote books on sailing, music and travels, as well as an autobiography, The Course of My Life, which took 14 years and was published in 1998, although allegedly did not pay many of his ghostwriters. A lifelong bachelor, with no known partners, his sexuality eventually became a subject of much speculation, although he was probably just asexual. Had originally been intended for a childhood friend, who eventually got tired of waiting for him and married another in the early 1950s. Continued to serve as a backbencher, until his final retirement from politics in 2001. Suffered a pulmonary embolism in 2003 in Austria, and never fully recovered from it, spending his last two years in deep decline. Died of pneumonia, and left an estate worth some £5 million. Inner: Shrewd, albeit decidedly uncharismatic, and always distant, with an inability for intimate friendship. A good administrator, and very conscious of class distinctions, expertly remaking himself into a sleek, immaculately tailored and slightly haughty, self-contained version of who he wished to be. Also remained conscious of his roots, and unembarrassed by them. Self-made lifetime of subordinating everything to his career, while keeping his passions under check in order to try to re-harness his powers more effectively from a far humbler base. Edward Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley) (1799-1869) - British Prime Minister. Outer: From a family of wealthy Whig land-owning magnates, who dated back to Tudor times. His father was the 13th earl, while his mother was the daughter of a reverend, and the two were loosely related as cousins. Eldest of 7 children. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, although he did not take his degree, preferring to travel instead to Canada and the United States. During his stay at university, he won the Latin verse prize for his poem, “Syracuse.” Handsome with aquiline features and stylish, although largely a creature of surfaces, who well understood the power of making a good impression. Entered Parliament as a constitutional Whig in 1822, and 2 years later made his maiden speech, showing himself to be a deft orator. In 1825, he married Emma Caroline Bootle-Wilbraham, the daughter of a baron, two sons and a daughter from the union. Held minor offices, and when the Whigs returned to power in 1830, he became Chief Secretary for Ireland, where he championed education, before joining Lord Grey’s cabinet the following year. Lost an election, but was soon reinstated, when a vacancy was created elsewhere for him. In 1833, he was made Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, where he promoted emancipation for all slaves in the British colonies, which passed the following year, although he resigned his post soon afterwards, and formed his own group, dubbed the Derby Dilly, which tried to chart a middle course between the radicalism of the Whig Prime Minister and Tory conservatism, although they were co-opted by Robert Peel’s (Tony Blair) turn toward the center, and they gradually merged with his Conservative Party. Officially became a Conservative in 1837, and served as Colonial Secretary for Peel’s 2nd government in 1841. Broke with Peel over the repeal of the controversial Corn Laws, and managed to gain control of the party with the move. An inveterate gambler, with a stable of racehorses, he was also an enthusiastic whist and billiards player, as well as an all-around sportsman, and member in good standing of the Jockey Club. In 1851, he succeeded to his father’s title, becoming the 14th Earl of Derby. The following year he formed the first of his three governments, a minority affair, following the collapse of the Whigs, although was forced to appoint many new men to office, in what would become known as the “Who? Who? Ministry,” following the Duke of Wellington’s loud questioning of each new man named, including a young Benjamin Disraeli (Alastair Reynolds), who was erroneously long thought to be the core player behind each of his governments. An isolationist at heart, he was unable to gain a parliamentary majority, and his ministry soon collapsed. Formed his second minority government in 1858, which lasted only a year, although it brought India under direct control of Britain following the termination of the British East India Company’s rule there. Formed his third and final ministry in 1866, which expanded British suffrage, although he was forced to retire in 1868, because of ill health and handed over the reigns of government to Disraeli. A highly effective orator, although he disliked the routines of office, which curtailed his leadership abilities. Nevertheless, his 22 years at the helm of the Conservative Party would prove a record, and he is looked on as the progenitor of its modern incarnation. Despite serving on three different occasions as Prime Minister, he disliked the routines of office. Became stouter and sloppier with age, and died soon after his final ministry. His last words were reportedly, that he was “bored to utter extinction.” Inner: Highly competitive, and to the manner born, a figure of both his class and age. Aloof behind his facile surface, save for his close equals. Also occasionally boisterous and undignified. Had a beautiful tenor voice, although not much of an interest in music. Good scholar and passionate sportsman. Had no settled convictions, and often changed loyalties. Haut aristocratic lifetime of easy access to power, before returning in far humbler and drier form in order to try to remake himself on his own into the powerhouse he has always wished to be. Thomas Osbourne, 1st earl of Danby, marquis of Carmarthan and 1st duke of Leeds (1632-1712) - British statesman. Outer: Of Scottish and English descent. Father was a Yorkshire royalist landowner and baronet. Mother had been widow when she married him. Raised in the country and shared his sire’s strong royalist sentiments. Had no formal education, but rather, was instructed by a tutor who taught him French. Succeeded to his sire’s title and estates on his progenitor’s death in 1647. Four years later, he married Bridget Bertie, the daughter of the 2nd earl of Lindsey. Two sons and six daughters from the union. Was not involved in the fighting in the English Civil War, and did not become active in politics until Charles II (Peter O’Toole) was restored to the throne in 1660. Held local posts in Yorkshire before becoming an MP in 1665. Won the patronage of the 2nd Duke of Buckingham (Alastair Reynolds), who had been a neighbor of his, and became treasurer of the Royal Navy in 1668 and lord treasurer of England in 1673. Able to stabilize the government’s finances, and was made the king’s Chief Minister, while earning the title of earl of Danby in 1674. Used crown patronage and bribery to build a conservative court party in Parliament, while renewing prosecutions of Catholics and dissenters, and holding France in bitter competitive contempt. Political enemy of the liberal 1st earl of Shaftesbury (Harold Wilson) who he was able to continually outmaneuver. Engineered a marriage in 1677 between Princess Mary (Ladybird Johnson), the king’s niece and William of Orange (Lyndon Johnson) the stadholder of Holland, France’s most bitter enemy on the continent, thereby insuring the latter’s succession to the throne in lieu of the king’s Catholic-leaning brother, the future James II (Martin Sheen). A secret subsidy from the French king, per Charles’s wish in his hidden alternative policy, was made public, and he was immediately impeached and remanded to the Tower of London,in 1679, where he remained for five years. Well after his release, he returned to politics in 1688, and he and six others invited William to invade England and seize power from James II in what would be known as the Glorious Revolution. Able to raise support in his native Northern England and helped persuade Parliament to make William and Mary joint sovereigns, despite wishing Mary to be sole ruler. By 1690, he was chief minister of the new regime, and, as such, was able to counterbalance the various feuding factions of the new court over the next four years. Made 1st duke of Leeds in 1694, but the following year, he was impeached by Parliament for taking a bribe from the East India Company. His influence steadily declined afterwards, and in 1699, he was deprived of all his offices. Nevertheless, he continued to take an active part in politics, thanks to a loyal following among the orthodox Protestant religious figures he had earlier championed. Lost his wife in 1704, while continuing to speak out in controversial cases, to the point of putting his name forward in 1711 for the office of Lord Privy Seal. Died the following year and was succeeded to his title by his second son, Peregrine. Inner: Had an excellent instinct for power, and little inhibition in using every means possible to attain it. Manipulative and opportunistic, with a genuine concern for maintaining the Protestant integrity of the crown. His family coat of arms read, “Pax in bello,” or peace in (the midst of) war, a perfect reflection of his own often contradictory character. Grasping lifetime of power gained, power lost, power gained and power lost again in a never-ending dance around influence, which would engage him all the way to the end of his long and highly colorful career.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS LONGTIME TORY TURNED LABOUR LEADER:
Storyline: The ever-changing channel moves from prime ministerial mediator to paternalistic imperialist to Opposition overseer in his ongoing need to give relevant reflection to his ever-changing times.

Neil Kinnock, Baron Kinnock (1942) - Welsh politician. Outer: Father was a former coal miner turned laborer, mother was a district nurse. An only child, he lost both his parents within a month of each other in 1971. Received his secondary education in a Welsh school that used caning as a means of punishment. Graduated from the Univ. College of South Wales and Mounmouthshire with a degree in industrial relations and history in 1965, before getting a postgraduate diploma in education the following annum. Worked as a tutor for a workers’ education association over the next four years. Married Glenys Parry in 1967, whom he had met at school. Son and daughter from the union, while she would go on to ultimately become a Labour politician herself, after working as a teacher. Elected an MP for the Bedwelty in Wales, one of the safest Labour seats in the UK. Campaigned against the devolution of Wales, claiming it had no real identity, and the motion was rejected. Never held a cabinet post, although after Labour’s defeat in the 1979 election, he was appointed an education spokesman in the shadow cabinet. Attacked Margaret Thatcher’s Falkland island warmongering, and in 1983, he became Labour Party leader, the first welshman ever to hold the post. Although he had left-wing sympathies, he was forced to struggle with those more radical than he, with a desire to move the party more to the center-left, which cost him many allies along the way. Wound up as the longest-standing leader of the Opposition ever, holding that position until 1992, although was unable to alter the popular image of the party as one of extremist views. His stance against nuclear weapons also saw the public feeling the UK would be better defended by the Conservative. Future American vice-president Joe Biden, then running for the presidency, plagiarized one of his speeches, which briefly augmented his reputation. Tried to get the public involved in policy with a drive known as “Labour Listens,” and in 1988, withstood a challenge to his leadership, which saw him gain more support, as Labour dominated local by-elections. Helped bring down Margaret Thatcher in 1990 with his debating skills, only to see his standing in the opinion polls lowered with John Major’s election to PM. Following Labour’s 4th consecutive defeat that year, he resigned as leader and then three years later from the House of Commons to become one of the UK’s two members on the European Commission, after earlier hosting a talk show, as well as appearing on a topical panel show in an attempt to become a media personality. Ultimately served as Vice-President of the European Commission from 1999 to 2004, winning the enmity of many for his salary cuts as response to budget cuts. In 2005 he was created Baron Kinnock of Bedwelty, which gave him entry to the House of Lords, despite being a longtime critic of the upper house. In 2009, his wife was made a life peer, making the duo one of the few couples to have earned titles in their own right. Also served as Chairman of the British Council and President of Cardiff Univ. until 2009. Inner: Noisy extrovert, both affectionate and emotional. An agnostic and atheist as well as an effective speaker, albeit thin-skinned, thanks to serving as a continual target of tabloids, right-wingers and those to the left of him. Inspired alternate views of himself as a party betrayer as well as a savior depending on the point of view of his critics and supporters. Great believer in the importance of education. Loud lifetime of mixed accomplishments in an unusual career that saw him as steward of a faction-rid party without ever holding a ministerial post, while inspiring an extremely dualistic view of his accomplishments or lack of said-same. Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon (Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert) (1831-1890) - British politician. Outer: Eldest of two brothers of the 3rd Earl of Carnarvon. Mother was niece of the 12th Duke of Norfolk. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. Succeeded to the earldom at the end of 1849 on the death of his sire. Entered the House of Lords in 1854 as a Conservative with progressive leanings. Initially worked on penal reform, as a magistrate, showing himself to be quite severe in his treatment of prisoners. Became parliamentary under-secretary at the Colonial Office, in 1858, which began his long connection with colonial policy. Made himself an expert in that realm, believing the Britain had a humanitarian duty towards indigenous populations, wile feeling self-government and self-reliance were imperative for the empire’s colonies as well. In 1861 he wed Evelyn Stanhope, the daughter of an earl. One son and three daughters from the union, with his son succeeding to his title. His central purpose became the building of close relations between Britain and its colonies and the organization of imperial defense, since he saw intense competition between the UK and its fellow European empires. As an imperial nationalist, he wished constitutional relations between the mother country and its colonies, and as such, he introduced the British North America bill in 1867, which helped establish the Dominion of Canada as a confederation. Made a member of the Privy Council the previous year, although resigned in protest over the enfranchisement of the working class. Served two terms as secretary of state for the colonies, with the second running from 1874 to 1878, in which he annexed Fiji and brought the Pacific area colonies into the general military system of the empire. Rejected Australia’s claims to New Guinea for reasons of expense, while continuing to encourage self-government there. Lost his wife in 1875 and three years later, he wed his first cousin, Elizabeth Howard. Two sons from the second union. After his retirement, he was made chairman of the royal commission on colonial defense in 1879, where he gathered much important information in that regard over the next three years, although the liberal Gladstone (J. William Fulbright) administration refused to act on it. In 1885 he was made lord lieutenant of Ireland, but resigned soon afterwards, ending his public career. In 1887, he toured the colonial empire as a private citizen. Passed away three years later and his second wife wound up surviving him by almost four decades. Inner: Had the nickname of “Twitters” because of nervous tics. Highly cultured and a freemason, serving as grandmaster of the Grand Lodge of England the last 16 years of his life. Imperialist to the core lifetime of working on strengthening the empire in response to other European powers, as a genuine believer in the benign power of the UK in its dealings with lesser polities within its grasp, as if it were a parent looking after the best interests of its children. Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool (Robert Banks Jenkinson) (1770-1828) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Maternal grandmother was part-Indian. Only child of the first Earl of Liverpool and his first wife. Lost his mother a month after he was born. Had a half-brother and half-sister from his father’s second marriage. After attending Charterhouse, he got an MA at Christ Church College, Oxford in 1790. Visited France the previous year and witnessed the fall of the Bastille, which would have a strong effect on him. After getting his degree he did a continental tour. Spoke both Latin and French fluently. Elected a liberal Tory MP for Rye in 1790, but was underage and did not take his seat until the following year. Took another continental tour, carefully observing conditions in the wake of French upheaval as a private citizen. In 1795, he wed Louisa Hervey, who was three years older and daughter of an eccentric esthete bishop and earl. No children from the happy union. Earlier, in 1793, he was appointed to the Board of Control for India. Three years later his father was elevated to the peerage as Earl of Liverpool, while he took the courtesy title of Lord Hawkesbury until his sire’s death in 1808, when he became the 2nd Earl, after being elevated himself in his own right in 1803. Became leader of the House of Lords, after holding several important posts, including Foreign Secretary from 1801 to 1804 and Home Secretary on two occasions, from 1804 to 1806 and 1807 to 1809. While Pitt the Younger (Al Sharpton) was seriously ill, he took charge of his government. When Pitt died in 1806, the king, George III (Jeffrey Archer) wanted him to replace him, but he declined. Remained leader of the Opposition during the brief ministry of George Grenville (Hugh Gaitskell), the only time during his career he did not hold government office. In 1809, he accepted the post of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. Following the assassination of Spencer Percival (Joseph Campbell) he reluctantly became Prime Minister, after the king’s first four choices declined the office. Wound up serving until 1827, while allowing his cabinet officers to conduct their affairs without his undue interference, so that he played a mediatory role with them. Both the War of 1812 with the US and the Napoleonic wars were fought during his tenure. After the latter’s defeat in 1814, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Introduced the new Corn Laws, which favored British growers, the following annum, while failing to allay the discontent of workers during the great changes of the decade. Suppressed any movement that smacked of potential revolution, including censorship and the banning of all potential seditious meetings. Strengthened the monetary system by restoring the gold standard in 1819, while insisting all appointments be made on merit rather than influence. Britain enjoyed a period of economic prosperity after the upheaval of the teens, although speculation on stocks and share soon drained the reserves of the Bank of England, precipitating another financial crises. Lost his wife in 1821, and was quite shattered, which had an effect on his own health, manifesting as phlebitis. The following annum he wed Mary Chester, a longtime close friend who was slightly older than he. Wanted to retire but wasn’t allowed to, when the Catholic Emancipation bill was passed in Commons. Suffered a cerebral hemorrhage, which made him both a mental and physical invalid and officially resigned from office in 1827. Died the following annum, after two more strokes. His passing elicited little attention and he was quietly buried in a family vault beside his father and first wife. Inner: Conscientious and capable, although heavily influenced by a fear of radicalism and revolution. Sincere and tolerant Anglican. First prime minister to wear long trousers instead of knee breeches and the first not to wear his hair in a queue, but rather cut short. Didn’t seem to have an existence outside his official life. Able to blend in with the background, so was really little known by the public-at-large. Subtle leadership lifetime of shepherding of Great Britain through an extremely parlous period, as a mediator rather than a dynamic overseer. in his playing with many different roles as a means of reflecting the realities of each of the eras he has served.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS ONE SHADE OF GRAY LEADER:
Storyline: The mild-mannered PM rises from extremely modest circumstances to try to make his political mark, only to be ultimately seen as an interim figure at best rather than a major leader per the promise of his name
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John Major (1943) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Mother was a dancer and father was a circus and musical hall performer whose original name was Ball. His sire ultimately had a garden ornament business, and was 64 at the birth of his son. Youngest of three children, with an older sister and brother, he grew up in extremely strained circumstances after his progenitor lost his savings in bad business dealings. Forced to leave school at 16, he worked as a clerk in an insurance brokerage firm, as well as did construction jobs, while also living part-time on the dole. 6’ and bespectacled. Had an early interest in politics and took some correspondence courses in the British Constitution, Mathematics and Economics, after earlier studying his/story and literature. In his late teens, he got a a job with Standard Chartered Bank and gradually worked his way up, while also briefly in the employ of the London Electricity Board in 1963, a position his successor Tony Blair also held. Sent to work in Nigeria in 1967 and almost died in a car accident there. One his return, he eventually became chairman of the Lambeth Housing Committee. Fell under the tutelage of Jean Kierans, a divorcee 13 years his senior, who became both his lover and mentor and helped him with his image, as well as larger view of the world. In 1970, he married a teacher, Norma Johnson, who had lost her father at 3 in a motorcycle accident, and subsequently used her mother’s maiden name. One daughter and one son from the union, which saw her keep a low profile during her husband’s highly public life. Began his political career running for Parliament in 1974, only to lose his initial foray, after giving soap-box speeches in Brixton Market. It was later revealed he had a four year extramarital affair with Edwina Currie, which, if it had been made public, would have destroyed any chance of his becoming Prime Minister. In 1979 he was elected MP as a Conservative from Huntingdon, and quickly rose through the ranks, winning the favor of PM Margaret Thatcher. Held several treasury posts, then in 1989 was made Foreign Secretary, before becoming Chancellor of the Exchequer and the country’s chief financial minister. On Thatcher’s resignation in 1990, he succeeded her as party head and Prime Minister. Presided over the country’s participation in the Gulf War in 1991, and negotiated the Maastrict Treaty afterwards. Won the most votes in British electoral his/story in the 1992 general election, although with a reduced majority in Commons. Had to deal with an economic recession and a resistance to tax increases, which led to a loss of faith in the government’s economic programs and his own dip in the opinion polls. Also worked on preparing the UK’s entry into the European Union, despite internal Opposition, including Thatcher’s. Several sleazy scandals concerning cabinet ministers, as well as MPs further tarnished his stewardship. Resigned as party leader in 1995 and asked for a special parliamentary vote for leadership. As a result he was able to win reelection. Two years later, however, Labour replaced him with Tony Blair, in a huge electoral defeat for the Conservatives. Continued to serve in Parliament, before retiring in 2001. Two years later, he was knighted. Served as president of a cricket club, thanks to a great love of the sport, and also worked with the Carlyle Group, a global asset management firm, as a member of their European advisory Board until 2004. The author of three best-sellers, in 1999, he penned his autobiography, followed by a his/story of cricket, and in 2012, wrote a second memoir about his father and his family’s connection to music hall culture. A prolific after-dinner speaker, as well as president of the influential center-right think tank, the Bow Group. Inner: Calm and affable, mild-mannered and moderate, albeit largely seen as a weak leader, who would have no lasting effect on British politics. Largely invisible man lifetime of failing to put any lasting mark on his time as PM and party leader, after rising from extremely modest circumstances, and ultimately proving to be no more than a modest stopgap figure. Frederick Robinson, 2nd Marquess of Ripon (1782-1859) - British politician. Outer: Father was George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (Piers Morgan). Only son and only surviving child. Grandfather had been a Prime Minister. At 7, he was styled as Viscount Goderich, holding that title until 1871, after which he was known as Lord de Grey for most of his life. Educated at Eton. Part of the British commission sent to Washington, under his sire’s direction to settle the claims against the British ship Alabama in 1871 of firing on American merchant ships during the American Civil War. In 1874, he entered Parliament for Ripon, holding that seat until 1880 as a Liberal. In 1885, he wed an earl’s widow, Constance Gwladys Herbert, daughter of a baron, and a patron of the arts, as well as a writer herself. No children from the union. May also have fathered a son and daughter by a servant, who ultimately wound up in a workhouse. Together with his wife, he helped in the renaissance of the Royal Opera in the 1890s. Because of his friendship with the future king Edward VII (Prince William), he was appointed Treasurer to Queen Alexandra (Princess Diana) in 1901 and the same year was made a Knight of the Royal Victorian Order. In 1909. he succeeded his father, to become the 2nd Marquess of Ripon. Seen as the greatest shot of the pre-WW I era, he bagged some 556,000 birds in his life, as well as anything else that was furred or feathered within his deadly scope. Lost his wife in 1917, and six years later, collapsed and died on his grouse moor, after killing a host of birds. His title went extinct with him. Inner: Astute businessman, and connoisseur of the arts, as well as an artist himself. Sportsman lifetime of dabbling in a host of arenas, with his ultimate legacy his shooting abilities before returning in more serious form in order to apply himself more fully to the political life of his country.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS THE LAST STRAW:
Storyline: The.illiberal labourite is forced to serially deal with traumatic childhoods as a means of rediscovering and redefining himself in the unblinking eye of public lile as he internalizes the depression/Depression he was completely ill-prepared for.

Jack Straw (John Whitaker Straw) (1946) - British politician. Outer: Maternal great-grandmother was a German-Jewish immigrant, although he was raised a Christian. Father was a clerk at a marine insurer who had an upbringing rife with loss. His parents married when his mother was pregnant with his sister. Raised by his mother, the daughter of a bus mechanic on a council estate. Had one older sister, and two younger brothers. Mother and father were constantly fighting and at 9, he discovered his sire with the gas on, trying to kill himself. Won a scholarship to a prestigious boarding school, while his progenitor left the family in 1957, causing him to run away from school several times in his profound unhappiness. Decided to cut himself off from his emotions as recompense until his mid-30s. At the same time he took the nickname ‘Jack” after a 14th century figure who led a peasant revolt and was executed for his radical actions. Matriculated at the Univ. of Leeds, which was the high point of his youth. getting a law degree, while being elected president of the Leeds Univ. Union. Afterwards, he eventually became president of the National Union of Students, a full-time job with offices in London. Became involved with Labour politics, while hooking up with Anthea Weston, an anorexic, and marrying her in 1968, although the relationship foundered because of his focus on work. In 1975, they lost their daughter at six days, which effectively ended their union, and the two divorced in 1978. Shortly afterwards he wed Alice Perkins, a civil service. Son and daughter from the union, with the former busted for dealing marijuana, contra his father’s anti-pot stand. Elected to Parliament in 1979 for Blackburn, and wound up in opposition all during the Thatcher years. Lost his hearing in his right ear, with residue tinnitus, which seemed an apt metaphor to him about Labour’s own blockages. Saw a psychiatrist for a decade which helped him deal with his many personal issues. Became a political adviser to Labour ministers in the 1970s, then worked as a T journalist for Granada TV. Served in the cabinets of Tony Blair and then Gordon Brown as Home Secretary from 1997 to 2001, as well as Lord Chancellor and Foreign Secretary to the latter. A proponent of tough laws against crime and street begging, as well as curfews for children. Hawkish on the “war on terror,” and a supporter of the Invasion of Iraq, despite the false premises on which it was based. Became leader of the House of Commons in 2006, and the following annum Secretary of State for Justice. A continual courter of controversy with his various stances, he lost his wife to cancer in 2009, and in 2011 was appointed a visiting professor to Univ. College London School of Public Policy. In 2015, despite denials on his part, he was suspended by Labour for allegedly taking cash bribes. Author of 2012’s “Last Man Standing: Memoirs of a Political Survivor.” Inner: Longtime sufferer of “imposter syndrome,” a feeling of being not worthy of his position in life. Conservative on many social issues, contra Labour’s liberality. Filled with a host of inner conflicts from his raw upbringing, which has made him deeply suspicious of religions not his own. Heavily conflicted lifetime of being forced to deal with powerlessness from an early age as prelude to his long career in the halls of power as an illiberal Labourite continually struggling with his complex interior. James Ramsay Macdonald (1886-1937) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Born illegitimately to a Scottish maidservant. Father was a farm laborer. Raised in his grandmother’s cottage, and weent to a local school, becoming a pupil-teacher there. Worked in Bristol as an assistant to a clergyman, while joining the Social Democratic Federation. Tall, muscular and curly-haired with a nervous electric energy to him. Moved to London in 1886 and worked as a clerk for a bicycling touring club, while studying for a science scholarship, although his meager diet caused a precipitous decline in health, and he was forced to abandon any idea of an academic career. Became a clerk to a House of Commons MP, and joined the Fabian Society, a socialist organization spearheaded by intellectuals. In 1893, a group of socialists created a new national working-class party named the Independent Labour Party, and he became part of it the following annum. Lost his first bid for Parliamentary office via the ILP, although met his wife, Margaret Gladstone, who was privately wealthy; The duo, both profoundly lonely people, married in 1897, while his spouse financed his political career from her private income. The pair traveled extensively, which helped him meet socialist leaders in other countries, while giving him an understanding of foreign affairs. Three sons and three daughters from the happy union. After the turn of the century he served as secretary to the newly formed Labour Representation Committee, which successfully placed two MPs in Commons. Anti-Boer War, he resigned from the Fabian Society, and in 1906 won a seat in Commons for Leicester, while his fellow party members decided to call themselves the Labour Party, thus giving official birth to the name. Served as its secretary, while developing policy including large taxes on large incomes. Lost his youngest son to diphtheria in 1908, then shortly afterwards his mother died. Labour won 40 seats in the 1910 election, although the following year he lost his wife to blood poisoning due to an internal ulcer. Absolutely devastated, he had her cremated. Her trust fund allowed him to hire a woman to look after his remaining children. Fought for women’s suffrage, while taking on Margaret Sackville, the youngest child of an earl, as his mistress for 15 years, beginning in 1912, although she continually turned down his offers of marriage. A poet and pacifist, she was also known as a society beauty. Totally against Britain’s involvement in WW I, he resigned his chairmanship over his party’s support of the war effort. Along with others he created the Union of Democratic Control to prevent secret diplomacy over involvement in foreign wars. Attacked in newspapers over his pacifism, while meetings he held were either misreported or broken up. Understood that the moderate socialists would lost control in Russia if Britain and its allies continued to push for military victory, and true to his vision, the radical Bolsheviks prevailed under V. Lenin. Lost his seat in 1918, although by 1922 he had been forgiven and he was elected to represent Aberavon, in a reshaping of the Labour Party, which saw him as its dominant figure. Had a deep resonant voice and was an effective orator, thanks to accompanying dramatic gestures. In 1924, he became Prime Minister, heading a minority government, as the first member of his party to hold that post. Forced to form a cabinet with colleagues who had virtually no administrative experience, and because of that he was unable to get any socialist legislation passed. Four days before the election he had to deal with the Zinoviev Letter, a forgery which purported to ask for open sedition in the UK via the British Communist Party, as a means to undermine Labour. Subsequently, a vote of no confidence in Commons forced him to resign, while he continued to present Labour as a moderate, rather than a radical force. Felt extremely worn out by his public life by his early 60s. Nevertheless he became Prime Minister again in 1929, while once again relying on the Liberal Party for support, as a worldwide economic depression ensued. Failed to convince the public that the depression was not caused by Labour, while doing battle with Oswald Moseley, an avowed fascist, for control of the party, with the latter’s suggestion for a huge public-work’s program, financed by loans as remedy for the downturn. Had no real background in economic affairs, and nothing he did alleviated the situation. In the 1931 election he led an anti-Labour alliance made up of Conservatives and Liberals, which proved to be a disaster for him and he was constantly attacked by the Labour movement, Became a virtual prisoner of the Conservative Party, and his last years in power were a personal nightmare. In 1935, he resigned, then joined Stanley Baldwin’s (Gordon Brown) Conservative cabinet as Lord President in 1936 only to die of heart failure the following annum on an Atlantic cruise, a fitting ending to someone who spent much of the decade figuratively at sea. Later demonized by Labour as a turncoat, although opinions about him have shifted with time. Inner: Forced to adopt many stances, from radical to conservative because of the ever-changing flux of the larger story of Britain during his lifetime. Highly principled, and yet conflicted within about proper courses to take, particularly in lieu of not having the background to deal with a worldwide economic downturn and depression. Subject of much public contumely for his pacifism, as well. Punching bag lifetime of ultimately finding himself a scapegoat for the teens and thirties in the UK, despite good intentions, which would lead to a literal long-term depression his next go-round in this series as well as a pro-war posture, in an unconscious need to counterbalance his various stances of this ill-received go-round. John Campbell, 1st Baron Campbell (1779-1861) - British politician and biographer. Outer: Father was a clergyman, who had spent fifty years as a parish minister in the small town of his second son’s birth. Studied at the United College, St. Andrews before entering Lincoln’s Inn to become a lawyer. Worked briefly at The Morning Chronical, before being called to the bar in 1806. Wrote extensively on jury cases over the next nine years, although never made much of a mark as a barrister, despite being more ambitious legally than politically. Married Mary Elizabeth Scarlett, the daughter of a baron, and some 16 years his junior, three sons and four daughters from the union. Lost his first election in 1826, but became an MP in 1830 and 1831 as a moderate Whig. Made his presence felt in Parliament and in 1832, was appointed Solicitor General, as well as knighted. In 1834, he became Attorney General as well as MP from Edinburgh, and held the post for seven years. Also served as prosecutor against several seditious figures. Helped sponsor a host of laws surrounding ownership, trial procedures, and debtor status. In 1841, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Campbell. Focused on legal reforms in real estate and local government, as an organizer of investigating commissions and a guide for getting bills through Parliament. Penned a ten volume set on “Lives of the Lord Chancellors” which were published in 1845, followed by a four volume series, “Lives of the Chief Justices,” which was published in 1849. Remained active during his entire time in office, ushering in a host of legal act, culminating in 1857, with the Obscene Publications Act, which made the sale of obscene material a statutory offense for the first time. His final post came as Lord Chancellor of Great Britain in 1859. Lost his wife in 1860, and died the following year of a burst blood vessel. Inner: Strong sense of social justice, with a wide-ranging focus to the various legislation he introduced and shepherd through Parliament. Legal eagle lifetime of focusing on the law in his political career, thanks to an overweening desire to redefine justice in a host of spheres, while also giving play to his penchant for biography and his/story.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS ONGOING REFORMER AND ACTIVIST:
Storyline: The liberal labourite switches genders and is forced to deal with prejudices galore against women in power, as she holds her ground in her personal desire to become a true representative of everyone she serves, despite misgivings at church-held same-sex marriages.

Harriet Harman (1950) - British politician. Outer: From a nonconformist family with her paternal grandfather a prominent Unitarian and her maternal side congregationalists, with numerous well-known historians, writers and political figures among her ancestors and cousins. Mother was a solicitor, father was a Harley Street physician. One of four sisters, all of whom became solicitors. Went to public school and then earned a BA in politics from the Univ. of York, where she took part in student politics. 5’6”. Got her law degree, and worked for a London firm. Between 1978 and 1982, she served as a legal officer or the National Council of Civil Liberties. As such she was found in contempt of court, but had her named cleared in the European Court of Human Rights, and later successfully argued against M15, the Military intelligence Service, who held personal files on her, claiming they were not a legally constituted organization, which led to the Security Service Act of 1989. Married Jack Dromey, a Labour Party MP and trade unionist in 1982, and the same year became a Labour MP for Peckham. One daughter and two sons from the union. Held several shadow posts, in the Opposition government, before Tony Blair brought the Labourites to power in 1997. Became Secretary of State for Social Security under him, and began reforming the welfare state, only to be sacked the following year after cutting benefits to single parents. Made Solicitor General in 2001, the first woman to hold that post. Held more positions during the decade, including Deputy Leadership of the Labour Party in 2006, despite having no union support and using her own monies to gain the post, which resulted in an inquiry into her breach of electoral law. Initially supported England’s involvement in the Iraq War, although later said she had not been in possession of all the manipulated information around it. When longtime friend Gordon Brown became PM in 2007, she joined his cabinet in several capacities, including Leader of the House of Commons, although was denied the title Deputy Prime Minister. On Brown’s resignation in 2010 following his loss to David Cameron, she became the party’s temporary leader, before ceding that role to Ed Milliband, and returning to her status as Deputy Leader. Held several shadow posts under him, and in the run-up to the May 2015 elections, toured Britain in a pink bus that read “Woman to Woman,” in an effort to get female voters in the Labour camp, although received much criticism for it. In the aftermath of Labour’s subsequent disastrous showing, and Milliband’s stepping down, she once more became acting leader, with the vow to vacate the post, once a leadership election was held. Inner: Strong feminist. with a penchant for controversy, as well as a willingness to fight long-held prejudices against women in power. Feels women MPs have a duty to women and is highly critical of apologists who need to cotton up to men. Supports secular same sex marriage, although frets over church ceremonies surrounding saidsame. Equal rights advocate lifetime of doing battle for her gender in the power realm after many a go-round as a man in the same arena, in order to give herself a fuller perspective on what it means to lead and represent the interests of everyone, man and woman alike, despite misgivings about church sanctioned same-sex marriage. Herbert Henry Asquith, Earl of Oxford and Asquith (1862-1928) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Father was a Yorkshire clothing manufacturer, who died when his son was 8. Brought up under the care of his maternal grandfather, who was a wool stapler. Had one brother, and at 11, was sent to London to live with relatives. Showed himself to be a classical scholar, as well as an effective speaker in public school, which won him as classical scholarship to Balliol College, Oxford in 1870, where he achieved first-class honors and served as president of the Oxford Union, before being elected a fellow of Balliol, which allowed him to study at Lincoln’s Inn, after choosing law as his career. His practice developed slowly, since his real ambition was politics, which he began in earnest by being elected an MP for the Scottish constituency of East Fife, in 1886, holding that seat until his death. Prior to that, in 1877, he married Helen Keisall Melland, the daughter of a prominent Manchester physician, four sons and a daughter from the union, which ended with her death in 1891. Lost his eldest son, a poet, in WW I, while all his children had notable careers. Gave an impressive maiden speech in Parliament, signaling a memorable career, and then served as counsel in a pair of high profile cases, before becoming a queen’s counsel in 1890. Lost his first wife the following year to typhoid while on vacation, and in 1892, became Home Secretary in the cabinet of the liberal PM William Gladstone (J. William Fulbright). Dealt with departmental details in a largely divided cabinet, giving promise as a future party leader. In 1894, he married Margot Tennant, the daughter of an industrialist and politician, who first rejected his proposal, finding him a bit too self-controlled for her tastes. She was an 11th child and grew up uninhibited and wild, to become a writer and socialite. After she got over her misginvings, the duo were wed in 1894, and his wife served as an important social spur for him, even though her candid outspokenness did not help her spouse’s career. Five children from the union, although only a daughter and son survived infancy. During the decade run of the Conservatives, from 1895 to 1905, the Liberal Party was sorely divided by the Boer War, which he supported although they reunited over the issue of free trade, with his oratory helping considerably. Became Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Nicola Sturgeon) in 1905, and served as a leading spokesman for government policy. Succeeded Campbell-Bannerman when ill health forced him to resign in 1908. Proved a custodian of the “New Liberalism,“ with its emphasis on social and economic reform. The Party reached new heights of power under him, with legislation on old age pensions and national insurance, while the House of Lords proved quite contentious in trying to block his reforms. Women’s Suffrage, along with industrial strife and Irish home rule proved more than his leadership abilities could deal with. In August of 1914, his government entered WW I on the side of the Allies against Germany, despite traditional liberal advocacy of peace. Proved an ineffective war Prime Minister, and at the end of 1916, his coalition cabinet forced him to resign, and he was replaced by David Lloyd George (Bob Geldof). Failed to be re-elected to his seat in 1918. Able to effect somewhat of a recovery, but in 1924 refused overtures from the Conservatives for a new coalition, and with his support the first Labour government was formed. Raised to the peerage as Earl of Oxford and Asquith in 1925. Resigned his titular party leadership in 1926, and his health failed soon after. Died of a stroke. Penned his memoirs, “Memries and Reflections 1852-1927, which was published the year of his death. Inner: Imperturbable and somewhat withdrawn but an effective speaker and reformer, despite being out of his depth when wartime came. Tactful, intelligent and self-possessed. Self-made lifetime of rising as far as he could on his verbal skills and political intellect, before returning to explore his female side on the next go-round in this series surrounding issues of effective leadership. Henry Pelham (1694-1754) - British Prime Minister. Outer: 2nd son of Sir Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham (Trevor Noah) and younger brother of the statesman Thomas Pelham-Holles, who became first Duke of Newcastle. Mother was his sire’s second wife, and sister of the Duke of Newcastle.Also had five surviving older sisters. Followed his sibling to Westminster, then attended Hart Hall, Oxford, before briefly serving in the army. Became a Whig MP for Seaford, Sussex In 1717, in a seat arranged for him by his brother, and later served the county of Sussex as an MP from 1722 to 1754. Became a supporter of future PM Robert Walpole (Joschka Fischer), who helped him obtain appointments. In 1726, he married Lady Catherine Manners, the eldest daughter of the Duke of Rutland. Two sons both died young, while four of their six daughters survived into adulthood. His brother, who was by then one of the richest men in the country, gave him part of his own estate to allow him a suitable income. Enjoyed a steady rise to power, thanks in no small part to his sibling, who was little more than a mediocrity, and far his political inferior, Held a couple of cabinet posts, and by the 1730s, his political influence was evident among his peers, although outside the pubic eye. In 1742, he became leader of the House of Commons, and in 1743, he was made First Lord of the Treasury, as well as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Succeeded Walpole’s brief successor. the 1st Earl of Wilmington. in 1743 as England’s third PM, in a relatively stable Whig ministry that included his brother, thanks in large part to his sibling’s sense of electoral and parliamentary management. As such, he became the first PM never to have sat in the House of Lords. With his brother ensconced there, the duo enjoyed vast political influence and patronage, making them the dominant forces during much of the reign of George II (Chris Patten). Called for a mass resignation of his ministers in 1746 contra the king’s interference, the first time that ever happened, and was able to maneuver around the monarch’s decided dislike of him. Able to restructure the national debt, while helped Great Britain in its subsequent dual continent Seven Year’s War in Europe and French & Indian War in the American colonies in the 1750s and 1760s. Helped keep the government stable, signing the treaty in 1748 which ended the War of the Austrian Succession, which he had felt was a severe financial drain on the country. Able to reduce the military establishment afterwards, and proved an efficient economic steward. The victim of immoderate eating and lack of exercise, he also had a skin infection which fed into his death. Died while still in office, and was succeeded by his brother, while an entire political order passed on with him. Inner: Colorless, but extremely competent. Had great mutual affection for his sibling, whom he far outshone, although the latter gave the emotional freedom to quarrel deeply with him. Liberal lifetime of giving further grounding to the office of Prime Minister, as the third to hold that title, in a go-round strongly enhanced by his intimate connection with a sibling equally attracted to the realm of personal power via political might.


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Storyline: The charisma-challenged conservative turned liberal fashions a second shot at an office that had earlier overwhelmed him, in order to make karmic amends with the past, present and future, in his ongoing need to prove his capabilities to both himself and the world-at-large.
Gordon Brown (James Gordon Brown) (1951) - Scottish/British Prime Minister. Outer: Father was a Church of Scotland minister. A good student, he entered the Univ. of Edinburgh at the age of 16. A rugby accident and a subsequent detached retina rendered him blind in his left eye. Had to lie in a darkened room afterwards for weeks to save his sgiht in his other orb. Graduated with First Class Honors as a his/story student, and wrote his doctorate on the Labour Party and Scotland during the post-WW I decade, with a focus on James Maxton. While still a student, he was elected rector of his alma mater, as well as holding other posts. Later became a lecturer there, as well as at Glasgow College of Technology, then switched careers to TV journalism, as prelude to a political career, although he lost his first election in 1979, as a Labourite to the Conservative candidate., he was elected in 1983, as an MP from Fife, holding his reconstituted post until 2005. During the Conservative run of government, he held two shadow secretariats, before becoming Shadow Chancellor in 1992. Following the death of a key Labour leader in 1994, he and Tony Blair formed the essence of the New Labour Party, fashioned after American Bill Clinton’s compromised reconstituting of the Democratic Party as a centrist organ, with Republican overtones. Did the same for Labour’s economic stances, adopting several Conservative stances. In 1997, when Labour won the election, he was tapped by Prime Minister Blair as his Chancellor of the Exchequer, and wound up second only to Nicholas Vansittart, an earlier life of his, as the longest office holder of that position. Gave the Bank of England more operational independence, while trying to keep taxes under control, by gearing them towards inflation rather than earnings, but in reality, he reduced corporate taxes, while creating more burdens for the lower income earners. Borrowed some ideas from the Clinton playbook, and expanded government spending on health and education, while surpassing the Eurozone’s growth rate. Able to maintain growth for his entire Chancellorship, although critics stated his Conservative predecessors had more than a little to do with it. In 2000, he married public relations executive Sarah Macaulay. Their first child, a daughter was born prematurely and died. A second son was healthy, but a third child, also a son, was born with cystic fibrosis. An active supporter of integrating environmental and economic concerns, as well as reducing Third World debt, he also struck an angry education chord by accusing Oxford Univ. of elitism in its admissions. Managed to make himself heir apparent to the increasingly embattled Blair, whose popularity waned precipitously over his support of George W. Bush’s Iraq War, and acted accordingly as a projected statesman capable of leading Britain deeper into the 21st century. Supposedly plotted for years to prematurely oust Blair, to little avail. Has published four books, including an expansion of his thesis, and a collection of speeches. Finally ascended to Prime Minister in mid/year of 2007, and was greeted immediately with celebratory car bombs that failed to detonate, allowing him to win plaudits for his aplomb in handling the potential incendiary situation. Went to Iraq later in the year and upstaged a conservative convention by announcing British troops would be drawn down even further there, but subsequently saw his popularity erode in the polls, and was forced to retreat from calling a sure-victory election when the outcome of it no longer was predictable. Went on to curb liberties in the name of security, while evincing an ongoing tentativeness that did little to inspire his fellow Britons. Election loses in the spring of 2008 would lessen his hold on power even more, and stir challenges within his own party for his position as its head. Subsequently dealt with the world-wide financial meltdown in similar fashion to his American counterparts, with Keynesian-style bail-outs, a cut in the sales tax, a rise in tax rates for the rich, a sell-off of gold, and a promised debt that could surpass £1 trillion, as well as laying the blame on the American mortgage crisis. Became more and more embattled through 2009, losing several cabinet members, amidst calls from both parties for his resignation, then set up an Iraq inquiry in private, to alienate himself even more from the voting public. In early 2010, he was publicly rebuked in unprecedented manner for his violent and explosive outbursts during cabinet meetings, in a further erosion of his grip own power. Finally fell to a coalition Conservative-Liberal Democratic government headed by David Cameron when spring elections produced a hung Parliament, ending 13 years of Labour rule, in anticlimactic fashion. Announced his retirement from electoral politics in 2014. Made a considerable amount of money from speeches, although claimed to have donated it all to charity. Inner: Cerebral, dry and statistics-oriented, with little of the charisma of his predecessor, and a legendary bad temper. Far more into details than big pictures, lessening his leadership effectiveness. Confirmed Americaphile, often vacationing there. Accused of being a control freak, and more into his own personal agenda, than a party loyalist. Obsessed with politics, political animal through and through, with his one good eye on 10 Downing Street from the very beginning of his career. Largely and literally blinded to the feminine and the spiritual, thanks to his much earlier injury. In the wings lifetime of fairly chomping at the bit to be allowed to augment his earlier unsatisfactory prime ministerships with a full-fledged run during a time of equal uncertainty, only to prove himself to be his own worst enemy once again. Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, Viscount Corvedale of Corvedale (1867-1947) British Prime Minister. Outer: From Shropshire yeomen stock. Cousin of author Rudyard Kipling (Tom Stoppard), as well as artist Edward Burne-Jones (Cecil Beaton). Only child of an ironmaster and successful industrialist, as well as an MP. Mother was the daughter of a Wesleyan minister. Plain and broad-shouldered, projected the stocky exterior of an old-fashioned iron-master, while looking like a successful farmer. Educated at Harrow, and then Trinity College, Cambridge, where he majored in his/story. Entered the family business, managing his father’s various heavy industries. Married in 1892 to Lucy Risdale, the daughter of a former assay master of the mint. His first son was stillborn, two sons and 4 daughters followed, including one homophile, Oliver. Elected to the House of Commons in 1908 as a Conservative, he held a seat there for most of the next three decades. In 1916, he became parliamentary private secretary to Andrew Bonar Law (Tony Blair), before becoming chancellor of the Exchequer in David Lloyd George’s (Bob Geldof) WW I coalition ministry. A student of economics, which was his field of expertise, he served as financial secretary of the treasury from 1917 to 1921, and president of the Board of Trade. Combined with Bonar Law to repudiate Lloyd George’s government as a thieves’ den in 1922 and became the former’s chancellor of the Exchequer, when he formed a Conservative government. Strongly criticised for his subsequent negotiations with the U.S. around Britain’s war debt, in which he settled for compromised terms. When Bonar Law was forced to resign because of ill health, he was asked by the king to replace him in 1923, although he barely lasted 6 months before being voted out of office for his protective-tariff policy. Returned for a second go at the prime ministry later that year, when the first Labour government failed. Two years later, he was forced to declare a state of emergency when workers declared a General Strike, and refused to negotiate further with them until the strike was called off. Resigned in 1929 over issues of unemployment and economics, and then came back to government two years later in the subsequent coalition government of Ramsay MacDonald, where his policies were met with Liberal resistance. After Hitler’s rise to power in Germany, he was afraid of the consequences of British rearmament, and a foreign policy to meet the threat. Formed his third and final government in 1935, he was forced into reassessing his stand against British rearmament, thanks to Italy’s aggression in Ethopia, and the Spanish Civil War, although did nothing to stop the former. Saw the country’s way through the monarchical crisis in 1936 when the king, Edward VIII renounced his throne for the woman he loved, and abdicated. Five months later, he resigned his post, retired from politics, and accepted an earldom. Suffered from asthma. Spent his retirement years quietly, although received opprobrium for his nonmartial pre-war stance, as an appeaser like his successor Neville Chamberlain. His wife died in 1945, and he became afflicted with arthritis, as well as deaf. Died in his sleep. Inner: Honest, complex, taciturn, sweet-tempered and sensitive. Incapable of sustained effort, and lethargic amidst bursts of energy. Strongly religious, with a tendency to wait on events, rather than shape them. Prayed on his knees with his wife every day, and had great sympathy for the poor. Disliked both foreigners and intellectuals, despite a great love of books. Loved Bach and sang in Church. Cautious lifetime of thrusting himself into the center of power during highly turbulent times, only to prove himself extremely short-sighted, necessitating a second Downing Street run his next go-round to see if he had learned to see both the present and future in far clearer and more decisive manner. Nicholas Vansittart, 1st Baron Bexley (1766-1851) - British politician. Outer: Of Dutch descent. 5th son of a former governor of Bengal, who returned to England 2 years before his birth, before disappearing aboard a ship when he was 5. Raised in Berkshire, he went to Christ Church, Oxford, before being called to the bar at Lincoln’s Inn. After writing pamphlets in support of William Pitt’s (J. William Fulbright) policies from a financial perspective, he became an MP in 1796. Went on a diplomatic mission to Denmark, then was made Secretary of the Treasury, holding the post for several years, until 1804, at which point he was made Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1805, thanks to his political connections. In 1806, he married Catherine Eden, the daughter of a baron, only to have her die 4 years later, no children from union. Resigned the post the following year, and returned to the Treasury office through another ministry, before resigning again in 1807, all the while building a reputation for his financial expertise. In 1812, he became Chancellor of the Exchequer, while continuing to win re-election after switching boroughs several times. Thanks to the Napoleonic Wars, the country was under a heavy taxation burden, which he increased, although when peace was finally declared following Napoleon’s final defeat in 1815, he refused to abolish property taxes, until great public resistance forced him to do so. Urged the union of the English and Irish exchequers in 1817, and was forced to borrow to meet the subsequent debt and deficit from England’s martial adventures, before trying to manipulate elements in a complex scheme to address the problem, only to find himself political persona non grata for his efforts. Forced to resign his office in 1822, amidst severe criticisms. Created Baron Bexley the following year and awarded a handsome pension, after being given the chancellorship of a duchy. Resigned the post in 1828, and played very little role in government as a member of the House of Lords. Instead, he turned his attentions towards Bible and missionary societies, while funding Kenyon, a college on the U.S. frontier. His title went extinct after his death. Inner: Strongly religious, social with many friends and honest, with an instinct for power and some financial expertise, and yet not quite enough imagination to deal with the problems thrust upon him, a seemingly continual theme of his. Mild-mannered and an ineffective debater. Overwhelmed lifetime of exhibiting his usual positive traits, as well as his ongoing inability to truly bend events to everybody’s satisfaction, necessitating his return again and again to the same arenas.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS EVOLVING SELF-EMANCIPATOR:
Storyline: The canny centrist combines a strong Christian sensibility with a political pragmatism to forge a successful public career for himself, until he runs afoul of the commandment about killing in his support of a war not of his making, and becomes yet another civic sacrifice to its blasphemous violence, before rebounding with pockets afull.

Tony Blair (1953) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Father was a law professor, whose parents were both actors. Mother’s family were Protestants from Ireland. His older brother became a barrister, and also has one younger sister. Moved shortly after his birth to Glascow, and spent 3 years in the mid-1950s in Adelaide, Australia, before settling in Durham. When he was 11, his sire suffered a serious stroke just when he was about to run for Parliament as a Conservative. Received scholarship help to attend prep school in Scotland. Studied at Fettes College, Edinburgh and then St. John’s College, Oxford, showing little interest in politics, and far more in athletics, while playing bass guitar and performing as lead singer for a band called Ugly Rumors. Traveled for a year in London and Paris, then became a committed Christian, and his religiosity ultimately led him into politics to practice the social gospel. Got his law degree in 1975, moved to London and joined the Labour Party. In 1980, he married a Roman Catholic lawyer, Cherie Booth, 4 children from union, including the last one born while he was Prime Minister. The quartet would all be brought up as Catholics. Both ran for office in 1983, although she lost and dropped out of politics. Became shadow home secretary, and was nicknamed ‘Bambi,’ by the press, but proved his resiliency by successfully challenging the core of Labour beliefs, after becoming head of the Party in 1994. Helped completely overhaul its socialist principles and moved it to the pragmatic center, before becoming Prime Minister in 1997. Extremely popular, he modeled his political positions on American president Bill Clinton’s centrist stances, calling his party the ‘new Labour,’ while adopting many conservative tenets and abandoning its previous socialist slant by embracing capitalism, free markets and privatization. Counseled the royal family on their public image after the death of Princess Diana, and capitalized on it, dubbing her ‘the people’s princess.’ Enjoyed widespread popularity for his telegenic presence and ability to reflect the pragmatic reform politics of fin de siecle England. Improved the economy with pro-market policies, while introducing a minimum wage, and maintaining Margaret Thatcher’s stance of union control. Became embroiled in George Bush’s invasion of Iraq in 2003, thanks to his own neoimperialist views of Britain returning to the world stage. His stance proved very unpopular among England’s voting public and he saw his previous high standing plummet, as well as his Parliamentary majority erode, as home grown Islamic terrorism reared its violent head, forcing him eventually to crown his chancellor of the exchequer, Gordon Brown, as his heir presumptive. Continued his unabashed support of America’s Iraqi blunders so that by 2006, a fairly universal call arose in Britain for his own timetable of withdrawal from office, including from inside his own party, for a major mistake in judgement, which will probably cloud his entire career. Eight members of his cabinet went on to quit, leaving him no choice but to give a date in 2007 for his ultimate step-down, while his approval ratings sank to 26%. Began breaking with Bush over Iran, as well as giving timetables for the withdrawal of British troops from Iraq, in one final attempt at ameliorating his ultimate legacy, although suffered yet another black eye after scrapping an arms deal bribery probe in late 2006, that would have added the finishing tarnishing touches to an administration that will probably not be remembered kindly by his/story. A further scandal, in which he was the first PM ever questioned by the police as a witness in a cash-for-honors affair in early 2007, further clouded his near decade-long run, as the eighth longest serving in his office. Finally forced to step down mid-year, and became a special envoy to the Mid/East, charged with trying to negotiate the Israeli/Palestinian dispute. At year’s end, he converted to his wife’s faith, Roman Catholicism, and in 2008, announced the Tony Blair Faith Foundation, an organization dedicated to dealing with the world’s ills through the active collaboration of its different religions. Admitted at the end of 2009, that he would have invaded Iraq regardless of WMD, setting off a storm of protest from critics over his cavalier use of British resources and total disregard of the country’s life and limb, and insuring his continued unpopularity for the rest of his public life, as Phony Tony and Bliar. Published his memoirs, “A Journey” the following year, while reiterating his Iraq decision, and taking a few swipes at his successor, Brown, as both difficult and maddening. Greeted with eggs and shoes by protesters for his efforts, which forced him to cancel his publicity tour. Able to enrich himself far more than any other ex-prime minister, through Tony Blair Associates, makiing him very much a New World Order player with his primary venue of both power and wealth, the Middle East. In that regard, in November of 2010, he signed a secret contract via Tony Blair Associates with a Saudi oil company that gives him £41,000 a month and two percent commission on any successful deals that he helps broker, although it was not revealed until four years later. Inner: Self-assured, consistent, with a great desire to be loved by the voting mass. Extrovert, gregarious, self-controlled rebel and silver-tongued debater. Adept at re-adaptation, as well as self-invention. Articulate, deeply religious. Mediagenic lifetime of re-inventing himself to take England into the 21st Century as a social gospel Christian, with an agenda built on pragmatics rather than principles, only to find himself tied to an unpopular and provocative war not of his making, and ultimately being defeated by it. Andrew Bonar Law (1858-1923) - Irish/British Prime Minister. Outer: Of Irish descent. Father was a Presbyterian minister who had emigrated to Canada. Mother died when he was 2. Shipped back to Scotland at the age of 12, where he was raised by wealthy maternal cousins. Left school at 16 to join a Glascow firm of iron merchants, eventually rising to partner. Became a bank director and chairman of the Glascow Iron Trade Assn. In 1891, he married Annie Robley, the daughter of a Glascow shipbroker, 6 children, one son became a politician. Well off by century’s end, he entered Parliament as a Conservative in 1900, where his imperialistic views brought him to the fore. His wife died in 1906, and his sister looked after his home. In 1911, he became a compromise candidate for Conservative Party leader. His chief adviser, for whom he served as political mentor, was Maxwell Beaverbrook, later a publishing tycoon. Vehemently opposed Irish Home Rule, having descended from Ulstermen. After the outbreak of WW I, he became secretary for the colonies in the wartime coalition government of Herbert Asquith, and then intrigued against him. Recommended David Lloyd George when asked by the king to form a new government, and became leader of the House of Commons, member of the war cabinet and chancellor of the Exchequer, using his financial adeptness to manage money-raising programs. Showed himself to be a strong political enemy of Winston Churchill, whom he despised. Made lord of the privy seal following the war, until ill health forced him to resign his offices in 1921, after leading the Conservatives for a decade. The following year, because of the resignation of a host of Tories, he became Prime Minister, the first ever who was born in Canada. His short reign, in which he broke diplomatic relations with France, was over by the following year, because of an inoperable malignancy in his throat. Died soon afterwards of throat cancer, with his voice inaudible at the end. Inner: Good chess player, teetotaler, upright and passionate about his politics, although had sober, contained character. Honest, kind, quiet, hard worker. Practical realist, melancholic, with an abnormally retentive memory. Had little interests outside of politics. Lived simply, smoked excessively and shunned society. Choked-off lifetime of ultimately strangling on his own bottled-up persona, where his inner passions could not find their true voice of expression. Robert Peel (1788-1850) - British statesman. Outer: Father was a wealthy cotton manufacturer of the same name, who was made a baronet. Eldest son, he was raised a low Church Anglican. Educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford, before his father procured a parliamentary seat for him at 19 as a Conservative. Became chief secretary for Ireland, a difficult position, in which he showed himself both able and incorruptible, while strongly opposing Catholic emancipation. Established the Peace Preservation Police, known as ‘peelers.’ Chairman of the currency commission on his return, in which he reintroduced the gold standard, then joined the cabinet of the next government as home secretary. Married Julia Floyd, a great beauty, to whom he was devoted, two daughters and five sons from the union. Reformed the criminal codes, and set up the first disciplined police force in London, which were called Bobby’s boys, and later bobbies. Resigned his cabinet post, entered the next cabinet as home secretary, and ultimately resigned again over the Catholic exclusion question, although he was convinced to reconsider and lost his seat over his change of heart. Began to question unchanging Tory creed, which weakened his position, as well as divided the party. Asked in 1834 to form a new government, he became Prime Minister, although he was forced to resign the following year, but not before issuing a new Conservative manifesto. Strengthened the party over the next 6 years, and became Prime Minister again in 1841, this time with a working majority behind him. Tried to abolish the restrictive tariffs of the Corn Laws, after first supporting them since they aided wealthy farmers, while raising the prices of bread for the poor, although he was forced to resign, only to once more return to office, finally effecting the repeal, but at the price of his ministry. The party splits he engendered would cause a full generation to pass before it gained power again. Resigned and spent the rest of his career supporting free-trade principles. Stiff and formal in his political engagements, he won the enmity of Queen Victoria (Mary Renault), who found him unattractive and cold. His social secretary was killed in Whitehall by a deranged Scotsman looking for him. Estranged his party by taking it through two crises, changing his mind on both, but held to his principles as primary architect of stability and prosperity in a rapidly changing age of industrialism. After his retirement, a skittish horse threw him over its head and he died two days later. Inner: Extremely practical, learning through events. Proud, shy, quick-tempered, stubborn and autocratic. Earnest, strenuous, and gentlemanly, saw politics as a moral exercise. Had a deep concern with the industrial population and its miseries. Moral lifetime of playing a central role in forging England’s modern Conservative Party, while trying to integrate his principled interior with the passion and demands of activist politics.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS SURPRISE 10 DOWNING STREET RESIDENT:
Storyline: The highly moralistic minister changes genders while retaining a strong sense of right and wrong to become an unexpected head of her party, following the UK’s decision to leave the European Union, and go it alone economically.

Theresa May (Theresa Mary Brasler) (1956) - British prime minister. Outer: From a modest family background, with her ancestors descending from servants. Father was a vicar.for the Church of England and mother was a housewife. An only child, she attended state-run primary and grammar schools and briefly went to a a Catholic school. 5’6”..Studied geography ad St. Hugh’s College, Oxford, and earned her BA in 1977. Married Phillip May, a finance manager in 1980. No children from the union, which has been a source of sorrow for her. Worked for the Bank of England from 1977 to 1983 and then for the Association for Payment Clearing Services from 1985 until 1997, while also serving as a councillor for Dunsford. Her first two tries for elective office to Parliament were failures before she was finally elected as a Conservative MP for Maidenhead in 1997. Served in several capacities in various Shadow Capacities for four Conservative Party heads, including a stint as Shadow Leader of the House of Commons. In 2002 she was appointed as the first female Chairman of the Conservative Party, and went on to become Home Secretary and Minister for Women and Equalities in the David Cameron administration. Worked on police reform and stricter drug and immigration policies while holding office. Diagnosed in 2012 with type 1 diabetes, needing daily injections. When the UK voted to exit the EU in 2016, Cameron was forced to resign. Although she originally voted to remain in the EU, with reservations, she became the surprise choice to succeed him, after Boris Johnson, the heir presumptive, demurred on the position. Chose him to be her Foreign Secretary, along with other sweeping cabinet changes. Showed herself early to be unsympathetic to the dangers of climate change, and re-emphasized that regaining control of immigration was more important than access to the EU’s single market, while touting the freedom for the UK to make its own decision on a host of issues, as her government’s primary philosophy. Subsequently repudiated American Secretary of State John Kerry’s anti-Israeli expansion settlements speech as a means of claiming solidarity with US President Trump, who made her his first official visitor. In the spring of 2017, began the two year divorce proceedings of the UK from the EU, while making numerous promises and threats around her country’s trade and citizenship integrity, despite an announced desire that Europe remains strong and prosperous with or without Great Britain’s participation in its union. After dealing with three terrorist attacks in three months, including a bombing in Manchester, and a van load of knife wielders on London bridge which killed seven people and injured scores others, vowed to crackdown on Islamist extremism, stating her country had been far too tolerant of it. Shocked when her party failed to win a clear majority in Commons on a “snap” June election she called in order to affirm her Brexit stand, although said she would soldier on and not resign, thanks to minority party support, from Northern Ireland, allowing her to form a new minority government. Key aides then quit, leaving her quite isolated. At her party’s annual conference, she announced she wanted to offer voters the “British dream” but the most personal speech of her premiership was doubly ruined by a prankster handing her a P45, or termination of employment. Also plagued by an incessant cough and faltering voice throughout in an extremely weak display of her position. Has an estimated net worth of $2.5 million. Inner: A micromanager at heart she demands unswerving loyalty from her underlings. Considered a liberal conservative and a One-Nationer who sees society as organic and values both paternalism and pragmatism. Does’t seem to care whether she’s liked or not. Reluctant delegator, chewing carefully over all decisions. Open to well-reasoned arguments Firm hand on the tiller lifetime of bringing her strong sense of right and wrong to the prime ministership of the UK during a time of great upheaval for the country. Sir George Cave, 1st Viscount Cave (1856-1928) - British politician. Outer: Father was a Liberal politician and MP from Barnstaple. One of ten children, including four brothers, one of whom was Consul-General in Zanzibar and Algeria and five sisters. Educated at St. John’s College, Oxford. Called to the bar in 1880, and had a practice as a barrister for a number of years. In 1885, he wed Anne Estelle Mathews, in a union which produced three short-lived sons and a short-lived daughter, all of whom died as infants. Ultimately made King’s Counsel and recorder for Guildford in 1904. Four years later, he was elected Conservative MP for the Kingston Division of Surrey, and was appointed a member of the Royal Commission on Land Purchase. Served as standing Counsel to the Univ. of Oxford as well as Attorney General for the Prince of Wales. In 1915, he was appointed Solicitor General and knighted. Three years later, he was ennobled as Viscount Cave. During WWI, he became Lord of Appeal, and served as Home Secretary under David Lloyd George (Bob Geldof) from 1916 to 1919. In 1921, he was elected Chancellor of the Univ. of Oxford, and also served as Lord Chancellor from 1922 to 1924 and again from 1924 to 1928. On the day of his death, his resignation as Lord Chamberlain had been accepted, and it was announced he had been made an earl. His viscountcy became extinct at his demise, and when his wife passed on in 1936, so did his earldom. Inner: Seen as bland and uninspiring, doing his duty without ruffling anyone’s else’s political feathers. Caved-in lifetime of honors and power, albeit very modest accomplishment, which he would try to redress the next go-round in this series, by switching over to his more assertive female side.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS DIPLOMAT TURNED MEDIA MONOMANIAC:
Storyline: The sociopathic celebrity provocateur switches from the political to the journalistic in order to give voice to a heretofore hidden need to bring the negative within him forward, after earlier suppressing it in his diplomatic go-rounds.

Piers Morgan (Piers Stefan Pughe-Morgan) (1985) - British journalist and TV host. Outer: Father was an Irish-born dentist. Lost him when he was a year old and his mother remarried, giving him three older step-siblings. Took on his step-father’s surname, while his parents ran a local pub. Both he and his family were politically conservative and firm backers of Margaret Thatcher. Raised a Catholic and has remained one. Initially educated at a private school, before his family ran out of money. Had a hard time fitting in at a local comprehensive school where he was often bullied and beat up by classmates. The experience would later bring out his own intellectual bullying in recompense. 6’ with dark brown hair and blue eyes. Ultimately chose journalism as a career in the 1990s, staring out as a reporter. Married Marion Shalloe in 1991, three sons from the union which ended in 2008 in divorce. Two years later he wed Celia Walden, a gossip columnist, one daughter from the second union. Became entertainment editor at the tabloid, The Sun in 1998, where he ran a gossip column. Selected by Rupert Murdoch to be the editor of his weekly tabloid News of the World which made him one of the youngest editors to run a national newspaper. Became editor of the daily tabloid Mirror in 1995, and soon gained a reputation for his aggressive pursuit of stories. Ran inside exposés on the royal family, while opposing Britain’s involvement in the Iraqi war, and criticizing the government where he saw fit. His desire for scoops also had the Mirror successfully sued in a number of cases. Finally lost his position in 2004 after showing British soldiers abusing Iraqi prisoner, in what were later proved as false images. Successfully rebounded by using the opportunity to recreate himself as a media personality. Became the co-host of a political talk show, and in 2005 penned a best-selling memoir, “The insider” while also conducting numerous celebrity interviews for the British edition of GQ. Beginning in 2006, he served as judge for the first six seasons of the American reality TV series, “America’s Got Talent,” displaying his acerbic wit and taking credit for its initial success. In another competitive reality TV foray, in 2008, he won on Donald Trump’s “Celebrity Apprentice,” despite audience revulsion with him. In 2010, he succeeded the retiring Larry King on his long-running CNN TV talk show, with “Piers Morgan Tonight,” attracting a host of famous guests, although not that many viewers, while continually winning the contumely of conservatives for many of his stances. After publishing “Shooting Straight: Guns, Gays, God and George Clooney,” in 2013, he was relieved of his show the following annum because of continual low ratings. Became a permanent co-host of “Good Morning Britain” two years later, and remains a visible scold in the UK. Ripped by a host of people for bringing up Trump Derangement Syndrome, in which liberals have totally lost their sense of proportion over the Donald Trump presidency. Has a net worth of $20 million. Inner: Strongly opinionated, inviting the continual ire of both left and right. Adamantly pro-gun control, with a desire for Americans to stand up to the powerful gun lobby, earning the sobriquet of Piers Moron from them. Somewhat devout, while seeing the Bible as ridiculous in parts. Supports homophile relationships, and is basically liberal in his outlook on most controversial issues, despite being confrontative and petty in his various dealings, as a deliberate provocateur. Great need for attention, with a complete lack of empathy towards others, as a textbook example of narcissistic personality disorder. Self-puffery lifetime of acting out a sense of extreme self-importance, in a perverse need to bring forth his own darkness within, after many a go-round of public service in diplomatic positions, where his inner nature was deeply suppressed. George Robinson 1st Marquess of Ripon (George Frederick Samuel Robinson) (1827-1909) - British politician. Outer: Descended from a wealthy York merchant, Lord Mayor and MP active in the late 16th century. Born at 10 Downing Street. 2nd and ultimately only surviving son of Tory PM Frederick. Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich (John Major). Mother was the daughter of an earl. Privately educated by tutors, so that he never attended schools or university. Began his public career in 1848 as part of a diplomatic mission to Brussels discussing Italian affairs. Became a Whig, contrary to his sire’s affiliation, and ultimate a Liberal. Married his cousin Henrietta Vyner in 1851. One son Frederick (John Major) and one daughter from the union. The following year, he entered Commons as MP from Hull, before representing Huddersfield, and then West Riding in 1857. Two years later, one his sire’s death, he became the 2nd earl of Ripon, and took his seat in the House of Lords, before succeeding his uncle as Earl de Grey. Held several Under-Secretary of State posts in the liberal Viscount Palmerston (James Packer) cabinet, before being made a Privy Counsellor and Secretary of State for War. Continued serving under his successor, John Russell (Hugh Gaitskell), At the same time, he held numerous positions in his home district, as well as serving as president of the Royal Geographical Society. Made a Knight of the Garter in 1869, and was rewarded for his work on settling claims with the US over the warship Alabama firing on its merchant ships during the American Civil War, by being elevated to the peerage in 1871 as the Marquess of Ripon. Served in the prestigious position of Lord President of the Council from 1868 to 1873. In 1880, with the start of William Gladstone’s (J. William Fulbrith) 2nd administration, he was made Viceroy of india, a post he held for four years, during which time he tried to give native indians more rights, only to run into opposition by a recalcitrant parliament. Nevertheless, he became a revered figure in certain Indian quarters. Afterwards, he was made First Lord of the Admiralty, as well as Secretary of State for the Colonies. The Liberals were out of power from 1895 to 1905, and when they returned he was made Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords, although resigned both posts in 1908 because of his advanced age. Lost his wife the previous year, and died of heart failure the following annum. Inner: Quite liberal in his approach to his duties, with the desire to uplift native societies within the empire. Well-respected figure, holding important office in every Liberal administration during his active political life. Doing well by doing good lifetime of putting his diplomatic skills to excellent use in an effort to reclaim his reputation, following the unfortunate circumstances defining his previous go-round in this series. Frederick North, Lord North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (1731-1792) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Father was the first Earl of Guildford, a dominating man whose advice his son sought throughout his life, in a close relationship. He was also a close friend of Frederick, Prince of Wales (Prince William). His resemblance to the latter’s son, the future George III (Jeffrey Archer) led some to believe that the Prince was his actual sire, although it would never be proven. Lost his mother when he was 2. His sire remarried only to lose his second wife in 1743. Earlier he inherited some property from a cousin which improved the family’s fiancee considerably, and with his step-brother, Wiliam Legge, Lord Dartmouth, he attended Eton and Trinity College, Oxford, where he earned an MA in 1750. Did a Grand Tour of Europe with Legge, and studied at the Univ. of Leipzig, before returning to England in 1753. The following year he was elected unopposed as an MP from Banbury. In 1756, he married Anne Speke, the daughter of an MP, and an heiress. Two sons and four daughter of the union. In 1756, he was elected to Parliament from Banbury. Had a heavy loud voice and a sharp wit in debate, which made him an asset to Thomas Pelham-Holles, the Duke of Newcastle’s (Trevor Noah) government. The same year, he led the Opposition against annual parliamentary elections. As a reward, the following annum he was given a position at the Treasury Board and soon was looked upon as an expert in public finance. When George III (Jeffrey Archer) ascended the throne in 1769, his favorite, the Earl of Bute (Eugene McCarthy) became PM. Reluctantly stayed on at Treasury through the next several PMs, before resigning in 1765. Became Joint Paymaster-General under William Pitt the Elder (J.William Fulbright) and then was appointed to the Privy Council, before becoming Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767. As Pitt fell into ill health, and his ministers serially resigned, he was suddenly thrust forth as a candidate for PM. At first hesitant, he accepted and in 1770 before the king’s 6th PM. Through his verbal skills, he managed to weather initial opposition, despite his own misgivings surrounding his post. Almost went to war with Spain over the Falkland islands, while the various colonies, including America and India proved extremely problematic, with the latter having no proper political system. Tried managing it as a business, which just papered over its innate unmanageability. Dealt well with France, and made use of a lottery to increase revenue. If the American colonies had not risen in revolution, he might have brought the huge national debt under control. The rebellion, however, festered, while he misread the true extent of their desire for independence. Tried a peace commission, but in April of 1775, armed conflict broke out, and he offered his resignation, although the king was unwilling to accept it. Made numerous attempts at resigning as the scope of the American Revolution expanded, with France helping the colonists. The surrender of the British army at Yorktown in 1781 came as a complete surprise. Despite the loss, the king refused to accept that Britain had lost the war, and once more turned down his resignation. Finally, it was accepted and the king reluctantly appointed the 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (Nelson Rockefeller) to replace him. Subsequently blamed for the loss of the colonies and held in low dudgeon ever afterwards, despite having nothing to do with the war effort. His health declined, and by 1787 he was completely blind. Lost his father in 1790 and he succeeded him as the second Earl of Guilford, taking his seat in the House of Lords in 1791. Died of natural causes the following annum. Inner: Well-meaning, but the victim of circumstances well beyond his control. Understood the dynamic of the American revolt, yet was stuck with the role of being blamed for losing the U.S. to independence, despite his repeated efforts to resign his position. Scapegoat lifetime of forever bearing the blame for U.S.winning its independence from its mother country, despite seeing quite clearly its inevitability and not being able to do anything concrete about it.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS CONTINUAL MISREADER OF HIS TIMES:
Storyline: The calamity prone MP rises to leadership posts, only to serially precipitously fall through his inability to assess the larger dynamics of his various eras.

Ed Milliband (1969) - British politician. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Parents were Polish immigrants. Mother was a human rights activist, who survived the Shoa after being protected by Catholics. Father was a Belgian-born Marxist academic. Younger of two brothers, with his older sibling an MP. His sire wound up as a roving academic, which led his son to two stretches in Boston, Mass, thoroughly imbuing himself with American culture. Took up the violin and also served as a radio reviewer as a teenager. 5’11”, with brown hair and brown eyes. Went to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he majored in politics and economics, gaining his BA, before eventually graduating from the London School of Economics with an MS in Economics. Became a television journalist, then served as a Labor Party researcher as well as a visiting scholar at Harvard Univ. for several semesters after century’s turn before returning to the UK in 2004, at which point Gordon Brown appointed him Chairman of the Treasury’s Council of Economic Advisers, as a longterm planner. Resigned his post the following year and was elected to Parliament for Doncaster North. Made Parliamentary Secretary the following year, before joining Gordon Brown’s cabinet in a variety of posts, including Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, where he promised to radically cut greenhouse emissions by 2050. Succeeded Brown as leader of the Labour Party after Labour’s defeat in 2010 by the Conservatives, thanks to considerable support from a number of sources, while ultimately defeating his brother who also desired the post. At 40, he was the youngest Labour Party leader ever. Wed Justine Thornton, an environmental barrister who was once a child actress, living with her for nearly a decade before marrying in 2011. Two sons from the union. Supported military action against Libya, and protested cuts to public spending, while his approval ratings remained low. Continued to criticize the Conservatives for their support of vested interests, while supporting workers and the Socialist government of France and standing against the UK’s membership in the European Union for economic reasons. Successfully led Labour through the 2014 European Parliament elections. Resigned his post in 2015, however, following David Cameron’s surprisingly strong win for his second term. Still relatively young, he vowed not to abandon frontline politics afterwards, and remains keen to be part of the shadow front bench in support of the next leader. Inner: Self-described socialist and feminist, as well as a supporter of same-sex marriage. Critical of Israel’s policy towards the Palestinians albeit supportive of Israel in all other concerns. Genuinely surprised at his fall from power, feeling he stood an excellent chance of becoming next prime minister. Myopic lifetime of evincing his ongoing facility for not being able to read the political handwriting on the wall, as a well-meaning but out-of-touch front bencher looking to better Britain though his idealogical ministrations. Neville Chamberlain (Arthur Neville Chamberlain) (1869-1940) - British Prime Minister. Outer: From a political family. Only son of Joseph Chamberlain, a Victorian Cabinet Minister and MP for over 30 years, and his second wife. Half-brother of Austen Chamberlain, a Chancellor of the Exchequer and a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Educated at Rugby and Mason College, although had little interest in academics, and wound up apprenticed to a firm of accountants. 6’2”. At 20, he went to the Bahamas to manage a 20,000 acre sisal plantation, gaining the reputation as a hands-on manager, despite the ultimate failure of the enterprise, after six years there. On his return, he purchased a manufacturing firm of metal ship berths in Birmingham, and proved successful as managing director for the next 17 years, feeling he would be a lifelong bachelor. Involved himself in civic activities, including serving as governor of the local general hospital. In 1911, he married Anne de Vere Cole, a distant relative by marriage. One daughter and one son from the close union. His wife encouraged him to enter politics, and he did so as a city councillor, serving as chairman of the town planning committee, before becoming Lord Mayor of Birmingham in 1915, a post previously held by five of his uncles. His spouse would prove a loyal and extremely helpful colleague throughout his career. With WW I in full swing, the following annum he was appointed Director General of the Dept. of National Service, but tensions with the PM, David Lloyd George (Bob Geldof) caused him to reign within the year. Elected Conservative MP for Ladywood in 1918, but refused to serve under Lloyd George. Became Postmaster General in 1922 under his successor Andrew Bonar Law (Tony Blair), and held more cabinet posts under succeeding PMs, including Chancellor of the Exchequer. Helped lay the foundations of the welfare state with his reform of the Poor Law in 1929. An appeaser by nature, wishing to avoid confrontations, he continued holding ministerial posts and in 1937, succeeded Stanley Baldwin (Gordon Brown) as Prime Minister. Felt compelled to avoid a second World War at any price, and in 1938 he met with German dictator Adolf Hitler in Munich, agreeing in principle with the Munich Agreement, that the two countries would never go to war. Returned to the U.K. and infamously remarked, “I believe it is peace for our time,” only to see Hitler occupy Czechoslovakia and then invade Poland in September of 1939, forcing him to reluctantly declare war on Germany. His mishandling of the opening stages made him subject of criticism from all sides, and he was forced to resign in May 1940 and cede his post to Winston Churchill (Boris Johnson), a far more inspirational leader. Deeply depressed Struck with bowel cancer shortly afterwards, and on his deathbed, he whispered, “approaching dissolution brings relief.” Cremated afterwards and interred in Westminster Abbey. Looked upon in negative terms by most his/storians of the period, thanks in no small part to his genuine unlikability. Inner: Melancholic, self-righteous and conciliatory in nature, with a genuine desire to uplift lives. Had a love of music, art, books and flowers. Prodigious walker who enjoyed hiking in the countryside as a favorite form of exercise. Had little personal style, and was largely diffident and reserved. No peace in our time lifetime of coming to power during parlous times, and proving himself incapable of correctly reading them, as he had previously done with Napoleon and France his last go-round in this series. Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth (1757-1844) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Father was physician to William Pitt, the Elder (Al Sharpton). Mother was the daughter of a vicar and headmaster. Eldest son and fourth of six children. Had a middle-class upbringing and studied at Winchester and Brasenose College, Oxford, before getting his law degree at Lincoln’s Inn. In 1781, he wed Ursula Marry Hammond, the daughter of a a businessman, which brought him an income of £1000 a year. Eight children from the union. Passed his bar in 1784 and the same year became an MP for Devizes in Wiltshire, representing them until his elevation to the House of Lords in 1805. His childhood friend William Pitt the Younger (J. William Fulbright) aided his political career as a Tory. Elected Speaker of the House of Commons in 1789. Supported union with Ireland, which was passed but opposed Catholic Emancipation. In 1801, he became Prime Minister when George III (Jeffrey Archer) rejected Pitt’s Emancipation of Catholics Bill. Formed a relatively weak ministry, while cutting the size of the army and navy and overhauling the tax system. Negotiated the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, which made an unfavorable peace with France. When Napoleon’s forces readied themselves for an invasion of Britain, he had no choice but to resign, which he did in 1804, so that Pitt could become PM again. The following year, he was elevated to the House of Lords as Viscount Sidmouth, then resigned from Pitt’s cabinet over a disagreement. Following Pitt’s death in 1806, he held posts in succeeding cabinets, before his health broke down, and he bowed out of public life for a while. Devastated by the death of his wife in 1811, he resumed his political career and held more posts including Home Secretary, showing himself to be quite severe in suppressing movements of discontent, such as the anti-technology Luddites. Also increased the powers of the magistrates to counter fears of revolution and rebellion. In 1823, he wed Mary Anne Townsend and toured Europe with her. Made his last speech in the House of Lords in 1829 opposing Catholic Emancipation. In failing heath for some years, he was almost blind by life’s end. Died of influenza. Inner: Notably poor orator, and, as always, a misreader of his times. Great fear of upheaval and radical change as a Tory traditionalist, dedicated largely to the status quo. Recalcitrant lifetime of showing himself to be a misreader of events of his times, as always, thanks to an ongoing myopic sense of his/story.


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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS SCOTTISH NATIONALIST:
Storyline: The sovereignty seeker switches genders while pursuing a long-held dream of disuniting Scotland from the United Kingdom and re-establishing it as an independent autonomous country as in days of yore.

Nicola Sturgeon (Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon) (1970) - Scottish politician. Outer: Mother Joan was a dental nurse, who eventually became an SNP politician and councillor, as well as the figure who inspired her the most. Father was an electrician. Oldest of three daughters. Became an SNP (Scottish National Party) member at 16, after being negatively inspired by PM Margaret Thatcher and the unfairness of being led by a Tory government that Scotland had not elected. Instead of supporting Labour, she realized that Scotland could only prosper with independence. 5’4’ with short red hair and brown eyes. Read law at the Univ. of Glasgow, and got her BL in 1992, then received a Diploma in Legal Practice the following year, before interning with a solicitor firm in Glasgow as prelude to working as a solicitor at the city’s law center. Entered politics at 29, when she was elected to the new Holyrood Parliament in 1999 as a Glasgow regional MSP. Soon established herself as a front bench Opposition spokeswoman determined to hold the Labour-Liberal Democrat coalition government to account on education, justice and health. Gained the reputation of being too serious, which earned her the nickname of “nippy sweetie,” despite having a wry sense of humor. Her guarded nature was protection against saying or doing anything that would be held against her later on. in 2004, the divisions in the party were quite noticeable and when its leader quit, she made leadership overtures, then opted to serve as Deputy Leader for Alex Salmond, which proved quite successful for the party. In 2007, she became Scotland’s deputy first minister and health secretary, while also winning the Labour-held Glasgow Govan seat. As such, she revamped her image to give her more of a sense of a common touch. Took full advantage of the global swine flu scare with continual press briefings and updates, which helped cement her position. Married in 2010 to Peter Murrell, after meeting him fifteen years earlier. No children from the political union, with both connected to the SNP. The following year SNP won a large majority in the Scottish elections, and as First Deputy, she continued her call for a stronger and more competitive country. In the fall of 2014, her predecessor formally resigned as First Minister, after Scotland voted ‘no’ against independence, largely because of fears of loss of pensions by its older population. Ran a successful campaign to replace him, and was elected by the Scottish Parliament as his successor, the first woman ever to hold that post. Subsequently appointed to the UK’s Privy Council, while creating a cabinet that had a 50/50 gender balance. In the 2015 elections for U.K. prime minister, Labour confounded the polls with the re-election of David Cameron, while the SNP won 56 of 59 seats in the Scottish Parliament, making both the party and herself major players, and setting up the possibility that Scotland could eventually become an independent country once again, after over 300 years of secondary status to the larger embrace of Great Britain. Following the BREXIT vote for the UK to leave the European Union, she set up an advisory panel on Scotland’s negotiation to stay in the EU, while also pushing ahead plans for independence. In that light, she published a draft bill in October of 2016 calling for a second Scottish independence referendum in a direct challenge to Theresa May’s hardline stance on Britain leaving the EU. Saw her party, however, lose a number of seats in the June 2017 election, which put her independence agenda on hold. Inner: Honest, straight forward and completely non-domestic, with her entire focus outside the home. Avid reader, with a careful and conciliatory in nature, despite an extremely strong will. Total believer in ‘when’ rather than ‘if’ surrounding Scottish independence. Extremely focused lifetime of giving play to her supreme desire to return Scotland to its status of independent country with herself as the captain courageous at the helm. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Henry Campbell) (1836-1908) - Scottish politician and UK Prime Minister. Outer: Father was the Lord Provost of Glasgow. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, then joined the family drapery business. Above middle height with large, deep blue eyes, and slow easy-going stride. In 1860, he wed Sarah Charlotte Bruce, the daughter of a major-general. His wife proved to be an important adviser to him, staying behind the scenes, while pushing him to be more politically active. No children from the union. Elected as a Liberal MP from Stirling in 1868 and three years later, added his mother’s family surname to that of his father. Never a particularly effective parliamentary orator, but proved himself an efficient political operator. Served two terms as financial secretary to the War Office from 1871 to 1874 and 1880 to 1882, and also held numerous cabinet posts, including chief secretary for Ireland and Secretary of State for War. In 1895, he induced the Duke of Cambridge to retire as commander in chief of the armed forces, thereby getting rid of his longtime recalcitrant resistance to army reform. Rewarded with a knighthood for his action. In 1899 he was elected leader in the Commons of the badly divided Liberal Party. Split it further with his criticism of British imperialism in South Africa, which almost caused the war faction to bolt the Liberals, while carefully treading the equally divisive issue of Irish Home Rule. Following the resignation of Conservative PM Arthur Balfour (Christopher Hitchens) in 1905, he succeeded him. Put together a strong cabinet, including two future prime ministers, Herbert Henry Asquith (Harriet Harman) and David Lloyd George (Bob Geldof), as well as the first person from the working class ever to attain cabinet rank, John Elliot Burns. Enjoyed a larger Liberal majority in the general election of 1906, but the House of Lords nullified much of his legislative program. Lost his beloved wife in 1906, which probably fed into his own premature end, and curtailed his effectiveness in office because of the time he felt impelled to spend with her at her end. Never fully recovered from her loss, either emotionally or physically. Able to grant trade unions freedom to strike, and also took the lead in granting self-government to the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony, securing the Boers’ loyalty to the British Empire, despite having been defeated by them. Had a series of damaging heart attacks, and 17 days before his death, he resigned in favor of Asquith. Buried in the village of Meigle, Scotland. Inner: Extremely popular and a figure of unification. Had an overtly smug and respectable personality, but beneath it was a cultured, spicy soul, as well as a cautious idealist. Enjoyed being horizontal in bed as a major source of relaxation. Possessed good common sense, as well as tact, and loyalty to principles. Never lost his temper and remained consistent in his philosophies and leanings. Commonsensical lifetime of dealing with political divisions from a cautious perspective as a problem-solver rather than a power-tripper. George Gordon, 1st Earl of Aberdeen (1637-1720) - Scottish politician. Outer: Father was a baronet and a Scottish Royalist who supported Charles I (Prince George) during the English Civil War, only to wind up executed in 1644, and have his lands sequestered. Third of five sons, with the second son dying at 3. Also had two sisters. Said to be somewhat deformed. A student at King’s College, Aberdeen and then a professor of the city’s Marischal College. In 1660, at the Restoration of the English crown, the family’s estates were returned to them. Studied civil law abroad in 1663, and returned four years later. On his oldest brother’s death in 1665, he succeeded him as the 3rd Baronet Gordon, and also became a member of the Faculty of Advocates of the Scottish bar in 1668, proving himself a highly respected barrister. In 1671, he wed Anna Lockhart, an eventual heiress. Nine children from the union, including 4 sons and 5 daughters. Only one son, William, his fourth and last, survived him, to take on his titles. Took on cases pro bono, and was elected a commissioner to represent Aberdeen in Parliament from 1669 to 1674, then again in 1678 and 1681 to 1682. Made a member of the Privy Council in 1678 and created Lord of Session in 1680, when he took the title of Lord Haddo, Methlick, Tarves and Kellie. More posts followed including Chancellor of Scotland in 1682, at which point he was created Earl of Aberdeen, Viscount of Formartyne and Lord Haddo. Executed the religious conformity laws with severity, although was forced to resign his office in 1684 over upholding a negative view of whether husbands should be fined if their wives were religious nonconformists, when Charles II (Peter O’Toole) upheld the opposite. Refused to take the oath of allegiance to the English King William III (Lyndon B. Johnson), although did so to his successor Queen Anne (Princess Anne) the last of the Scottish Stuart line. Lived in retirement, although protested against the 1707 Act of Union, until the declaration that the Scots were aliens was repealed, then refused to support the opposition to the measure. When the treaty was settled, which officially joined Scotland to the U.K, he refused to attend Parliament afterwards. The same year he lost his wife. Amassed a large fortune by the time of his death 13 years later. Inner: Good orator, with a slow bur sure delivery. Skilled lawyer, with an excellent grasp of Scottish constitutional law. Legal eagle lifetime of evincing an acute facility with the law, while operating on a strong sense of principle, as foundation for his future forays into politics and his crypto-desire to make Scotland once more an independent country free of the grasp of English rule.


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