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ANGLO-AMERICANS - ABRAHAM LINCOLN & M.L. KING FAMILIES, DIVINES & SUPPORT

PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS PARTITIONED PATRIARCH:
Storyline: The many-leveled emancipator is a house divided between a piercing poetic sensibility and a love of justice and power, from which he can never quite free himself, making himself a martyr to his own unresolved internal civil wars.

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967) - American poet, his/storian and editor. Outer: Descendant of the Swedish royal dynasty of Vasa, via an illegitimate daughter of Eric XIV (Bob Evans). Eldest child of Swedish immigrants, who changed his name from Johnson to Sandburg, after discovering several other men who shared his same appellation at work. Father was an iron worker for the railroad who could read Swedish but never learned how to write. Grew up in poverty, dropped out of school at 13, and did a variety of odd jobs, from bricklaying to dishwashing in order to help the family, before enlisting in the infantry during the Spanish-American War and serving 8 months in Puerto Rico. Attended his hometown Lombard College, but left in 1902 without a degree, preferring to take his education on the open road. While there, a professor encouraged his writing and paid for his first volume of poetry, a pamphlet called Reckless Ecstasy. 5’11”, craggy-featured, shaggy-haired, homely, and purposefully unstylish. Settled in Milwaukee as a journalist, and in 1908, he married a teacher, Paula Steichen, who was a sister of the photographer Edward Steichen, 3 daughters, close family, all 4 women had a sense of protection for him and his work. Became an organizer for the Social Democratic party of Wisconsin, before becoming secretary to the Socialist mayor of Milwaukee from 1910 to 1912. Moved to Chicago in 1913, where he became an editorial writer for the Chicago Daily News, and began publishing his free-verse rough-hewn poetry, in Poetry: A Magazine of Verse, which was well-received by both the critics and public alike. Lived in Stockholm as a correspondent during WW I. Returned to the U.S. as poet of the Prairie west and its ordinary citizens, establishing himself with Chicago Poems, Cornhuskers, and Smoke and Steel, paeans all to agricultural and industrial America. Continued his connection with the Chicago Daily News, before settling in Michigan in the early 1930s. Traveled the country singing and collecting American folk songs. Spent 30 years studying the life of Abraham Lincoln, his earlier self, and 8 years writing a six volume biography of him, breaking into tears when he had finally finished. During WW II, he had a syndicated column for the Chicago Times. Moved to Flat Rock, North Carolina, following the war, and lived simply on a farm, called Connemara, finally finding his ideal haven, allowing his wife to raise prize-winning dairy goats. Commissioned to write a moral biographical film for MGM, a modern-day repository for his old de’ Medici family, although it was never filmed. Wrote children’s stories, in addition to poetry, and won a Pulitzer Prize in 1951 for his collected poems. Penned his autobiography, Always the Young Strangers in 1959. Recognized as a great national poet, although limited in his vision and sense of language. Died of heart failure. Inner: Earthy and articulate, with a sensitivity for the suffering of the poor and downtrodden. Patriotic, idealistic, strong identification with the common man. Uncommon common man lifetime of paying homage to his earlier self, as well as projecting a similar image of the homely, homespun poet with an equal concern for the commonality of humanity. Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) - U.S. President. Outer: Named after a grandfather killed by indigenes, nearly a quarter century before his birth. Mother, Nancy Hanks (Christine O’Donnell), was illegitimate and fervently religious. Father Thomas Lincoln (Todd Palin) was descended from an English weaver’s apprentice. Born the same day as evolutionist Charles Darwin (Jared Diamond). Middle of 3 children, with a younger brother dying in infancy, and an older sister, Sarah (Bristol Palin). Born in a backwoods cabin, before his family moved westward to Indiana. Had a contentious relationship with his father because of the latter’s inability to overtly express love, while he adored his mother, seeing her as the main influence of his life. To his everlasting sorrow, she died of milk-sickness when he was 9, but his father soon remarried a widow. His stepmother had 3 children of her own, but was extremely nurturing. A nephew also joined the household to make for six children all told. Frontier raised, he had little formal schooling and was largely self-educated, reading at night by firelight after his chores were done. One of his early favorites was John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress,” in an unconscious nod to a previous work of his own. Had few real friends, despite sharing beds with several housemates. Did farm and ferry work, as well as being a railsplitter. 6’4”, 180 lbs., with lean, craggy features. Worked as a postmaster, while studying law and was admitted to the bar in 1836. Suffered through serial depressions most of the rest of his life, while feeling he had always been destined for great things. Served for 8 years as a Whig in the Illinois state legislature from 1834 to 1842, and was elected to a single term in Congress in 1846, before going back to his law practice. Had difficulties with women: his first flame, Ann Rutledge died of malaria, which devastated him, and he was rejected by his second, Mary Owens. In 1842, he married Mary Todd (Rosie O’Donnell), who was from a distinguished Kentucky family. The pair had an uneasy relationship, spurred by her economic extravagance and neurotic needs, 4 boys, including his favorite son Tad (Nelson Algren). 3 of his 4 sons died before maturity, and the singular one to achieve it, Robert Todd Lincoln, was always in his father’s shadow, despite being a successful businessman. Although opposed to the extension of slavery, he recognized the southern states’ constitutional rights to it and supported the fugitive slave laws, despite viewing enslavement as a vast moral evil. Nevertheless, he felt blacks and whites should live apart. Joined the newly formed Republican party in 1856 and 2 years later was the party’s candidate for the senate. Challenged the incumbent Stephen Douglas (Barack Obama) to a series of 7 debates, and though he lost the election, his sly skill with memorable phrases won him a national reputation, despite losing 2 senatorial races. As the Republican candidate for President in 1860, he virtually assured the country of uncivil war, thanks in large part to serving as a strong icon for 1/2 of the country’s polarity, necessitating the other half to also redefine itself strongly, through direct secession. Won election with less than 40% of the vote. 7 southern states seceded in 1861 and formed the Confederate States of America in a conflict that was more about the industrial time of the North trying to gain control over the agricultural time of the south and its free labor, than it was about the dehumanization of slavery. Created a cabinet of some of his political rivals, and assumed dictatorial powers at the start of the war, expanding the army, declaring martial law and suspending the writ of habeas corpus, all without congressional authorization. Used his better-educated cabinet to sharpen his own view of things, proving himself a quick learner. Initially deferred to his generals, then became a hands-on leader, following war dispatches daily, while managing the political impact of the action. That same year, he attended an opera in NYC, “The Masked Ball,” that limned his previous assassination in masked form. Despite his own racism, his stronger sense of principle dictated that he issue the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, freeing the slaves. Defeated former union general George McClellan (George McGovern) for a 2nd term in 1864, and declared in his inaugural that the country must re-unite without malice, in an evangelical interpretation of events, with “the Almighty” meting out “Divine Justice” against both sides for the sin of trafficking in and upholding slavery. Had premonitions and dreams that he would be assassinated, and within less than a week of the conclusion of the fighting, he was killed by a bullet to the brain on a Good Friday by actor John Wilkes Booth (Michael Kennedy), while attending a performance of “Our American Cousin,” at the Ford Theater. Ironically, he gave the okay for the formation of what would become the Secret Service earlier on the same day. Became the first president to be embalmed, and was displayed as such in an open casket, while taking on a Christ-like hue because of the timing of his death. His long funeral procession afterwards by train, connected the nation in its grief, for this dualistic much loved, much hated figure, who came to embody both the civility and incivility of civil war. Inner: Enigmatic, part poet, part despot, and all individualist. Had an extraordinary grasp of the power of language, with the ability to turn it into political incantation. Never a churchgoer, he had little use for theology, but a great love of Scripture for the purity and might of its prose. Calvinist at heart, despite his Baptist upbringing, per his hidden past, with a strong belief that the deific dictated destinies. Psychic, homely and unpolished. Extremely reticent and secretive, even with close friends. Some speculation came up about his sexual orientation well after his life, although he was probably a heterosexual. Hall-of-fame lifetime of martyrdom, high political power, civil war within, mastery of language and a legacy of great care for the common people, all wrapped in an complex bundle of a homespun tyrant and troubadour. John Bunyan (1628-1688) - English writer and working class hero. Outer: Homely son of a devout tinker (Amanzo Wilder?), whose hereditary trade he also took up. Went to a local school for a few years, and was plagued by Puritan nightmares of flying fiends as a boy, in keeping with the fear-filled environment in which he was raised. These traumas would continue to literally bedevil him his entire life, in an extremely dualistic existence where his interior was never at peace with his larger self. Felt himself guilty of all sorts of youthful transgressions, despite being virginal and innocent of all save for the use of profane language. Lost his mother and two sisters in short order, and at 17, he enlisted in the Puritan army, where he served on garrison duty during the English Civil Wars. The experience would later be symbolically transliterated into his works, as he turned the martial into the sacred. Around the age of 20, he married a woman named Mary, who served as an inspiration for his religious zeal, and deeply superstitious nature, as well as his continued fantasies of being among the damned. 2 sons and 2 daughters from the union, with the oldest, Mary, born blind. In 1655, he became a full member of the Nonconformist church, and by the following year was a lay preacher, publishing pamphlets and tracts, while proving extremely popular with working people. After his wife died in 1658, he married again the following year, but largely neglected his 2nd mate, having found his true union with his audience. Arrested in 1660 for unlicensed preaching, he spent 12 years all told in prison by choice rather than giving up his religious calling. Inspired while imprisoned by John Foxe’s (Nelson Algren) Book of Martyrs, which he read over and over, along with the Bible. Served as pastor to his fellow captives, and wrote 9 books while incarcerated, including a fervent spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. Released and spent the rest of his life preaching and writing, although he was arrested once more in 1677, and periodically went into hiding. His most famous work was Pilgrim’s Progress, written during his 2nd imprisonment, a Christian allegory depicting in simple language a pilgrim’s conversion and his progress from the darkness of Earth to the light of the celestial. On his release, he continued his preaching, although was no longer harassed for it, while enjoying a goodly measure of fame. After riding through a heavy rain, following his repairing of a rift between a father and son, he died of pneumonia. Inner: Martyr complex, sensitive to the inequities of the rich and poor, although secretly despised the homeless. Guilt-ridden, prone to endless hellbound fantasies and a victim more often than not of his own morbid imagination. Had a long period of reflection in mid-life, giving him the freedom to put pen to paper, and deepen his powers of self-expression. Pulpit-pounding lifetime of acting out the archetype of the zealot, while giving further gift to his mastery of language and political and sacred imagination. John Knox (c1513-1572) - Scottish religious reformer. Outer: Little is known of his early life. His parents were probably farmers. Attended St. Andrews Univ., where he trained for the priesthood and became familiar with the Protestant heresies. Entered the Roman Catholic priesthood and served as a tutor and notary for the first half of the 1540s, before attaching himself to the Protestant reformer George Wishart. Afterwards he called the Catholic Church, “the synagogue of Satan.” When Wishart was martyred the following year, he took refuge with a revenge-minded coterie of Protestants in St. Andrews Castle and began preaching in the local parish church. After the castle was swarmed by both French and Scottish forces, he served 19 months as a French galley slave, before being released by the new English government, with his zeal undiminished. Spent the next few years preaching in England as a licensed minister of the crown, and served briefly as a royal chaplain. Declined a bishopric, but helped prepare the 2nd Book of Common Prayer. Went into exile shortly after the accession of the Catholic Mary I (Rose Kennedy) in 1553, living chiefly in Geneva and Frankfurt, where he met John Foxe (Nelson Algren) and John Calvin (Martin Heidigger), under whose spiritual sway he fell. Exerted considerable influence in England and Scotland through pamphlets, while urging the overthrow of Mary. Visited Scotland in 1555, preaching privately and counseling Protestant congregations. Returned to Geneva, served briefly, at Calvin’s insistence, to an English refugee congregation in Frankfurt then was pastor to a similar congregation in Geneva, while writing a misogynistic tract against Mary and the Catholic regent of Scotland, although it also alienated Mary’s successor, Elizabeth I (Mae West). Invited back to Scotland to lead a group of reformers called the lords of the congregation, who proved successful in expelling French troops and establishing dominance for their new religion. Married an orphaned Scotswoman who died shortly afterwards, 2 sons from the union. Drew up a confession of faith based on Calvinist principles in 1560, that was passed by the Scottish Parliament, which disassociated the country from Catholicism. When Mary, Queen of Scots (Marguerite Duras) assumed her crown in 1561, however, many Protestant lords deserted Knox and his followers. Stubbornly defied Mary’s authority and thundered against Catholicism from the pulpit and in debates. Mary’s marital shenanigans and the murder of her husband, however, stirred up the lords once again, and after her abdication in 1567, all the earlier acts were reconfirmed and Presbyterianism became the official state religion. Helped create a far more democratic church, which in turn, was later reflected in the government as well. Wound up doing much to extend English political and cultural influence in Scotland, through his fine grasp of language, both in his oral preaching and his pamphleteering. Despite ill-health, he continued to be an outspoken preacher until suffering a paralytic stroke. Dragged himself to the pulpit to remonstrate on the St. Bartholomew Day Massacre of French Protestant Huguenots, and died soon afterwards. Wrote a his/story of the Reformation in Scotland, which was published after his death, and also penned his biography, “History of His Own Times,” which was extremely influential as well. Inner: Zealous and single-minded, with outstanding leadership qualities, although close-minded to divergent views. Felt the Reformation was God’s cause, and was a passionate preacher, able to thread the rational with the emotional. Incorruptible, moral, and more temperate in his private than his public life. Cleansing lifetime of attempting to purify his own ongoing self-aggrandizing through a thorough identification with Puritanism. Gustavus III (1746-1792) - King of Sweden. Outer: Eldest son of the Swedish king, Adolph Frederick, mother was the daughter of the king of Prussia, and the sister of Frederick the Great (J. P. Morgan). Read widely in a somewhat scattershot education, and was infused with a sense of royal entitlement by his parents. At 20, he married Sophia Magdalena, the daughter of the king of Denmark, two sons from union, including his successor, Gustav IV Adolph. Thanks to his preference for men, the marriage remained unconsummated for 11 years, and proved unhappy for both. When a son was born, rumors abounded he was not the father, but he treated his heir and wife with deference. Succeeded his sire at the age of 25. At the French court in Versailles at the time of his succession, he brought back many ideas of the theatricality of power, while introducing French art, manners, culture and food to his country. Proved to be a benevolent despot, and his 21 year reign was called Sweden’s Golden Age. Took over the country in total turmoil and established himself as absolute ruler through a coup d’etat, showing great courage and cunning in doing so. Abolished all forms of torture, improved the lives of the poor, practiced religious toleration and granted freedom of the press, within limits. A poet, playwright and supporter of both the arts and sciences, he was also extravagant and financially irresponsible, negating many of his reforms, while showing himself to be a controversial control freak. Helped create the Swedish theater through his his/torical dramas, and served as a sympathetic protector to all of Sweden’s literary lights. Took as much power as he possibly could, while involving himself in as much detailed governance as he could handle. Relied on those outside official channels, in those areas which he couldn’t, so as to blunt the influence of any and all who might prove a countervailing threat to his supremacy. Expanded the navy to the level of his fellow European superpowers, while initially exhibiting a cautious foreign policy. When his parliament revolted against some of his reforms in 1786, he vowed to rule without them, and became more aggressive internationally, declaring war on Russia, which was engaged in battle with the Ottoman Empire at the time. Withstood a mutiny of some of his officers, and after an epic naval win, won a concessional treaty with Russia. Turned his attention to the rising threat of the Jacobins in France next, although did not live long enough to effect it. Told by a noted Swedish seer four years previously that his rule would be foreshortened by assassination, and true to form, he was assassinated by a disgruntled army officer, Jacob Johan Anckarstrom (James Earl Ray), while attending a masked ball at the Royal theater. Shot in the left side of the back, he cried out in French, “I am wounded, take me away from here and stop him.” His wound was not fatal, and he continued to function for another two weeks, although an infection set in, which ultimately did him in. His last words were, “I feel sleepy, a few moments rest will do me good.” Inner: Dominating political personality, with acute esthetic sensibilities, and a strong will to dominate all and everyone he touched. Aristocratic man of the people, although absolutist in his own dictates. Practice lifetime of martyrdom, reform and language play, three predominating themes that he would repeat on the American stage in his next major go-through of rule in this series, although not before spinning back in time to become a moralist, writer and preacher to give more ballast to his sense of commonality and spirituality. Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449-1492) - Italian Renaissance prince. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent. Outer: Member of the powerful Florentine de’ Medici clan. Father was Piero de’ Medici (Steven Spielberg), mother was the highly intelligent Lucrezia Tournabuoni (Kate Capshaw), from a powerful merchant clan. One of 4 surviving children, including brother Giuliano (Nelson Algren). Grew up at his grandfather Cosimo’s (David Geffen) court, and was tutored by Florence’s leading scholars. His grandfather, who often employed him as his representative on business, died when he was 15. Despite being in love with a married woman, he married at 20 to a depressed, recessive woman his mother had selected for him, Clarice Orsini (Rosie O'Donnell), 10 children from the union, including Piero (Budd Shulberg), Giuliano (Ben Stiller) and Giovanni (David O. Selznick). Succeeded his father at age 20, and maintained control of the government for the rest of his life, allying with the commoners, and keeping his fellow aristocrats in check, while maintaining a balance of power with the other Italian states. Escaped an assassination attempt in 1478 that killed his brother Giuliano, which included the pope as co-conspirator. Able to establish a balance of power between warring Italian states, through personal bravery. A homely, benevolent despot, he was excommunicated and interdicted by the pope following the assassination attempt, but outmaneuvered him by traveling directly to Naples, to talk the latter’s ally into peace, and force the pope to have the excommunication and interdiction withdrawn. Able to have his son Giovanni made cardinal under the next pontiff, assuring the beneficence of Rome. An astute politician, and a patron of the arts and scholars, as well as a scholar and skilled, albeit an imitative poet, reviving Italian as a literary language. Also wrote songs and dramatic pieces. Florentine culture flourished under him, while he surrounded himself with a brilliant literary circle. Supported lavish public entertainments, but was financially untalented. His wife died in 1488, and he was in ill health his last several years. Plagued by hereditary gout and indigestion, he died prematurely, his body worn out. Visited and blessed by the reformist priest Savonarola (Martin Heidigger), just before he went. His family was exiled within 2 years of his death. Inner: Loved practical jokes, physical recreation and pleasures of the mind. Vigorous, autocratic, a true Renaissance prince. Full flower lifetime of incarnating into circumstances that would bring his dual talents for rule and self-expression to the highly noticeable fore, while leaving a rich cultural legacy behind through his sponsorship of the arts and his ability to help harness and reflect the brilliance of his age. Marcus Fronto (c100-c170) - Numidian man of letters. Outer: Native of Numidia, and probably the descendant of Italian immigrants. Educated in Carthage and Rome and attached himself to the court of Hadrian (Charles de Gaulle), where he met fellow scholar, orator and rhetorician, Herodes Atticus (Al Sharpton). Both would become teachers of emperors, including Hadrian’s heir-designate Marcus Aurelius (Martin Heidigger), with whom he had a long and profitable friendship, as well as a correspondence. Gained considerable fame as an advocate, with a reputation as being second only to Cicero, an earlier life of his. Became consul, along with Herodes in 143, for several months, although the 2 had earlier quarreled and later made up their differences. Declined the proconsulship of Asia afterwards on the grounds of ill health. Won a considerable following of self-proclaimed Frontonians, through his orations, and grammatical and rhetorical studies, while amassing a large fortune in the process. Evinced little interest in philosophy, but much affinity for language. Admired Cicero for his stylistics, although found his knowledge of his predecessors’ use of language wanting. A voluminous writer, he put his quill to a wide range of topics, which have come down to posterity in fragments. The last part of his life saw his enveloped in sadness over the loss of all his children save for one daughter. Inner: Hypochondriac, language master and lover of words. Auxiliary lifetime of developing his oral and written skills, while subordinating his political ambitions as secondary to his scholarship and facility with the spoken and scribed word. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-34B.Z.) - Roman statesman, writer and orator. Outer: From a wealthy middle class family of country gentry. Brother of writer Quintus Cicero (Al Sharpton). Received an exemplary education in Greece and Rome in law and philosophy, then saw military service in 89B.Z. Made his first court appearance 8 years later,establishing a reputation for incisive oratory soon afterwards, particularly as the highly articulate voice of the defense. Began his political career in 75B.Z., as a quaestor in western Sicily, and within the decade, was front and center in all the subsequent contemporary Roman power struggles, as the first member of his family to reach the Senate. Allied himself with Pompey (Henry Luce) throughout his career, although evinced mixed feelings about him in his writings. Elected consul in 63 B.Z., and manipulated a death decree on the conservative conspiratorial followers of Lucius Catiline (Benito Mussolini), who wished to assassinate him. Declined to join Julius Caesar’s (Charles de Gaulle) ruling triumvirate, which he viewed as unconstitutional, and was subsequently forced into exile. A champion of ruling-class interests, and an elegant master of Latin prose, as well as a brilliant orator and rhetorician, he, nevertheless, made many bitter enemies, which caused him to continually revamp his positions, as well as leave Rome in haste several times. Plunged into literary production whenever his political will was thwarted. Showed an outstanding range of scholarship, with the ability to provide Rome with a language base for philosophic discourse. His voluminous correspondence was also later collected. Despite opposition to Caesar, he did not participate in his 44B.Z. assassination. Afterwards, he abandoned his earlier politic approach and became an eloquent defender of past Roman republican principals, uncaring any longer about his safety. Underestimated Caesar’s successor and nephew, Octavian (FDR) and became the victim of the Second Triumvirate for his opposition to Marc Antony (Jean de Lattre). Captured and executed, his head and hands were nailed to the rostrum in the Roman forum by Antony’s orders. Inner: Highly articulate and scholarly self-promoter, although far too subjective to see political trends clearly. Strong traditionalist, but extremely political in his desire to maintain his power. Self-described coward, with a difficulty in committing to anything other than his career until its near-end, thanks in some goodly part to his earlier go-round in this series. Golden-tongued lifetime of intertwining his faculty for political prominence with a far greater facility for written and oral exposition, leaving an immortal legacy of language, as well as an adjectivial archetype for articularity, Ciceronian, in his uneven wake. Tiberius Gracchus (Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus) (c167BZ-133BZ) - Roman senator and reformer. Outer: Father of the same name was a leading Roman statesman. Mother, Cornelia, was the younger daughter of Scipio Africanus (Charles de Gaulle) and extremely ambitious for her children, who numbered 12. Older brother of Gaius Gracchus (Al Sharpton). Had a privileged, noble upbringing, with a strong connection to several of the ruling class families, and was given a liberal Greek education, which brought out his social sensitivity to societal imbalance. Married into the powerful Pulcher family, with whom he would ultimately align, and began his military career as a junior office under his uncle, in the 147BZ Carthaginian War, serving with distinction. Had 3 sons, all of whom died young. Became a quaestor, or paymaster, although he was deeply hurt a decade later, when a treaty he negotiated in Spain, which saved his Roman army from annihilation, was repudiated by the Senate. While in Spain he saw the abandonment of peasant holdings and their replacement by slave labor, thanks to large and greedy landholders. Also saw that Rome’s middle-class was quickly disappearing because of unfair land practices, and this issue would become the core of his political life. Wished to reinstate the policy of the previous generation of redistributing public lands to the landless, a minority opinion since the rich and powerful were only interested in accruing to their vast estates. In order to effect change, he became a tribune in 133, a secondary legislative position at the time, which nevertheless, was able to pass reforms on occasion without senatorial approval. Won the support of Rome’s singular consul, as well as several senators aligned with his wife’s family, and introduced his redistribution bill, but it was deemed too radical and was vetoed by another tribune. Had him unconstitutionally deposed, much to shock of some of his supporters, who departed his cause, at this unseemly display of lack of respect for tradition on his part. After the Senate gave him a paltry amount to completely underfund his plan, he maneuvered to have a kingly bequest accepted to finance new small landholdings in Italy, once again completely breaking with ordinary precedent. Threatened with prosecution for his apostasies, he broke a 300 year old tradition by running for tribune again, which further enraged his enemies, who saw this latest move as an egregious power grab by a potential tyrant. Did not suspect the volatility of their reaction, and was subsequently clubbed to death on capital hill by a senatorial group led by his prime enemy, Scipio Nasica Serapio, in a day of general bloodletting for other citizens as well. Inner: Great determination and an equal obstinacy. An autocrat by nature, despite his populist stance, with little real feel for the political processes of his times, despite his good intentions, which also were motivated by personal interest and his own accrual of land and power. Misplayed lifetime of working for the common good from an uncommonly lofty position that did not allow him to see his way through manifesting a much needed idea, and instead, literally getting clobbered for his lack of strategic tact, in yet another of his martyred missions. Pericles (c495-429B.Z.) - Greek statesman. Outer: Born into an old Athenian family. Father Xanthippus was a politician and military commander, while his mother dreamt she bore a lion right before his birth. Had an unusually shaped skull. His early life is largely unknown. Married in his late 20s to a woman of high birth, two sons, divorced a decade later. Rose to prominence as a prosecutor of Cimon, and succeeded to the head of the Athenian democratic party in 461. Continually worked towards making Athens the cultural and political leader of ancient Greece, instituting numerous reforms to insure the advancement of democracy, and saw it reach its imperial apogee. During the 14 years of peace between Sparta and Athens, he proved to be a brilliant orator, as well as an exemplary patron of the arts, drama and music, and overseer of a rich outpouring of Athenian culture that would not be matched again until the Renaissance Florence of Lorenzo de’ Medici, a later life of his. Had a close relationship with his second mistress/wife, Aspasia, whom he took into his house at the age of 50, son from union. Also oversaw the fall of Athens through its participation in the Peloponnesian War, reinforcing the sense of duality in all of his lives. Driven from office by his enemies, he returned and died shortly afterwards during a plague. Inner: Master of language, idealist and demagogue. Dualistic lifetime of intertwining his mutual skills at action and art, as well as his propensity for sudden rises and equally sudden falls.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS LONGTIME LINCOLN COHORT:
Storyline: The Chicago chronicler continues to parallel his fraternal partner, moving with him through a host of divergent cultures, before exploring the seamier side of urban life in order to give himself as full a view of humanity as he can in order to bring forth the full fury of his compassionate and chance-taking nature.

Nelson Algren (Nelson Ahlgren Abraham) (1909-1981) - American writer. Outer: Of Jewish/Swedish and German descent. Father eventually owned a tire and battery shoe and was the son of a Jewish convert, while his mother was of German Jewish extract and owned a candy store. Youngest of three. Moved with his family at 3 to Chicago, and the city and its sub rosa denizens would serve as the backdrop for most of his subsequent literary efforts. Grew up in a working-class milieu and went to public schools, while beginning an obsession with gambling that would continue throughout his life. Went to the Univ. of Illinois, where he studied sociology and journalism in preparation for limning working-class ethnic life. Became a journalist after graduating, following a wanderlust that took him through the midwest, the south, southwest and Mexico, while pursuing a variety of jobs, including fruit picker and salesman. Returned to Chicago, and joined the left-wing John Reed Club, before wandering again. Caught stealing a typewriter in Texas, and was jailed for a month. Back in Chicago, he published his first novel “Somebody in Boots,” based on his Texas misadventures, although its poor reception led to a suicide attempt and rehabilitation at a Chicago psychiatric center. Hung out with junkies, barflies, touts and prostitutes, while penning short stories and working intermittently for the Illinois WPA. In 1937, he married Amanda Kontowicz, whom he would divorce, remarry and divorce again. His second book wound up banned from Chicago’s public libraries because of its depictions of its Czech and Polish populations in unglossed manner. Drafted in 1943, he served in a field artillery unit and then as a litter bearer with the medical corps, while unsuccessfully trying to operate as a black marketeer in liberated France. Returned to Chicago after the war, to yet another poor neighborhood, while continuing his chronicling of the urban underbelly. His works, translated into French, brought him to the attention of Simone de Beauvoir, and a long off-and-on relationship between the two ensued, although the diverse draws of their two cities, Paris and Chicago, would eventually pull them apart after 17 years together, amidst bitter recriminations following an unflattering portrayal of him in the third part of her autobiography, as she returned to her longtime soulmate Jean Paul Sartre. In 1949, he published his best known work, “The Man with Golden Arm,” a junkie chronicle which won him the first National Book Award in 1950. His experience in Hollywood working on the screenplay proved disastrous, and he ultimately sued the producer, Otto Preminger. Only produced one more lasting novel, “A Walk on the Wild Side,” seven years later. Its mixed reception led to another suicide attempt and a brief hospitalization. Having spent his creative coin at this juncture, he continued writing, although produced nothing else of substance afterwards. In 1965 he married actress Betty Ann Jones, divorcing two years later. Taught creative writing at the Univ. of Iowa and Florida, while continuing to gamble and drink heavily. Wound up on NY’s Long Island, and died there of a heart attack. A city street in Chicago was named after him, before residents complained, and it was switched back to its original appellation. Inner: Extremely compassionate with the poor and downtrodden. Left-wing, with little feeling for religion, and a strong identification with society’s rejects. Self-destructive, angry, and slovenly, while always living on the edge. Spent much of his time in bars and at the track, while his writing was as unpolished as his subject matter. Walk on the Wild Side lifetime of immersing himself in a subterranean milieu to bring out his own commonality and perceptions around ordinary life, after many a go-round of privilege and elevated existences. Thomas ‘Tad’ Lincoln (1853-1871) - American political off-spring. Outer: 4th and youngest child of Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln (Rosie O’Donnell). Named after his grandfather, who died two years before he was born. His father was elected president when he was 7. Suffered a speech defect throughout his brief life, from a cleft palate and a lisp, making his communications largely inward. As the favorite child of his sire, he was always viewed as someone special, and was rarely disciplined. Loved to play war games in the White House and had a special military uniform made for him. Following his father’s assassination, he moved to Chicago with his mother, then traveled to Europe with her, living in Germany and England. Died of a lung ailment as an 18 year old, after returning to Chicago. Inner: Slow learner, overactive, and extremely attached to both his parents. Imaginative, sensitive and highly emotional. Candle in the wind lifetime of hero worship for his father, whom he would memorialize as well as mimic in his poetic sensibilities in his next life in this series, while serving as a reminder of the frailty of the human condition. Axel von Fersen the Younger (Hans Axel, Count von Fersen) (1755-1810) - Swedish statesman, diplomat and general. Outer: Eldest of four children of a statesman of the same name, mother was a Swedish countess and related to the Royal House of Vasa. Educated at home and then Germany and Italy, before entering French military service. Handsome, well-socialized and multi-lingual, with fair hair which he later dyed black. Stationed in Paris between 1778 and 1780, then accompanied French general Jean Rochambeau to America as his adjutant in 1780, and served as an interpreter between him and Gen. George Washington (George C. Marshall). Showed himself adept in battle, and was made a proprietary colonel four years after the fighting. Had numerous affairs with married women, most notably with the French queen, Marie Antoinette (Lana Turner), although it may have been platonic, since she was rarely alone. Shone at the French court, through a combination of both grace and wit, then accompanied his sovereign Gustav III (Carl Sandburg) through Italy and France, before returning to Sweden in 1784. When war with Russia broke out in 1788, he went to Finland, before being sent by Gustav to France to be his agent there. Realized soon after, that the monarchy was doomed, and played a leading role in their aborted flight to Varennes in 1791, securing the funds for it, while overseeing the construction of their coach. Served as a disguised coachman in the unsuccessful escape attempt, then was sent to Vienna to try to form a new coalition against revolutionary France, but elicited no interest. Transferred to Brussels, and at great risk, with forged credentials, returned to Paris, only to see that his desire to rescue the queen from certain death was now hopeless. After the assassination of Gustav in 1792, his position in Sweden disintegrated, but when the latter’s inept son, Gustav IV attained his majority in 1796, he was reinstated to his offices. Appointed chancellor of Uppsala Univ. during a period of student unrest, and in 1801 he was made grand marshal of the country. Tried to enlist Prussia against the French emperor Napoleon, then stopped the new king from invading the former as punishment for its refusal to ally against the latter. Suffered disgrace for his effort, although was part of governmental councils whenever Gustav was out of the country. Did not participate in the revolution of 1809 when the king abdicated after a military coup d’etat, while promoting his son, Gustav as his successor. When Carl XIII, a popular Danish prince, was elected by parliament, and then died suddenly, he and his sister were accused of poisoning him, via the popular press and anti-Gustav propaganda. When he led the funeral cortege into the city in his capacity as grand marshal, his carriage was attacked. Sought refuge in a house, but he was seized by a mob, and his ceremonial robes were torn to pieces. Despite being escorted by two officers to the senate house, the crowd rushed him, knocked him down and trampled him to death, crushing his rib cage. Declared innocent afterwards, and was given a state funeral several months later. Inner: Courageous and heroic, a figure of the romantic age, evincing a steadfast competence in virtually all he assayed. Transitional lifetime of opening himself up to the more sensual and martial aspects of existence, after numerous puritanical go-rounds per the dictates of his longtime family, in order to allow him to explore his far larger and more dangerous nature. Increase Mather (1639-1732) - American Puritan minister. Outer: Father was Richard Mather, an English-born American Congregationalist minister. The youngest of 5 sons, of whom 4 became ministers. Brought up in a strict Puritan household, while his early education was at home and a free school in Boston. Entered Harvard at the age of 12, and received his bachelor’s degree 5 years later. His graduation speech attacking the rationality of Aristotelian logic almost caused his dismissal. Preached his first sermon on his 18th birthday. Left soon afterwards for Dublin, where he entered Trinity College, getting his M.A. the following year. Refused to wear his cap and gown at graduation, but received an appreciative hum for his stance. Although chosen a fellow at Trinity, he declined the post. Preached at various churches, but at the Restoration in 1660 and downfall of the Puritan Commonwealth, he left a comfortable living in England and returned home, where he became minister to a Boston church. In 1662, he married his stepsister Maria Cotton, 3 sons and 7 daughters, including his eldest son and famed Puritan minister, Cotton Mather (Martin Heidigger), who was his colleague for 4 decades. In 1683, he announced absolute obedience was to be reserved only for God, not the king of England, and the colonists obeyed by revoking their charter. His subsequent course afterwards, would be largely political, in order to insure the religious integrity of the colony. Made president of Harvard 2 years later, and at the same time, he published a collection of stories showing the divine to be supernaturally entwined with earthly life, which, some said contributed to the witch hysteria in Salem in 1692, although he, as well as his son, demanded full evidence in these cases, which ultimately ended them. Vindicated himself through writing the following year, although enmity persisted against him. Fostered printing, setting up the first printer in Boston in 1675, and then supplying him with a steady flow of material, allowing the city to be the literary metropolis of the country well into the 19th century. Returned to England as a colonial representative to thank the Catholic James II (Martin Sheen) for his declaration of religious toleration. Spent several years there, and, after William III (Lyndon Johnson) acceded to the throne in 1688, had the despised Edmund Andros (Jerry Brown) removed as governor of Mass. Got a new charter in 1691, but both the new governor and it were ill-received. Resigned in protest from Harvard in 1701, because the school opposed the charter as well, but received an honorary doctor of divinity from the school in recognition of its high respect for him. His influence waned his last decade because of the unpopular charter and new governor, as well as the times passing him by as a semi-theocrat. After his wife died in 1714, he married Ann Lake, the widow of his nephew, keeping it in the family in his 2 unions. Published some 40 volumes of his semons in the first two decades of the 18th century, and when he died, virtually every important public figure in Boston attended his funeral procession. Inner: Confrontational Congregationalist, who believed in the rule of the clergy and was not afraid to stand up for his beliefs. Active intellect and Puritan to the core, with a simple, direct writing style. Open-minded toward scientific progress and charitable. Evinced a strong temper, had confidence in his own wisdom and enjoyed power and leading others. Secularly democratic but ecclesiastically authoritarian. Righteous lifetime of continuing his Puritanical purging of his earlier earthy self, while developing his powers of exposition through commentary and storytelling. John Foxe (1516-1587) - English martyrologist. Outer: His father was unknown, and died when his sons were young, at least one brother. His mother remarried, and he had an affectionate relationship with his stepfather. Educated at Oxford, he became a fellow of Magdalen College. Resigned after 7 years, because of an unwillingness to conform to the religious statutes of the school, as well as harboring more extreme Protestant views than the authorities would allow. Began his account of the martyrs of the Church up to the year 1500, but when the Catholic Mary I (Rose Kennedy) ascended to the throne in 1553, he was forced to flee. Published his earliest draft of Actes and Memories, before working in Basel as a reader for a press, at which time he published a religious verse drama, and wrote a passionate appeal to the English nobility to stop persecuting Protestants. Went to Frankfurt, where he supported the Calvinist party of John Knox (Abraham Lincoln). With manuscripts sent from England, he updated his martyrology and had it published in 1559. Returned to London, where he became tutor to the grandchildren of the duke of Norfolk, in order to complete his great work, enlarging his tale via eyewitnesses to include many more contemporary stories. Ordained a deacon of the Church of England and worked for the English Reformation, writing several religious tracts. In 1563, the English translation of his work was published and it gained the popular title of The Book of Martyrs, and became a highly valued work, 2nd in importance only to the Bible in English Puritan homes, as it limned both the Catholic Inquisition and the later English persecution of the early Protestants. Later published 3 more editions, with the 2nd being the standout, although all suffered from his one-sided, prolix view. Ordained an Anglican priest in 1560, but because of Puritan scruples, he refused all offices. Became an effective preacher, most noted for a sermon given at St. Paul’s Cross called “Of Christ Crucified.” As minister to the victims of the plague of 1563, he wrote movingly on it. Became a canon of Salisbury in the same year, but objected to his religious garments as well as having to contribute to the repairs of the cathedral. Later wrote to the queen and her councilors on behalf of condemned Jesuits and Anabaptists. Inner: Highly moral, honest and driven to be a voice for the martyred and the persecuted. Self-discovery lifetime of finding his true metier in language and riding it for considerable influence and religious power, while purifying himself in the process of his previous vanity, carnality and robust earthiness. Giuliano de Medici (1453-1478) - Italian nobleman. Outer: Member of the powerful Renaissance de’ Medici clan. Father was Piero de’ Medici (Steven Spielberg), mother was Lucrezia Tournabuoni (Kate Capshaw). One of 4 surviving children, including brother Lorenzo de’ Medici (Abraham Lincoln). Grew up at grandfather Cosimo’s (David Geffen) court, where he was tutored by Florence’s leading scholars. Athlete and versifier, a healthy, robust playboy who was extremely popular. Illegitimate son became Pope Clement VII (Joseph Bonaparte). Ruled Florence with his brother, although always assumed a secondary role, until he was assassinated during mass by his family’s enemies. Stabbed in the heart while in church, as his brother escaped with a wound to the throat. Inner: Modest, humorous, likable, filled with social graces, holding all the external verities that had been denied his brother, although without any of his ambition or inclination to dominate and rule. Self-sacrificing lifetime of martyrdom, giving himself up on all levels, so that his brother could have extraordinary rule, despite having many of his skills. May have been his last noted lifetime in the political arena, symbolically opening up his heart to its deeper spiritual sensibilities, and turning to the written word for his true means of expression and power. Titus Pomponius Atticus (110-32BZ) - Roman man of letters. Outer: From a patrician background, held the title of knight, and became a celebrated rhetorician. Close friend of Marcus Cicero (Winston Churchill), and longtime correspondent with him. Withdrew from Italy in 88BZ, because of the volatile situation there, and resided in Athens for the next near quarter of a century, gaining the added nomen Atticus for his residence there. Lived a quiet scholarly life there, becoming familiar with Greek thought, literature and language. An Epicurean, who believed in the sheltered, studied life, he wrote several his/stories, although none survived, and edited Cicero’s letters for him. Returned to Rome, added to his fortune with the death of a rich uncle in 58, and took on the former’s name, while remaining remote from Roman political life. Always active in the business realm, he retained numerous slaves as copyists, while serving as a publisher for Cicero. Able to live out a full life, thanks to his apolitical stances. Inner: Sheltered lifetime of playing with letters, while serving as the publishing amanuensis for his longtime wordmaster and idol, in order to one day try to achieve similar status.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS COMEDIENNE AND TRAGEDIENNE:
Storyline: The comic contrarian continues to open herself up to her true gifts as a hostess with the mostest, while making sure she is seen and heard twice over, controversial opinions and all, after an earlier go-round of having her neurotic needs roundly and very publicly ignored.

Rosie O’Donnell (Roseanne O’Donnell) (1962) - American comedienne and talk-show host. Outer: Named after her mother, who was a gifted amateur comedienne.; father was a camera designer for spy satellites. Disconnected from the latter, who was distant and emotionally unavailable. 3rd of 5 children. Had a fascination with show business from early childhood on, always enjoyed clowning and performing. Her mother died of breast cancer when she was 10. Unable to process the loss, she began seeing a therapist at 16, despite subsequently being high school homecoming queen, prom queen and senior class president. At 17, she accepted a dare to do stand-up comedy at the Roundtable Restaurant in Long Island. 5’7”, with a tendency to put on weight. Attended Dickinson College, initially to become a doctor, through a great desire to both help and heal people. Also attended Boston Univ. Began her career as a stand-up comedienne, offering her perceptions on ordinary life. Became a semi-finalist on TV’s “Star Search,” in 1984, which launched her public career. Did the sitcom, “Gimme a Break,” for 2 seasons, then was a video jockey on MTV, getting her own show, before beginning a film career, mostly in supporting comic roles. Played Rizzo in a revival of “Grease” on Broadway. An acknowledged homophile, she adopted 4 children, and lives in the former house of Broadway actress Helen Hayes. Came into prominence with a highly popular talk show on TV in the late 1990s, where she deliberately countered the prevailing sleaze of the time by being an unabashed cheerleader for her guests, earning her the sobriquet of ‘The Queen of Nice.’ A promoter of causes, theater enthusiast, and icon for excitable fans, she enjoyed the power of her own pronouncements on products and personalities, and was able to maintain her relative innocence despite her extreme celebrity. In 2001, she launched Rosie, a monthly magazine risen out of the ashes of the old McCall’s, in anticipation of ending her TV show the following year, while publishing her unrevealing memoirs, “Find Me,” at the same time. Finally officially came out of her self-imposed closet in 2002, although did it softly so as not to ruffle her various enterprises. With the end of her show, however, she exhibited a far angrier, vindictive persona in her stand-up routines, then disassociated herself from her eponymous magazine, when it didn’t reflect her views, while continuing to manifest a much more contentious public face, as she and the magazine sued and countersued one another to no avail. Appeared on Broadway and in 2004, produced her first Broadway show, “Taboo,” using her own $10 million, and her persuasive powers to keep it afloat after tepid reviews, before it swiftly folded, as the male lead openly battled with her. Married her longtime female partner, Kelli Carpenter, a former marketing director for Nickelodeon, on the steps of San Francisco’s City Hall in 2004, as the highest profile union in that city’s testing of America’s sentiments about official same-sex partnership. Returned to daytime TV in the fall of 2006 as a cast member of the all-female, “The View,” and injected herself back into America’s livingrooms, as a considerably more controversial character than the one who had left 4 years earlier. Immediately upped the show’s viewership, thanks to her highly opinionated presence on it, and her willingness to stand up for her own nonconformist views, while outraging America’s more conservative element with her stances, giving them yet another bete noir to hammer at. Eventually terminated her prickly presence after a final yelling bout, less than a year into the show, when her contract demands were not met by the network, and she refused to roll over for the producers. Later claimed her exit was a calculated push for her book, “Celebrity Detox.” Revealed in the latter that she used to break the bones in her hands and fingers to give her a sense of self-value. Launched her own satellite radio talk-show on Sirius in 2009, and admitted KC had left her two years earlier. Took up with Texas artist Traci Katchik-Anders afterwards, adding her five adopted children, most with with special needs, along with her Down Syndrome son to her brood. Used estrogen to get her back in touch with her emotional core, which enabled her to return to TV in 2011 on the Oprah Network with “The Rosie Show,” a mixture of stand-up, music, and a single subject C-list celebrity, which lost half its audience its first week and never recovered, causing the show to be canceled in early 2012. After announcing another engagement, she discovered her fiancee, Michelle Rounds, has rare desmoid tumors, a cancer-lke condition that does not spread, although it did not halt their marriage that summer. One adopted daughter from the union. Suffered a heart attack afterwards but made a speedy recovery, then lost 50 pounds, after life saving vertical gastric sleeve surgery in 2013. After a complete overhaul following Barbara Walters' retirement, returned to "The View" in 2014. Inner: Strongly opinionated, contentious perfectionist and a deliberate lightning rod for anti-liberals. Extremely generous and a celebrator of her own ordinariness, to the point of pugnacity. Shameless romantic, television addict, exuberant teenager-at-heart, while continually doing battle with the results of her oral compulsions. Continuation lifetime of bringing her big heart to the public stage once more, while becoming ever more political and confrontational as recompense for still deeply-buried anger from her checkered past. Elsa Maxwell (1883-1964) - American party-giver, actress and radio gossip. Outer: Born in an opera box seat during a performance of “Mignon,” the story of a woman who goes insane and dies, a loose retelling of her previous life in this series. Father was a newspaper columnist and insurance salesman. Grew up in California, and left school at 14, although later fabricated a more extended education for herself. Went to work as a theater pianist, playing by ear, despite never having taken music lessons. Joined a Shakespearean troupe as an odd-jobs girl, before taking to the stage herself as a vaudevillian, ultimately working in South African music halls. Short, stout and plain-looking. In her mid-20s, she began writing songs, publishing some 80 compositions. At the same time, she started to mingle with society figures, and used her gregarious, ebullient personality to work her way up the social ladder, joining the international set in both Europe and the U.S. By WW I, she was a renowned party giver for cafe society and royalty in Europe, pioneering the intermix of the social register with show business personalities. Won renown for her ability to attract big-name guests and keeping them diverted and amused. Invented the ‘scavenger hunt,’ which became an extremely popular party game. Planned several resorts in Monaco in the mid-1920s, as well as the International Motor Boat Races in Venice. Returned to NYC in the early 1930s, and published her memoirs serially in Harper’s Bazaar. Eventually moved to Hollywood in 1938, where she appeared in several movie shorts. Began a radio gossip program in 1942, “Elsa Maxwell’s Partyline,” and also did a syndicated gossip column, while continuing her role as hostess for prominent social figures. Dedicated her life largely to being heard and serving the wealthy. In 1954, she wrote her autobiography, R.S.V.P. Ended her career as a weekly regular on the Jack Paar “Tonight” show. Never married, finding her social career far too consuming for any singular relationship. Inner: High-spirited, extremely social and fun-loving, with a sexual predisposition towards women. Didn’t drink, save for an occasional glass of wine. Saw the world as her husband, and disliked the idea of priapic congress. Coming out lifetime of making sure people listened to her and empowered her, after a tragic go-round where they did not. Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882) - American political helpmate. Outer: Father was a grocer, banker and clerk in House of Representatives. Her mother died after childbirth when she was 6. 3rd of 6 surviving children. Brought up as an aristocrat-in-training, although she disliked her father’s 2nd wife. Inherited his passion, however, for Whig politics. Moved to her sister’s house at 18, broke an engagement with Abraham Lincoln (Carl Sandburg), then married him in 1842, 6 children, l dying in early childhood, the second at 11 and the third, Tad (Nelson Algren) at 18. Attracted to his impulsiveness and passion, she foresaw her husband would be president. Entertained and zestfully aided her spouse’s rise to power. An excellent hostess and party-giver, she was also highly extravagant, with an inability to handle loss, be it political or personal. There is a distinct possibility that Lincoln infected her with syphilis early in the marriage. Became a self-appointed political adviser to her mate, which earned her a reputation as meddlesome and intrusive. Willfully redecorated the White House, overrunning budgeted public funds. Became absolutely unhinged at her husband’s assassination in 1865, after earlier showing excessive grief at the loss of her 11 year old. Afterwards, she battled with Congress over her pension, began hallucinating and going on wild spending sprees, while being haunted by fears of poverty, and obsessing over clothing. Made one suicide attempt. Began relying on spiritualists, and made 2 self-imposed exiles to Europe. Dressed in black the rest of her life, and went through a period of insanity, causing her oldest son, Robert, to have her committed to an asylum for a year in 1875 against her will, after a trial found her incompetent. In 1876, she was declared “restored to reason,” and immediately severed all contact with her son, before going off to Europe, spending the next four years on the continent, while basing herself in Pau, France. Passed her waning years in deep melancholy and depression, living with her sister, and sleeping on only one side of her bed in order to leave “the President’s place” on the other side undisturbed. Old and weary by the time of her death from complications of diabetes and a stroke. Inner: Lively, social, once courted by Lincoln’s rival Stephen Douglas (Barack Obama). Also suffered from migraine headaches, and an excessive bad temper. Garnered much opprobrium in the press for being too noticeable in her dress and habits. Greedy for public recognition and extremely materialistic. Probably felt the death of her children were recompense for her ambitions, and may have suffered from a personality disorder exacerbated by her high public profile. Loss-laden lifetime of great tragedy, as well as feeling disempowered and not listened to, necessitating a return as someone who had everyone’s ear. Clarice de’ Medici (1453-1488) - Florentine political helpmate. Outer: Daughter of the powerful Roman Orsini family. Chosen by Lorenzo de’ Medici’s (Abraham Lincoln) mother to be his bride, and though he was unimpressed with her and in love with another, the 2 married amidst spectacular festivities in 1469. 10 children from the union, including Piero (Budd Shulberg), Giuliano (Ben Stiller) and Giovanni (David O. Selznick). She was probably overwhelmed right from the start at the match, and remained in a state of morbid melancholy for the rest of her life, which was constitutional, and nothing her husband did ever alleviated her mood. Dull, querulous and silly, he nevertheless treated her with respect and courtesy, while she dutifully bore their large brood and bored everyone around her, when not angering them with her petulance. Also brusque with her social inferiors. The couple did not spend very much time together, although she maintained a respectability despite her egregious personality defaults. Returned with a daughter to her native city, died there and was perfunctorily mourned by her husband. Inner: Melancholy, proud, bigoted and spiteful to boot. Superfluous lifetime of evincing the same unintegrated interior she would in her next noted life with the same mate, perhaps acting out his own shadow, unclaimed side, which she was finally able to shed in the 20th century on her own.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICO AS ATTENTION-GETTING LIBERTARIAN:
Storyline: The telegenic temperance-expounder knows how to spotlight herself, showing a fierce and obdurate fanaticism in all her evangelizing lives, no matter the movement she personifies, in her ongoing self-appointed role as a uniquely American crusader.

Christine O’Donnell (1969) - American media personality. Outer: Of Irish and Italian descent. Second youngest of six children in a conservative Catholic household. Attended Fairleigh Dickinson University, with the thought of pursuing a theatrical career, but got lost in drinking and disconnected relationships, before having an epiphany and swearing off both. Became an evangelical Christian afterwards, while preaching abstinence, including adulterous intertwining with one’s own fingertips and private erogenous zones. Active politically on campus as a Republican, although never received her degree. Went to work afterwards for “Enough is Enough,” an anti-pornography group, then signed up with the Republican National Committee, before linking herself as a spokesperson for Concerned Women for America, a conservative Christian group that employs the Bible as its basis for public policy, including abortion and sexual abstinence. Naturally telegenic and voluble, she founded SALT, or The Savior’s Alliance for Lifting the Truth, and became a favorite foil in the 1990s for Bill Maher’s “Politically Incorrect,” providing extremely entering fodder, including an admission of brief Satanic dabbling while in high school. Given a Lincoln Fellowship to the Claremont Institute, a conservative think tank in 2002. Moved to Delaware the following year to work for Intercollegiate Studies Institute, later suing them for gender discrimination, although was forced to drop the suit because of attorney fees. Her income dwindled to well below the poverty line, causing her to lose her house, while she had a lien filed on her by the IRS for failure to pay back taxes. Despite her personal financial ineptitude, she managed to maintain a high profile with Fox News appearances, and made her first stab at public office in 2006, finishing third in the Delaware Republican primary for the Senate, which inspired her to be a write-in candidate, ultimately garnering 4 % of the vote. Two years later, she won the primary, only to lose to ultimate vice-president Joe Biden by a margin of nearly two-to-one, while running up $23,000 in debt. Immediately began campaigning to replace the latter when he resigned his seat, and against all odds, she won the Delaware Republican Senate nomination in 2010, beating out Mike Castle, a former governor and longtime pol. Received Tea Party endorsements, as well as the blessing of Sarah Palin, although also collected her share of Republican denunciations for financial improprieties and questions of fraud around her record. Her past TV appearances would also come to haunt her, forcing her to make a unique ad in political annals, announcing “I am not a witch,” which concluded with the boast, “I am you.” A favorite of both satirists and extremists, she remains, much like Sarah Palin, a unique personality on the larger political scene, with an excellent instinct for drawing attention to herself through outrageous statements and intransigent views. Managed to collect a huge war chest without getting mainstream Republican support, although lost by 17% points in one of the few states that supported the Obama agenda, while promising she wouldn’t be melting away anytime soon in her concession speech.. Inner: Ingenuous, feisty, highly opinionated and more-than-willing to play the fossilized fool in order to keep her name before the public. Crusader lifetime of continuing to pursue her earlier obsessions on a much more visible scale, trading in her previous pen for ongoing small screen appearances, as a champion of individual rights and antediluvian sentiments against big unfeeling overtaxing government. Rose Wilder Lane (1886-1968) - American writer and libertarian. Outer: Oldest child of “Little House on the Prairie” author Laura Ingalls Wilder (Bristol Palin) and Almanzo Wilder (Todd Palin). Lost a baby brother in infancy while suffering continual hardships during her upbringing. Precocious, anxious, bookish and guilty as a child, over her mother’s exacting on her. Moved often with her family, before finally settling in Missouri where her parents had a forty-acre fruit and dairy farm they named Rocky Ridge. Proved an adept student and fast learner, graduating at the head of her high school class in 1904, although the family could not afford to send her to college. Learned telegraphy and began working for Western Union, which ultimately occupied her over the next five years. In 1909 she married a salesman and part-time newspaperman, Claire Gilette Lane. One stillborn son from the union, and subsequent surgery made her unable to bear anymore children. Traveled the U.S. with her spouse, engaging in a variety of enterprises, while feeling more and more disillusioned with both her marriage and her general existence. May have attempted suicide during this time with chloroform. Continued her self-education, and did some newspaper work, as well as sold real real estate in California, becoming one of the first of her gender to do so in the Golden State. Ultimately divorced her husband in 1918, and though she had several relationships afterwards, none were serious, and she never remarried. Worked as an editorial assistant on the San Francisco Bulletin, eventually getting her own byline, while also penning romantic serials. Her letters and her diaries showed her overt life and personal life were quite the opposite, with the latter far more honest in her appraisal of things. Became a freelance writer after WW I, appearing in a host of popular magazines, while her novels sold well, and her short stories won praise. Co-wrote a biography of Herbert Hoover in 1920, becoming a lifelong friend of his, as his ongoing supporter, even after his disastrous presidency. By decade’s end, she was one of America’s best-known and paid female writers, but her ongoing generosity with both family and friends kept her in continual debt. Maintained a strong interest in politics, while also falling victim to periodic depression, seeing herself as a manic-depressive. Did ghost-work during her down periods, while working as a correspondent during her up times, traveling extensively for the Red Cross. Had an infatuation with Albania, living there for several periods, while also limning her travels in book form. Returned to her paren’ts farm in 1928, while educating two local orphan brothers there. May have helped ghostwrite her mother’s famous “Little House on the Prairie” series, although her contributions remain unclear, other than her serving as an active support for the books. Ultimately settled in Danbury, Connecticut in 1938, spending the rest of her life there. During WW II she penned a weekly column for the Pittsburgh Courier, a black newspaper, evincing her own true colors as a libertarian, a movement in which she would get deeply involved for the latter part of her life. Showed herself to be antiracist and anti-New Deal, as her entire writing focus turned to the political, with a strongly anti-Roosevelt bias and the “creeping socialism” she felt he brought to America. Lived a spartan life, mimicking her forebearers’ pioneering ways, while remaining a champion of individual freedom, seeing liberty as an enduring American tradition. Opposed Social Security, and made the FBI’s scrutiny list for her various advocacies, while launching the libertarian movement, taking credit for coining the term. Wrote and lectured and remained a public scold, while supporting libertarian institutions. Helped in turning her family homestead into a museum following her mother’s death in 1957, while inheriting the royalties from her mother’s series of books, allowing her to travel extensively, and renovate and remodel her own rural homestead. Continued her writing, including a popular herstory of American needlework. Died in her sleep just prior to launching a three year world tour. On the back of her tombstone would read the legend, “An army of principles will penetrate where an army of soldiers cannot. Neither the Channel nor the Rhine will arrest its progress. It will march on the horizon of the world and it will conquer.” Inner: Feisty, principled, crusading, self-abnegating, and highly expressive. Extremely cynical about the inherent cruelty of humanity. Libertarian lifetime of expanding her powers of communication through a familiar familial base, while writing her name large in the pantheon of larger-than-life eccentric American personalities. Nancy Hanks Lincoln (1784-1818) - American seamstress and presidential progenitor. Outer: Little known of her early life, and her paternity is unclear. Her father may have died shortly after her birth, or, more than likely, she may have been born out of wedlock as a result of a higher-stationed planter seducing her mother. As a child, she moved with the latter to Kentucky, where her mother remarried. Went to live with an uncle and aunt who were brother and sister of her stepfather and mother, with her aunt becoming a surrogate mother for her. Exhibited skills with a needle, and became an expert seamstress, while also showing psychic abilities. 5’7”, 120 lbs., with dark hair and hazel eyes. Occasionally lived with the families for whom she sewed, and was much in demand for her services. In 1806, she married Tom Lincoln (Todd Palin), a carpenter. The duo had a daughter, Sarah (Bristol Palin) and then in 1809, she gave birth to future president Abraham Lincoln, on a bed of poles covered with corn husks. A second son who died in infancy followed. In 1816, the family moved to southern Indiana, and settled in the wilderness, with her aunt and uncle soon moving in nearby. Extremely ambitious for her children, she read from the family Bible to them, imbuing her son with a deep sense of the power of language. Their roughhewn idyll was ended summarily when she became ill with milk sickness, a dis-ease contracted when her cows ate poisonous white snakeroot. Both her aunt and uncle died of it, and she succumbed, as well, struggling for a week, before finally dying, with her children by her bedside. Her son would help carve the pegs for her coffin, which his father built, and she was buried without a funeral service, although several months later official words would be said over her. Inner: Deeply religious, and cheerful with a strong work ethic. Her son would later declare her the most important influence on his extraordinary life. Well-loved lifetime of planting a potent scion seed, but not living long enough to see it fully sprout, before embarking on her own memorable career as a wielder of a prolific and quixotic pen.

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PATHWAY OF THE PROGENITOR AS WELL-CHRONICLED WORKING MAN:
Storyline: The homebody homesteader gains fame through his serial association with a fame-besotted governor, a micro-herstorian and a world-famous son, via his diligent work ethic and his steady perseverance through whatever trials were are thrown at him.
Todd Palin (1964) - American political helpmate. Outer: Father was a general manager of an electrical association, and through his mother, he is one-quarter Yup’ik. Attended Wasilla High School, where he met his future wife, Sarah Heath, a fellow basketball player. Although he took some college courses, his formal education ended soon afterwards. Went to work for British Petroleum in 1988 as a production operator, and the same year, he eloped with Sarah Heath on her return from college. Five children from the union, including daughter Bristol, along with an older and younger son, and two other daughters. Their final child would be born 20 years into the union and suffer from Down Syndrome. Worked for BP for 18 years in the Alaskan oil fields, and also proved himself a champion snowmobiler, winning the Tesoro Iron Dog competition, an annual 200 mile trek from Wasilla to Nome to Fairbanks, in 1995, 2000, 2002 and 2007. Worked as a commercial fisherman as well, during the summers in the salmon fisheries of Bristol Bay. In 1995, he officially affiliated himself with the Alaska Independence Party, a political group that promoted the state’s secession from the rest of the U.S., and was an integral support to his wife’s burgeoning political career. Saw his stepmother lose when she tried to succeed his spouse as mayor of Wasilla in 2002, when the latter supported her Republican opponent. After his wife became governor, he quit his job to avoid conflicts of interest charges, and became ‘First Dude,’ operating behind the scenes as an adviser and an extremely important adjunct to her various public offices. Came to national attention when his wife was selected as the Republican v-p runningmate of John McCain in 2008, while continuing to remain in the background, although his manipulations came to the fore over the firing of a state trooper who had been married to his wife’s sister. Received the Secret Service code-name of Driller, and has maintained his relatively low profile throughout his spouse’s subsequent rise as a superstar of the American reactionary right. Canards about his wife’s earlier intimate relations with his business partner in a slime-bio by Joe McGinniss in 2011 eventually brought him to the forefront defending her honor and integrity. During the summer of 2012, he became part of the competitive cast of “Stars Earn Stripes,” in which conterstants teamed up with members of the U.S. military to compete at war-like tasks, as he continues his family’s fascination with low grade reality TV, in this instance, reducing combat and its horrors to mindless entertainment. Inner: Even-keeled, practical, down-to-Earth. Active youth councilor, and very much involved in his wife’s public career as a private support. Palatine lifetime of raising his own profile considerably, after many a go-round of serving as ballast for the fame and fortunes of his far better-known family members. Almanzo Wilder (1857-1949) - American homesteader. Outer: Parents were successful farmers in upstate NY. Fifth of six children. His unusual first name was part of a family legend dating back to he Crusades, and is an English transliteration of the Arab word Mansour, which means “victorious.” His wife would later immortalize his childhood in “Farmer Boy.” Active physically, he moved with his family to Minnesota in his late teens when their crops failed, and established a flourishing farm there. Along with a brother and a sister, when he came of age, he moved further west to De Smet in the Dakota Territory in 1879, to establish his own homestead. Subsequently saved the town from starvation, with a winter journey to buy enough wheat to last until the spring. Helped the Ingalls family in the process, and won the heart of their daughter Laura (Bristol Palin). Following a three year courtship, the two were wed in 1885, and the following year, they had a daughter, Rose (Christine O’Donnell), who would become a well-known writer and libertarian on her own. Forced to struggle on the unyielding prairie, through a series of unforgiving hardships, and in 1888, both he and Laura came down with diphtheria. Tried to continue working while he was still sick, and had a stroke, which left him partially paralyzed, and dependent on a cane to walk the rest of his life. Further ill fortune soon followed in the form of a son who died after only a few weeks and a fire which consumed both their barn and home. A subsequent drought, along with his limitations forced him to give up their wheat farm and move back in with his parents for a while. The couple then decided to go to Florida for his health, but his wife found the climate and heat oppressive, and they were soon back in the upper midwest. Rented a house in De Smet, and worked as a carpenter and day laborer, while his wife served as a seamstress. With money saved, they moved via covered wagon to Mansfield, Missouri, and bought a 40 acre spread, which his wife dubbed “Rocky Ridge Farm.” Slowly cleared and developed it over the next two decades, expanding it to 200 acres, and building a 10 room home, while raising poultry and dairy and tending a large apple orchard. Along with his wife, he was active in their community, and after a long life of toil and a slowing down due to retirement, they suddenly found their savings wiped out by the stock market crash. His wife’s writing skills subsequently saved them, and he enjoyed her publishing success with the “Little House on the Prairie,” series, which began coming out in the 1930s, as a colloboration between his spouse and daughter, who had come to live with them during that period. Able to spend his twilight years indulging in a little auto travel, as well as his lifelong love of carpentry. Suffered a pair of heart attacks and died as a result of them in his 92nd year. Inner: Quiet, friendly, well-liked, stoic and hardworking. Loved both horses and farming, as well as working with wood. Hand’s on lifetime of being both well-rewarded and immortalized in print, for his willingness to tackle adversity without complaint, and ultimately prevail as a stalwart exemplar of the ethics of unremitting perserverance and hard work. Tom Lincoln (1778-1851) - American homesteader and carpenter. Outer: Of English stock. Parents were farmers who moved to Kentucky when he was a young child. While his mother would live until her 90s, his father was murdered in front of him by indigenes when he was 8. Fourth child, and one of the family supports afterwards. Grew up with a strong sense of responsibility, and became a skilled carpenter, while also holding several other jobs. 5’10”, 190 lbs. and solidly built. Moved to Hardin County, Kentucky, and with his earnings, in 1803, bought a 238 acre farm. In 1806, he married Nancy Hanks (Christine O’Donnell), and they soon had a daughter, Sarah (Bristol Palin). The following year, he bought a 300 acre Kentucky farm, and there on February 12th, 1809, they had a son, Abraham Lincoln, who would grow up to become a martyred president of the United States. A second son died in infancy. Active in both community and church affairs, he had a contentious relationship with his scion, born out of a tendency for noncommunication, as well as the latter’s misperception of him as unambitious. Nevertheless, he encouraged his son’s reading and education, and when he disciplined him, it was out of a sense of bettering him, which the boy came to resent, projecting all the good qualities of parenthood on his beloved mother, and the negative traits on him. Through confusing land title laws, he lost his farm, and then moved to Indiana, where the title law was far clearer. Alongside his son, he cleared the land he bought, built a home, and turned his land it into a working plot, while also augmenting his income with carpentry. In 1818, his wife contracted milk dis-ease from cow’s grazing on poisonous white snakeroot, and died, along with an aunt and uncle who lived nearby. The following year, he married a widow with three children he had known for many years, Sarah Bush, and she proved a nurturing mother to his own two children. A nephew, who was son of the couple who had died along with his wife, joined the household to make a combined family of 6 children and two adults. Continued his farming and carpentry, which included helping to build a local Baptist Church, and by 1827, he owned 100 acres outright. Three years later he decided to move everyone, lock, stock and barrel, to Illinois, eventually finding a prairie homestead site that would become his permanent home. Bought his final farm in 1840, and built a double-room log cabin, in which his extended family and their progeny lived. By the following year he had 120 acres, of which he sold a third to Abraham, now a successful lawyer, in order to get out of debt. Continued his hardworking ways until his end of days, and as a final commentary of father and son, his soon-to-be-famous scion did not attend his funeral. Inner: Quiet, hardworking, well-liked and religious, with an inability to communicate his love for his scion. Good storyteller, and anti-slavery, with a strong, moral ethic, although largely uneducated. Sweat of the brow lifetime of giving birth and foundation to a great American life, only to be rejected for his efforts through a misreading of his character and heart by his otherwise extremely well-read progeny.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS PIONEER TURNED MEDIA PERSONALITY:
Storyline: The countrified chronicler continues her longtime familial associations, while rising to semi-star status early in life to see how it will affect both her perspective and her ongoing place in the herstory of America, as a member of a high profile political crew .
Bristol Palin (Bristol Sheerin Marie Palin) (1990) - American media personality. Outer: Second of five children of Sarah and Todd Palin, with two younger sisters and an older and much younger brother. Named after the town of Bristol, Connecticut where her mother was employed by ESPN, as well as Bristol Bay, where her father grew up. Raised in Wasilla, Alaska, and also lived in Anchorage, before graduating from her native high school in 2009. The year previous, her mother, who had been elected governor of Alaska, was named the Republican vice-presidential candidate to running-mate John McCain, suddenly thrusting her family deep into the national spotlight. Shortly afterwards, it was revealed she was pregnant by a feckless boyfriend, Levi Johnston, much to her mother’s image-conscious chagrin. Drug use would also be rumored in her rebellious teenage arsenal, although she and Levi were presented as a handsome young couple imminently altar-bound throughout the election season. Her paramour’s further philandering and inconstancy made the projected wedding an on-again, off-again, on-again, and finally permanently off-again affair by 2010, when it was revealed he had fathered another child out-of-wedlock. Some question would also arise whether the fifth child in her parent’s menagerie, who suffered from Down Syndrome, was hers as well. Became a paid spokesperson for teenage abstinence following her mother’s defeat, and subsequent all-out assault on the conservative imagination of the country, making her a semi-ubiquitous figure as well. Had a son at the end of 2008, then had to go to court over child support and custody rights. Worked for a while in a dermatologist’s office while taking community college courses, before moving back in with her parents. Her continued public profile, which would be augmented by TV appearances, would make her a well-paid speaker, who could demand between $15k and $30k for her advice to potentially loose young women, and would also lead to an appearance on season 6 of “Dancing With the Stars,” with her mother in highly noticeable attendance in the audience. Although her terpsichorean skills would prove to be modest-at-best, Tea Party supporters voting from home would keep her on, despite low scores, all the way to the finals, where she came in third and last. In 2010, students protested vehemently at Washington Univ. over paying her $20k to take part in a discussion duing “Sex Week” canceling her appearance, although it was later revealed she pulled in over a quarter of a million for her teen pregnancy awareness campaign. Increasingly more liberal in her views, after realizing how sheltered she had been from the real world, which would estrange her from her mother.Bought a home in Arizona, and hooked up with Kyle Massey, a black entertainer, to try to produce a reality show around a charity they were setting up, while slowly and steadily becoming her own woman, replete with a newly sculpted chin, via plastic surgery. The show never aired, and she was subsequently sued over its failure to do so. Co-wrote her first memoir, “Not Afraid of Life: My Journey So Far,” dissing the seductive father of her son, who stole her innocence through alcohol, while lavishing praise on her own family. Announced in 2012 she was sick of Hollywood and all the unwanted attention she was receiving, and was moving from the bright lights of Tinsel Town back to the Arctic lights of Alaska. Launched a reality show beforehand, “Life’s a Tripp,” showing herself bringing up her son in a huge Beverly Hills manse, to little critical or viewer interest, until his potty mouth put into question her parenting skills, and elicited a suit from her publicity-hungry ex, Levi, for full custody of the child. Returned to “Dancing With the Stars” afterwards as one of its 2012 all-star contestants, only to be eliminated in the fourth week. Inner: Bright, personable and articulate, with a centerstage desire comparable to her mother’s in staying in the spotlight for as long as she can. Big house on the tundra lifetime of playing with both fame’n’fortune from the beginning, rather than the end of her go-round, as she did her previous life in this series, while maintaining many of the same familial ties as yore, in her ongoing flirtation with celebrity and renown. Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867-1957) - American writer and pioneer. Outer: Descended from Mayflower stock. Mother had been a schoolteacher before marrying, proving extremely self-reliant afterwards. 2nd of 5 children, with her only brother dying at 9 months, and her oldest sister going blind early from illness. Had a rural log cabin birth, before her restless sire kept uprooting the family, and moving it around the midwest. Finally settled in the Dakota territory, in a little house on the prairie, where her sire took a railroad job. Later, she would both fictionalize her adventures in novelistic form and also limn them as they happened in an unpublished autobiography, keeping a literal double set of books on her life. At 15, while still attending school, she also became a teacher, more to supplement her family’s income, than from any love for the profession. A tomboy and her father’s favorite, she was 4’11” and petite. In 1886, she married homesteader Almanzo Wilder (Todd Palin), the brother of one of her teachers, and immediately became a full-time homesteader. One daughter from the union survived into adulthood, Rose Wilder Lane (Christine O’Donnell), who would become a noted writer and libertarian, while a son died in infancy. Settled into a 320 acre wheat farm, until her husband became partially paralyzed from diphtheria, although eventually regained his legs, with the use of a cane. Subsequently weathered a fire that burned down their home and barn, but couldn’t overcome several years of drought, which left them in debt. In 1890, she was forced to spend a year with her spouse’s parents on their Minnesota farm, before they headed to Florida to see if a warmer clime would assist in her husband’s healing. Disliked the heat and intense humidity, and returned to the plains to buy a small house. Worked as a seamstress, while her husband did day labor in order to start over again, and in 1894, they had enough money to move to Mansfield, Missouri. Named their 40 acres Rocky Ridge Farm, and through dint of their labors, expanded it over the next two decades to a 200 acre spread, where they raised poultry and dairy and had an abundant apple orchard. Before they could do so, however, they had to spend numerous years clearing the land and eking out a subsistence living, while living in town in a rented house. Took in boarders, while her spouse worked as an oil salesman, until her in-laws gave them the house they were renting. Able to sell it, and move full-time to the farm. By 1912, they had a 10 room farmhouse, and a successful growing concern. Viewed as an expert at what she did, which led to a second career as a speaker to regional groups. As her daughter began to be recognized for her writing, she, too, turned to the pen to further express herself. An article in a local paper, the Missouri Ruralist, turned her into a columnist and editor for that publication, while she augmented her income by working for the Farm Loan Association. Her daughter Rose, a world traveler by now, and successful journalist, moved back with her parents, as they shifted into retirement mode. The stock market crash wiped out their investments, and suddenly they were in need of income again, which lead in the 1930s to the series of books for she would become famous, beginning with “Little House in the Big Woods,” in 1933. Throughout the decade and the next one her further chronicles would follow, with “Little House on the Prairie,” coming out in 1935. Some controversy would linger as to how much Rose contributed to the books as either editor or co-writer or co-shaper, while they finally gave the family complete financial security. Rose eventually left the farm to continue to pursue her own career , and in 1949, her husband died. Supported by neighbors and friends, she continued on the farm, until undiagnosed diabetes and a heart condition finally did her in. Wished to live to 90, as her husband had, and just barely did so, dying in her sleep four days later. The “Little House” series would go on to a life of its own, including spinoffs and more books, as well as a longrunning TV series beginning in 1974, and a trio of films afterwards, so as to permanently imbed them in later American cultural consciousness. Inner: Headstrong, and highly competitive, as well as extremely social, with a strong work ethic and a need to be always active. Expressed a love for the sweet, simple things of life. Wanted to preserve her childhood for future generations of children to help them understand her part of their past. Pen-in-hand lifetime of actively carving a life for herself out of the prairie heartland, and then immortalizing it for generations to come through her storytelling skills. Sarah Lincoln Grigsby (1807-1829) - American pioneer. Outer: Born in a rustic cabin to homesteaders Nancy Hanks (Christine O’Donnell), and Tom Lincoln (Todd Palin). Older sister of future president Abraham Lincoln, with one younger brother who died in infancy. The family moved several times during her first few years, and she wound up attending a log schoolhouse with her brother. Nicknamed ‘Sally’ by the family, she closely watched over her younger brother through their formative years as an overprotective second mother. Lost her mother in 1818 to milk sickness, and took over many of her domestic roles until her father married Sarah Bush Johnston the following year. Her stepmother brought her own three children into the household, along with a cousin, expanding it to six progeny, while augmenting all their educations with Bible reading. Gray-eyed, with coarse dark brown hair, she reflected her father in both build and temperament. In 1826, she wed Aaron Grigsby, a neighbor of her family’s for many years. Settled into a cabin two miles from the Lincoln homestead, only to die less than two years later from complications in giving birth to a stillborn son. Inner: Intelligent, modest, kind, hardworking and good-natured with a good sense of humor. Log cabin lifetime of serving as support for a preeminent American before doing an early fade to become a chronicler and celebrity in her own write, as on ongoing member of the same family of uncommon commonality.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS PHILOSOPHER-KING:
Storyline: The stoic pessimist combines his unusual capacity for elucidation with the ability to change and affect his times politically and spiritually, to create a completely unique character for himself capable of straddling the worlds of the mind, heart and body with equally strong effect.
Martin Heidigger (1889-1976) - German philosopher. Outer: From an old Swabian farm family. Father was a Catholic sexton, who imbued him with a strong sense of religiosity. Decided to become a Jesuit, although only lasted two weeks as a novitiate, before opting for the secular world, as a student at the theological seminary of Freiburg Univ. where he received his doctorate of philosophy in 1913, studying under Edmund Husserl. 2 years later, he became a lecturer at his alma mater, while turning to atheism as his means of celebrating God. Of medium height, he was stocky with piercing dark eyes and a largely ascetic mien. Sporadically served during WW I, only to be released several times for health reasons. In 1917, he married a former student of his, Elfride Petri, who became an intransigent Nazi supporter, 2 sons and a foster daughter from the union. In 1923, he was given a post at Marburg, where he proved himself the most popular professor there, with a mesmerizing delivery of his lectures. The following year he began a secret liaison with 18 year old Jewish student Hanna Arendt, who became a renowned political philosopher herself. Because of the master/student dynamic of their relationship, he decreed at the end of 4 years it be over, and afterwards, controlled the tenor of their correspondence, demanding love from her even if she should marry another, and transliterating his passion into kitsch emotion, while forbidding her to answer unless he asked specifically for it. Despite all, she continued to support him, focusing on his genius, rather than his subhumanity, as a continual apologist for his political stances. Felt that western philosophy was far too preoccupied with abstracts, and wanted to return it to the pragmatics of existence in the life-and-death world. In 1927, he wrote “Being and Time,” a central work on the philosophical nature of existence that preshadowed existentialism, although he refused to classify himself as such. In 1933, he was back at Freiburg and was made chancellor of the university, heaping praise on Adolf Hitler in his inaugural address, while joining the Nazi Party with great fanfare. Blocked the promotion and ended the careers of several of his colleagues who expressed anti-Nazi sentiments, and personally signed the document that dismissed the Jewish Husserl, which probably hastened his death. Felt ill-at-ease in big cities where too many Jews lived, and twice turned down the opportunity to teach at the Univ. of Berlin, unconsciously rejecting a place that had rejected him in his earlier existence in this series. Resigned as rector after a year in office, although did considerable damage to himself during that time, and later came to reject Nazism, when it became expedient to do so. Banned from teaching and publishing for 5 years following WW II, he presented himself as an innocent victim of the Nazis, while being hospitalized for two months for depression following the judgment on him. Probably made a suicide attempt at the same time. Met with Arendt for the first time in 17 years, and she worked on rehabilitating his reputation, after establishing her own with her works on totalitarianism and anti-Semitism, believing his wife to have been the cause of his political perfidy. In his later years, he lived reclusively in the hills above Freiburg, occasionally descending to lecture, while desperately desiring public absolution, by presenting himself as a misguided idealist. Died in his sleep. Inner: Self-centered, extremely manipulative and cunning, with a need to be worshiped, to supplant his own avowed atheism. Saw his own genius as transcendental. Far more concerned with sheer essence than bothersome emotions like love, save for a great love of language, with a particularly strong feel for the works of mad poet Friedrich Holderlin (Bob Dylan). Felt technology and science were largely soul/less, and initially embraced Nazism as a return to full-throated ordered existence, while viewing the modern world as depraved. Deliberately cut himself off from his earlier overwhelming sense of religiosity, in order to delve far more deeply into the sheer essence of existence as he saw it, as a means of dealing with the unanswered puzzlement of death. Essence-obsessed lifetime of timidly opening himself up to the more sensual aspects of his being, to complement his severe intellectuality, while denying his religiosity and ironically supporting a movement that denied the existence of many, only to ultimately suffer denial on the world stage for it, in his own poorly timed exploration into being. Artur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) - German philosopher. Outer: Father was a wealthy merchant and mother was a celebrated novelist, 20 years her husband’s junior, as well as a brilliant hostess whose salon served as an intellectual and artistic center for Weimar, where the family had settled. Felt that he inherited his temperament and character from his father and his intelligence from his mother, evincing the former’s quick temper, practicality and independent nature, and his intellectual contentiousness from the latter. Neither took much of an interest in their son, whose pessimistic nature was already in place as a child. Received a liberal education, which emphasized his sense of being a European, rather than a German. Lived in France from 1797 to 1799, where he mastered French and acquired a lifelong love for that nation. Also learned English from a stay in England. Traveled extensively in his mid-teens through western Europe, before his father insisted he begin a business career in Hamburg. Felt little inclination towards it, and after his father’s death in 1805, which may have been a suicide, he was left with a fortune that insured he would never have to work. Returned to school, studied the works of Emannuel Kant (Edmund Husserl), who influenced him greatly and ultimately received his doctorate in philosophy in 1813 from the Univ. of Jena, after writing his thesis on the laws of cause and effect. Visited his mother the same year, but after a bitter quarrel, she pushed him down a flight of stairs and he never saw her again. Never married, and probably viewed women and their emotional excess, as existing on a whole other unwanted level from which he was excluded. Met Johann Goethe (Thomas Mann) in Weimar and he introduced him to the theory of colors which he expanded on, then met an Orientalist who opened him up to eastern philosophy, which would have a profound effect on him. Lived in Dresden in his late 20s, where he produced his masterpiece, The World as Will and Idea, in which he posited the primacy of will over reason and sensation. It sold 230 copies. Saw the world as directed by will, which had reached its apex in humanity. Further posited that in order to be effective, will must rise out of dissatisfaction, so that life is a continuing struggle to ward off suffering and pain. Happiness, on the other hand, mutes will and is to be avoided. His solution to the problem of existence was to embrace asceticism and aesthetics, and to resign from the material world in order to embrace its higher potential. His philosophy, which favored creativity, intuition and a Buddhist sense of detachment over rationality and materiality, would have an enormous effect on thinkers and philosophers in its abnegation of rational western thought and its upholding of eastern nonmaterialistic tenets. After traveling, he became a lecturer at the Univ. of Berlin in 1820, and out of competitive pride, scheduled his talks opposite Frederick Hegel (Benedetto Croce), the reigning philosophic master of the time, only to find he attracted 5 students with his pessimistic and hostile persona and soon aborted his academic career, preferring to limn his ideas on paper, where he was a master stylist. The following year he fell in love with a 19 year old singer, and the duo had a decade-long intermittent relationship. After a cholera epidemic broke out in Berlin in 1831, he moved to Frankfurt where he spent the rest of his life, turning to poodles as his singular affectionate outlet. Through shrewd investments, he remained financially independent and was able to spend his remaining days in scholarship, although his later works were mostly a fine tuning of his earlier ideas. Yearned for recognition his entire life and finally won it in 1848 when his concepts matched the pessimistic mood of the times. A book of aphorisms and essays became a best-seller in 1851, and a few years later, he found himself a renowned figure, when he died suddenly and painlessly, practicing what he had preached, by resigning himself at the end to the void without struggling against its unknown embrace. Inner: Practical by nature, albeit obsessed with numerous phobias and fears, particularly of robbers, to the point of always sleeping with loaded pistols nearby. Profoundly cerebral, negating the life of the body for that of the spirit and mind in an unconscious attempt to kill off all sense of the pleasure-loving sensualist within. Willful lifetime of exerting his own considerable resolve to bring his ideas into popular play through a pessimistic worldview that denied the full measure of this lush and luminous sphere. Cotton Mather (1663-1728) - American preacher. Outer: Father was Puritan minister and writer Increase Mather (Nelson Algren), mother was the step-sister of his father. Both his grandfathers, John Cotton (Al Sharpton) and Richard Mather (Jesse Jackson), had also been well-known ministers. Educated partly at home and partly at Boston Latin. Entered Harvard at 12 and showed himself to be a precocious student, as well as a prig, while devoting himself to study and prayer. Received his MA from his father, who had once been president of the university. Had a dualistic sense of his place on Earth, alternately viewing himself as damned and saved, as well as a champion of Congregational ideals. Despite a speech impediment, he decided to follow his father to the pulpit and gave his first sermon in his father’s church at 18, and then, later that year, grounded his newfound calling in his grandfather’s church with a second sermon there. Ordained as a priest in 1685, he spent the rest of his life preaching, writing and praying, talking both internally and externally to his sense of doing well by doing good. In 1686, he married Abigail Phillips, the daughter of a prosperous citizen. After his first wife died in 1702, he married 2 women in succession who became mentally unbalanced, Elizabeth Hubbard, who died in 1713, and Lydia George, who outlived him.15 children all told, all but 6 dying young, and only 2 outliving him. 3 widowed sisters also became financially dependent on him. Evinced a holistic view of healing and teaching that was well ahead of his time, and a rational approach to witchcraft, which was then seen purely in negative emotional terms. Inoculated his own son for smallpox and incurred the wrath of his fellow Bostonians, to the point of a bomb being thrown through his window and the epithet of Satan hurled at him. Even though some members of his family died, and his son was arrested for rioting, he became a leader in the fight against the disease. Had an all-abiding interest in science, winning membership in the Royal Society of London, and published some 400 works in his life, including an ecclesiastical his/story of the U.S., Magnalia Christi Americana. His greatest frustration remained in his inability to see that a ruling clergy was no longer as relevant to New England life in his maturity as it was in his youth, and expended much frustration and anger on its diminishing role. A figure of mockery, lampooning and scorn during his last decade and a half, as further indication he had outlived his time. Died only 5 years after his father, after having been a lifetime colleague of his. Inner: Unlovable, scholarly to the point of pedantry. Vain, unstable, always irritable and overtaxed. Prey to hallucinations as well. Felt a great need to do good, although the religious transports he experienced were imitative rather than genuine. Never able to see that the religiosity of his immediate forebears were less relevant to his more material community. Had a lifelong interest in medicine, viewing himself as a healer of souls. Could write in 7 languages, including an Amerind dialect. Transition lifetime of trying to heal the wounds of humanity, as well as his own, through good works, rather than his powertripping of the past, in order to temporarily salve his own hidden soul, which had inspired so much violence, virulence and uncomfortable transformation in its continual need to alter the world. John Calvin (1509-1564) - French/Swiss theologian and reformer. Outer: Father was a notary, mother was the daughter of a prosperous innkeeper. Educated in the house of an aristocrat who utilized his sire’s skills. Given church benefices at the age of 12 because of his precocious promise, which enabled him to continue his education. Of middle height, and sparing in all he did, eating little and sleeping even less. Received his M.A. from the Univ. of Paris, but rather than pursue a church career, he decided to study law in Orleans, before adding languages elsewhere to his curriculum vitae. Also continued with his legal studies and received his doctorate in law in 1532, giving him an educational trinity of the theological, the humanistic and the purely secular. Sometime during the next year, he had an epiphany and decided to rupture his connection with the Catholic Church and become a Protestant, a very dangerous move at the time in the France, forcing him to flee to Basel, Switzerland, where he continued an earlier study of Hebrew and began working on “Institutes of the Christian Religion,” which would have a profound altering effect on the further course of European and American his/story. Settled in Geneva, and save for a 3 year period of exile, he spent the rest of his life there. Married Idelette de Bure, a widow, in 1540 and their only son died in infancy, while she made her exit in 1549. Did not marry again for fear he would be a burden to any other companion. Able to establish a theocratic state in Geneva, a literal government of God, grudgingly winning support for his many dictates. Involved himself in every aspect of Genevan life, while doing battle with Lutherans and other reformers, around his many moral strictures. Wrote voluminously, evincing a highly lucid style and a deep sense of eloquence in all that he preached, penned and said. His “Institutes,” was the first serious prose piece in French, influencing that language’s growth as a literary force as well. Saw humanity needed to know God, but could not find Grace unless they had been predestined before their existences to be saved. This duality of the grace/filled and the damned would go on to define much of Protestantism down through the centuries, making for an ossified religion that would reflect his own rigidities. Invited equally rigid disciples, who burned Spanish Anabaptist Michael Servetus (Sigmund Freud) in their collective intolerance, despite an honesty, probity and integrity about their habits and interactions. Eventually wore himself down, and contracted tuberculosis, as well as other ailments, including gout, stones and asthma so that he had to be carried to Church to preach in his last year. Died in the arms of his closest friend, Theodore Beza, and was buried without pomp or ceremony the following day. Inner: Ascetic, highly moral and nonmaterial, although ironically his teachings would be one of the foundations for the Protestant ethic of capitalism, since he felt that material success was strong proof of being in God’s grace as one of His chosen predestined ones. Strongly emphasized frugality, hard work and diligence in his no-nonsense teachings and the Calvinist societies that embraced them would go on to be industrious and prosperous. Stern, fanatically zealous, severe and alternately warm and vengeful. Dedicated tyrant, imbued with his own powerful sense of purposeful existence. Worked without rest, trying to allay a lifelong anxiety about his personal relationship with God. Saw anything that did not appear in the Bible as superfluous and prohibited. World-shaking lifetime of having the ability to communicate a profound sense of his fellow Christian’s purpose on Earth, and forever change the interconnection between man, woman and God in the process. Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) - Italian preacher and writer. Outer: From an old Ferrara family. Educated by his grandfather, a celebrated doctor and strict moralist, who imbued him with a rigid medieval sense of sin and redemption. Showed an early proclivity for philosophy and medicine, but evinced a worldview that most of his fellow humans were corrupt and debased, particularly the hierarchy of the church, which had degenerated into a vicious, materialistic organ. After hearing a sermon in 1474, he renounced the world and entered the Dominican order at Bologna the following year, denying his studies after taking a degree in the liberal arts. Began a passionate study of the Scriptures, while devoting himself to ascetic practices, teaching the novices and writing tracts, based on the medieval Aristotelian philosopher Thomas Aquinas (J. Robert Oppenheimer) and the Greek philosopher, Aristotle (J. Robert Oppenheimer). Sent by his superior in 1482 to become a lecturer at the convent of San Marco in Florence, and quickly garnered a reputation as a powerful preacher, bent on saving Italy from its sensuality and immorality. Preached with great success in several Italian cities, and then began studying the biblical Book of Revelation, which turned his thinking towards the apocalyptical. Returned to Florence on the behest of Lorenzo de’ Medici (Abraham Lincoln), who supported him despite his pessimistic proselytizing, and began predicting ruin for neighboring states and the papacy. On Lorenzo’s death in 1492, he threatened a scourge from God, and precipitated a wave of austerity not unlike Puritanism, with his call for a well-organized Christian republic, whose reformation could be repeated in both the church and neighboring city-states. Spent the next 4 years in effect as the principal administrator of Florence, having a strong effect on a number of noted artists and writers. Brought order for a while to the city through a Great Council of upper tier citizenry, but also sponsored public burnings of lewd artifacts, including some manuscripts and paintings, as well as ornaments and costumes. His rise to power attracted considerable political opposition both from within and without the city. After going after the corrupt clergy and its scandalous head, the Borgia pope, Alexander VI (Maxim Gorki), and outmaneuvering him as well as the forces that wished his demise, he eventually began to lose some of his power over the people, and was excommunicated, while Florence was threatened with papal legal action. Despite his passionate criticisms, he always respected and obeyed the office of the papacy, separating the individual seated on the throne of St. Peter from the throne itself. Seeing that his only recourse was martyrdom, he was imprisoned along with 2 followers. After highly irregular legal proceedings, and a perfunctory ecclesiastical trial, he was hanged and burned with his 2 cohorts, despite the fact that no legal judgment against him was made. Met death piously and was absolved just beforehand by the pope. Left a considerable amount of writings, including poetry which limned his piety and scorn for the material world and his great love of God. Inner: Purist and puritan, and a convinced and incorruptible reformer. Neoplatonist at heart, looking for the good in humanity through asceticism, while being strongly tradition-bound to Catholicism. Passion-filled lifetime of beginning his cycle outside the structure of power to change and reform the corrupt world of the flesh and the devil. Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Annius Verus) (121-180) - Roman emperor. Outer: From an aristocratic family that had long established itself in Spain. Brought up by his grandfather, Marcus Annius Verus, a senator and consul, after the death of his father. His mother was from a wealthy family of tile manufacturers. As a boy, he won the early favor of the emperor Hadrian (Charles de Gaulle), who called him ‘Verissimus’ meaning ‘very truthful,’ punning on his name ‘Verus’ or ‘truth.’ Appointed to the priesthood at 9, while Hadrian supervised his education, giving him the best teachers available, including Marcus Fronto (Abraham Lincoln) and Herodes Atticus (Al Sharpton). Discovered Stoicism at the age of 11, and it would become his trademark philosophy. Adopted at 17 by Antoninus Pius (Bernard Kouchner), who had been adopted by Hadrian, and from the age of 18, when he was elected consul, he began to attend meetings of the emperor’s council, which gave him insight into the responsibilities of being an emperor. Married Antoninus’ daughter, Faustina II in 139, at least a dozen children from the union, including his only surviving son and successor Commodus (Bob Geldof), the degenerate opposite of his father. Faustina was the recipient of much gossip around her infidelities, which included a fascination with gladiators, before dying at the age of 40. Admitted to the Senate, and by 146, he was clearly Antinonius’s successor through appointments and added responsibilities. When Antoninus died in 160, he was on his 3rd consulship and insisted on raising Lucius Verus (Bono), who had also been adopted by Antoninus and was earlier asked to marry Faustina, to be co-emperor with him, though he was a decade younger. Verus, in a sense, was the sensual counterpart to the stoic emperor, and together the two made a full figure, although the latter only co-ruled for 8 years, during which time he married one of his cohort’s daughters. Viewed by posterity as the perfect emperor, a combination of moral rectitude and high intelligence. Carried out his duties with great care, but was more interested in details than innovation, and continued the patterns of the past. Followed his predecessor’s policy, and persecuted the Christian cults, considering them fanatics, while dealing with a long succession of military crises throughout his reign, which undermined the treasury, entrenched the bureaucracy and unconsciously led to the autocratic warrior emperors who eventually post-ceded him. At the death of his co-emperor in 169, he was forced to auction imperial properties to pay to fight the northern barbarian invasions, and spent the rest of his reign dealing with his crumbling frontiers, as well as an internal revolt in 175. In the last decade of his life, he wrote his “Meditations," in Greek, a series of diaries limning his Stoic sensibilities in dealing with humans and the divine, as well as the nature of world order, and his own hardships as a ruler, warning himself at one point, ‘not to be too deeply dyed with the purple.’ Died peacefully in his sleep after falling seriously ill. Inner: Sensitive, highly intelligent, and austerely Stoic, with an intense sense of religiosity and high moral standards. Felt a strong need to transcend material and sensual concerns and also felt much of life was predestined, but that there is always the element of change. Difficulties with his wife were emblematic of his difficulty with integrating his family side in all his lives. His wife and son, as well as his co-emperor, represented the invisible unclaimed elements of himself that have never come to life during any of this series of his ongoing pious puritanical character. Stoic lifetime of acting as the perfect philosopher/king, giving moral depth and resonance to his times and the eons afterwards through example and exposition. Marcus Porcius Cato (234BZ-149BZ) - Roman statesman and orator. Outer: From an old family centered in Tusculum. At the death of his father, he inherited a small farm. Fought in the 2nd Punic War, and then became a lawyer, drawing attention to himself through his oratorical skills and his rigid sense of morality, which brought him patronage and a political career in Rome. Climbed the latter of requisite posts, to become a consul in 195B.Z., along with his patron. Married into an aristocratic clan, and had one son. Later widowed, and married the daughter of his freed slave, much to the shock of Roman society, son from union. Put down an insurrection in Spain and organized the province of Nearer Spain, then served with distinction as a legate in Greece. Denounced the Scipios, publicly humiliating Scipio Asiagenus, and breaking the political influence of his brother, Scipio Africanus (Charles de Gaulle). Became a censor in 184B.Z., where he fought against all Greek influences, feeling they were undermining Roman moral standards. Taxed luxuries and limited those eligible for the Senate, while waging conservative social warfare on those elements he felt were debasing Roman institutions. After his term of office was over, he used the courts and his own considerable oratorical skills to continue the fight, which included limiting the power of women. Proposed minimal contact with the Greek east. Given an embassy to Carthage in 153B.Z. he saw that Rome’s old enemy constituted a new threat in its economic comeback. Issued his repeated jeremiad, “Carthage must be destroyed,” enough times to see war declared by Rome on it just before he died. Served as an important Latin prose writer as well, who greatly influenced the growth of Latin literature, with his “Origines,” a 7 volume Latin his/story of Rome, the first of its kind. Inner: Conservative, highly articulate, highly influential moralist and record/keeper. Saw himself as the vigorous defender of traditional Roman society. Carefully cultivated his public image, distorting his record as a wealthy landowner who profited from dubious commercial enterprises. Sophisticated and scholarly, with a familiarity with Greek learning, that he nevertheless, opposed. Bulldog lifetime of serving as a moral guardian both against new influences and the autocratic control of others, evincing a consistency in his public stances that was not quite born up by his private practices. Thucydides (c460BZ-c400BZ) - Greek his/storian. Outer: Origins unclear, probably of Thracian descent. Related to the Thracian general Miltiades, he eventually moved to Athens. Suffered in the plague which ravaged the city in 430 and 429BZ, and in 424, he was made a military magistrate, and given command of a fleet, thanks to his connections. Close friend of Pericles (Abraham Lincoln), whom he would later limn on paper. Failed in his mission to defend an important coastal town, and was tried for his breach of duty and sent into exile the same year. The blunder, however, turned to his advantage, for he was given the time to write his seminal History of the Peloponnesian War, in 8 books, which recounted the struggle between Athens and Sparta for control of the Greek states. Spent 20 years in exile, and probably died around the fall of Athens in 404BZ. More than likely, he was victim of the violence of the times, since the History ends in 411BZ, well before the war did. His accomplishment of limning events as they were happening, and recording them for future generations was a monumental task, and he performed it brilliantly. Became the first his/storian to examine and analyze moral and political issues, and place them in the context of cause and effect. Wrote in a terse lucid style, but also was idiosyncratic, making for a difficult read in the modern world, although his fame has stretched from ancient times to the present day. Looked upon, along with Herodotus, as the father of his/storical writing. Inner: Keen-eyed lifetime of giving grounding to the study of his/story, in his alternating dual role as recorder and maker of the events of his times, thanks to a gift for exposition, and an equal desire to effect and uphold the traditions of his times.

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PATHWAY OF THE CLERIC/POLITICIAN AS CONTINUOUS POPULIST:
Storyline: The puissant preacher continually reflects the concerns of his times, morphing from one age to the next as the voice of the voiceless, and in the process, gradually loosens himself up to become a true reflection of the mass, despite a hidden majesty bred of many a millennia of giving firebrand mind to his perceived concerns of society-at-large.

Al Sharpton (Alfred Sharpton, Jr.) (1954) - American preacher and politician. Outer: Of African/American descent. Father was a boxer and a landlord. At the age of 4, he embarked on his public career by becoming the “wonderboy preacher,” gaining fame throughout Brooklyn for his rousing style. Licensed and ordained as a Pentecostal Minister at 10, the year after his father abandoned the family to marry his half-sister, the daughter of his mother from a previous marriage, in an Electra drama which would dramatically change his life. The family descended into welfare, with his mother working as a maid, but making very little, as he moved from the middle-class comforts of Queens, to the projects of a rough neighborhood in Brooklyn. Began flexing his protest muscle in high school, and was made a youth director of Operation Breadbasket by activist, and fellow Reverend, Jesse Jackson, introducing him to larger civil rights organizations and their potentials. After 2 years at Brooklyn College, he became a tour manager for singer James Brown, and met his future wife, Kathy Jordan, one of the latter’s backup singers. The duo were married in 1983, 2 daughters from union. Continued his activism, and came to prominence in 1987 in the Tawanna Brawley affair, where a black teen claimed to have been kidnapped and humiliated by whites, only to have her story turn out to be completely false, and her family abscond to Virginia with $300,000 in sympathy money. Despite the bad aftertaste for all involved, he was able to parlay all the media attention and the entire debacle into a ubiquitous presence in the black New York community, balancing off a genuine concern over the tribulations and trials of the poor black urban mass, with an instinct for exploitative publicity, and an ongoing animus towards the police. Thanks to his unseen charity and his all too evident glory hounding, he won an equal amount of carping and enmity for his public performances, with the epithet of ‘race-baiter’ often appended to his name, as he managed to embroil himself in every volatile situation concerning race that arose in NYC throughout the next decade, as well as expanding out into the nation-at-large in an effort to make himself a national figure, and the black voice of his generation. Began running for high public office in 1988, with the first of 3 failed quadrennial runs for the Senate. In 1991, he survived an assassination attempt, when someone plunged a knife into his chest, just before a schoolyard protest rally. Recovered with a permanent scar, and some lung damage. Continued his very public activist role, including a failed run for mayor of NYC in 1997, while building up an extremely strong organization behind him. When it was later revealed he had been part of an unconsummated cocaine sting, replete with video, he brushed it off with an aside about his hair-do at the time, and a paranoid stab at his persona non grata status with the government. Used his national standing to run for the presidency in 2004, taking advantage of the debates to prove himself far wittier and far more entertaining, as well as socially insightful, than any of the other candidates, quixotically staying in the race til the end, despite earlier having endorsed the eventual candidate, John Kerry. Controversy would continue to dog his statements and activities, in his ongoing one-sided romance with the media, thanks to a sound byte style, a need to be centerstage, and an America still festering with enough social ills, to keep him in inflammatory business for the rest of his political life. Has also parlayed his ubiquity into film, TV roles and several books, as well as a daily national radio show. In 2007, he discovered to his shock, that his great-grandfather was a slave owned by the family of segregationist Sen. Strom Thurmond, in the person of one Julia Thurmond Sharpton, and later freed. Never one to shy away from opportunity, staged a counter MLK rally in the capital in response to Glenn Beck’s usurpation of the 47th anniversary of his “I Have a Dream” speech in 2010, while decrying the opportunistic shenanigans of the latter. Afterwards, he announced the launching of a half-hour Sunday morning syndicated TV show, “Education Superhighway.” as well as a print magazine, through his own media company, ESH Holdings. Got his own evening show on MSNBC, “Politics Nation,” during the summer of 2011, after serving as a substitute host earlier, and continued to use it as a soapbox against perceived racism in America. In 2014 it came out that he was a drug informant for the FBI, after videos showed him purchasing drugs. Inner: Sharp witted with genuine compassion for the disenfranchised, and an equal desire to be on the evening news at any cost, making him a hero to some and an anathema to many others, including his own black community. More liberal and inclusive as he has gotten older, after earlier managing to insult a host of other minority groups. Front-and-center lifetime of using his golden tongue and his street smarts to make himself annoyingly known, with both his faults and virtues continually on display, and the larger populace heavily divided over him. William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) - American politician. Outer: From Irish stock. Father was a lawyer, judge and state senator, who had known Abraham Lincoln. Older brother of future Nebraska governor Charles W. Bryan (Mike Huckabee). In 1866, the family moved to a ten room house on a 520 acre farm, where his son grew up. Mother was a Methodist and father was a Baptist. Imbued with a religious fundamentalism from early on. Saw the Bible as the ultimate moral codebook, and had a deep and all-abiding faith in his Christian God, with spirit as the defining measure of a man. Also saw the great good in humanity, with rural America as the country’s true heartland. Felt himself to be a missionary for truth, justice and the Christian American way, and never deviated from that view his entire life. 6'. Graduated from Illinois College in 1881, and 2 years later from Union College of Law in Chicago. In 1884, he married Mary Baird, a student of his who became a lawyer and a close colloborator. Practiced law for four years in Illinois, then moved to Nebraska in 1887, and three years later, was elected to Congress as a Democrat, the second in the state’s his/story, where he showed himself to be a highly active reformer, a stance he would continue to uphold throughout his political career. Hooked up with the pro-silver bloc in Congress, which became a dominating early issue with him. Lost his first bid for the Senate in 1894, then became editor of the Omaha World-Herald, at a low salary, seeing the media as a potential for him to return to political power. In 1896, he electrified the Democratic convention with his famous, “cross of gold” speech, championing the populism of silver and agrarianism, and his performance won him the Democratic nomination for president on the fifth ballot. Toured the country extensively, championing economic justice and denouncing the barons of Wall Street, but his opponent, William McKinley (Richard Nixon) who was anti-silver, ran the first modern presidential campaign from his front porch, thanks to the help of his adviser, millionaire Mark Hannah (Roger Ailes), and he lost by nearly 600,000 votes, despite traveling 18,000 miles and directly addressing some 5,000,000 Americans. His secretary subsequently guesstimated he spoke between 60 and 100 thousand words every day of the campaign. Served as a colonel in the Spanish-American War, although saw no action, then won the Democratic nomination a second time in 1900, only to lose once more, by an even wider margin, after campaigning as an anti-imperialist. Gained in stature from the loss as a “prophet-statesman” to his followers, and toured the globe giving thousands of speeches as a freelance and footloose agitator for the rights of commonality. Established the Commoner afterwards as an organ for his views, which were liberal and reformist, including supporting women’s suffrage, progressive labor legislation and farmer’s aid, as well as equitable taxes, while seeing the South and the West as far more of a reflection of true Christian values than the industrial Northeast, with its throwaway attitude towards its workers. In 1908, he ran for the presidency a third and final time, only to suffer an overwhelming loss to William Howard Taft (Bill Clinton). In 1912, he gave his support to Woodrow Wilson, who had earlier opposed him, but made him his Secretary of State afterwards, where he ironically fostered American imperialism in Latin America, thanks to a lack of understanding of international problems. Protected American interests, and wanted the U.S. to remain neutral at the outbreak of WW I. Resigned in 1915 in opposition to the mixed messages Wilson was sending the rest of the world. His later career would be far less impressive. Became actively involved in both Prohibition and land speculation, and formed a fuzzy relationship with the Ku Klux Klan, thanks to a growing intolerance on his part and a preoccupation with religion. His parting public appearance would be the infamous Scopes Monkey trial in Tennessee, where teaching evolution ran counter to the law. Took the creationist stance for the state, although he ran into the wily Clarence Darrow (Morris Dees), who wound up making a proverbial monkey out of him, after getting him on the stand to spout his beliefs in the literal truth of the Bible. Died peacefully of heart failure a couple of days later in his sleep. Inner: Extremely eloquent, brimming with confidence, highly energetic and filled with great purpose, as an apostle of his view of Godliness. Always felt collective wisdom trumped individual insight. Insensitive to the plight of black Americans, despite his championing of the underprivileged. Also preferred small, unchallenging minds, so that his views only rigidified, instead of grew, as he got older. Christian liberal who gave equal due to both Jefferson and Jesus. Known as the “Great Commoner,” for his simple, approachable friendliness. Full tilt evangelical lifetime of combining his two great loves of Church’n’State, to make for a formidable, albeit circumscribed populist, a figure of his own time and times past, with his immutable faith in the greatness of humanity, challenged by his own limitations of insight, which he would try to redress in his next go-round in this series. Daniel Webster (1782-1852) - American politician. Outer: 9th of 10 children of a farmer and tavern-keeper. As the family pet, he received lots of attention, and early on showed a gift for recitation and showmanship. At 15, he entered Dartmouth College, graduated, read the law and was admitted to the bar in 1805. From a frail youth, he grew to be powerfully built, a little under 6’, with a barrel chest, fiery eyes, a leonine head and massive shoulders, along with a dark complexion, which earned him the sobriquet of ‘Black Dan.’ In 1807, he married Grace Fletcher, a clergyman’s daughter, 2 sons from the union, both of whom died in battle, and a daughter. Showed considerable courtroom skills, and was always a firm supporter of business and business interests. A mesmerizing speaker, he held all who listened to him in his thrall, thanks to a poetic, preacherly style, backed by a strong, highly rational mind. A Federalist politically, favoring a strong central government, he opposed the War of 1812, for commerce reasons, which impelled him to enter politics, and he became a Representative from New Hampshire, serving from 1813 to 1817. Opposed taxes for the war, as well as conscription, and in 1816, he move to Boston, becoming one of the country’s premier legal experts on the Constitution, after arguing several key cases in front of the U.S. Supreme Court. Greatly admired wealth, seeing it as a keystone to power, but his own dealings in that realm were mixed, and sometimes ethically challenged. Elected to Congress from Massachusetts in 1822, he served for the next 5 years, while becoming chairman of the judiciary committee. Voted for John Quincy Adams (Rob Lowe) when the 1824 presidential election was decided by the House of Representatives. Three years later, he was elected to the Senate, and became one of the key figures of that institution for the next generation. A year after his wife’s death in 1828, he married Caroline Le Roy, the daughter of a NY merchant. Despite being a strong opponent of slavery, he also harbored ill feelings about the abolitionist movement. Argued that the Constitution was an expression of the American people, and not an agreement between states, feeling that states’ rights would only lead to civil war, a prophetic stance. In 1836, he became one of 3 Whig candidates for the presidency, an office he coveted, but he was roundly defeated, as Martin Van Buren (FDR) won the office. Maintained his Whig stance throughout Van Buren’s run, then became Secretary of State under his successors, William Henry Harrison (Dwight Eisenhower) and John Tyler (Robert Byrd). When the latter vetoed a bill creating a new national bank, he alone among the cabinet ministers did not resign. Served in the Senate again from 1845 to 1850. Opposed the acquisition of Texas and the subsequent Mexican War, and then favored banning slavery from the newly acquired territory. Despite opposing some of the provisions of the Missouri Compromise of 1850 in a famous speech, he accepted it, shading his ultimate reputation in some circles. The last two years of his life, he served as Secretary of State for Millard Fillmore (Spiro Agnew). Died as the result of an accidental fall at his favorite farm, due to a brain hemmorhage complicated by cirrhosis of the liver. Inner: Conservative, with a respect for private property, feeling government should protect not only it, but provide a solid basis for its accumulation. Charming, highly intelligent, but also jealous and hyperambitious. Heavy drinker with a tendency to spend beyond his means, keeping him forever in debt. Strong nationalist, seeing its unity under a strong leader as an absolute imperative. An active gardener and farmer, which was his favorite release. Anti-war, always feeling rational discourse and diplomacy were far superior to a shows of arms. Served as an inspiration for Abraham Lincoln, in his phraseology and speech-making. Secular preacher lifetime of serving as a transcendental figure of his time, easily outshining all of the presidents he served, while putting his faith in the indivisibility of America, seeing Constitutional law as its Biblical code, and supreme rationality as the underpinning of all democratic institutions. William Pitt, 1st earl of Chatham (1708-1778) - English prime minister. Outer: Grandson of a plundering East India merchant known as ‘Diamond’ Pitt (Armand Hammer) for the fabulous stone he owned. His father shared his own sire’s foul temperament and was an MP, while his mother was from an unstable noble Anglo/Irish family. One sister, Nan, to whom he was particularly close. Went to Eton College, although disliked it, despite making numerous friends who would subsequently be part of his political career. Delicate in health, he was, nevertheless, an aloof but clever companion to them. Went on to Trinity College, Oxford, but left after a year, and completed his education at the Univ. of Utrecht in the Netherlands, where he studied law. Lean and tall, he had hawk eyes, a small head, and a long acquisitive nose. Fascinated by ancient Rome, particularly Cicero (Abraham Lincoln), whom he read and reread, while fashioning himself as a Roman of old. Sent abroad by Lord Cobham, who became a sponsor, and bought him a commission in his own regiment in 1731. Became an MP at 27, and immediately showed his gift for oratory, as well as gesture, although he won the king’s undying enmity for his opposition to protecting Hanoverian interests. Gout-ridden soon after, his popularity forced the king to make him paymaster in 1746, a much sought-after and corruption-prone post, but he refused to take anymore than the official salary, showing his incorruptibility. Received a £10,000 legacy which finally allowed him to be a property owner, although his new status caused a breech with his beloved sister. Invalided, he retired in 1754 to a new home. A confirmed bachelor, he finally fell in love the same year, with Lady Hester Grenville, whose pragmatism would hold his extravagance in check. The happy union produced 3 sons, including William Pitt the Younger (J. William Fulbright), as well as two daughters, and gave him back his health. The outbreak of the 7 Years’ War brought him back to power in 1756, as secretary of state, and later that year, he was made prime minister, proving to be an excellent war leader against French interests, consolidating and strengthening the empire, at terrific economic and body count costs. Fell in 1761 when George III (Jeffrey Archer) took the throne. Formed a second government in 1766, but his skills were on the wane, while his instability was on the rise, and he ineffectually retreated to the House of Lords, after being made earl of Chatham. Resigned his ministry in 1768, now in continual ill health, while working against American independence, seeing the empire he had fought so hard to strengthen greatly weakened by the loss of American colonies. Often sank into pathological gloom, and in his last speech to the House of Lords, he intoned, “My lords, any state is better than despair. If we must fall, let us fall like men,” then fell back insensible and died a month later, in his son’s arms, who was reading to him from Homer’s Iliad, on the great warrior, Hector’s farewell, at the time. Buried with great pomp and public grief in Westminster Abbey. Inner: Imperious, secretive and distrustful, and always wore full dress while making his undersecretaries stand in his presence, thanks to a set of manners which belonged to a bygone era of etiquette and formality. Often raged and bullied to the point where some thought him mad. Adored by the people as the Great Commoner, and admired even by his enemies, although the subject of periodic pathological gloom, to counteract his manic phases. Imaginative and visionary with a complete intolerance for anyone who exhibited caution. Honest, with a savage pride of country, and a natural sense of extravagance. Active gardener, using it as his release. Great commoner lifetime of employing all his passion on his great love of country, in one last stab at bringing the ancient world to bear on the modern one, before switching back to the colonies, as his next bastion of populist appeal. John Cotton (1585-1652) - English/American Puritan prelate and writer. Outer: Father was a lawyer. Showed himself to be an adroit student, matriculating at the age of 13 at Trinity College, Cambridge. Received a B.A., then an M.A., while becoming a fellow at Emmanuel College. Ordained as an Anglican deacon and priest in 1610. Served as a head lecturer, catechist and dean of Emmanuel College, and received his divinity degree in 1613. Appointed the vicar of St. Botolph’s in Boston, Lincolnshire, in 1612 for the next two decades. During that time he became more Puritan, and stopped observing certain Anglican rites, to become a Nonconformist. Initially an ornate speaker, he developed a far more effective plain, Puritan style. In 1613, he married Elizabeth Horrocks, the sister of a Lancashire minister, no children from union, although his house was open to young Dutch and German exiles from the continental wars. Suffered temporary suspensions by his bishops for his Nonconformist ways, but his strong support by influential citizens helped restore him. In 1626, he drafted a severe Mosaic code of law for the colonies, although it was rejected by the General Court. Gave the final sermon in 1630, before the Winthrop (Herbert Hoover) fleet set sail for the brave new world. Following his wife’s death, he married Sarah Story, a widow, in 1632, 6 children from union, including daughter Maria, who married Increase Mather (Carl Sandburg) and became the mother of Cotton Mather (Martin Heidigger). Legal action was eventually taken against him for his apostasies, and, having lost much of his protection, he fled the powerful disapproval of the Church of England, by emigrating to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1633. In the process, he switched Bostons, to the one in the new world, while his first child was born on the overseas voyage. Spent the rest of his life as “teacher” to the First Church of Boston, and became one of the new colony’s leaders, showing himself to be politically quite conservative, and still in the thrall of the mother country, particularly in regards to some of the more radical theological members of his own community, who had earlier been united by their common oppression in England, only to diverge in New England. Proved extraordinarily popular, nevertheless, wielding immense influence in both the civil and ecclesiastical realms, as the singular most powerful theocratical figure of his time in Massachusetts. Approved the banishment of the liberal theologian, Roger Williams (Martin Luther King) in 1635, and also excommunicated Anne Hutchison (Coretta Scott King), who idolized him, for taking his views to unnecessary extremes. Felt that salvation through good works was not enough to guarantee a passport to heaven, since it gave people a power they did not have, while also emphasizing the direct access everyone had to God’s grace. A prolific writer, he penned several works on New England Congregationalism, as well as a catechism, “Milk for Babes, Drawn out of the Breasts of Both Testaments,” which was used for many years as a teaching tool for children. A comet appeared just before his death, and disappeared right afterwards. Inner: Nonconforming traditionalist, working his way through the problems of Church’n’State, and how much or little separation needed to be created between the two. Forceful speaker, scholarly and a natural leader, as well as a strict Bible moralist, using the New World and Puritanism to form his ongoing theological views, and his perceptions of self-power in the egalitarian world to come. Old World/New World lifetime of dipping his considerable philosophical toes in fresh waters, while testing his new powers, although remaining, at heart, a conservative traditionalist, looking to form new traditions. Herodes Atticus (Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes) (c101-177) - Greek scholar, writer and orator. Outer: From an immensely wealthy Athenian family that had earlier received Roman citizenship. Father was a governor of Judaea, as well as a priest of the imperial cult. Received an excellent education and became a sophist and rhetorician. Earned eminence as a man of letters, while cultivating powerful friends, including the emperor Hadrian (Charles de Gaulle). Later tutored his heir-designate Marcus Aurelius (Martin Heidigger). Also became fast friends with Marcus Fronto (Abraham Lincoln), who served both emperors as well. Made commissioner in charge of eliminating corruption in the free cities of Asia Minor as well as a senator, and in 143, he became a consul, along with Fronto. The 2 had earlier quarreled but eventually made up their differences. His wealth and philanthropy became subjects of legend. Spent enormous sums on public buildings in Athens, and supervised much building throughout Greece, gaining many enemies jealous of his prestige and influence. In addition, he was an accomplished orator as well as a prolific writer, using the 5th and 4th BZ century scribes as his models, preferring to entertain and enlighten, rather than proselytize. Inner: Gifted teacher, writer and philanthropist. Actualized lifetime of being blessed with great wealth, a strong intellect and a gift for exposition, using all to best advantage. Quintus Cicero (c102-43BZ) - Roman writer. Outer: From a wealthy family. Younger brother of the renowned orator, Marcus Cicero (Abraham Lincoln), with whom he was educated. Accompanied him to Athens in 79BZ. Unhappily married to the sister of Titus Atticus (Al Sharpton). Served in the judicial position of praetor in 62BZ, then governed Asia as a proconsul for 3 years, before serving as a legate of Julius Caesar (Charles de Gaulle) in Gaul and Britain. Assumed the same position for his sibling in Cilia, while giving offense to many for his violent temper. Good military leader, withstood a camp attack in 54, which earned Caesar’s praise. Probably the author of the Commentariolum Petitionis, an epistolary treatise addressed to his sibling on the art of canvassing for the consulship. Argued with his brother over his view of Caesar, but suffered the same fate after the fall of the latter. Inner: Volatile and unpopular, although highly competent, with a great wish for literary fame. Fraternal lifetime of close association with longtime intimate family member as a secondary reflection of him. Gaius Gracchus (c153BZ-121BZ) - Roman tribune and reformer. Outer: Father, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus was a Roman statesman, whose ultimate claim to fame would be his two sons. Mother, Cornelia, was the younger daughter of Scipio Africanus (Charles de Gaulle). Much younger brother of reformer Tiberius Gracchus (Abraham Lincoln) and one of 12 children. Served as a quaestor in Sardinia in 126BZ. Married, one daughter. Following his brother’s murder by the Senate, his immediate thirst was for revenge. Became a tribune in 123BZ, and used his sibling’s earlier support to try to implement his plans, but, having learned from his mistakes, tried to build up an extensive electoral support as well, gearing his platform for both the urban proletariat and the wealthy equestrians, while angering the aristocracy with his far more democratic outlook. The ultimate reforms he wished for, including the enfranchisement of all male Italians, were unpopular, and after he won re-election in 122, the Senate put forth a rival tribune who countermanded him by proposing seemingly attractive alternate schemes. Alienated the voting public via his call for greatly enlarging Roman citizenship by including all Latin-speaking allies, which was unpopular on every level of Roman society. Despite organizing demonstrations, and moving from aristocratic to plebian quarters, while increasing his demands for privileges for the common people, he became more isolated than ever, and lost his re-election bid the following year. Suddenly vulnerable, since he no longer held a tribune’s inviolability, he surrounded himself with bodyguards. Became an impassioned demagogue, and, after several violent incidents, he was viewed by the Senate as an enemy of the state. Remained recalcitrant, and after more maneuvering and counter-maneuvering, his primary enemy organized a knightly force that slaughtered many of his followers, and he committed suicide. His program would remain incomplete, although the brothers Gracchi would continue to serve future eras as symbols of much-needed populist reform. Inner: Passionate, demagogic, and unafraid of flaunting it, as a means of showing his power, while gradually opening himself up more and more to the needs of commonality. One of the few true statesmen of the republic. Populist lifetime of pushing ideas on a time not ready for them, making for a fast self-inspired exit, and then a slow climb back upwards to recoordinate his demagogic Great Commoner personality with times and places more appreciative of it.

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PATHWAY OF THE HELPMATE AS SOLID DOMESTIC SUPPORT:
Storyline: The dutiful daughter/spouse is always right there for her family in all their endeavors, and, after long serving as a quiet, efficient support, finally gets to strut her public stuff in the service of helping everyone to a higher ground.

Yolanda King (Yolanda Denise King) (1955-2007) - American writer, actress and teacher. Outer: Oldest child of Coretta Scott King and Martin Luther King. A few weeks after her birth, the Montgomery bus boycott began, and her life would forevermore be defined by the civil rights movement. At two months her home was bombed in retaliation for her father’s work. Grew up in frugal circumstances, because of the nonmaterialistic nature of her father, and remained the closest of all the children to her mother. Had a loving upbringing, and wrote her first play at 8, after which her mother sent her to acting school. At home with the latter, when she learned of her father’s assassination in 1968. Never married, she dedicated her life to her family’s work in the civil rights arena, using the entertainment media as her primary tool of change. Graduated with honors from Smith College, then got an MfA in theater from NYU, before directing and performing numerous productions in NYC and the Tri-State area. Actively pursued a career as a public figure, both as an actress and a lecturer, appearing on stage, in film and on TV, playing strong civil rights figures, such as Rosa Parks, in a variety of docudramas. As a lecturer, she spoke around the world, as well as to the UN and all over the U.S., from large corporations to small religious and civic groups to schoolchildren, and was a member of many prominent movement boards and councils. Became involved in the family King Center, and subsequently sided with her brother Dexter, to sell the center to the National Parks Service because of its deficits and need for repairs. A founder and CEO of Higher Ground Productions, along with Atallah Shabazz, the daughter of Malcolm X, she used entertainment as her pulpit for trying to spread the gospel of a society that could embrace its diversity through its sense of spiritual unity, while also allowing herself a freedom of expression that her role model life as the daughter of an icon never afforded her. Wrote several self-help books, as well as Achieving the Dream, where she played numerous characters in the social change arena. Overweight and suffering from heart problems, she eventually succumbed to the latter while meeting her brother at a friend’s home, dying, ironically, the same day as the Rev. Jerry Falwell, a former segregationist and longtime divisive force. Inner: Strongly psychologically oriented, with a great desire to make the world a better place for her having been in it. Stepping out lifetime of opening her own voice up, after long serving as a support for a powerful family, in order to become a public personality, and give unique voice to herself as a moral model and an uninhibited joyous being. Lucretia Garfield (1832-1918) - American political helpmate. Outer: Of German, Welsh, English and Irish ancestry. Daughter of a farmer and carpenter, who was also a founder of Western Reserve Eclectic Institute in Hiram, Ohio. Eldest of 4 children, with two brothers and a sister. Her sire insisted she get a thorough education, which she did at his school, studying languages and organizing a debate and literary society, contra to the beliefs of the time that women should be seen but not heard in public. Drawn to her future husband, whom she met as a child, by mutual beliefs. Both were members of Disciples of Christ Church, and she was initially his student. Medium height, with brown hair and eyes. Became a teacher at her alma mater, and then elsewhere in Ohio, in an assertion of independence. After a long courtship, during which her future spouse was somewhat put off by her cool demeanor, she married James Garfield (Coretta Scott King) in 1858. Two daughters and five sons from the union, with the eldest daughter and youngest son dying in childhood. Suffered a lot of frustration during their early marriage, with his frequent absences, spending only 6 weeks with him during their first 6 years, because of the Civil War and his duties in Washington. Finally joined him there in a large home in 1869, and their union blossomed afterwards. Proved to be a nurturing mate, particularly with her husband’s self-doubts. Shrewd, yet submissive to her spouse’s political ambitions, although was initially opposed to his running for the presidency in 1880. A serious, reticent hostess at White House, she did not serve wine. Fell ill with an attack of malaria and nervous prostration before her husband was assassinated in 1881, although recovered in time to stoically assume command during his brief period of healing before expiring, never leaving his bedside. Dignified during the funeral, she lived comfortably afterwards, insisting on absolute privacy. Allowed no other man in her life following her husband’s demise. Expanded their estate considerably, and played the role of grand matriarch with her successful family for the rest of her life. Oversaw memorials to her spouse’s memory, and in 1901 moved to Southern California for its climate. Actively pursued a variety of interests, including architecture and engineering, helping to design her magnificent home there. Lived briefly in Massachusetts and England, and was a Red Cross volunteer during WW I. Inner: Reserved, cool, poised, dignified. Her husband relied on her to assess other people. Support lifetime of intimate alliance with one of her longtime family members, through both thin and thick before dealing with his martyred death, and her role as a pillar of strength afterwards.

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PATHWAY OF THE PREACHER AS ONGOING EARTH-SHAKER:
Storyline: The high priest of hope has the power to alter his/story in the determination of his character and his ability to touch on the emotional life of his times, through oratory, example and a strong Christian sense of civil and uncivil rights and wrongs.

Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) - American minister and civil rights activist. Outer: Of African/American descent. Father was a Baptist minister, while his mother was the daughter of a Baptist minister, as well. Grew up in middleclass environs, as a favored son. Earned a B.A. from Morehouse College at the age of 19, after pursuing a program for gifted students. Abandoned a desire for medicine and the law, and to get out of the shadow of his father, went to Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania, where he was student body president, and began to formulate his social ideals, before getting his Ph.D. from Boston Univ., where he met and married Coretta Scott in 1953, 4 children. Strongly built, with a solid physical presence. A great believer in nonviolence with a supreme faith in God’s guidance. Became pastor of a Baptist church in Montgomery, Alabama and was chosen in 1955 as leader of the subsequent boycott of the city’s transportation system as a protest against segregation, which he ultimately undid, despite his home being dynamited. Originally reluctant to accept this mission, before undergoing a private spiritual experience in the kitchen of his parsonage. Organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and swiftly rose to a preeminent position in the civil rights’ movement through his powerful oratory and active nonviolence. In 1960, he moved back to Atlanta, and became co-pastor of his father’s church, while focusing his considerable energy on the SCLC. Arrested for his part in a sit-in, and sentenced to a state prison farm, he won his release on the intercession of presidential candidate, John F. Kennedy. After being hosed and arrested in Birmingham, Alabama, he gave his ringing “I have a dream” speech in Washington D.C. in the summer of 1963 about universal brotherhood and won the Nobel Peace Prize the following year. Also won the obsessive enmity of FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover, who compiled a file of illicit philandering on his part, in hopes of countering his quasi-saintly public image. In 1963, he established a relationship with a mystery woman, who would become his much needed emotional support the rest of the way through. Served as a bridge between the black and white protest worlds, and though criticised by more militant activists, he maintained a philosophy of Gandhi-esque resistance, while broadening his message to include an anti-war appeal as well. Helped win passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, although by then, the black community was beginning to show a far more aggressive face in dealing with its myriad problems. Remained a high profile figure for the rest of his relatively brief life, working out of both Chicago and the South, albeit with his position far more challenged. Had premonitions of his premature death, and suffered through periods of deep depression, feeling he was a marked martyr, as his outspoken criticism of the Vietnam War began to marginalize him and dilute his message. While trying to organize a Poor People’s March on Washington to highlight the disenfranchisement of impoverished America of all races, he was assassinated on a motel balcony by a sniper during a support appearance for striking Memphis sanitation workers. Shot through the chin and neck, his symbolic communication area. Considerable mystery remains about the true identity of his assassin. While drifter and petty criminal James Earl Ray confessed to the crime, his role was later discounted and he was forgiven by the King family, who saw his death as part of a much larger conspiracy. Inner: Powerful speaker, with a deeply resonant voice. Stubborn, uncompromising and proud, with a genuine Christian sense of being a vessel of God’s will. Ultimately saw himself as a democratic socialist. Ambivalent towards praise and honors, and initially reluctant to take a leadership role. More self-critical and demanding the more he was lionized for his efforts. Ascetic and frugal, some of the time, and pleasure-loving at others. Martyr lifetime of playing with nonviolence as means of private and public transformation, only to fall victim to the divisive ignorance and hatred he was trying to transcend. Tenkswatawa (Lalawethika) (1775-1834) - Shawnee religious leader. Known as “the Prophet.” Outer: Father was a Shawnee warrior, mother was of Creek descent. His sire was killed before his birth, and when he was a few years old, he was abandoned by his mother. Given the nickname as a child of Lalawethika, or “noisemaker,” indicating a loud, boisterous personality. Raised by an older sister, although he was largely overshadowed by his two older brothers, Chiksika and Tecumseh (Eldridge Cleaver), particularly the latter, who was a warrior adept. Disliked by other tribe members, and merely tolerated by his own family, he found himself playing the unenviable role of outcast. Lost his right eye in an accident as a child, and became an alcoholic as a result of the debility, so that by the time he had reached maturity he had little to recommend him. Married young, and showed little distinction as either a hunter or warrior in his tribe’s ongoing territorial battles with white settlers. Followed his brother Tecumseh to eastern Indiana, where he became a disciple of an aging medicine man, Changing Feathers, which would change his life as well, and finally give him a calling. On the death of the latter in 1804, he began preparing himself to become a full-fledged shaman, despite his continued addiction to the white man’s fire water. The following year, he underwent a series of vision-quests following a period of fasting and prayer, in which he was transported by the Great Spirit to both paradise and hell, where he saw that those caught in the grip of demon alcohol, like himself, were damned to an eternity of torture. Immediately renounced alcohol afterwards, and declared himself a deliverer, while taking on a new name, Tenkswatawa, which meant “Open Door.” Began preaching a return to the traditional communal life of yore, and for his people to strengthen their individual sense of family within the tribe, while eschewing the white man’s dark serpent culture. Restored some traditional dances and ceremonies, replaced others, and denounced Christianity, as well as asked that those women who had married into the serpent race return to the tribe, although the contaminated children of their unions were to stay with their degraded fathers. His teachings, which promised a return to the days before their land was polluted by the pink presence of the white man, were met with an enthusiastic response by the tribes of Ohio and Indiana, and by 1805, he was able to establish a village in western Ohio of followers. Proceeded to initiate a series of witch-hunt purges, which were eventually stopped by pro-white chieftains. After correctly predicting a near total eclipse of the sun in 1806, his reputation soared, and he became a revered figure, now known as the Prophet, with many from many tribes journeying hundreds of miles for audience with him. Such was the influx of their visitations, that food supplies in the area were diminished, and American authorities began to see him as a distinct threat to their settling of the frontier. In 1808, he moved further away to a new settlement at the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, dubbed Prophetstown, although its burgeoning population once again put great strains on food supplies, as well as with the American authorities. When several tribes ceded several millions of acres to the U.S. government in 1809, his followers began looking to his more militant warrior brother to right this terrible wrong, and his influence waned. U.S. forces under Gen. William Henry Harrison (Dwight D. Eisenhower) forced him to abandon Prophetstown after the his/storic Battle of Tippecanoe, in which his village was burned down, which belied his invincibility, and leadership of his movement swiftly passed to his warrior brother. Further skirmishes during the subsequent War of 1812, twixt British and American forces, in which he supported the former, continued to weaken his position, and though he was present at several battles, including the one in 1813, where his brother was killed, he took no part in the fighting. Unsuccessfully tried to reclaim leadership in the decade that followed, but only managed to harbor two dozen Shawnee relatives of his, who were dependent on him for basic sustenance. Established a camp in the Detroit area, where he lived for the next 8 years, dependent largely on British rations. By 1824, he was no longer considered a threat by the U.S., and wound up moving, along with his fellow tribespeople, to the Kansas territory, where he established a village in what would eventually become Kansas City, Kansas, on a Shawnee reservation. Lived out his days there in obscurity, and died a decade later. Had three wives all told, and fathered some 20 children. Inner: Messianic and focused, once he had been afforded his larger vision. Seen as a charlatan by some who did not understand indigene ways, despite being a genuine spiritual leader within his own traditions. Missionary lifetime of exploring profound social change from a non-Christian perspective, only to be overwhelmed by far larger events, over which he had little control, leading him to his nonviolent crusade in his next go-round in this series. Roger Williams (c1603-1683) - American colonial governor. Outer: Son of a well-to-do English merchant tailor, while his mother’s side of the family was recently raised to the landed gentry. Became a protégé of jurist Edward Coke (J. William Fulbright), and was educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Took holy orders, and became a chaplain, which brought him into high Puritan circles, and in contact with Oliver Cromwell (Robert Kennedy). As a Nonconformist religious idealist, however, he felt he would be better served in the New World. Fell in love with the sister of a future regicide but her aunt rejected him. Took ill afterwards, then rebounded in 1629 to marry Mary Barnard, a maid in the household who had waited on his intended, 6 children from the union. Facing arrest for his beliefs, in 1631 he sailed for Boston, but refused to associate with the Anglican Puritans there, and instead joined the separatist Plymouth colony the following year. Left the colony over a disagreement on land rights, feeling the Amerindians were the true title holders in the New World, and he became a pastor in Salem, but was banished from Massachusetts Bay by the civil authorities, after refusing to recant his views on both land and religious rights, after arguing that magistrates should not interfere in matters of the latter. Set out for Narragansett Bay in 1636, purchased land from the Amerindians there and founded the town of Providence and the colony of Rhode Island, which became a haven for his fellow religious odd fellows, who could not find freedom of spiritual expression anywhere else. Supported himself for the rest of his life by farming and trading. Advised the followers of fellow exile Anne Hutchinson (Coretta Scott King) where to settle in 1637, helping her become the only woman founder of a colony in colonial America. Briefly an Anabaptist, but ultimately declared himself a Seeker and a steadfast believer in Calvinist theology, while establishing the first Baptist church in America. Returned to England in 1643 for a charter, obtained it, and then went back there from 1651 to 1654 to have it confirmed, during which time, he befriended the Puritan poet, John Milton (John Stott). Became the first president of Rhode Island colony and served 3 terms. Learned the language of the Narragansett Indians and was trusted by them as a peacemaker, although he later fought against them during King Philip’s War in 1675. A prolific writer, he is best remembered for “The Bloudy Tenet of Persecution.” Inner: Strong Calvinist leanings, with a sense of egalitarian empowerment for those who had been religiously disenfranchised. Modest, but headstrong, opinionated, rash and argumentative, as well as rigid in his views. More a man of his time than a man for all seasons, with a specific agenda that he fulfilled. Felt what was true for EuroChristians, also held true for indigenous Americans. Politicized spiritual lifetime of being the first champion of religious toleration in the Americas, while building on and amplifying the movement he had begun a century earlier. Martin Luther (1483-1546) - German theologian. Outer: Son of humble peasant parents, his father became a miner to support his son’s schooling, while his mother was modest, strict and prayerful. Suffered beatings at the hands of his father, as well as his mother, giving him a scarred unhappy childhood, that he redressed by eventuallly becoming a monk. Attended the Univ. of Erfurt, where he received a general humanistic education. Headed for the law, but in 1505, he suddenly decided to devote his life to God and entered an Augustinian monastery, much to his progenitor’s disappointment. Ordained as a priest in 1507, and after a trip to Rome in 1510 on business for his order, he became a Doctor of Theology and professor at the Univ. of Wittenburg. Despite his overt success in his chosen field, he was filled with doubts about his own Church, particularly after viewing the spiritual laxity in Rome, and the selling of indulgences to anyone with the money to pay for their sins. Saw God as a figure of great wrath, and continued to view himself as a sinner, although he was able to reconcile the two with his belief in divinity’s saving grace. After much internal rumination, in 1517, he observed the custom of the time, by tacking 95 theses to the door of his castle church, over his deep disturbance at its sacred excesses. Those theses would be one basis for the Protestant Reformation, which would divide Europe in twain over the next century and a half. In the ensuing debates that followed, he refused to recognize the supremacy of the pope and was excommunicated in 1520. Placed under the ban of empire, he hid in the castle of the Elector Frederick III (Willy Brandt) of Saxony, where he translated the New Testament, wrote extensively and formulated ideas for a new church, based on faith alone as a pathway to God. Took full advantage of the contemporary revolution in print to make his ideas known. Able to return home 2 years later, and worked over the next 2 decades organizing, preaching and giving practical ballast to the Protestant Reformation. In 1525, he married a former nun, Katerina von Bora (Coretta Scott King), who proved to be a loyal and steady helpmate to him, 6 children from union, with his 13 year old daughter dying in his arms. Enormously productive with a great deal of vitality, he tapped into his tremendous innate physical stamina to be a tireless worker in his own cause. By nature anti-intellectual, he saw himself far more as a man of the people than a leader who stood above them. Produced countless pamphlets and polemics, giving voice to a deep, passionate love of God, and a defiance against those who sullied religion in the name of personal gain. His greatest achievement was in his translations of the Bible from the Hebrew and Greek texts, making both testaments accessible to common culture. Completed the New Testament in 1522 and the Old Testament in 1534, with a complete re-publication in 1541. Had an excellent command of language, preferring the spirit of the original works rather than the exact letter, and wound up writing a book or a tract every two weeks for three decades. Through his labors, he also helped standardize the German language, in essence unifying cultural Germany. Also collected religious songs and created the German hymnbook, while his sermons were models of their type. Eventually, he became worn down by his activities, and was plagued by ill health during his latter days, thanks to his personalizing the disunions and disruptions that came to pass in the wake of his work. Died while visiting his native town. A transcendental figure who affected all the centuries to come with his drive, perseverance and desire to bring Western spirituality out of its medieval degradations and into the hearts and minds of ordinary people everywhere. Inner: Vital, earthy, commonsensical, and an excellent speaker, although he professed a literal belief in witches and devils, and saw Christianity as an ongoing battle against Satan, while viewing God as accessible only through suffering and the Cross. Deeply prejudicial, against Turks, Jews, women and unruly peasants. Harbored great rage as an emblem of a wrathful God, and maintained a belligerent character that probably blunted his larger effectiveness in truly reforming the Church. Also prey to depressions, while holding a loathing for sexuality. Earnest, with a heart-felt spirituality and a sense of mission, as one of the seminal characters of the 2nd millennium of the Common Era. Constipated, often meditated in the outhouse. A populist cleric, weaving language and the newfound art of printing to bring forth a revolution that would have earth-shaking consequences. Keynote lifetime of having the drive, ambition and know-how to actively change the world of his time, as few others here ever have. Thomas a Beckett (1118-1170) - English archbishop. Outer: His devout mother deeply influenced her son’s spiritual bent, father was a Norman merchant. Educated at Merton priory, then in a City of London school, and finally in Paris. Tall, spare and pale. Became a city clerk and accountant, before entering the service and household of an archbishop. Never a scholar, but had excellent verbal skills. Made archdeacon of Canterbury in 1154, then chancellor to Henry II (Kathleen Kennedy), whom he served well as an intimate companion and executor of his will, including raising armies and leading them in battle, while supporting the monarchy as all-powerful, even when it countered the claims of the Church. Remained celibate, although he enjoyed the luxuries of office, affecting splendid dress, and magnificent caravans when he traveled. After the death of his original mentor, whom he had ignored when he was dying, even after being summoned, he was consecrated as archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, despite forewarnings it would change his relationship to the king. Became devout and took on the personality of his new office, challenging Henry’s authority. Summoned to trial, he fled instead to France in disguise, and remained in exile 6 years, living ascetically. The king had his own eldest son crowned as co-ruler by the archbishop of York, flagrantly countering papal authority, and was excommunicated. The pair uneasily reconciled when Henry feared all of England would be interdicted, and reinstated him to his see. Returned to Canterbury to an enthusiastic welcome, but his popularity, as well as his ploys, only infuriated Henry against him further. 4 knights, acting on the king’s muttered wishes, murdered him in the cathedral of Canterbury, slicing his head off and extracting his brains. Henry was later forced to do penance for the deed, and the archbishop’s tomb became a shrine within days of his death. Canonized in 1173. Inner: Verbally acute, impetuous, stubborn, ambitious, courageous and chameleonic. Chaste, honest, with a distinct sense of power and ability to adapt to different offices. Had he lived, English his/story, and probably European his/story would have taken a far different course towards its ultimate separation of religion and politics. Act out lifetime of trying to wed church and state within his being, and then sacrificing himself for his own hubris. Martin V (Oddo Colonna) (1368-1431) - Italian pope. Outer: From a powerful Roman family, grandson of a Roman senator. Studied law at Perugia and became a protonotary. Appointed a cardinal-deacon, but broke with the pope and was active in preparing the 1409 council of Pisa. Unanimously elected pope in 1417, 2 years after the Great Schism, at the age of 49. Named himself after St. Martin, an earlier existence of his, having been elected on his day. Well-versed in Church affairs, he believed in the ultimate power of the papacy rather than in assemblies and councils, and helped restore the Western Church after it been beset by competing personalities for its supreme seat. Realized a lifetime goal by moving the papal government back to Rome after more than a century. Able to restore some of its grandeur from the shambles into which it had fallen, proving to be a moderating force in that ancient city. A brilliant administrator, he enriched his own family with vast estates in the papal territory, while bringing some sense of stability and decorative majesty back to his holy office. Pursued foreign interests, and asserted his own will, although proved to be a half-hearted reformer, distrustful of conclaves challenging his authority. Died suddenly of apoplexy. Inner: Self-assured, but kind, gentle and modest in bearing. Unassuming, but with an authoritarian iron will. Theological autocrat, remembered for restoring the papacy, rather than reforming it. Looking backward lifetime of rigidity within his own sense of authority, despite obvious abilities at making his own will manifest, in preparation for his future life, when, under the same name, he would challenge the institution he had served and change the world in the process. St. Martin I (?-655) - Italian pope. Outer: An Umbrian from Todi, he became a deacon in Rome, and quickly proved himself both a highly intelligent prelate with a strong Christian sense of charity. Sent to Constantinople, as a nuncio, he became familiar with the Monophysite teaching there, or belief in the singularly divine, rather than the dual divine and human nature of the Christ. Took an uncompromising stand against this heresy and later was elected pope in 649, without imperial ratification, which caused the infuriated Byzantine emperor to refuse to recognize him. Convoked a Lateran council to try to end the monophysite controversy between the Eastern and Western churches, and issued position papers, as well as doled out excommunications for any apostasies that did not support the dual nature of his religion’s primary prophet. Enjoyed support among the clergy, people and army for his stances, but infuriated the emperor even more, who ordered an aborted murder of the prelate, then subsequently had him arrested when he was prostrated by gout and taken to Constantinople in 654. The long voyage and dysentery weakened him considerably, and he was then imprisoned for 3 months, and not allowed to wash, while being treated not as a pope, but as a rebellious deacon. Tried on charges of conspiracy and treason, for convincing the chamberlain, Olybrius, who was sent to retrieve him, and instead he orchestrated a revolt against the emperor, with the former’s connivence. Naught was said about his antimonophysite doctrines and he was condemned to death for political reasons, while in such a weakened state, he had to be held up in court. Felt bitterly about his abandonment by the Roman Church, which had already selected his successor, and sent him nothing to allay his suffering. Publicly flogged, he was returned to prison to await execution, but his life was spared by the Patriarch of Constantinople, and, instead, he wound up banished to the Crimea the following year, where he wrote of his hardships. Died shortly afterwards in exile from the effects of the cold, starvation and harsh treatment he had received, and became the last pope to be venerated as a martyr. Inner: Bold, vigorous and courageous, with an indomitable will. Martyred lifetime of sticking to inviolate principles and suffering mightily for them, as a test of his own faith and will. St. Martin of Tours (316-397) - Hungarian/French prelate and patron saint of France. Outer: His father was a pagan officer in the Roman army, but he decided to become a Christian at the age of 10. Conscripted into the Roman army, he maintained he was Christ’s soldier and would not fight. Accused of cowardice, he volunteered to stand in full view of the enemy armed only with a cross. Suffered a brief imprisonment and was released. During this time, he iconized himself by cutting his cloak in half to clothe a nearly naked beggar. Settled in Poitiers, where he became a disciple of the bishop there, St. Hilary. Baptised, he became a missionary, traveling to Pannaonia, but was forced out of the heretic Arian stronghold he chose, and went to Italy. Returned to Poitiers in 360, and founded a community of hermits in Liguge, the first monastery in Gaul, whose purpose was to convert the rural areas, since Christianity had been largely confined to the cities. Made bishop of Tours in 371, and founded another monastery outside the city, which became his home base. An active missionary, he became the first great leader of Western monasticism, felling heathen temples and sacred trees in the process. Acquired a reputation as a miracle worker, and was one of the first non-martyrs to be venerated as a saint. Involved himself in doctrinal disputes, demanding that the Church, rather than the political hierarchies, deal with apostasies. His cult spread rapidly after his death, thanks, in large part, to the biography written by his close friend, Sulpicious Severus, which became an influential text in the Middle Ages. Inner: Ambitious, driven and filled with his own sense of the Christ within. Foundation lifetime of Martinizing and switching over to the spiritual realm to incorporate his political expertise and make it a function of his spirituality.

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PATHWAY OF THE ACTIVIST AS ALTERNATE LEADER AND SUPPORT:
Storyline: The dignified doyenne alternately gives her worldshaking husband the supportive ballast he needs for his social struggles, and stands on her/his own, as a voice for the voiceless, and a martyr to the forces of his’n’herstory.

Coretta Scott King (Coretta Scott) (1927-2006) - American civil rights leader. Outer: Of African/American descent. Born on her grandfather’s farm, she was the daughter of a Southern landowner who was forced to struggle because of his race. Ultimately owned a sawmill, although both it and his house were burned down by arsonists. One older sister. Went to a semiprivate black school, where she developed a lifelong love for music. Continually reminded of her second-class citizenship all through growing up, leaving her hurt and angry. Majored in elementary education and music at Antioch College in Ohio. When a white school refused to let her teach there, she decided to pursue a musical course in Boston, with a desire for a career on the concert stage, thanks to the encouragement of actor/activist Paul Robeson. Won a scholarship to the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston in 1951, but had to struggle financially. In 1952, she met Martin Luther King, Jr., and the following year they married, 4 children from union. Spent their first married night together at an undertaker’s house, because of segregation. A couple of weeks after her first daughter, Yolanda was born, the Montgomery bus boycott began, thrusting her husband into the permanent limelight. His high profile activism changed her focus, and she served as a strong domestic support for him, while running their household on her own, due to his frequent absences, and giving him the ballast and nurturing he needed in order to continue what he felt was a God-appointed task. Forced to live extremely frugally because of his beliefs. None of her children would marry because of the fishbowl potential of their family name. Underwent surgery for an abdominal tumor and hysterectomy, in early 1968, at which point, he confessed to her about his close feelings for a longtime parallel mistress, which she bore stoically. After his death later that year, she continued to be a public symbol for the civil rights movements, appearing frequently as a stand-in for him, and proving to be a highly capable caretaker for his legacy. Elected to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference board, although the men on the board had difficulty in treating her as an equal. Founded the MLK, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in 1968, and ultimately felt the man accused of his assassination, James Earl Ray, was innocent. Campaigned successfully to make her husband’s birthday a holiday, and stepped down from leadership of her foundation in 1994, and was succeeded by her eldest son. Never took a salary, supporting herself through speaking fees, her autobiography and her late husband’s writings. In 2005, while enduring advanced ovarian cancer, she suffered a minor heart attack, and a major stroke, which closed off the right sight of her body. Died several months later of respiratory failure in a controversial clinic in Mexico, which closed down almost immediately afterwards. Her funeral was televised, politicized and attended by 4 presidents. Inner: Quiet, dignified, continued her husband’s work in her own way, as a living symbol of the power of faith and endurance. Driven and forceful, as well as filled with grace. Fate-filled lifetime of picking up her fallen spouse’s standard and pursuing a public career she had earlier envisioned in far more harmonious terms. James Garfield (1831-1881) - American president. Outer: Son of Ohio homesteaders. Mother, Eliza (Alberta Williams King) was of French Huguenot descent. His father was a subcontractor for canals, who died when he was 2. Youngest of 5. Became the focus of the family, even though his mother remarried. Lack of a real father always disturbed him, and he became mother fixated. Began working at 10, then ran away from home to become a sailor and work on the canals, but was always falling in and being fished out of the waters. 6’, broad-shouldered, athletic with a booming, evangelical voice. Attended an Ohio seminary, and worked as a carpenter on his vacations. Educated at Williams College in Mass., graduating at the top of his class. Became professor of classics and president of Western Reserve Eclectic (later Hiram) College in Ohio. In his mid-20s, he married Lucretia Rudolph (Yolanda King) the daughter of a carpenter, whom he had known as a child, both were devoted members of the Disciples of Christ Church, Two daughters and five sons from the union, with the eldest daughter and youngest son dying in childhood. Elected to the Ohio Senate in 1859, despite his church frowning on such “carnal” undertakings, and showed himself to be strongly anti-slavery. Helped recruit an Ohio voluntary infantry regiment and was made a colonel. Rose to brigadier general in 1862, and was given command of a brigade, ultimately rising to major general with a hero’s status after the battle of Chickamauga in 1863. Became a longtime Republican U.S. Congressman, beginning with a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1862, for which he resigned from the army the following year, while his religiosity waned with his political rise. Moderated his views, and focused on fiscal issues, although his ability to view things from all sides gave him the reputation of indecisiveness. Became a party leader when the Republicans dropped to minority status in the House, then in 1880, he was elected Senator by the Ohio legislature. The subsequent Republican convention later that year was deeply divided, and although he was a supporter of John Sherman (Robert McNamara), his name was entered, against his will, for the nomination on the 33rd ballots, and three ballots later, he was impulsively chosen over former Pres. U.S. Grant (Omar Bradley), with Chester Arthur (Hugh Carey), as his running-mate. Ran a low-key front porch campaign, and beat Winfield Hancock Scott (John Glenn) by 0.1% of the popular vote, but easily outdistanced him in the electoral vote, by 214 to 155. Created a conciliatory cabinet in an effort to reunite his party, and proved politically astute in his choices, but had little time to establish himself. Shot in the side and spine with two .44-caliber bullets, at a railroad station by deranged assassin Charles Guiteau (Marcus Wayne Chenault), with the second bullet lodging deep into his spine, although he lingered on his deathbed for 80 days, with his wife in constant attendance. Had a death premonition a week before he went, summoning the son of Abraham Lincoln for a talk, before finally succumbing to blood poisoning, with a plaintive, “Oh, why am I made to suffer this cruel wrong?” Wound up as the only president to have his casket on full display. Inner: Charismatic, ambitious, industrious, but also self-doubting, and subject to periodic despondency. Fun-loving, warm-hearted, and scholarly, evincing a unique blend of professorial amiability. Loved poetry and the classics, and could simultaneously write Latin with one hand and Greek with other. Martyred lifetime of taking on some of her/his longtime mate’s persona, in a repeat purge, in order to become a clear dignified channel for one of the great social struggles of 20th century America. David Walker (1785-1830) - African/American abolitionist. Outer: Born to a slave father and free mother. 6’, slender. Grew up free, and became deeply involved in the abolition movement. Wrote for an antislavery journal, advocating violent revolt. Traveled, then opened a clothing store in Boston. In 1828, he married Eliza Butler, a member of a prominent African-American Boston family, one posthumous son, who was elected to the Mass. legislature. Disinterested in personal wealth, and totally committed to social change. Surreptitiously distributed tracts to seamen in their clothing, effectively disseminating the message that slaves would have to fight for their freedom. There was an extremely strong reaction against him in the South, and his life became imperiled, although he refused to flee to Canada. His body was found near his shop soon afterwards, probably the victim of poison. It took him 3 months to die, as emblem of his powerful will. Inner: Fiery, principled ascetic. Total identification with the passions of freedom doing battle with slavery. Uncompromising lifetime of advocating violence which led to his poisoning himself with the reflection of his own rage, forcing another martyred purge the next go-round in this series, in order to play a far more focused role in the same arena a century hence. Anne Hutchison (Anne Marbury) (1591-1643) - English/American Puritan leader. Outer: Father was a deacon of Christ Church College, Cambridge, and later a rector, who spent a year in jail because of his dissenting stances, and was arrested several more times for refusing to be intimidated in his moral stances. Greatly admired her principled sire, who was not afraid to challenge the authority of the Church of England. Home-schooled, and also self-educated through her progenitor’s library. Married Will Hutchinson, the son of a wealthy merchant, at the age of 21, and continued her vivid interest in both theology and the Church, while raising a family that ultimately numbered 15 children. Strongly believed that faith alone was all that was needed to enter the portals of heaven, and also had a sense of clairvoyance about the future, although she kept both sentiments to herself, knowing full well she would be accused of heresy over them. Became a follower of minister John Cotton (Al Sharpton), who, like her father, operated under the reformist ethos of Puritanism, which wished to purify the Church of England of all traces of what it perceived as corrupt Catholicism. Saw the transatlantic colonies of America as a promised land for her family, and, in 1634, they followed Cotton to Massachusetts, losing three children on the voyage across. Soon came to see, however, that theocratic colonial life was even more stifling religiously than existence in England had been, after having had to falsely confess to her apostasies in order to be accepted into Cotton’s congregation, much to her chagrin. Despite chafing at the inferior role assigned to women in the Puritan community, she began a women’s prayer club in her home to discuss scriptures and sermons, and used it as a forum for her own opinions. The group soon included men, as well, allowing her to become an unfrocked religious leader, which brought her to the attention of Gov. John Winthrop (William Bennett), who saw her as a threat to the colony’s patriarchal power structure. To the Puritans, thinking women were only a step away from sinning women, particularly those who challenged the Church’s unassailable moral authority. The governor had her arrested and tried in a largely kangaroo civil court on the charge of “antinominianism,” the belief that Christians are released by grace from observing moral law. Her views against indigene slavery and racial prejudice also sat poorly with the colony, who now saw her as a Jezebel, holding unhealthy sway over their women, as well as some of their men. Pregnant with her 15th child at the time, she skillfully defended herself against a host of charges, but the outcome was already preordained. Eloquently claimed at the end that their judgment paled beside the higher judgments of her own sense of God, and was roundly condemned as an instrument of the devil for having said so. A subsequent religious trial convicted and banished her from the colony in 1638, and she moved to Rhode Island, followed, surprisingly, by a group of followers, settling on an island recommended by fellow exile and Baptist minister Roger Williams (Martin Luther King), to become the only woman to have founded an American colony. Several years later, after the death of her husband, she moved to another colony, where she and five of her children were massacred by some Mohican indigenes. One red-haired daughter was spared and raised as ‘Red Leaf,’ before being ransomed several years later. Numerous notable figures would descend from her, including Presidents Franklin Roosevelt, and the two Bushes, as well as Lucretia Garfield (Yolanda King), the wife of her future self, James Garfield. Ultimately pardoned by Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis, 350 years after her death. Inner: Figure of great kindness, who elicited fear more from her taking her own power in a theocratic patriarchal society, than in any radical preaching or thinking on her part. Clairvoyant, independent, analytic and extremely sensitive to social injustice. Grace-filled lifetime of challenging patriarchal authority from within as a thinking, feeling, deeply spiritual woman, as a test of her own faith in higher powers, only to be ultimately and ironically martyred by her own views of social and racial equality. Katherina Luther (Katherina von Bora) (1499-1552) - German nun and spiritual helpmate. Outer: From a landed, albeit impoverished, family. Father was a Saxon nobleman, mother died soon after she was born. Had three brothers and a sister. When her father remarried, she was placed in a Benedictine nunnery at 5, so that she could get an education. Three years later, her sire put her in a Cistercian convent where a maternal aunt was a nun, and a paternal aunt was abbess. In 1515, she took her vows and became a nun, but after becoming interested in the growing reform movement spearheaded by Martin Luther (Martin Luther King), and finding her desire for change completely stifled, she escaped her order with 8 others, with the help of Luther, on Easter eve of 1523, by hiding in a wagon of fish barrels. With her fellow nuns, she fled to Wittenberg. Although Luther found homes, marriages and or employment for the others, she proved more difficult, despite attracting a host of high profile suitors. Went to live with artist Lucas Cranach (Matthew Barney) and his wife, while insisting the only matrimonial link that truly intrigued her was with Luther himself. Although he originally found her haughty, the duo were wed in 1525, 3 sons and 3 daughters from the union, 2 of whom died young. Also raised four foster orphans, including a nephew of hers. Went to live in a former Augustinian monastery, known as the Black Cloister, where she became manager of its holdings, including a cattle operation and a brewer. Proved to be an exemplary helpmate, excellent manager and good businesswoman, creating a solid home life for her husband so that he could deal with the passions he stirred from a strong base. Also helped define Protestant clergy marriages, through her domestic ministrations. Helped house poor relatives, boarded needy students and welcomed scholars and clerics to their home, while also operating a hospital at the monastery. Busy from dawn to well beyond dusk with her many duties, she evinced unflagging energy, and a ready wit. Suffered great anxiety just before her husband’s death in 1546. Without his salary, she quickly found herself in financial difficulties, and was asked to leave her home of many years for far more modest quarters, but initially refused. The outbreak of war, however, caused her to flee twice, and when she finally returned, her lands and monastery had been destroyed, so that she had no choice but to flee again. Received the support of the no7bility, although continued to live in poverty, while trying to rebuild, before the plague forced her to leave Wittenberg a final time. Died after an illness that came from being thrown from a wagon. Her last words were, “I shall stick to Christ as a burr to cloth.” Inner: Strong-willed and highly capable of all that was asked of her. Support lifetime of giving domestic backbone to the difficult career of her husband, as one of his hidden sources of strength in her ongoing intimate education in changing both his’n’herstory.

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PATHWAY OF THE DOMESTIC ARTIST AS MARTYR-PRONE MOTHER:
Storyline: The model matriarch fills her life with a sense of Christian spirit and familial devotion, only to embrace the same tragic end as her famous sons, as a way of adding the touchstone of martyrdom to her ongoing religious sensibilities.

Alberta Williams King (Alberta Christine Williams) (1904-1974) - American spiritual helpmate. Outer: Of African-American descent. Only child of a Baptist minister. Grew up in comparative comfort and led a largely protected early life. Educated at Spelman Seminary in Atlanta, then received her teaching certificate at Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute. Briefly became a schoolteacher, then in 1926, she married Martin Luther King, Sr. who took over her father’s Ebenezer Baptist Church at the latter’s death in 1931. 4 children from the union, including Martin Luther King, Jr. A strong traditionalist whose focus was her family, she guided them towards a spirit-filled life. Taught her son that he was a somebody, then later took his struggles to heart, and suffered both ill-health and worry over his chosen highly public pathway. Served as organist at Ebenezer Baptist, and also founded and trained the church choir, which gained a reputation throughout Georgia. Often ill later in life, she was devastated by her son’s death in 1968. Assassinated in church 6 years later while playing “The Lord’s Prayer” on the organ, by a young fanatic, Marcus Wayne Chenault. Inner: Warmhearted, pious and soft-spoken with a sunny disposition. Deep commitment to Christianity, easy-going and approachable. Transference lifetime of carrying over her martyred sense from the assassination of an earlier son in order to more directly share in another progeny’s experience, in an ongoing familial drama that may or may not have finally played itself out. Eliza B. Garfield (1801-1888) - American political matriarch. Outer: Of French Huguenot ancestry. From a family of clergymen and educators. Born on a farm, her father died when she was 6, and she had little schooling, while always feeling her lack of education. Small and quick, with a good singing voice, and a sharp wit. Moved to Ohio and became a weaver, like her mother. In 1820, she married Abram Garfield, a powerfully built homesteader and canal construction supervisor. 3 sons and two daughters from the union, with her oldest son, and favorite, dying of typhus in her arms. Turned to religion afterwards, joining the Disciples of Christ Church, followed soon after by her husband, before giving birth to her last child, James Garfield (Coretta Scott King), the future president of the U.S. Lost her husband to pneumonia two years later. Sick on and off for several years, although she preserved the family farm with the help of her oldest son, as well as her determination to be self-sufficient. Split rails, bartered her skills, and maintained an upright Christian home. Remarried at 40 to Albert Belding, who was a decade her junior, but divorced 6 years later over a conflict between her new husband and her son James, to whom she was extremely close. Sold the family farm in 1853, and went to live with James and his wife in Washington, although she was extremely critical of the loose life she viewed there. In 1881, she became the first mother to attend her son’s inauguration. Lived to see him fall to an assassin’s bullet. Lost 100 pounds in the stress of the ordeal, and died 7 years later. Buried alongside her son. Inner: Pious, strong-willed and unassuming, with a sunny disposition, although accustomed to suffering, and accepting it as her lot. Loss-strewn lifetime of playing the role of martyr’s mother in order to strengthen her own sense of faith and inner resolve.

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PATHWAY OF THE REFORMER AS HIGH PROFILE ACTIVIST:
Storyline: The practice-what-you-preacher doesn’t always do so, but manages through the sheer dint of persistency and need to be constantly stage center, to effect social change over the centuries, without changing all that much himself.

Jesse Jackson (1941) - American minister and civil rights activist. Outer: Of African-American descent. Mother was unwed and 16 at the time of his birth. Father was a next door neighbor who was married to another, and played no role in his son’s subsequent upbringing. When he was two, his mother married a janitor, and his stepfather ultimately adopted him as a teen. Five children all told in the combined family, with his mother working as a maid at a local hotel to help support her brood. Began working at 6, helping unload stove wood from a truck, and, despite the material poverty of his upbringing, his home was both loving and stable. Took his stepfather’s name for his own, while enduring taunts about his origins, which only made him more determined to succeed. Went to a segregated high school, where he was as adept in the classroom, graduating 10th in his class, as he was on the football and baseball field, as well as the basketball court. 6’2”, 215 lbs., although afflicted with sickle cell anemia. Turned down a pro baseball contract, when he was offered $6000 by the NY Giants, while a fellow white athlete from the same town received $95,000 to sign. Instead, he accepted a football scholarship at the Univ. of Illinois, where he thought he’d finally be free of his prejudice-polluted upbringing, only to see it on a more subtle level, before transferring to all-black North Carolina A&T, after a year, because of academic problems. Elected student body president, he also got his first taste of civil rights activism there. In 1962, he married Jacqueline Lavinia Brown, three sons and two daughters from the union, including Jesse Jackson, Jr., who would inaugurate a successful political career of his own. After graduating with a degree in sociology and economics, he went to Chicago Theological Seminary, only to drop out after 2 1/2 years and become involved full-time in the civil rights movement. Ordained 2 years later, although without a degree. Became a high profile figure in the movement through his association with Martin Luther King, who chose him to head the Southern Christian Leadership Conference’s Operation Breadbasket in Chicago. With King when he was assassinated in Memphis, although he fabricated his exact proximity to him when he was shot, in order to heighten his individual importance. Afterwards, he went after his vacated national leadership after a falling-out with his designated successor Ralph Abernathy, who felt he was putting his own self-interest above the group’s goals. Began Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity), and through his often alliterative speeches, quickly rose to be a national figure in the civil rights and human rights movement, seemingly everywhere at once as a media hound, whenever a situation arose to articulate black anger over injustice. Through Pres. Jimmy Carter, he inaugurated his international career as well, in his continual pursuit of both self-glory and justice, while successfully practicing personal diplomacy and negotiations. In 1984, he organized the Rainbow Coalition, which would later merge with PUSH, and also made his first run for the presidency as a liberal Democrat. To the surprise of many, he wound up winning five southern primaries, while garnering nearly 20% of the vote, thanks to increasing the voter roles with more African-Americans, although his influence was shunted aside by party rules. Ran a better financed campaign in 1988, doubling his earlier vote total, while winning 7 southern primaries, as well as Puerto Rico, and for a while, was the frontrunner, before losing to the ultimate loser, Michael Dukakis. In 1991, he ran as a shadow senator from Washington, DC, and served as a nonvoting member of the Senate for 7 years as such. Has continued as a voice for the voiceless, as well as a public scold and a motivator for the oppressed to take their own power with his energy and commitment undiminished into the new century, while occasionally allowing his own prejudices to emerge. Finally received his divinity degree from his alma mater in 2000. The following year, he admitted to fathering a daughter out of wedlock with one of his staff members. No stranger to controversy, he has had a particularly contentious relationship with the Jewish community through various remarks he has made, while his support of foreign leaders inimical to the U.S., has also made his name anathema in certain conservative quarters. Despite his various flaws, he remains a strong and genuine voice of change and upliftment, thanks to a powerful ego and an undiminished drive to make the world a far more equitable place through his gift for oratory and his thirst for confrontational self-celebration and righteous redress of past wrongs. Nevertheless, he has also seen his vaunted position slip away to the younger likes of Barack Obama, which has led to some intemperate remarks on his part, revealing a heretofore hidden jealousy, over his personal loss of being a prime civil rights symbol of his times. However, he wept publicly when Obama won the presidency. Inner: Highly competitive, with great drive and determination, as well as an overwhelming need to be in the public spotlight. High profile lifetime of assuming the leadership mantle of a movement with which he has long identified, as a righter of civil wrongs, while also dealing with his own opportunism and character defects, in his ongoing need to change everything but himself. Frederick Douglass (Frederick Bailey) (1818-1895) - American abolitionist, activist, journalist and orator. Outer: Born as a slave and separated as an infant from his mother, who was part indigene as well as noted for her intelligence and died when he was 7. Never knew his father, who may have been a white slavemaster. Raised initially by his grandmother, then separated from her at 6, and given to the plantation, where his putative father was overseer. When the latter died, he was passed onto Baltimore owners, and began learning his letters and numbers from carpenter’s marks on planks and timbers in a shipyard where he worked. Subsequently learned to read at the age of 12 through the ministrations of the wife of his owner, contra the law at the time, and when her husband objected, he continued his self-education with the white children in his neighborhood, and then devoured everything legible within reach, which opened him up to the gross inequities and iniquities of slavery. Hired out to a man prophetically named Mr. Freeman, who taught those in his thrall how to read the New Testament in weekly lessons, which soon attracted many in the area, only to be summarily shut down by angry slave owners, incensed that their charge were being treated as human beings with a hunger to uplift themselves. Shunted around, including to a master who whipped him unmercifully in order to try to break his high spirit, which he almost did, before the two had a physical confrontation, which made him see that slavery could be fought. Over 6’ and 200 lbs. with a leonine head, a large mouth and an impressive bearing. In 1837, he met his future wife, Anna Murray, who was free, and inspired him to be the same, and they married the following annum. 5 children from their ultimate union. After an abortive attempt for which he was briefly jailed, he made good his escape in 1838, disguised as a sailor. Took his new last name from a Walter Scott (Jack Kerouac) character. Made his way by train to NYC, and was freed after British sympathizers bought his freedom from the owner who legally held him. Moved to Massachusetts, worked for 3 years as a day laborer, and became an active abolitionist, through the support of William Lloyd Garrison (Allard Lowenstein), who encouraged him to become a public speaker. Overcame his initial nervousness to be a highly effective orator, with a rich, resonant voice. Participated in both the burgeoning abolitionist and feminist movements of the time, and is best remembered for his autobiography, “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave,” which was published in 1845. Many thought it was impossible a former slave could have penned such eloquent testimony, although it became a bestseller. Wound up publishing three versions of the book, expanding on it each time, over the course of his life. Urged to leave the U.S. for a while by his friends and associates for fear he might be bought back, he went to Ireland and England, spending two years there lecturing to great acclaim, while marveling that he was treated like a human, rather than an oddity, as in the color-obsessed U.S. Lost his youngest daughter to disease, which hastened his return, and became a publisher of an antislavery weekly, while pushing for black education as the key to liberation, and becoming an early spokesman for desegregation of schools in the North. Also ordained a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Forced to flee to Canada for a while in the pre-Civil War period, for fear he might be tainted by his connection to abolitionist John Brown, whose martyred raid on the Harper’s Ferry armory, was beyond the pale to him. Eventually split with Garrison over their interpretation of the Constitution, seeing it as an antislavery document, and retained his high profile activism throughout the Civil War and Reconstruction eras, conferring with presidents and commoners alike, while proving to be more of a conservative voice as he grew older. In 1877, he was appointed a U.S. marshall, and then recorder of deeds in his adopted home of Washington, DC. Deeply depressed by the death of his wife in 1882, until he returned to the activist arena. Two years later he married his former secretary, Helen Pitts, a white feminist nearly two decades his junior, which brought such scorn and contempt on both, they left the U.S. for a two year tour of Europe, Greece and the Middle East. Said of his union, his first wife was the color of his mother, and his second that of his father. Finished his career as a minister to Haiti. Active until the end, he died of a massive heart attack in the hallway of his home, while talking to his wife, after giving a speech to a feminist group. Inner: Quick-tempered and extremely sensitive to slights. Always thought in terms of integrating with the larger white community. Autobiographical lifetime of using himself as an exemplar of the black experience in America in an effort to integrate all its elements, black, white, male and female into a truly just and equal nation for one and all under his traditional sense of a just and merciful God. John Marrant (1755-1791) - American missionary and autobiographer. Outer: Of African-American descent, and free-born. Father died when he was 4, and he moved with his mother to Florida. Learned to read and write, while living in the South, and also showed some musical ability on the French horn and violin, while being apprenticed to a carpenter. Converted, somewhat reluctantly and to his family’s great displeasure, to Christianity, after hearing Methodist evangelist George Whitfield (Billy Graham) speak. Wandered in the wilderness afterwards, and was brought to a Carolina Cherokee town, where he was about to be put to death, when he converted his executioner. Returned after two years to his family, who initially didn’t recognize him, and then became a Christian converter of slaves, much to the outrage of their owners. May have been a slave owner himself during the Revolutionary War period, before emigrating to England in the postwar era, where he worked for three years for a London clothing manufacturer, and joined an evangelical group known as the Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion. Ordained as an offshoot Methodist minister in Bath in 1785, he went afterwards on the urging of a brother to Nova Scotia, and began ministering to the native Mi’kmaqs, as well as refugee former slaves and white Wesleyans. Earned the enmity of numerous white ministers there, who saw their congregations depleted in favor of his chapels. At the same time, his autobiography, “Narrative of the Lord's Wonderful Dealings with John Marrant” came out in England, and underwent 21 printings, thanks to conforming to three genres, the slave story of oppression, escape and redemption, despite his always having been a free man, the indigene captivity tale, and the conversion story beloved by evangelicals. Forced by finances, and a curious lack of support by the Countess, to move to Boston, he became chaplain to a lodge of African masons, before returning briefly to Nova Scotia to marry Elizabeth Herries in 1788. Returned to England in 1790, and continued both his writing and ministerial work, before dying the following year. After his death, the publishers bleached out the black element of his story, to make it a pure tale of indigene captivity and Christian miracle-making, and as such it retained its immense popularity. Proved to be enormously influential as a teacher of perseverance, with many using him as an inspirational spur for their own lives. Inner: Saw himself as a living sermon, with an equal identification with his faith and his race, as an exemplar of what faith in God and self could accomplish. Message-bearing lifetime of total immersion in both faith and race, in what would prove an ongoing pathway for himself as an uplifter and a liberator of the lower orders from the chains of poverty, self-hatred and ignorance. John Clarke (1609-1676) - English/American doctor and minister. Outer: 6th of 8 children, six of whom would become émigrés to America. His early years are not well-documented. May have studied at the Univ. of Leiden, and was versed in medicine, languages and theology. Married Elizabeth Harris, who brought him some dowry, before he left England. Emigrated to the Massachusetts colony in 1637, and purchased land with a group of settlers from the local indigenes the following year. Soon after he founded the city of Newport, Rhode Island, and a Baptist Church there. Along with Roger Williams (Martin Luther King), he introduced the Baptist faith to the Americas, in their neighboring towns of Newport and Providence. Arrested with two others in 1651 for religious apostasies, which led to an explanatory pamphlet, and the following year, he and Williams went to London in order to get a charter for Rhode Island, which was to be a bastion of religious freedom in the New World, particularly since the latter was showing a Puritanical tendency for intolerance that very much matched the Old World’s. Stayed in England until 1663, when the charter was granted, setting the basis for government in Rhode Island for the next near two centuries, through its constitutional declaration of religious freedom, the first document of its kind. Had to mortgage his property in Newport in order to support his long stay. Along with Williams, he remained a champion of religious liberty in New England, and while the former eventually became a Seeker, he remained a Baptist, serving as a congregational minister, while practicing medicine to support himself. Served a trio of terms as deputy governor of the colony, and also served on the General assembly. In 1671 he married a widow, Jane Fletcher, who died within the annum, and soon afterwards he wed another widow, Sarah Davis, who outlived him by many years. Retired at the same time, and on the day of his death, he wrote a will that asked that a trust be set up for educational purposes for the children of the poor, in one final idealistic gasp, that would give him one last first in the New World. Inner: God-fearing, unselfish and extremely idealistic, with a genuine concern for religious liberty. Faith-filled lifetime of paralleling his longtime mentor in both word and deed as a New World exemplar of tolerance, charity and grace. Johannes Oecolampadius (Johannes Hussgen) (1472-1531) - German religious reformer. Outer: Grew up in the German Palatinate, and originally wanted to be a lawyer. Went to Bologna to pursue jurisprudence, but found little liking for it and returned soon afterwards to Heidelberg to study theology and classical languages. After learning Greek, he changed his name to reflect the image of a lighthouse, from its original translation in his local German dialect as candlestick. Studied the mystics and Thomas Aquinas and learned Hebrew as well, while received his bachelor’s degree in 1503. Became a tutor afterwards to the sons of the elector in Heidelberg, although he soon found court life oppressive. Took a prebend in Weinsberg, and later publishing some sermons he had preached there. After more stops in Germany, he went to Basel and became a cathedral preacher. Met Desiderius Erasmus (Edward Abbey), who would come to exercise a considerable influence on him, as he assisted on the publication of the latter’s Greek New Testament. Returned to Germany to continue his private studies at Heidelberg, while also attending to his prebend, before coming back to Basel to assist Erasmus once again. Published his own Greek grammar in 1520, then was invited to preach at Augsburg, in Germany, which was reeling under the aftereffects of Martin Luther’s (Martin Luther King) protestant apostasies. Despite wishing to return to his studies, he supported Luther’s positions, and in so doing, decided to atone for his own failings by becoming a monk, much to the surprise of his friends. Soon saw that that stance served him ill, and he returned to the world-at-large in 1522, his faith and belief in faith alone resuscitated. Became increasingly more evangelical, as a castle chaplain, reading the mass in German, and preaching on weekdays in German as well, although never felt comfortable with his new position. Made his way back to Basel, and became a church vicar there as well as a reader of scripture at its university, which did not recognize him, forcing him to lecture outside its halls. Never an original thinker, but an effective speaker and secondary reformer, he became an assistant to Uldrich Zwingli, and helped bring the Protestant Reformation to Basel, which would subsequently become a spearhead of the movement under the leadership of John Calvin (Martin Heidigger). In 1528, he married a widow, Wibrandis Rosenblatt, who went on to serially marry two other spiritual leaders following his death. Involved in many of the disputes of the early reformation, although he did not live long enough to see it take full flower. Nevertheless, he played an important role in grounding it in Switzerland. Inner: Not a particularly deep thinker, or an innovator, but an effective voice that knew how to capture its audience. While always looking for union with inimical forces, he remained resolute in his new beliefs, once he had firmly adopted them. Cog in the wheel lifetime of employing his gift for sermonizing to further a movement far larger than himself, alongside other longtime family members and fellow reformists far more innovative than he.

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PATHWAY OF THE EVANGELIST AS MESSIANIC ASSASSIN:
Storyline: The shadow scion violently leeches onto a powerful spiritual family as its destructive nemesis, in order to entwine his name with those far greater than his, and make his name resound far more than it ever could through his own slim talents.

Marcus Wayne Chenault (1951-1995) - American assassin. Outer: Of African/American descent. Always had a grandiose vision of himself and his destiny. Father worked as a guard. Short and chunky, he was seen as a quiet clean-cut youth, who attended Baptist church regularly and had a newspaper route. Attended Ohio State Univ. as an education major, and radically began to change, joining a group known as ‘The Troop,’ which centered around a charismatic black minister and gun collector. Opposed black Christian ministers, and felt all Christians were his enemies. Dropped out of school in his junior year, and began blaring out his opinions via a loudspeaker from his 2nd story window . In 1974, after bragging to a friend that he would soon be all over the newspaper, he shot and killed the mother of Martin Luther King, Jr, Alberta Williams King, while she was playing “The Lord’s Prayer” on the organ at Atlanta’s Ebenezer Baptist Church. Fired two pistols and also killed a deacon while wounding another woman, and announcing, “I am taking over this...”, before being subdued. Announced afterwards that he was a Hebrew named ‘Servant Jacob,’ and his act was all part of a divine plan. Diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic and sentenced to death in his subsequent trial, although it was later commuted to life. Suffered a stroke in prison and died 3 weeks later from its aftereffects. Inner: Completely delusional, with a giddy sense of both mission and personal greatness. Reverse Oedipal lifetime of acting out his uncontrollable desire to violently embrace a very public clan, in his ongoing need to link his name with theirs, and thereby elevate it. Charles Guiteau (1841-1882) - American lawyer and assassin. Outer: Father was superintendent of schools of Freeport, Illinois, mother died when he was 7. Had an abusive childhood, suffering beatings from his sire, who had converted to Utopian communalism, thanks to the efforts some-time minister John H. Noyes. Deeply disturbed when his progenitor married when he was 12, so that he was sent to live in Chicago with his sister and her husband, although his father’s anger would stay with him in continual criticisms over his failures. 5’9”, slightly built. Used a modest inheritance to try to go to college, but failed to get in, and, through Noyes, wound up as a member of a controversial religious sect, the ‘free love’ Oneida Community, who considered him unbalanced. He was ultimately rejected by them as well, after a five year stay, which also occasioned his leaving once to try to start a newspaper, The New York Theocrat under their name. Sued them unsuccessfully after the second exit, then got a law license in Chicago. Proved himself equally inept as a lawyer, while alienating both his small claims clients and the judiciary, thanks to a penchant for hysterical tirades in court. Briefly married a 16 year old street waif, who was initially much impressed with his piety, then abandoned her. Wrote a theological book, “The Truth: A Companion to the Bible,” which he cribbed from the work of Noyes, then became a supporter of James Garfield (Coretta Scott King), writing a speech which he felt directly led to the latter’s winning the presidency in 1880. Moved to Washington, DC, where he patronized street prostitutes, and became infected with syphilis. After repeatedly being rejected in his bid for an ambassadorship to Paris with the fledging administration, he bought a .44 caliber revolver, and began stalking the president. In 1881, at the Baltimore and Potomac railway station, he shot him twice from behind, striking him in the back once, and Garfield died 11 weeks later, thanks to the incompetence of his doctors. Used his trial as theater for his own self-view as a powerful evangelist, and caught the imagination of the press, in his declarations of divine inspiration. Served as his own attorney and spent 10 weeks yelling, screaming and cursing in court, largely unchecked, then paraded with puffed chest behind bars, where people were allowed in to view him, much like a demented animal in a cage. Dictated an autobiography to the New York Herald, and ended it with an ad for a nice Christian lady to wed after being found innocent, because he had been instructed by God Himself to undo the president. Made plans to run for president himself in 1884, and was shocked, shocked, when he was found guilty and sentenced to be hanged. On the scaffold he recited a poem he had written called, “I am going to the Lordy,” before abruptly meeting his maker. Inner: Theatrical, angry and completely unhinged, with a divine sense of mission about himself. Ludicrous lifetime of violently thrusting himself into the public imagination via a vile history/changing act, in a desperate attempt to validate his own delusional sense of greatness, an ongoing theme of his.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS QUASI-COMPASSIONATE CONSERVATIVE:
Storyline: The Hope-full pulpitarian is able to turn himself into a national figure through good timing, old timey values, and a genuine sense of likability, as a Republican answer to an earlier Arkansas traveler, who parlayed similar traits all the way up to the White House.

bMike Huckabee (1955) - American politician and Baptist minister. Outer: From the same hometown as Pres. Bill Clinton, and raised in similarly modest circumstances. Father was a fireman who never finished high school and moonlighted as an auto mechanic, while his mother, who was raised in rural poverty, worked as a gas company clerk. One older sister who became a teacher. Raised in a spare-the-rod and spoil the child atmosphere, making him afraid of his sire, although was the same sort of father himself. Extremely shy as a child, he overcame it in junior high by playing electric guitars in various bands. Performed in student drama, served on student councils, and his senior year, he was elected governor of Arkansas Boys State, a program that simulated local, county and state government. Afterwards, he was encouraged by then-governor Dale Bumpers to enter politics. 5’11”. Upon graduating, he married his high school flame, Janet McCain in 1974, two sons and a daughter from the union. Won a scholarship and completed Ouachita Baptist Univ. in 2 1/2 years, magna cum laude, while majoring in speech & communications, and then got his master’s degree at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas in 1980, while being ordained as a Baptist minister. Worked as a staffer for televangelist James Robison in his early 20s, who showed him how to use TV to his advantage then served several Arkansas churches in the 1980s as a pastor, integrating one of them, while largely holding to fundamentalist views, including a disbelief in the theory of evolution. Headed two Christian broadcasting stations at the same time, and also held the presidency of the Arkansas Baptist State Convention in the late 80s and early 90s. Began his political career in 1992 as a Republican, losing his first election to none other than the incumbent Arkansas senator Dale Bumpers, as his fellow Hope alum and Arkansas governor, Bill Clinton, ascended to the presidency. When the lieutenant governor replaced Clinton, he became his lieutenant governor in 1993, narrowly winning over Bumpers’ earlier campaign manager. Only the second Republican to hold that post since Reconstruction days, with his predecessor having done so over 20 years earlier. Handily won his re-election bid for a full term two years later. In 1996, he made another stab at the Senate, only to quit the race to become Arkansas governor, after the state’s chief executive was forced to resign over a felony conviction in the Whitewater scandal that threatened to undo the Clinton presidency. Although the latter changed his mind at the last minute, able to make him hold to his abdication. One of his first acts as governor was to bar state Medicaid from paying for an abortion for a retarded teenager raped by her stepfather, despite federal regulations to the contrary. Nevertheless, proved to be a popular governor, with a sensitivity towards the poor and minorities, and won a full four year term in 1998. An amateur musician, he played bass guitar in a rock band, Capitol Offense, during this period. Raised some taxes as well as state spending, while dealing with education and road-building issues. Promoted school prayer, and managed a second full term in 2002, to become the third longest-serving governor in Arkansas his/story, behind Orval Faubus and Clinton. At the same time, his wife ran and lost for Secretary of State, which brought on a host of nepotistic criticism. On doctor’s orders in 2003, because he was suffering from diabetes, he was able to lose 110 pounds from his bloated 280 pound frame, and keep them off, becoming an advocate and poster boy of good health, although his comparison of his newfound state with concentration camp inmates did not endear him to the Jewish establishment. Continued his tax increases, as well as his expanded state spending, drawing accusations that he was a liberal in disguise, while his support of the children of illegal immigrants would not sit well with his larger base either. Also showed compassion for Hurricane Katrina victims who were forced to regroup in Arkansas in 2005, although his further response of trying to declare the entire state a disaster area was refused. Oversaw a record-breaking amount of state executions, then pushed for a pardon for Wayne Dumond, a rapist who had violated a distant relative of Bill Clinton. The parolee then sexually assaulted and murdered a woman in Missouri while free to further tarnish his judgment. Officially announced his presidential candidacy in early 2007, and although deemed a long-shot, was able to make a good impression in the subsequent debates. His anti-abortion and anti-gay marriage and civil unions stance, as well as his support of the president’s policies in the Middle East, and his genuine conservative credentials coupled with his Southern Baptist ministerial background, began to make him look more and more like the genuine article to the Republican faithful, as his rivals serially faltered. Continued trumpeting himself as a Christian leader, while drawing the kind of flak only frontrunners do, in his surprise strong showing, and giving the GOP fits as the genuine article of a subgroup they had long exploited, without ever desiring to see as their actual candidate. Won the Iowa caucuses, and began sounding more and more like William Jennings Bryan in a desire to downgrade the Constitution, and rewrite it according to projected deific standards. Finally ceded in March, when McCain secured the nomination, while keeping himself positioned as a party leader in years to come. In that spirit, he launched his own eponymous weekend show on Fox in the fall of 2008, and, after longtime radio commentator Paul Harvey’s death in early 2009, he replaced him, for an extremely lucrative broadcast career for himself. A controversial trip to Israel later that year, showed his own rapturous view of a displaced Palestine and a Holy Land ripe for a second coming. Saw his aspirations for 2012 take a serious hit, when a man he paroled killed 4 police officers in Washington state, before being shot to death days later, which turned him from a compassionate conservative to a bleeding heart in the eyes of some of his base. Had been wavering between 2012 and 2016 prior to the incident, which probably iced the decision. Officially excused himself from the running in 2011 at the end of his Fox show, despite being one of the frontrunners at the time. Launched a three hour daily radio talk show in the spring of 2012 as an alternative to the nastiness prevalent in the genre, although his initial offerings garnered low ratings. Launched a three hour daily radio talk show in the spring of 2012 as an alternative to the nastiness prevalent in the genre, although his initial offerings garnered low ratings, while also hosting a weekend Fox TV show. Through his Facebook page, became one of the spearheads around Chick-fil-a Appreciation Day, on 8/1/12, a record setting sales day glut-in supporting a fast food franchise company whose head supports Biblical marriage, short of Solomon and his 700 wives. Forced to terminate his radio show at the end of 2013, when he couldn’t make a dent in Rush Limbaugh’s much higher ratings. Has written several books, including, “From Hope to Higher Ground.” Inner: Strong believer in the Bible, with a sense of moral absolutism about his faith. Sharp wit and good sense of humor, although his metaphors occasionally outrage those who fail to see the humor or hyperbole in them. Sees liberalism as a cancer to Christianity. Springboard lifetime of turning himself into a national political figure against all odds, as a champion of genuine Christian compassion and conservative values, despite flaws aplenty and many a belief that puts him far more in accord with Biblical times than the 21st century. bCharles W. Bryan (1867-1945) - American politician. Outer: Of Irish descent. Father was a lawyer and Democratic politician, who became an Illinois state senator, and a friend of Abraham Lincoln. After losing a re-election bid, he became a state circuit judge, and moved to a ten 500+ acre farm. Both his parents were devout Christians, although shared different specific faiths, with his sire a Baptist and his mother a Methodist. 3rd son and 7th of 8 children. Younger brother of William Jennings Bryan (Al Sharpton). Grew up in a religious home, with his father ultimately returning to his law practice after losing his last election bid. Despite the strong faith of his brother, never a church member as an adult, preferring to keep his spiritual sense private. Went to local public schools, and then spent a year at the Univ. of Chicago. In 1891, he followed his brother to Nebraska, where he worked as a salesman and a secretary of an extract company, then as a broker for an eastern manufacturing firm. Married Mary Brokaw, his hometown sweetheart in 1892, one son and two daughters from the union. In 1896, he began handling his brother’s vast correspondence during the latter’s first presidential run, and soon was managing him, showing himself to be extremely well-organized and systematic, with an astonishing memory for names and faces. Oversaw WJB’s schedules and finances, and kept close track of his political associations, while also helping with his campaign strategies. Far more politically astute than his brother, and through his efforts, he gained first-hand knowledge of national politics. From 1901 to 1923, he also ran his sibling’s journal, “The Commoner.” Entered politics as a Democrat, in 1915, when he was elected to the Lincoln, Nebraska city commission. The same year he was appointed mayor. Unsuccessfully ran for governor in 1916 and 1918, and also was unable to gain re-election as mayor, for attacking wartime profiteers and because of his populist stances. After winning the governorship of Nebraska in 1923, despite a statewide Republican sweep, he set his sights on the presidency the following year. Although he failed to get the nomination, he was chosen as the Democratic vice-presidential candidate as a geographical balance for John W. Davis, although the two were overwhelmingly defeated by Calvin Coolidge (William Bennett), who had inherited the office the year previous. Failed to even carry his own state in the debacle. Light-sensitive, because of his bald head, he wore a black silk skullcap while campaigning. Lost two successive tries for the governorship again in 1926 and 1928, as a staunch supporter of prohibition, and like his sibling, an agrarian reformer. Regained the office for a full four year term in 1935, and then was elected mayor of Lincoln again in 1935. While in office, he always showed a sensitivity to the poor, the aged and have-nots. His penultimate try for the governorship in 1938 was a failure, as he was his final run in 1942, after which, he retired from public life. Died of cancer at his home. Inner: Populist with a genuine Christian sense of charity and desire to uplift and better the lives of the meek and the poor, despite not wearing his religiosity on his sleeve. Overshadowed lifetime of waiting until his famous brother’s career was in eclipse before stepping forward to claim the family political mantle, while reflecting his father’s career, far more than his sibling’s, in preparation for taking his game up to the next level in his next go-round.

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PATHWAY OF THE ASSASSIN AS PERENNIAL CONSPIRATOR:
Storyline: The smalltime scofflaw somehow continually makes it to the bigtime through collusive associations with high profile assassinations in order to claim a place in his/story he could never do on his own negligible skills.

James Earl Ray (1928-1998) - American assassin. Outer: Born in a red-light district, and raised in poverty, in a family that moved frequently. On his natal day, an uncle was hauled off to prison, while two witnesses to his parents’ wedding were arrested for a holdup. Oldest of 9 children. Father was a truck driver and farmer during his rare periods of employment, while his mother was of extremely limited intelligence and barely able to communicate. Dropped out of school at 15, and eventually joined the army in 1945. Stationed in Germany where he did stockade time for drunk and disorderly conduct, and was also noted as a notoriously bad shot, before getting a less-than-honorable discharge. 5’11”, 175 lbs. On his discharge, he engaged in petty criminality, and wound up in a California jail for 8 months on a burglary charge. In 1952, he received a two year sentence for armed robbery, and after his release, he got caught stealing and forging postal money orders in 1955, a federal offense that landed him in Ft. Leavenworth. Adjudged none too bright by authorities and prisoner peers alike, despite an above average I.Q., he was released in 1958. A year later, another armed robbery landed him in the Missouri State Prison at Jefferson City for 20 years as a habitual offender. A loner in prison, he sought psychiatric help and made two abortive escape attempts, before hiding in a breadbox in a bakery truck in 1967, and making good his getaway. Worked his way north to Canada, while continuing his small time thievery in between jobs, and changed his name to Eric Galt. While in Montreal, he met a mysterious blond Cuban named Raoul, who promised a passport for him, if he helped in a smuggling caper, which he did. Continued his wandering and wayward ways, ultimately working as a bartender and taking dance classes in the City of Angels, where he also underwent minor plastic surgery. His association with Raoul continued, and in April 1968, the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated by a sniper in Memphis, Tennessee, after which circumstantial evidence linked him to the shooting. With money from unknown sources, he was eventually captured at London’s Heathrow Airport, using a false Canadian passport under the name of George Raymond Sneyd. Extradited to Tennessee, he confessed to the crime, although was never given a trial, only to recant the confession several days later, and spend the rest of his life trying to exonerate himself. Given a 99 year sentence, he was declared the lone assassin in order to undercut any conspiracy paranoia that could have resulted in riots and even more violent repercussions by the black community over the tragedy. In 1977, he and six others escaped from a Tennessee State Penitentiary, giving him the dubious honor of making the FBI Most Wanted list twice in his life. Recaptured three days later, before he testified to a House committee that he had not shot MLK. Later, exonerated by the King family, who felt he had nothing to do with the assassination, which they thought was part of a larger conspiracy. Died in prison of complications from kidney disease and liver failure, after contracting hepatitis C from a blood transfusion, following a prison stabbing by a group of black inmates, who may or may not have been paid by him to do so for the publicity, allowing his case to enter American conspiratorial lore as one more unresolved mystery for many. Inner: Smalltimer with little regard for the law, and a great desire for fame. Question mark lifetime of his true role in a high profile assassination, while paying back karmic debts from his previous muddled go-round in this series. John Surratt (1844-1916) - American conspirator. Outer: Of Irish Catholic and French descent. Both parents engaged in many enterprises, including farming and storekeeper. Mother, Mary Jenkins Surratt (Anna Nicole Smith), eventually ran a boarding house, while the family owned a tavern. Youngest of three, with an older brother and sister. Originally wanted to be a priest, and enrolled at St. Charles College in Maryland to that effect. 5’9”, thin. Dropped out at the advent of the Civil War, and took up the cause of the South, working as a courier. After the death of his father in 1862, he became postmaster of Surratsville, which had been settled and named after his family. Worked as a Confederate secret agent, sending messages about Union troop movements in the Washington and Virginia areas. Met John Wilkes Booth (Michael Kennedy) in late 1864, and joined his conspiracy to abduct Pres. Abraham Lincoln and exchange him for thousands of Confederate prisoners. His mother’s boarding house served as meeting place for the conspirators. The kidnapping plot failed when the president altered his plans, and on the fated eve before the former’s assassination, he was in upstate New York. Fled to Montreal when he heard of Lincoln’s death, in which his mother was implicated as a conspirator, and hanged later that year. Sheltered by a pair of Catholic priests, and soon afterwards, he went to England as a wanted man, replete with dyed hair and colored eyeglasses. Stayed at a Liverpool church, while receiving money from Confederate agents, before settling in Rome, at the English College, a Catholic institute, there. Its headmaster arranged for him to become a member of the Papal Zouaves under the name John Watson, although he was discovered and the pope ordered his arrest. Escaped to Naples, which was inimical to the Papal States, although was arrested in Alexandria, Egypt in 1866, still in his Zouave uniform. Brought back to the U.S. for trial, which ended with a hung jury. While awaiting a new trial, the statute of limitations ran out on the crime, and he found himself a free man. Released from custody, he embarked on a well-publicized lecture tour, beginning in 1870. Publicly admitted to being part of the abduction plot, but vehemently denied being party to the assassination scheme. His further talks were canceled by a public totally outraged by his desire to profit from a national tragedy. In 1872, he married Mary Victorine Hunter, a relative of Francis Scott Key (John C. Mellencamp), the composer of “The Star Spangled Banner,” seven children from the union. Taught for a while at a Catholic school in Maryland, then went to work for a Baltimore steamship company, ultimately becoming a freight auditor, and finally a treasurer of the company, while staying inside the law. Lived out the full measure of his years, and became the last survivor of the Lincoln Conspiracy, ultimately dying of pneumonia. Inner: Seemingly strong moral sensibilities, according to his own precepts of right and wrong. Set up several of the patterns he would repeat in his next go-round in this series, including escapes to Montreal and England, forged identies and conspiratorial connection with a major American political figure turned martyr. Conspiratorial lifetime of claiming a curious place in his/story by doing nothing save fleeing, before returning to try it again through equally murky circumstances. Jacob Johann Anckarstrom (1762-1792) - Swedish military officer and assassin. Outer: From the Swedish nobility, and a family of landed estates. A military officer from his youth onward, he served as a captain in King Guastavus III’s (Abraham Lincoln) regiment from his mid-teens until 1783. Accused of slandering the monarch while in Gotland, he fled, only to be brought back and tried for the offense. Although acquitted for lack of evidence, he harbored a homicidal hatred for the king, and began plotting his regicide, while posting a death threat to him, which was ignored. Enlisting two henchman to do the deed, he confronted him at a masquerade ball at the Royal Opera house, while wearing a black mask. Spoke to him in French, “Good day, beau mask,” then stepped behind him and shot him in the left side of the back, before escaping. The king responded by crying out in French, as well, and was carried from the theater, to die nearly two weeks later. Arrested the following morning, he immediately confessed to the act, although first denied having had any help, before being informed his hapless henchmen also admitted their part in the dastardly deed. Following the king’s death, he was deprived of both his estates and privileges, and then was sentenced to be put in irons for three days and flogged, before his right hand was cut off, and his head summarily removed. Ignominiously and anonymously buried afterwards, as if to deliberately erase his stab at his/storical immortality. Inner: The victim, as always, of his unfounded anger, and his inability to claim it as his own, preferring to blame his failings on others. Trigger finger lifetime of continuing his longtime deadly association with a figure and a family that continually assures him of a much desired footnote place in his/story, when he would be completely unable to secure it in any other way.

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