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EL NUEVO MUNDO CONEXCION LATINO

PATHWAY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AS DELIMITING LIBERATOR:
Storyline: The charismatic comandante often seems to outlive his revolutions, thanks to an inability to brook opposition, and a cruel need to totally control everyone and everything beneath him.

Fidel Castro (Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz) (1926) - Cuban dictator. Outer: Illegitimate son of an immigrant Spanish farmer, who was a successful sugar plantation owner. Mother had been his maid and her husband’s second wife. Third of six children, with two brothers and three sisters. Both his parents were illiterate, and were determined their son would have a good education. Sent to a Jesuit boarding school, where he showed a clear preference for sports to academia. Athletic, and also rebellious, he helped organize a strike of his sire’s workers. 6’3”. Studied law, and opened a practice in Havana, taking on clients who could barely pay him. Married Mirta Diaz-Balart de Nunez, a fellow student in 1948 One son from the union which ended in divorce in 1954. Showed an early interest in politics, and joined the Cuban People’s Party, impressing other members with his speaking skills. During this time, Fulgencio Batista became dictator of the island nation with the backing of the army. Organized a failed revolt in 1953 with 123 men and women, and was arrested and imprisoned on a 15 year sentence, where he wrote a reformist manifesto, “History Will Absolve Me.” On his release after 2 years, via pressure from the Cuban populace, he went to Mexico and led returned with a small invasionary force with and 82 others, who were quickly reduced to fifteen, including Che Guevara, and a handful of weapons. They hid in the Sierra Maestra mountains, and waged guerrilla warfare by raiding isolated army garrisons under the nom de guerre of the July 26th Movement. Received solid peasant support by redistributing land, and before the middle-class began backing him, allowing him to eventually overthrew the Batista government in 1959. During this time, he fathered an illegitimate daughter. Became head of the armed forces and the government, before looking for support from outside the country. Found it in the U.S.S.R., and totally surprised the U.S. with his avowal of communism, a stance he had flirted with while fighting. With Soviet support, he turned Cuba into a totalitarian state, providing education, health care and housing and appropriating American-held property, closing the casinos and night clubs, and giving the boot to the considerable longtime mob presence on the island, while offering aid to revolutionary activity in Africa and Latin America. Unable to tolerate any opposition to his extreme will, he jailed all dissidents and tortured many, while the island nation remained frozen in 1959, with its residents relying on their improvisational skills to survive. Food shortages would remain rife, and poverty would be a watchword, with many fleeing the island in improvised craft for the far more material shores of the U.S., where they would be accepted. The U.S. set up an economic boycott of the country, with exiles, particularly in the Miami area continually working for his overthrow. A failed U.S. invasion around the Bay of Pigs in 1961 proved disastrous for the former, as did numerous assassination plots, which always failed to materialize. The economic embargo also gave him a convenient bete noir, the U.S., to blame for all shortages, thereby strengthening his own position, while the only people hurt by it, were the Cubans themselves. Extremely oral, he could harangue extemporaneously for hours, creating a cult of personality around himself. Totally puritanical in his public stances, he affected both a beard and a military uniform to show the timelessness of his command, while growing ever more despotic as he grew older, jailing, torturing and killing all who dared question him. His harboring of Soviet missiles created a crisis in 1962 that almost saw the major superpowers unload on one another. In 1981, he shipped out a boatload of undesirables to the U.S., while fomenting revolutionary activity elsewhere. In 1989, the fall of communism in the U.S.S.R. ended their economic support, and five years later his own daughter sought asylum in the U.S. Began suffering from Parkinson’s Disease, and after undergoing intestinal surgery in 2006 he finally relinquished control in his 80s, to his younger brother, Raul. Ultimately outlived his own revolution, in a world where dictatorial communism could no longer sustain popular support. Lived long enough, however, to see the U.S. begin the process of trying to normalize relations with Cuba at the end of 2014, which both his brother and the pope secretly helped negotiate, and the following summer, the American flag once more flew over its Cuban embassy. Met with Pope Francis afterwards and was able to chat with him in Spanish on world issues, in contrast with his earlier meeting with Benedict XVI in 2012, which was far more of a one-sided question and answer affair, in contrast with his earlier meeting with Benedict XVI in 2012, which was far more of a one-sided question and answer affair. Deeply upset at Barack Obama’s visit to Cuba in 2016, which his brother hosted, penning a hostile diatribe in state media, saying: ‘We don’t need the empire to give us any presents.” Inner: Narcissistic, and incapable of accepting criticism or opposition. Extremely oral, with his ubiquitous cigar. Possessor of a legendary sexuality, as well as an equally indomitable will that could brook no opposition. Control freak lifetime of giving endless voice to his extreme need to subordinate everything within his reach to his unquestioned authority. Maximo Gomez y Baez (1836-1905) - Dominican/Cuban revolutionary. Outer: From a lower middle-class family. Destined for the priesthood, he entered a seminary, only to see Haiti invade his half of the island. Joined the Dominican resistance, showing himself to be a fierce warrior. Married a music teacher, several daughters and a son from the union. Became a captain in the Dominican army reserve, before moving to Cuba in 1865, which was undergoing revolutionary turmoil at the time. Initially became a farmer before enlisting in the Cuban army, where he rose to commander-in-chief in the ten year rebellion against Spain, showing a gift for organization and fighting. The rebels, however, were contained, and his desire to invade the western part of the island, and free the slaves went unheeded until 1875, when his destruction of numerous sugar plantations raised the ire of Cuba’s economic overlords. Forced to resign in 1876, he went into exile, ultimately traveling to the U.S. to collect funds for a new rebellion. Cojoined with Jose Marti (Reinaldo Arenas) and Antonio Maceo (Che Guevara) to restart the revolution in 1895. Marti was immediately martyred, while the United States entered the fray and made it their war and, in short order, their country, with limited freedom for the Cubans. Subsequently offered the presidency by the U.S., but he turned it down, and retired to his villa, where he died. Inner: Strongly authoritarian, and unbending on his own views. Ultimately didn’t feel he should be president of Cuba, since he was a Dominican by birth. Up-in-arms lifetime of continuing his ongoing role as liberator, while laying the basis for a return on his next go-round to realize his dream of total control and autonomy over the island nation that would become his private preserve. Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) - South American liberator. Outer: Of Basque descent. From a wealthy Venezuelan criollo family. His father died when he was three, as did his mother six years later. One of four siblings, with two older sisters and a brother. Raised by an uncle, who exposed him to writers of the Enlightenment. Sent to Spain at 16 to complete his education, but showed himself to be suspect to the authorities by his enthusiastic support of the French Revolution. In 1802, he wed Maria Teresa Rodgriguez del Toro y Alaysa, the daughter of a Spanish nobleman, who died the following year of yellow fever, when he returned to Caracas. Vowed never to marry again. Short, thin and wiry. Went back to Europe to assuage his grief, and was appalled when Napoleon was crowned emperor of France, as a complete betrayal of the principles of the revolution. Came back to Venezuela in 1807, living the life of an aristocrat before conspiring in 1811 to help set up the country’s First Republic, as it became the first to try to break free from Spanish control. Set his slaves free and called for an abolishment of that institution. Despite no military experience, he was made a Lt. Col. and distinguished himself in battle. Put in charge of an important republican port, only to be undone when someone freed the prisoners there. Escaped to Cartagena, in New Granada, where he wrote the first of his many political manifestos. Felt the nobility should play a strong role in a liberated northern South America, and was made commander-in-chief of the New Granadian army, enjoying a series of victories. Returned to London to ask for British naval help, which was not forthcoming, then back again as an officer in republican forces when Venezuela declared its independence. Experienced numerous back and forths but by 1819, he had formed the Third Republic, despite a lack of popular support for his efforts. Scaled the Andes in an audacious move, only to lose a lot of his men. Nevertheless, by 1825, a good deal of South America had been liberated, thanks to highly competent figures leading the rebels, including, most importantly, Jose St. Martin (Subcomandante Marcos). Some 696 battles all told were involved in the liberation. Began trying to rebuild the new states, although resentment towards his authoritarian ways impeded his vision and fighting broke out between the fledgling polities. Managed to avoid an assassination attempt, as his health failed, and he was forced to resign all his positions. Exhausted, ill and disillusioned, he made an attempt on his own life, then went into exile and died of TB. Inner: Authoritarian and control freak, with a love of pomp and circumstance. Charming, indefatigable and highly perceptive, as well as imbued with Enlightenment pricniples. Visionary turned despot, undone by excessive need for control. Delimiting liberator lifetime of actualizing many of his power fantasies, only to ultimately burn himself out with his need to be center-stage all the time. Francisco Pizarro (1475-1541) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: Illegitimate son of a colonel of cavalry, who had fought with distinction in Italy. Mother was his maid, with whom he grew up as an illiterate swineherd. Distant cousin of Hernan Cortez (Hugo Chavez). Illegitimate half-brother of Hernando (Abimael Guzman), Gonzalo (Humberto Ortega) and Juan (Daniel Ortega), as well as Francisco Martin de Alcantara (Raul Castro). Ineligible for an inheritance, he fought in Italy, then came to the New World in 1502 as part of a colonization expedition. Helped create a settlement, then joined an expedition where he was second in command to Vasco de Balboa (Omar Torrijos) and was with him when he discovered the Pacific Ocean via the Isthmus of Panama. More exploration ensued in western South America, in which he endured many hardships and his efforts were thwarted before he went back to Spain and personally petitioned the Spanish king, Carlos I (Napoleon) to continue explorations, who in turn, awarded him the governorship of lands he acquired. Brought his three half-siblings back with him and made three expeditions into the Inca empire, as a bloody civil war of succession was going on between the deceased emperor’s sons. In 1532, he took extreme advantage of the situation, capturing the victorious brother, Atahualpa, and slaughtering thousands of his soldiers and followers, with the help of tribes hostile to the empire. Asked for a ransom for him, of a room filled with gold and two of silver, and when it was delivered, he executed the emperor. Appointed a puppet in his place, then marched on Cuzco, the empire’s heart, easily defeating all opposition, while many of the natives saw his forces as liberators. Continued his conquests as Peru largely became his and his brothers. Had a son and daughter by Ines Huaillas Yupanqui, the sister of Atahualpa, who was given to him in marriage. Also sired two more sons by two different native women, including a wife of Atahualpa, although neither was ever legitimatized. Had to do battle against a former partner, Diego de Almagro (Alfredo Stroessner), whom his brother eventually executed. Administrated his empire from Lima, marginalizing both the language and religion of the Incas, replacing them with Spanish and Christianity, while ruling for nearly a decade. Eventually undone by the son of de Almagro, when he was surprised at dinner and overwhelmed. Dying, he drew a cross on the ground with his own blood, and expired with the name of Jesus on his lips. His head and body were eventually buried separately. Inner: Extremely skilled soldier, making do with a minimum amount of troops and resources. Greedy, cruel, courageous and outrageously ambitious. Sword-in-hand lifetime of conquest and control as a seminal force in the ultimate Europeanization of South America, a venue he would continue to return to.

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PATHWAY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AS HOMICIDAL INTELLECTUAL:
Storyline: The bellicose brain continually uncorks chaos in the name of upheaval and change, showing absolutely no ability to control it, to leave things a lot worse for his having interfered with historical processes.
Abimael Guzman (Manuel Abimael Guzman Reynosos (1934) - Peruvian revolutionary. Outer: Out-of-wedlock son of a wealthy businessman who sired six children by three wives. Mother died when he was 3, and he grew up with her family, until he was 14, before joining his progenitor’s crew, while attending a private Catholic school. Shy, obsessive and ascetic. Proved to be an exemplary student, studying philosophy and then law before joining the Communist Party at college. Wed Augusta la Torre in 1964, a fellow Maoist, who may have been murdered by one of her husband’s inamorata in 1989, after becoming his second in command. Became a philosophy professor afterwards at a rural college where he studied Quechua, an indigenous language. Visited China and was arrested twice during the 1970s for political activity, before going underground. Formed his own party based on Maoist principles, which came to be known as Sendero Luminoso, the Shining Path. Called himself Presidents Gonzalo, while his peasant-style revolutionaries committed atrocities galore in the hinterlands, killing everyone and anyone they deemed counter-revolutionary, in yet another of the out-of-control movements he helped unleash. The activities spread to the country’s capital, Lima, and after fifteen years underground, he was finally caught in 1992 in a raid on his supposedly safe house. His ensuing trial by hooded military judges featured much clench-fist posturing, and a life sentence. A retrial in 2004 produced the same verdict, with much activity in between by a variety of his followers. Inner: Intensely cerebral with the extraordinary capacity to rationalize terror as a needed means of political consciousness raising. Uncompromising violent visionary with the inability to see the ultimate consequences of his theories. Stir-the-pot lifetime of unleashing anarchic rage into his extended native milieu, and ultimately winding up permanently caged for his unthinking efforts. Ricardo Flores Magon (1874-1922) - Mexico journalist and revolutionary. Outer: Father was a Zapotec indigene, and a believer in communal land ownership. Mother was a mestiza. One of three brothers. The family moved to Mexico City when he was young. As a student he protested the perennial dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, (Augusto Pinchot) and was arrested in 1892, serving five months. Joined the staff of an opposition newspaper, only to see it banned, while escaping arrest. In 1895, he qualified as a lawyer, although decided not to practice In 1900, he joined his older brother Jesus, in the publication of an anti-Diaz newspaper, Regeneracion, in which he called for violent revolution in Mexico in most fiery manner, as he became increasingly more radicalized. He and his sibling were soon arrested and spent a year in prison. Forced to flee to the U.S. in 1904 with his third sibling because of his activism, while Diaz agents hunted them down. Moved to St. Louis, where the brothers continued their newspaper and, with others, formed the Mexican Liberal Party, calling for the overthrow of the dictator. An abortive uprising cost numerous members their lives, and he fled to Los Angeles, to continue publishing, only to be arrested by U.S. authorities and sent to federal prison in Yuma, Az. Released in 1910, his movement took several Mexican border towns, while he continued to organize in the U.S., suffering increasing ill health, including diabetes and failing eye sight, until he was arrested again in 1918, and given a 21 year sentence. Incarcerated in Leavenworth prison in Kansas, he was found dead in his cell in 1922, with officials claiming he had had a heart attack, although all indications were given that he was beaten to death. His body was transported back to Mexico, where his cortege attracted thousands of workers, with some ten thousand ultimately attending his funeral in Mexico City. Inner: Anarchist at heart, with deep-seated, unshakeable beliefs. Uncompromising activist lifetime of giving his heart and soul to his beliefs, and winding up, as usual, the victim of the oppressive political forces he dedicated his existence to undoing. Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo (1753-1811) - Mexican priest and revolutionary. Outer: Born to criollo parents of moderate wealth. 2nd of 11 children. Attended a Jesuit school and decided to become a priest. An adept academic who received top marks in his class, he got a theological degree from the Univ. of Mexico, then taught philosophy and theology, becoming school rector. Dismissed for his liberal ideas, he ultimately became a parish priest in Dolores. Investigated by the inquisition for unorthodoxy, he kept a mistress and improved the economic welfare of his impoverished indigene parishioners, while becoming involved in the movement to free Mexico from Spanish dominion. Rang in the revolution with Church bells on 9/16/1810, with an impassioned oration known as the “Cry of Dolores” attracting an initial army of 600. As a self-styled Generalissimo, along with Ignacio Allende (Daniel Ortega), he led a ragtag rebel army to the gates of capital, but was completely unable to control the violence and rage he had inspired, as they killed any and all Spaniards they could find, wile looting their homes. They also adopted the Virgin of Guadalupe as their totem, and she would remain Mexico’s patron totem. His army swelled to some 80,000, inflicting monumental damage, while alienating the middle-class, but just as they were on the verge of taking Mexico City, he inexplicably ordered a retreat, against Allende’s wishes, who placed him under arrest. The disorganized rebels soon were betrayed and he fled, as he, along with other leaders, were captured, tried and sentenced to death. Underwent a civil trial and was defrocked and executed by firing squad while blindfolded and holding a crucifix aloft, although the first three rounds failed to kill him, since his executioners were shaking and weeping so hard. Muskets had to finally be held next to his heart to do him in. His head was then hung in a cage for a decade. His remains would ultimately lie in a Mexico City monument known as “the Angel of Independence. Inner: Highly cerebral with a false sense of his own martial abilities and a confused tactical sense. Charismatic and catalytic. Clenched fist lifetime of unleashing forces he was unable to control, while showing his monumental deficiencies in the martial and tactical arena, an ongoing problem of his. Hernando Pizarro (1470?-1570?) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: Father was a nobleman, and colonel of cavalry, with a reputation for valor on the battlefield. Older half-brother of Francisco (Fidel Castro), Juan (Daniel Ortega) and Gonzalo Pizarro (Humberto Ortega), and the only brother who was legitimate. Well-educated, he had a longtime position at the Spanish court. In 1530, he accompanied Francisco on his conquest of Peru, serving as his first lieutenant. Received a huge share of the profits, then returned to Spain in 1534 to advance his family fortunes, and was personally received by the king. Recruited more men and came back to Peru and fought in the civil wars, before being captured by Diego de Almagro (Alfredo Stroessner), Francisco’s former partner. On his negotiated release, he did battle with Almagro in 1538, and, after defeating him, executed him, much to the shock of Spanish Peru. The latter’s sons would later assassinate his brother in revenge for this act. The following year he returned to Spain, and Almagro’s supporters convinced the king to imprison him, although he lived quite well in his confined castle quarters. In 1552, he married his niece, Yupanqui, Francisco’s daughter, in order to keep his sibling’s fortune, five children from the union. Released in 1561, after 20 years of captivity. Moved to Trujillo where he built a magnificent palace, and reputedly lived to the age of 100. Inner: Friendly, courtly and the least cruel of the Pizarros. Highly materialistic and a creature of his time, showing skills on the battlefield that seem to have evaporated in succeeding epochs, thanks to his overthinking subsequent situations, and trying to be a revolutionary leader, rather than a less complicated conqueror. Vinciple victor’s lifetime of making his initial mark in the New World as a highly competent conquistador before taking on later more complex peasant movements over which he had little true understanding or control.

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PATHWAY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AS CONSTANT REBEL WITH A CAUSE:
Storyline: The insubordinate insurgent continually builds on his great desire to make life more equitable for his fellow oppressed citizens, despite an eventual intolerance for any criticism leveled at his cult-like assumption of power in finally realizing his dream of absolute political control.

Daniel Ortega (Jose Daniel Ortega Saavedra) (1945) - Nicaraguan revolutionary. Outer: Son of a veteran of the peasant army of Augusto Sandino (himself). Both his parents had been imprisoned for their opposition to the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza. Older brother of Humberto Ortega, and Camilo Ortega. Idolized his former self, and in 1963, joined the FSLN or Sandinista National Liberation Front. Eventually became head of the its urban resistance, before being arrested and imprisoned for seven years for a bank robbery. After his fellow guerrillas seized the home of a government official and kidnapped a group of the dictator’s associates, they were exchanged for him and 13 other prisoners. Subsequently exiled to Cuba, where he learned guerrilla warfare. Somoza’s repressive activities led to a civil war and the ouster of the dictator’s family, causing the tyrant to resign and flee to Paraguay. as various groups united in rebellion, allowing the FSLN to win national elections in 1984. As coordinator of the Sandinista junta, he was elected president of the country the same year. The U.S., under Ronald Reagan, saw him as a threat, and funded the Contras, to undo his regime, claiming they were true patriots, despite the fact that the Sandinistas had wide popular support. The harassment muted his effectiveness, and he was defeated for re-election by a former member of junta in 1990. He also lost subsequent elections over the next two decades, finding U.S. recalcitrance even more difficult to overcome than mere dictatorship. In 2005, he married Rosario Murillo, after conceiving 7 children with her prior to the union. The duo would serve as micromanagers of his ruling party. In 2007, he was again elected president and lifted the constitutional ban on consecutive reelections, allowing him to remain in power, thanks to a cult of Danielismo, and an intolerance for criticism reminiscent of the right-wing regime he originally helped overthrow. Many of his former allies would ultimately do an about-face against him, accusing him of turning Nicaragua into the same retro-dictatorship it had long been, with little sense of democracy about it. Inner: Strong self-esteem, and great belief in his own powers. Powerful messianic sense, underlining his professed Christian faith. Fascistic tendencies, despite his left-wing stances in an all-out need for absolute control. All power to me lifetime of finally realizing his dream of great political control, only to turn into an odd reverse mirror image of who he had replaced. Cesar Augusto Sandino (Augusto Nicolas de Sandino y Calderon) (1895-1934) - Nicaraguan revolutionary. Outer: Illegitimate son of a wealthy landowner of Spanish descent. Mother had been a servant. Lived with her until he was nine, at which point, his sire reclaimed him and arranged for his education. One half-brother. Radicalized by U.S. intervention in the country in 1912, he worked as a farmer until 1921, when he tried to kill the son of a prominent townsman who had made disparaging remarks about his mother. Eventually fled to Mexico, where he labored at a Standard Oil refinery before returning in 1926, when the statute of limitations ran out on him, and worked as a clerk in a gold mine. Took up arms to support liberal v.p. Juan Bautista Sacasa when he claimed the presidency over the puppet put in place by the U.S. The U.S. Marines, however, intervened the following year and he was forced to flee to the mountains in northern Nicaragua, along with about 100 peasants, whom he had recruited, after violent attacks on Marine patrols, who easily repulsed them. During this time, he married Blanca Arauz, a telegraphist, one daughter from the union. Successfully eluded capture, he elicited widespread sympathy for his cause, which included all of the Hispanic race, earning him support from the Soviet Union and the U.S. Communist Party. When the Marines retreated in 1933, and Sacasa was inaugurated as president, he was invited to meet with the head of the National Guard, the future dictator Anastasio Somoza, but he was abducted and killed by them instead, along with his father and brother. Within a month, his army was destroyed, and two years later Somoza usurped the presidency for a four decade run for himself and his family. Became a rallying idol for left-wing activity in Latin America afterwards, giving his name to the Sandinistas, who would later reclaim the country in the late 1970s. Inner: Messianic and a great believer in his own abilities. Saw his struggle in racial terms, making it fairly universal for Latin America. All power to the people lifetime of realizing his dream of becoming an immortal revolutionary leader, without the political baggage of ultimately being placed in charge of a country. Ignacio Allende (Ignacio Allende y Unzaga) (1769-1811) - Mexican general and revolutionary. Outer: Father was a wealthy creole trader. Enjoyed a life of privilege, and at 20, he joined the occupying army of New Spain, ultimately rising to the rank of cavalry captain, in charge of a royal cavalry regiment. Showed sympathy towards the movement for independence from Spanish dominance, and began attending conspiratorial meetings, where he met the charismatic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo (Abimael Guzman). The latter rang his church bells in 1810 with the stirring Cry of Dolores, in which he urged the poor of Mexico to take up arms, initiating the revolution before the conspirators were properly prepared. Made lieutenant general to Hidalgo’s captain general, and enjoyed initial success, although soon saw that the the latter was quite incompetent as a military leader, and quarreled repeatedly with him, over his allowing his peasant army to indiscriminately loot and kill. Wished to march on Mexico City, which Hidalgo refused to do, and he replaced him, hoping to gather more weapons, money and troops in the north of the country. The rebel army, however, was betrayed and ambushed, leading to his capture, along with Hidalgo and several commanders. Tried and executed by firing squad the following year, after which he was decapitated, and his head was displayed inside a cage in a public granary of Guanajuato. Later had his body reunited and given a proper burial reserved for Mexican dignitaries, and is revered as a great hero of the country’s push towards independence, while having San Miguel de Allende renamed for him. Inner: Charismatic and a professional soldier through and through. Thwarted lifetime of having his dreams dashed by an incompetent partner in revolution, necessitating a need for far more control in his further investigations of the politics of actualized overthrows. Juan Pizarro (c15ll-1536) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: Father was a nobleman, who served as a valiant colonel of cavalry, earning a reputation for bravery on the battlefield in Italy. The youngest of five half-brothers, with only the eldest, Hernando (Abimael Guzman), legitimate. The others were Francisco (Fidel Castro), Gonzalo (Humberto Ortega) and Francisco Martin de Alcantara (Raul Castro), with Gonzalo his full sibling. Joined his siblings in the conquest of Peru in 1532, and was the first to die, during an Incan uprising, when he was struck in the head by a large stone, while climbing a fortress wall. Inner: Aborted lifetime of falling in battle before being allowed to fully explore his martial skills.

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PATHWAY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AS MARTIAL ADEPT:
Storyline: The continual second-in-command knows his way around a battlefield while also evincing the same proclivity for dictatorship as his left-wing confreres whenever given the opportunity to lead.

Humberto Ortega Saavedra (1947) - Nicaraguan general and revolutionary. Outer: Son of a veteran of peasant army of Caesar Sandino (Daniel Ortega), with both parents having been jailed for their opposition to the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza. The middle of three brothers, with Daniel Ortega, his older sibling. Grew up in an environment where political rebellion was a given. Along with Daniel, joined the FLN, the the Sandinista National Liberation Front and in 1975 helped formulate the urban resistance strategy of the group, losing his youngest sibling in the fighting. A civil war ensued, and in 1979, the Somoza dynasty fell. Became Minister of Defense and helped build the Sandinista Popular Army, which fought the U.S. backed Contra army, trying to oust his brother from the country’s presidency, despite great initial popular support. Probably involved in numerous assassinations of enemies of the FSLN, although nothing was ever proven against him. Also able to keep in check anyone who might have competed for leadership with his brother, during his presidency. Continued to maintain control of the military even after his sibling’s electoral defeat in 1990. Finally retired from active life in 1995, and turned his attention towards writing, as an historian of the revolution, penning several works. Inner: Loyal, highly competent and dedicated to Sandinista ideals. Second-in-command lifetime of remaining closely linked with his longtime family member, as his number two, before the latter raised himself to cult level in his need for absolute control over his minions. Alvaro Obregon (1880-1928) - Mexican president. Outer: From a respectable family that had become impoverished. Father had been a businessman, who died the year his son was born. The 18th and youngest child, he was raised by his mother and three older sisters, to whom he remained close. Had little formal education, although he read voraciously. Married Refugio Urrea in 1903, and had four children with her. After doing a variety of jobs, he became a farmer, buying his own small farm. Tragically lost his wife and two children in 1907, leaving the other two to be raised by his sisters. Always quite mechanical, he invented and sold a chickpea harvester. Won a municipal election in 1911 and joined the revolution the following year after the fall of the longtime dictator Porfirio Diaz (Augusto Pinochet), showing great military skill, which allowed him to become commander-in-chief of the northwest forces in 1913. In the revolutionary rift between land and political reformers, he took sides with the latter. Lost his right arm in the fighting, while playing a large role in the creation of an anticlerical constitution. Retired soon afterwards to his farm, but in the wake of the increasingly conservative rule of his former ally, Venustiano Carranza (Vicente Fox), he staged an uprising, and was elected president in 1920 in his murdered stead, which largely ended the violence. In 1918, he married Maria Tapia Monteverde, and had seven children with her. Instituted many radical reforms before retiring, becoming quite wealthy in the next four years, before declaring his candidacy again in 1928, following Plutarco Calles’s (Hugo Chavez) run of office. Re-elected, despite a brief revolt, he was assassinated during a victory dinner by a cleric because of his earlier anti-Church stand. Inner: Self-aggrandizing, with a great desire for power and influence, and less-and-less sensitivity to the have-nots the longer her ruled. Military adept, showing continual tactical genius on the battlefield. Sword-in- hand lifetime of rising to great power via his martial skills, only to ultimately be undone by his anti-clerical sentiments. Bernardo O’Higgins (1776-1842) - Chilean revolutionary. Outer: Of Irish and Spanish descent. Illegitimate son of an Irish immigrant who rose through the ranks and became viceroy of Peru and staunch royalist. Mother was socially prominent, and he was product of a brief affair twixt his parents. Spent his youth with the latter’s family traveling, while only meeting his progenitor once and not knowing who he was. Sent to Lima at 15, and then London two years later to complete his studies, and while there, he became imbued with the ideals of independence. Joined a Masonic Lodge, which put forth similar ideas, then went to Spain. On his sire’s death in 1801, he inherited a large piece of land, and worked as a gentleman farmer. In 1806, the French emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, usurped the Spanish throne and placed a brother on it, leading to his joining the revolt looking to restore Spain’s rightful king, Ferdinand VII (Ferdinand Marcos). Elected as a deputy to the National Congress of Chile in 1811, and fell into the camp looking for broader Latin American independence. Suffered health problems, which forced him to retire from the Army, although he soon mobilized the local militia recruited from families working his land. Despite no formal training, he quickly proved himself a military adept fighting against the royalists. Incurred a leg wound in a further struggle, and was made commander of the army in 1813, before suffering a devastating defeat the following year, which forced him and thousands of others to retreat into exile in Argentina. Took advantage of Spanish brutality in Chile, and in 1817, co-led, along with Jose San Martin (Subcomandante Marcos) a contingent of some 5000, across the Andes. The Army of the Andes, as it was known, arrived in Chile unopposed via a clever ruse, and decidedly defeated the royalists, opening the way to take the capital Santiago. By 1818, Chile was free, as the royalists retreated to their last continental bastion, Peru. Left as virtual dictator of Chile, he eliminated his enemies, and proved to be quite authoritarian and controlling, hand-picking his Senate, while feeling only a strong leader could lead the liberated country. Nevertheless, he supported education and equality and curtailed the power of the wealthy, as well as the Church. Chile continued to be active in South American independence, while he organized an effective military. Wound up alienating the country’s elite and its commercial class by supporting the wars in Peru. Forced to step down in 1823 in order to avoid an outright rebellion against him. Bared his chest to his enemies and invited them to take revenge on him, although the gesture drew cheers for its bravado. Intended to go into exile in Ireland, but instead stopped in Peru, where he was given a large estate, and settled into life there. Acted as unofficial ambassador between Chile and Peru, meddling in both countries before being invited back to Chile in 1841, only to die of heart problems while en route. Inner: Brave, honest, dedicated and open to compromise to prevent further bloodshed. Also cruel and oppressive, while enjoying a posthumous whitewashing of his character to make him more historically appetizing. Rehabilitating lifetime of being given the grace of historic rewriting, so as to soften his ongoing complex character as a highly controlling powermonger. Gonzalo Pizarro (1502-1548) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: Father was a cavalry captain and nobleman, with strong military skills. Illegitimate half-brother of Hernando (Abimael Guzman) and Francisco (Fidel Castro) and full brother of Juan (Daniel Ortega) Pizarro, sharing the same mother with the latter. Joined his brother Francisco in his conquest of Peru in 1532. Along with Juan, was put in charge of the garrison in Cuzco, and showed himself to be quite corrupt and brutal in his assumption of power, dispatching any and all who refused to accept Spanish rule. Demanded the wife of the Incan emperor, and had to deal with a large scale rebellion, which he and Juan were able to ultimately put down. Captured and imprisoned by Francisco’s former partner Diego de Almagro (Alfredo Stroessner), but escaped, and later defeated him in battle and executed him. Made governor of Quito in 1541, and led a disastrous expedition searching for El Dorado, the fabled City of Gold. Returned to find Francisco had been assassinated, and led a revolt against the newly arrived viceroy, but most of his army deserted him. Defeated, he was captured and beheaded on the battlefield. Inner: Brutal, and manipulative with little respect for human life. Corrupt lifetime of giving voice to his darkest instincts, only to ultimately be upended by his inability to inspire and lead, which he would try to redress in subsequent incarnations in this series.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS SELF-OBSESSED TYRANT:
Storyline: The macho monomaniac feels compelled to control every aspect of his polity’s life, as he sinks deeper and deeper into tyranny until his paranoia is finally realized in a hail of bullets, much to the relief of virtually everyone in his republic.
Rafael Trujillo (1891-1961) - Dominican dictator. Outer: Of Spanish, Haitian and Dominican descent. Third of eleven children of a poor family. Father did retail sales. Given informal and intermittent schooling in various villagers’ homes. Later had his early life mythologized, making for considerable confusion around its specifics. When he was 16, he worked as a telegraph operator, while joining a gang and committing a string of crimes. Arrested for forging a check, which cost him his job. Below average height, he ultimately sported a thin mustache. In 1916, he wed Aminta Ledesima, a peasant woman, two daughters from the union, which ended in divorce in 1925. Became a weigher at a a sugar plantation, before being promoted as a private policeman there. Bored with rural life, he jumped at the opportunity when the U.S. Marines offered to train him as a police officer. Quickly rose in the ranks, and by 1925, was made commander-in-chief. In 1927, he wed Bienvenida Ricardo, one daughter from the union. Divorced her in 1935 while she was out of the country, for not bearing him sons. In 1930, he ran for presidente, while organizing a secret police force to torture and murder the supporters of the opposing candidate. Won in an a landslide, and never let go of power. Always impeccably dressed in his uniforms, he never perspired, no matter how hot it was, while viewing all attractive women as his by virtue of his position. Imposed martial law when a hurricane devastated the Dominican Republic early in his first term, and after imposing emergency martial law and seizing bank accounts, he renovated the capital of Santo Domingo, and renamed it after himself, Ciudad Trujillo. Went on to name everything he could after himself, in a cult of personality that gave no breathing room to anyone who opposed him. Made renovations in the large cities, while uprooting peasant communities, and treating Haitian immigrants with a particular severity, massacring thousands of them. In 1935, he wed his third wife, Maria Martinez, a former mistress and cabaret dancer, whose adopted son Ramfis Trujillo, a dissolute playboy, was briefly presidente before dying in an auto accident in 1969. Had four children with paramours, and nine all told. Chose a puppet successor in 1938, before resuming office in 1942. Continued to grow more despotic and paranoid the longer he remained in power, giving some sense of stability to the country but at a terrible price, with much of the republic wealth winding up in his and his family’s bank accounts. Suffered health problems towards the end, while continually executing perceived plotters against him, until he was ambushed on the road in his car in a fusillade of bullets by a cabal of seven led by two generals, with CIA support. All but one, in turn, were executed, as the dictator’s son returned from Paris, to try to replace him, only to be forced to flee the country with his father’s body, which wound up being buried in Madrid. Inner: May have killed as many as 30,000 during his corrupt reign, a record for the Western hemisphere. Facts about him remain somewhat clouded, thanks to his need to constantly mythologize the cult of personality he built around himself. Control freak lifetime of turning his state into a personal fiefdom, with himself as its completely dominant head, only to ultimately fall victim to the same murderous rage that informed his long, hyper-corrupt rule. Edward Edwards (1742-1815) - British admiral. Outer: The fifth of six children, he took to the sea early and at 17 was commissioned an officer in the Royal Navy. Never married. Served on a number of gunships before rising to commanding officer in the Caribbean theater in 1781. Reputedly a fine figure of a man, looking every inch an officer. Following the end of the American Revolution, he served a half dozen years at half-pay before being given command of the HMS Pandora in 1790. With the aid of former Bounty midshipman (Thomas Hayward), a loyalist of Capt. William Bligh (Fulgencio Batista), he was ordered to set sail for the South Seas and round up as many HMS Bounty mutineers as he could. Found 14 on Tahiti during a month and a half period, before fruitlessly searching for the others on other islands for another four months. Finally gave up the quest and brought his prisoners back to England for trial, only to have his ship founder on the Great Barrier Reef. Insisted on being the first in the lifeboat afterwards, while letting the mutineers drown in their own chains, although his Boatswain’s Mate disobeyed orders and rescued all but four, as 31 crew members lost their lives. Managed to repeat in part, Bligh’s epic open boat trek to Timor, with four lifeboats under his command, before refitting and sailing on to Jakarta, and then England, with almost half his crew of 134 lost during the voyage. Excessively cruel with the mutineers, keeping them in close confinement, and treating them all as if they were equally guilty, despite knowing which ones were there against their will, and which weren’t. Brutally chained them all inside a brig known as “Pandora’s Box,” with no ventilation and crawling with vermin. On his return to England, he was court-martialed for the loss of his ship, although he was supported by his officers that circumstances, rather than poor seamanship, led to the destruction of his vessel. Three of the mutineers were subsequently found guilty and hanged, while he was exonerated, along with his officers, although he was never given another command. Instead, he became a recruiting officer, before resigning at half pay. Promoted to vice-admiral in 1809, and eventually was given the honorary title of admiral of the white, the third most senior officer in the Royal Navy. Retired and owned several farms, before the effects of his own epic voyage did him in. Inner: Skilled navigator with a mixed reputation, thanks to an extremely strong cruel streak, when it came to those he deemed morally deficient, whether they were not. Martinet lifetime of mirroring, in part, his longtime crypto-sibling in his dual sea skills and complete insensitivity to those placed in his thrall. Henry Morgan (1635-1688) - Welsh pirate. Outer: Eldest son of a farmer and former soldier. Probably shanghaied in Bristol and sold into servitude in the Caribbean. Worked in the sugar plantations of the Caribbean as an indentured servant there for seven years, before being recruited by a pirate crew under the direction of Christopher Myngs (Fulgencio Batista), although there are a whole variety of accounts of these years of his life, including a failed expedition to seize Spanish holdings in the Caribbean. Of average height and build. In 1662, he made Jamaica his permanent home base, quickly amassing enough booty to purchase a ship of his own along with some cohorts by the time he was 29. Chosen as captain by them, while impressing his future patron, Capt. Edward Mansfield (Gerardo Machado), who made him ‘vice admiral’ of his freebooter fleet. Harried Spanish settlements on the mainland of America, and also proved a fierce defender of British shipping in the Caribbean. His courage and abilities earned him a promotion from the governor of Jamaica, who made him admiral of the Jamaican fleet with 10 ships and 500 men under his command. Along with some fellow captains, he plundered the coast of Central America, torturing the populace until they told him where their treasures were hid, and then returned to Jamaica as a wealthy man. His uncle, Edward Morgan, a veteran of the English Civil Wars, by this time had been named lieutenant governor of Jamaica, a post he would eventually hold. On the death of the latter in 1665, he married his daughter Mary Elizabeth, giving him entry to the island’s high society, while also inheriting Mansfield’s criminal empire, when the latter expired at the same time. Made admiral of a fleet of buccaneers in 1668, to do battle with the Spanish, and also indulge in uninhibited looting of his enemy’s richest cities. Did sea battle after a further spate of plunder, losing only 18 men while nearly destroying the Spanish fleet. Returned to Jamaica with spoils valued at more than £1,000,000, including gold, silver, jewels, weaponry and slaves. Despite his wealth, put to sea again with a fleet of 12 vessels. Managed to survive an explosion that gutted his ship during a banquet, and continued his piratical ways, using daring and imagination to further augment his considerable fortune. Given command of the largest fleet ever to set sail from Jamaica, some 35 ships and 2000 men, as he vowed to destroy Spanish power in the New World forevermore. Taken to England in 1672 as a prisoner, in order to appease the Spanish court. Because of his enormous popularity, however, he was never incarcerated, and instead in 1674, he was knighted, returning to Jamaica as lieutenant governor, showing himself to be a perpetual drunk, addicted to both alcohol and gambling, and incapable of sober rule. Eventually died of cirrhosis of the liver, while his remains, appropriately were washed out to sea in the aftermath of an earthquake, four years after his burial. Inner: Cruel, rapacious, ruthless, extremely persuasive and monumentally greedy, with an extremely strong self-destructive nature. Violent, charismatic, courageous and a skilled seaman. Rags-to-riches lifetime of plunder, and uninhibited mayhem, writing his name large in the buccaneer annals of the New World. Bartholomew Columbus (Berteme Colombo) (c1461-1515) Italian explorer. Outer: From a respectable family of limited means. Father was a wool weaver, who also owned a cheese stand, and later a tavern. Younger brother of legendary explorer Christopher Columbus (Fulgencio Batista). Also had two other brothers and a sister. Learned to make charts, and migrated to Lisbon where he became an expert mapmaker. May have accompanied some Portuguese explorers sailing around Africa. According to tradition, he visited Henry VII of England (Rupert Murdoch) in 1484 and give him a map of the world, showing him the lands he and his brother wished to explore, in their desire to find a western route to the Orient and its lucrative spice trade. When his sibling got backing from the Spanish crown, nearly a decade later, he joined up with him in Hispaniola, and participated in the brutal subjugation of the natives there, remaining on the island until 1500, as adelantado or governor. When Christopher returned to Spain in 1496, he took charge of the colony, which was subsequently moved to the site of the city of Santo Domingo, which he founded. After provoking and suppressing a rebellion, he was brought back in chains to Spain, along with his brother and a nephew, although all three were pardoned by the crown. In 1502, he joined his sibling’s last transatlantic voyage, only to be defeated in battle by a local tribal leader. Following his brother’s death in 1506, he returned to Spain, and was given concession to a small island near Puerto Rico, which the crown would reclaim after his death. Never married although fathered a daughter out of wedlock. Inner: Ambitious, harsh and adventurous. Inaugural lifetime of creating a colony, which he would return to again and again in increasingly despotic fashion, as a tyrant unable to deal with opposition of any kind, in what he would come to view as his perennial fiefdom.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS DESPOT CONSTANTLY AT SEA WITH HIMSELF:
Storyline: The dualistic discoverer writes his name large in the history books as a man of great foresight, only to fail to see himself as a small-minded tyrant, whenever he governs others.

Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (1901-1973) - Cuban dictator. Outer: Father was a laborer, and part Chinese. Born near the Castro family’s plantation. A mulatto of mixed Spanish, African, indigene, he was never registered under his own name by his sire, and did not officially become a Batista until 1939. Went to public school and took night classes at an American Quaker school, learning English. Left home at 14, after the death of his mother, and worked as a laborer, among a host of occupations. Joined the army as a private in 1921, rising to the rank of sergeant-major as a military tribunal stenographer. In 1926, he wed Elisa Godinez Gomez, two daughters and a son from the union. Also fathered another daughter during this period. In 1933, he led a group of non-commissioned officers in a rebellion in a successful coup against dictator, Gerardo Machado, in an alliance with students and labor leaders. Conspired with the U.S. ambassador to force the resignation of the provisional president, and then, having risen to the rank of colonel, became the power behind a series of puppet leaders, until he was elected presidente for a four year term in 1940. Drafted a relatively progressive constitution, and legalized the Cuban Communist Party, which helped keep labor in line, Stepped aside in 1944, as the same figure he had deposed in 1933 took over the reins of government, while he went to live in Daytona Beach, Florida. Divorced his first wife in 1946, after beginning a relationship with Marta Fernandez Miranda, four sons and a daughter from the union. The island nation suffered from widespread corruption, in a wide-open atmosphere that made Cuba a haven for all sorts of nefarious activity. In 1952, the Cuban People’s Party was expected to form a new government, but he, with the support of the army, ousted the elected president and took control of the country. Sought the support of the upper classes, who had earlier rejected him, while amassing a large personal fortune. Opened Havana to large scale gambling and sex tourism, making it a playground for the wealthy, which brought in organized crime, whose tentacles gripped Havana, making it a pleasure playground for the rich. Also undertook massive construction projects, all the while exercising brutal control over the populace. In 1953, Fidel Castro, with a band of 123 men and women, attacked the Moncada army barracks, and were soundly routed. Had Castro jailed for two years, but because of populist pressure, released him, and he fled to Mexico, as the dictator suspended constitutional guarantees and used police tactics to keep the restless population under control. Castro returned in 1956, with 80 followers, to inaugurate the July 26 Movement, only to be soundly defeated again, and hid in the Sierra Maestra Mountains, with only 16 survivors of the second fiasco, along with a dozen weapons, where the ragtag group waged a guerrilla campaign against his corrupt regime. Tortured many people to get information on their movement, which began to swell because of their redistribution of captured land. Publicly executed suspected supporters, including children, leaving them hanging in the streets as warning against joining the rebels, which only increased their popular support, as the middle-classes joined in their desire to oust the dictator, thanks to his brutal police state methods. Continually sent troops into the mountains to try to overwhelm the guerrillas, only to see his forces suffer defeat after defeat. The U.S. withdrew support of him, and on New Year’s Day of 1958, he fled the country with some $300 million and 180 of his closest associates, living first in the Dominican Republic and the rest of his life in luxury in Spain and Portugal, dying of a heart attack two days before a team of Castro-inspired assassins planned to kill him. Penned several books as homage to himself. Inner: Power hungry, greedy, egotistical and corrupt, becoming ever more so the longer he remained in office. Tyrannical lifetime of giving expression to his overwhelming need to amass a huge fortune and remain in power for as long as he could, before falling and fleeing, to live out his days in luxurious exile. William Bligh (1754-1817) - British vice-admiral and colonial administrator. Outer: Father was a customs officer, and second husband of his mother, who died when her son was 15. Served a sea apprenticeship as a youth and then joined the Royal Navy in 1770. In 1776, he served under James Cook (Jonathan Caoette) on his third and last voyage to the South Seas, inspiring him to make similar scientific voyages of discovery. On his return to England, he wed Elizabeth Betham in 1781, six daughters, including one who was mentally deficient, and twin sons who died in infancy from the union. His wife would prove to be his singular support through all his subsequent troubles. Entered private service afterwards as a commander of merchant ships in the West indies, and captained the Bounty at the behest of Caribbean plantation owners who were looking for cheap subsistence food for their slaves. Commissioned by the Admiralty for a voyage to Tahiti to secure breadfruit trees, which he undertook reluctantly, while being forced to take a huge pay cut when he re-entered the Navy. Sailed to Tahiti in 1787, only to see that his officers were largely incompetent by his strict standards, while the weather around Cape Horn delayed the timing of the trip, forcing him to spend five months in Tahiti in order for the breadfruit cuttings he took there to properly set. Finally set sail for home in 1789, only to become incensed at the lackadaisical seamanship of his crew, which led to a falling out with his first mate, who had earlier served under him, Fletcher Christian (Gerardo Machado). The latter was contemplating jumping ship in response, when nine of the crew convinced him to take the ship, and they mutinied, grabbing the arms chest and arresting him, after rousing him from sleep, in an action that lasted about an hour. Put in a 20 foot launch with 18 loyal crew members, some navigational instruments and five days worth of food, he managed an epic feat of nautics, heading for the island of Timor, some 3600 miles away, while dealing with hardships galore. Reached Timor a month and a half later, and then the island of Java, where he was able to get transportation back to England, finally arriving home in the spring of 1790, to be honorably acquitted at his court-martial for losing his ship. In the interim, the Bounty returned to Tahiti, leaving several mutineers there, while Christian and 8 others sailed on to Pitcairn Island. Put back to sea in 1791, and successfully brought breadfruit to the West indies, although his reputation never recovered, despite his published version of events, “Narrative of the Mutiny,” blaming it on the sensual environment of the South Seas, while he became known as “the Bounty Bastard.” Received a number of other commands, fighting bravely in several battles during this period, while also serving as one of the subject skippers of a widespread mutiny on several ships by disgruntled sailors. Appointed governor of New South Wales in Australia from 1805 to 1810, where he was arrested by his own men in a rebellion, and kept under guard for nearly two years aboard a ship, before being sent home. Although he was never given a significant command again, he was promoted to rear admiral and then vice admiral in 1814. Died three years later, probably of stomach cancer, when he dropped dead on a visit to his surgeon, after living quietly with his daughters on his Kent estate. Inner: Far more verbally abusive then physically, with a propensity for exaggerated physical gesture, while continually showing little regard for the well-being of his men. Completely unable to control his relationships with his underlings, evincing a constant propensity for raising the hackles and ire of almost all who dealt with him. Legendary lifetime of turning himself into a totem of excessive naval discipline for the ages, thanks to a cruel, intemperate disposition and a complete lack of faith in his fellow man, despite his ongoing superior navigational skills. Christopher Myngs (c1625-1666) - English buccaneer and admiral. Outer: Enlisted in the Royal Navy as a cabin boy, and eventually became a captain, showing his seaworthy mettle in doing battle with the Dutch fleet. In 1656, he sailed his 44 gun frigate Marston Moore to Jamaica, after putting down a potential mutiny, and took part in a raid on Venezuela. The following year, he took command of the naval squadron anchored in Jamaica, and began eying the Spanish treasure fleet, while earning the reputation for extreme cruelty in his disregard for human life. Hid his squadron along the Central American coast, although his first attempt at buccaneering proved to be a failure, since his forces were not strong enough, although they did considerable damage to a South American Spanish holding. In 1659, he sailed east against prevailing headwinds and were able to overwhelm Spanish colonists by surprise using only his flagship and two others, while giving his men the opportunity to act out their most vile, criminal nature. Plundered two cities in Venezuela and ran off with some £250,000 in booty, the largest haul ever brought back to Jamaica. Refused, however to give the English government any share in the prize, and was promptly arrested by the governor of Jamaica, who sent him back to England to be tried. His feat attracted dozens of pirate captains, who flocked to Jamaica to sail with him. Able to take advantage of the restoration of the throne to the Stuarts, and all charges against him were dropped in the confusion of the turnover. Returned to Jamaica in 1662 with the Centurion, and the same year captured Santiago, Cuba’s largest city, while blowing up the Spanish fortress. Managed to put together a crew of some 1500 buccaneers, many of them disgruntled ex-soldiers and sailors from the armies and navies of England, France and Holland, who manned a fleet of 12 ships. His large hauls inspired a number of younger pirates, including Henry Morgan (Rafael Trujillo) as he continued to show daring and audacity, as well as extreme rapaciousness in his attacking of Cuban towns heretofore deemed safe from privateers. Seized both ships and money, as the Spanish government complained bitterly to the English crown, who forbade any future assaults in 1663. After being severely wounded he returned to England two years later and became a vice-admiral of a squadron fighting the Dutch forces in the English channel, for which he was knights. Mortally wounded in a battle in 1666, with musket balls to his cheek and left shoulder, and finally the neck. Left little money in his will, making his ultimate haul a mystery, and adding to his curious criminal legend. Inner: Extremely rapacious and cruel, giving no quarter to anyone who fell victim to his predations. Swashbuckling lifetime of running amok in the Caribbean, with no restraints whatsoever placed on his complete disregard for life, limb and the property of others, as the prototype for all future pirates whose uninhibited pursuit of mayhem and money still resounds in the imagination of humanity centuries later. Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Columbo) (1451-1506) - Italian explorer. Outer: Father was a wool weaver, who also owned a cheese stand, and later a tavern. The oldest of four brothers, including Bartolomew (Rafael Trujillo), along with one sister. Felt ashamed of his mundane upbringing and rarely spoke of it. Took to the sea at a young age, before studying at the Univ. of Pavia, where he learned astronomy, geometry and cosmography. Tall and lean with red hair which ultimately turned prematurely white, and a hawkish nose and blue eyes. In his 20s, he began an apprenticeship as a business agent. Continued working aboard ships, getting some sense of western Europe, before joining his brothr Bartolomew in Lisbon, where the latter was a mapmaker. Continued as a trader, while basing himself in Lisbon until 1485. In 1479, he married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, daughter of a Portuguese nobleman, one son from the union, Diego (Gerardo Machado), who would join him in the New World. Traded along the western coast of Africa, and either lost his wife in childbirth, or simply walked out on her. Took on a mistress, an orphan, Beatriz Enriquez de Arana, two years later, and had one son, Ferdnando (Charles Nordhoff)with her. Self-educated, he learned several languages, and also studied astronomy and geography, which gave him the notion that the Orient could be reached by sailing westward. In 1485, he proposed to the king of Portugal he could discover a western route to there but was turned down twice. After several years and much negotiating with the Spanish crown, he found the queen, Isabella I of Castile (Coco Chanel) and the king, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Lucien Bonaparte) ultimately amenable to his plans, and he was outfitted with three ships, the Nina, the Pinta and the flagship, the Santa Maria, with 88 men all told, and a promise to be made Admiral of the Ocean Sea, and governor and viceroy of all lands he could claim for Spain. Having learned the trade winds, he made his historic voyage across the Atlantic in 1492, and initially landed in the Bahamas on October 12th, thus averting the possibility of mutiny by his nervous crew. Found the natives, the Arawak, easily controllable and saw their gold earrings as a source of wealth. Explored the coast of Cuba, as well as Hispaniola, looking for more sources of gold. Took natives prisoner, while continuing his explorations, before returning to Spain, via Portugal, where he was received with a triumphal procession and subsequently given 17 ships and 1200 men to set up permanent colonies in the New World in the fall of 1493. Continued his explorations, still thinking he was in eastern Asia, while meeting armed resistance, as he proved to be a harsh retaliator. Joined by his brother Bartolomew in 1494, he left him in charge of the colony in Hispaniola, and returned to Spain, wearing the habit of a Franciscan. Declined a title, while his two sons were received by the queen as pages. His third voyage occurred in 1498, with a smaller contingent of six ships, to find many of the settlers in Hispaniola in rebellion over his harsh rule and the conditions under which they were forced to live, while he was in ill health, suffering from arthritis and eye problems. Forced to make peace, he and his brother and sons were brought back to Spain in chains in 1500, after tales of tyranny and cruel rule reached the court, although they were soon pardoned for their excesses by the crown. His fourth and final voyage in 1502 saw him battling storms as well as colonists and natives, although he partially won over the latter by correctly predicting an eclipse in 1504. Returned to Spain and wound up bedridden for months before dying, while suffering from arthritis and conjunctivitis, an eye disorder, which proved to be an ironic affliction for an acclaimed visionary, who could never truly see himself.. Had his remains buried and exhumed three times before finally winding up in Sevilla in 1898. Although he would be credited with the European discovery of America, it had been settled centuries earlier by some hardy Vikings, and then hidden from cartographic view because of harsh weather systems that made crossing the Atlantic near impossible for the vessels of the time. Inner: Prudish, rarely swore and attended Mass regularly, believing the end of the world was nigh. Harsh disciplinarian, with little regard for the natives he found. Extremely religious, he was fascinated by Biblical prophecies and ultimately saw his career in eschatological terms. Seminal lifetime of entering the world’s mythos as an explorer and discoverer extraordinaire, despite numerous character flaws and ambitions that far outweighed his innate abilities.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS LEFTIST TURNED HARD RIGHTIST:
Storyline: The lesser clan member stages a noted revolt before returning to mirror his crypto-family’s ongoing manipulations around power, ultimately becoming exactly like them when finally given the opportunity to govern on his own.

Gerardo Machado y Morales (1871-1939) - Cuban president. Outer: From a poor family. Born during Cuba’s Ten year War in the island’s three decade struggle for independence from Spain. Along with his father, he was initially a cattle thief, although records of his unsavory beginnings were conveniently burned when he began his political career. Lost three fingers on his left hand as a butcher, before becoming a revolutionary, and then one of the youngest Cuban generals in the later 19th century phase of the island’s War of Independence. Served as mayor of Santa Clara, his hometown, then failed in his bid for governor of La Villas, before serving in a variety of government posts. Involved himself in several business ventures including a sugar mill and an electric company which controlled most of Havana’s utilities. Remained politically active in the Liberal Party, while marrying his cousin, Elvira Machado Nodal, three daughters from the union. Also had a daughter and son out of wedlock. Ran for president in 1924, and defeated the Conservative Party candidate to become Cuba’s fifth chief executive. Able to exploit the nationalism of the time, making him extremely popular initially, easily winning five of the island’s six provinces. Taxed American capital investment, initiated the construction of of a 700 mile central highway and promoted tourism, industry and mining, while balancing a support for U.S. interests with the idea of Cuban sovereignty. Set himself up so that anyone opposing him would seem unpatriotic, while he became more arrogant and dictatorial the more power he accrued. Eventually, through threats and bribes, he became the only legal candidate of the three political parties, Liberal, Conservative and Popular. Amended the constitution to permit a six year term for himself, and when he ran again in 1928, he won a second term unopposed. The following year an exiled student leader was murdered in Mexico, and he was blamed by the leftists for the crime. Sugar prices dropped at the same time because of the world economic depression. As opposition to his rule began growing louder and more aggressive, he instituted harsher and more violent retaliations against them, using his secret police, the Porra, as a brutal means of suppressing all opposition. As revolt and retaliation became more severe, with the army and police on one side and students, the left and organized labor on the other, he announced he would remain in office until 1935. The U.S. began to intervene in Cuban affairs, and negotiated an end to his presidency. An interim provisional president replaced him, and he was unseated by Fulgencio Batista’s Revolt of the Sergeants in the late summer of 1933, in a bloodless coup that featured a strike of independence veterans, military officers and civic leaders. Fled to Nassau, while his wife and daughters settled in N.Y. Traveled widely to the Dominican Republic, Europe, Bermuda and Montreal, in fear of being extradited. When that was no longer the case, he joined his family in NYC and in 1937, they moved to Miami Beach, Florida, where he died two years later. Inner: Like his crypto-family members, the longer he stayed in power, the more he became corrupted by it, refusing to let go of the reigns of state until an overwhelming mass movement forced him to do so. Corrupted lifetime of following the patterns of his longtime clan mates, showing himself, ultimately, to be no different than they. Fletcher Christian (1764-1793) - English mutineer. Outer: Of Isle of Man descent. From a family, where rebellion ran in the blood. Father was a gentleman farmer who died when his son was 3, causing great financial hardship for his mother, himself and his older brother. Although he received a decent education, he, his mother and sibling lost the family farm when he was 16, forcing him to live with relatives. Tall, handsome and muscular. Joined the Royal Navy the following annum as a common seaman, despite his gentleman background. By coincidence, the lieutenant on his first ship was William Bligh (Fulgencio Batista), although the two had no contact. In 1782, on returning home, he fell in love with a young heiress, who wound up marrying one of his cousins, which sent him back to the Navy. Made an officer in 1783, and two years later sailed with Bligh twice to the West Indies, with the latter promoting him to Second Mate. Later chosen by Bligh to be his Master’s Mate on the ill-fated HMS Bounty, which set sail in 1788 for the South Seas in order to bring back breadfruit cuttings as a cheap food for Caribbean slaves. Fell in love with a Tahitian woman, Maimiti, and ultimately had two daughters and a son with her, while calling her, Isabella the name of the earlier inamorata who had chosen another over him. On the return voyage, Bligh proved so abusive to those around him, that he contemplated jumping ship and heading back to Tahiti, before being convinced to mutiny three weeks into the journey. Took over the arm’s chest, woke up the captain and arrested him, then set him adrift on an open raft with 18 men, which he somehow survived. The official mutiny lasted an hour and no one was hurt, although seven loyalists were kept aboard the Bounty, since there was no room for them in the raft. Kept the ship afloat for the next 9 months, before dropping some of the mutineers back in Tahiti and taking 8 others with him, along with 12 Tahitian women and 6 Tahitian men. Eventually alighted on an uncharted 1/3 mile long island of volcanic rock, Pitcairn, in 1790. Burned and sank the Bounty, only to find that his ragtag group was prey to constant bickering and feuding among themselves, which ultimately resulted in his being shot and clubbed by the rebellious Tahitian men, who also killed four other mutineers. Inner: Able, fair and compassionate towards his crew, with no one having a bad word to say about him, although history would render numerous verdicts on his character, thanks to a deeply conflicted inner sense of self and a tendency towards bouts of nervous sweating, while any criticism would send him into deep depression for days. Victim lifetime of rebelling against his longtime clan-mate, only to be eaten alive by circumstances through his inability to understand the true dynamics of rebellion and its inevitable repercussions. Edward Mansfield (Edward Mansvelt) (?-1666) - Outer: Of Dutch descent. Background totally obscured, with his first mention in 1659, as a privateer out of Port Royal in Jamaica. Turned pirate and became one of the first to gather large enough contingents of fellow freebooters to attack whole towns rather than single ships. Took part in Christopher Myng’s (Fulgencio Batista) assault on Campeche in 1663, and used him as a model for his own subsequent underworld organization. His crews ventured as far as the Pacific Coast of South America, while wrecking havoc on Spanish settlements, although they refused to do the same with Dutch holdings. After further forays, he became a pirate king of sorts, with hundreds of men and many ships under his command, calling them the Brethren of the Coast. Recognized in Henry Morgan (Rafael Trujillo), a similar ruthlessness, and made him his vice-admiral, as well as his heir. Along with him and 15 ships and 500 men, set sail for South America, intending to establish his own permanent island base there as an independent pirate state. Quickly took the island of St. Catherine from its Spanish defenders, and left a contingent to fortify it, while plundering various coastal villages. Returned to Jamaica when they heard the governor of Panama was about to attack them with a huge fleet. After a cool reception there, he set sail again, heading for an island off the northwest coast of Haiti called Tortuga. Died suddenly there of unexplained causes, either illness or capture and execution. Inner: Extremely well-organized and as ruthless as his fellow crypto-clan mates, who all passed through his life. Swashbuckling lifetime of showing his subterranean mettle as a pirate’s pirate, capable of giving order to the disorder of looting, pillaging and plundering, in recompense for his earlier go-round of trying to deal honestly and straightforwardly with the law. Diego Columbus (1479-1526) - Portuguese explorer and administrator. Outer: Of Italian and Portuguese descent. Father was Christopher Columbus (Fulgencio Batista) prior to his New World discoveries, who named him after his youngest sibling. Mother was a Portuguese noblewoman. Also had a half-brother, Fernando (Charles Nordhoff), by his sire’s main mistress, who became a librarian and biographer of his paterfamilias. Came with his father to Spain in 1484, and initially grew up in a convent before becoming a page at the Spanish court in 1494, ultimately serving Queen Isabella (Coco Chanel). Following his sire’s death in 1506, he was given the title Admiral of the Indies, but was refused the viceroyalty, which he felt was his right by birth. In 1508, he wed Maria de Toledo y Rojas, a daughter of the house of Alba, and cousin of the king, and together they had 3 daughters and two sons. Through his wife’s influence, he was made Governor of the Indies in 1509, a post his progenitor had held, and the same year he arrived in the New World to take possession of his office. Not satisfied with that post alone, he wished to have all his sire’s privileges restored, and two years later, he was given the hereditary title of Viceroy of the islands, with his base in the future Dominican Republic. Held that office until 1518, while returning to Spain in 1515 to protest encroachments on his authority. In 1523, after making peace with the court, he was recalled to Spain, and never returned to the New World, dying three years later, as his eldest son Luis, wound up renouncing all family claims in return for a handsome yearly annuity and a huge estate on the Isthmus of Panama. Inner: Obsessive, with an overwhelming desire to get what he felt was due him. Spent most of his adult life in legal battles, which probably inspired him to live well outside the law his next go-round. Dogged lifetime of trying to reclaim his denied full inheritance as the member of a noted family he never felt was treated fairly by the courts of Spain.

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PATHWAY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AS ONGOING MEDICINE MAN:
Storyline: The dualistic doctor feels compelled to cure the social ills of the world’s wounded polities, while evincing a double-sided character, both compassionate and cruel.

Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara de la Serna - (1928-1967) - Argentinian revolutionary. Outer: From a middle class Basque-Irish family. The eldest of five, he was asthmatic and sensitive to social injustice from boyhood, thanks to the leftist sentiments of his progenitors. Spent much time at home, reading in the family library of some 3000 books, while already showing a strong self-discipline in sticking to his asthma’s diets. Ultimately grew to a slender 6’, with piercing eyes and tousled hair. Proved to be a fiercely competitive athlete, with an affinity for the well-formed written word, and intellectual pursuits. Studied medicine at the Univ. of Buenos Aires, then, after traveling throughout South and Central America, first on bicycle, then motorcycle on two long separate trips, he became convinced of the need for violent revolution against capitalist imperialism, as a confirmed Marxist. Married Hilda Gadea, a Peruvian economist in 1955, after learning she was pregnant, one daughter from the union, which ended in divorce four years later. Came to Mexico City in 1954, where he worked in its General Hospital, and met Fidel Castro, seeing in him the cause he was looking for, the overthrow of the corrupt Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Joined his disastrous initial invasion of Cuba in 1956, with 82 men, although only 22 survived the failed attack. Hid in the Sierra Maestra Mountains, where they eventually formed a guerrilla army, dubbed the 26th of July movement, with himself second in command. Actively improved the lives of the peasanthood in a variety of ways, including health and education, through his organizational skills, and his strict discipline, including shooting deserters. Proved to be a skilled tactician, and also realized the importance of media in his struggle, becoming a primary face of the revolution, with his beret and long hair framing his handsome face. Wed Aleida March, a member of Castro’s army in 1959. After the fall of Batista, that year, he was given Cuban citizenship and played a vital role in the new government, as Castro’s most trusted aide. Showed himself to be impervious to sentiment when trying and executing perceived enemies of the new state, feeding into Castro’s ultimate totalitarian rule of Cuba, while pushing for both literacy and land reform. Wrote extensively of his experiences and views, while serving as Finance Minister and President of the island’s central bank, despite his negative attitudes towards money and the private accumulation of wealth. Wished to create the “New Man” an egalitarian, cooperative individual who reveled in hard work, and self-sacrifice for the greater good of all. Had a hand in the Cuban missile crisis in 1962, as his popular image as a diehard revolutionary became world-wide, with adulating youngsters hanging posters of him in their bedrooms. Did a three month world tour in 1964-1965, then went to the Congo later that year to organize guerrillas for civil war there, before going to Bolivia for the same reason the following annum. Finally came to an ignominious end, when he was wounded and taken prisoner while leading an attachment. Proved defiant to the end, saying “Shoot me, you coward! You are only going to kill a man!” Shot numerous times, with the fatal final bullet entering his chest. Displayed barefoot and bare-chested afterwards in the laundry house of a hospital, in a Christ-like exhibition to become a cult figure for his combination of intelligence, personal beauty, will and revolutionary ardor. Inner: Violent, extremely charismatic and unyielding in his beliefs. Totalitarian and dictatorial, yet extremely idealistic, and curiously fundamentalist Christian in his sculpting of his view of the “New Man,” as a no-nonsense creature of subservience to the higher power of the collective consciousness of the social group. Odd combination of both the light and the dark, with little patience or forgiveness for the weaknesses of others, and yet total compassion for those who had nothing, but the sweat of their brows. My way or the highway lifetime of charismatic ideal and brutal action to become an icon of the ages for those looking to upend existing social orders. Antonio Maceo Grajalo (1845-1896) - Cuban revolutionary. Outer: Of partial African descent. Mother, Mariana Gajales Coello, was a free Cuban black, and an important figure in the island’s struggle for independence from slavery, who taught her eldest son discipline. Father was a Venezuelan mulatto emigre, who owned several small farms. Had five brothers and two sisters, with his youngest brother the first casualty of the future rebellion. Educated largely at home by private tutors, while working on his sire’s farm as a teen. Had a strong sense of social justice from an early age, and joined a Masonic Lodge in 1864, which was influenced by the principles of the French Revolution. Married Maria Cabrales in 1866, two daughters from the union, who both died young of cholera. His wife became an active participant in the revolt, which he joined two years later, becoming known as ‘the Bronze Titan,’ because of his huge size. Immediately showed a talent for guerrilla warfare, with Maximo Gomez y Baez (Fidel Castro), a Dominican transplant as one of his major teachers. Promoted to captain after showing his daring and prowess in numerous battles, while disrupting the sugar harvest and freeing slaves, who joined the rebellion. A general by 1872, he elicited fear that Cuba would become a black republic, which hampered the revolutionary efforts, despite his desire for a free egalitarian Cuba. Landed and sugar interests continued to resist the efforts of the revolutionaries, and in 1878, a peace treaty was signed, which ended the Ten Years War, as it was called. Continued to fight with his depleted army, before leaving the island and ultimately heading to NYC to try to raise money and weapons. Further fighting saw him exiled, and finally settling in Honduras, where he and Gomez began organizing a new rebellion, although dissension among the leaders thwarted the effort. Wandered throughout the Caribbean and Central America before finally settling in Costa Rica, where he engaged in tobacco and sugar production. Tried one final time to liberate Cuba, along with Gomez and Jose Marti (Reinaldo Arenas), the civilian face of the revolution, in 1895, in which the latter was killed. Made military commander of Oriente province, and was able to continually undermine and defeat Spanish troops, only to be shot in the chest and jaw, with the fatal bullet entering his skull. Revered afterwards as a great patriot. Inner: Skilled planner and tactician, with an unyielding desire to liberate his home island. Great believer in God, Reason and Virtue, the Freemason trinity, along with liberty, equality and fraternity. Virtuous lifetime of doing endless battle for his beliefs, as an incorruptible champion of the higher instincts of humaity. Antonio Jose de Sucre y Alcala (1795-1830) - South American liberator. Outer: Of Flemish and Spanish descent. From an upper-class family, with his sire a governor and captain general. Sent to study in Caracas at 13, and two years later, he entered the liberation struggles of Venezuela and Colombia from colonial Spanish rule. After the collapse of the 2nd Venezuelan Republic in 1814, he took refuge in the Antilles, before rejoining the struggle, only to be forced into flight against the following year to Haiti. Returned to battle and fought with distinction, causing him to be appointed a general by Simon Bolivar (Fidel Castro) to free Ecuador in 1821. Defeated royalist armies there, then continued the struggle in Peru, commanding the rebellion army at the decisive victory at Ayacucho in 1824, the final major engagement of the war. As Bolivar’s most able general, he became president of the new republic of Bolivia in 1826, but he had difficulty in holding his position, thanks to an untenable constitution drafted by Bolivar. Resigned in 1828 and returned to Gran Columbia. Married Mariana de Carcelén y Larrea, Marquise of Solanda, but his retirement plans were halted, when war between Gran Columbia and Peru broke out. After presiding over an unsuccessful effort to maintain unity between the three countries he had helped liberate, he was ambushed and assassinated by royalist rebels, with two superficial shots to the head, and a fatal bullet to the heart. Secretly buried for seventy years, before being interred in Quito’s Cathedral in 1900 amidst much pomp and circumstance. Inner: Honest, noble and well-beloved by his fellow rebels. Liberator lifetime of continually proving his mettle on the battlefield, only to ultimately martyr himself at the hands of those far lesser than he. Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (1490?-1564?) - Spanish explorer and historian. Name means ‘head of a cow.’ Outer: Of a noble family, although orphaned in his youth. Joined the Spanish army and fought with distinction in Italy, which won him an appointment as treasurer and first lieutenant, in an ill-fated New World expedition in 1527, where only he and three companions ultimately survived, including an African slave, in a series of non-stop misfortunes that culminated with the quartet becoming slaves of the Coahulitecans. Recovered from a near fatal illness, and became the first European to become a Texas merchant, selling shells and beads over the next four years, while also receiving food in exchange for treating sick and injured indigenes, as a medicine man of sorts. Laid hands on them, as well as reciting prayers and making a sign of the cross, per his Catholic upbringing, while also blowing his breath on their afflicted parts. Reunited in 1532 with his other surviving companions, and the quartet became known as “the Four Castaways.” Lived among indigenous peoples for eight years as a healer and shaman, and the only conquistador to repair rather than ravage. Finally escaped his servitude in 1534, rejoining his countrymen in Mexico, while proving to be a gifted ethnologist in his writings on native culture. Also performed an incredible surgery, removing an arrow from an indigene’s chest, right above his heart. Continued on towards the Pacific Ocean, and his trekking before reconnecting with Spanish colonial forced in Mexico in 1536. Returned to Spain in 1537, and wrote his extraordinary account of his observations on life in the New World, while marrying María Marmolejo, no known children from the union. Returned to South America in 1540, and was made governor of present-day Paraguay. Continued his role as a champion of indigene rights, only to br removed from office by settlers who only saw them as subhumans to be exploited. Sent to Spain in chains, he was found guilty of 32 charges and banished in perpetuity from Spanish possessions in America, as well as sentenced to five years service in a penal colony in North Africa. After numerous appeals he was restored to honors and ended his remarkable career dying in poverty. Published numerous accounts of his travels, as a keen observer of plant, animal and human life. Inner: Honest, scrupulous and extremely observant, serving in a number of capacities as an astute recorder of New World activity. Shamanic lifetime of bringing many of his gifts to bear, including a genuine feeling for those deemed subhuman by his fellow conquistadors.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS CONTINUOUS VICTIM OF HIS TIMES:
Storyline: The Marxist martyr finds Chile quite chilly to his larger ambitions, as he is continually upended by dim forces intent on blunting his idealism and sense of social justice.

Salvatore Allende Goosens (1908-1973) - President of Chile and physician. Outer: Of Belgian and Basque descent. From an upper middle-class family, with a long history of political activism. His grandfather, a physician, was one of the founders of the Chilean Radical Party in the 1860s. Served in a cavalry regiment at 16, then after his tour of duty, he studied to be a doctor at the Univ. of Chile, while actively embracing Marxist ideals. A student activist, he was arrested twice and expelled once, but got his degree in 1932. Had difficulty finding work as a physician because of his activism, and finally became a pathology assistant, performing autopsies on the cadavers of the poor, before finally establishing a practice among public welfare patients. In 1933, he helped found Chile’s Socialist Party and four years later was elected as a Socialist deputy to the lower house of the Chilean National Congress, where he put forward legislation of public health, social welfare and the rights of women. Two years later he was named minister of health in the Popular Front government, holding that post until 1942. During that time he wrote about illness in terms of social deprivation among the poor and working-class. In 1940, he wed Hortensia Bussi, three daughters from the union, including Isabel, who became a congresswoman in her father’s Socialist Party. In 1945, he was elected to the Senate, where he fostered legislation that created a Chilean national health service, the first such program in the western hemisphere. Ran for the presidency thrice in 1952, 1958 and 1964, while also serving as vice president and president of the Senate. Finally won the presidency in 1970 on his fourth try, although without a popular majority. Nationalized foreign industries, decentralized health care and began restructuring Chile along socialist lines. Supported by workers and peasants, but not the overclasses, his presidency was undermined by economic instability and factional divisions with the Socialist Party as well as strong opposition from the Chilean center and right. He was overthrown by a military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet, coupled with CIA involvement, and was reported to have committed suicide during an attack on the presidential palace, although he may also have been assassinated. Gave one last radio address beforehand, refusing to resign, while claiming his sacrifice would not be in vain. Thousands of his supporters would be subsequently murdered or disappeared in one of the most repressive regimes ever in the Americas. Inner: Desired a peaceful road towards his reformist aims, refusing to counter right-wing violence with state sponsored oppression. Doggedly reformist, highly principled and a democratic revolutionary, rather than a clenched fist one. Martyred lifetime of continued victimage at the multinational hands of those unwilling to lessen their overclass controls over the economic and social institutions that held his country in their tight grip. Jose Balmaceda (1840-1891) - President of Chile. Outer: From an upper-middle class family that had made its money in agriculture and industry. Eldest of 12 children. Educated at a seminary school, but declined to join the clergy, and instead ran the family businesses. Tall, virile and elegant, taking great care with his personal appearance. In 1865, he married Emilia de Toro Herrera, eight children from the union. Entered politics as a liberal reformer, and served several terms in Congress, gaining a reputation as a dignified figure and highly articulate speaker. During the devastating War of the Pacific, between three nations fighting over nitrates, that lasted until 1883, he served as plenipotentiary minister, and convinced Argentina to abstain from the fighting, which left Bolivia and Peru in ruins at the hands of an enriched Chile. Elected president in 1886, he immediately pursued a liberal agenda of healing rifts within his nation as a dedicated reformer, while modernized railways, establishing a new navy, and overseeing a spate of construction in its cities to help modernize the country. Saw himself as the very embodiment of Chile, and as such, brooked no opposition to his will, becoming more and more dictatorial, torturing and kidnapping enemies, and thoroughly alienating the very liberals he once courted. Civil War broke out over the power of the presidency and his military forces were defeated within the year. Sought asylum in the Argentine embassy, and left a letter claiming that all his actions came from a love of country. Subsequently committed suicide with a single gunshot to the head, rather than surrendering for a trial. Inner: True humanitarian, despite considerable autocratic tendencies exercised in the belief he was improving the nation, which he did in certain arenas. Martyred lifetime of running afoul of vested interests and being forced to sacrifice his life for his intransigency in not bowing to the power structure of his country, a continued theme of his. Juan Martinez de Rozas (1759-1813) - Chilean leader. Outer: Studied at the Royal College in Argentina, and completed his education at the Royal Univ. of San Felipe. Obtained a law degree, and became conversant in French, reading the banned works of the Enlightenment social philosophers Rousseau (Leonard Cohen) and Montesquieu (Raymond Aron) which inspired his ideas on independence. Became a professor of law, theology and philosophy at Santiago and was also legal adviser to the mayor of Concepcion for a period as well as a colonel in a militia regiment. In 1808, he became secretary to the last Spanish governor, allowing him to help spearhead the independence movement that began the following year. Resigned his position and was instrumental in making the Spanish governor resign. In the first of a series of juntas, he became the interim presidente. As nominal leader, he initiated a number of reforms, only to have his power usurped by a powerful family and the Carrera brothers. The dictatorial Jose Carrera seized control of the capital, Santiago, and had him jailed and then banished. Forced to retire, he returned home and died there, already a half-forgotten figure. Inner: Ambitious and highly intelligent, as well as imbued with the ideals of an enlightened society. Inaugural lifetime of falling victim to personalities and forces far stronger than his, in his ongoing dance with destiny with the country with which he has come to so strongly identify. Pedro de Valdivia (1497-1553) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: From the minor nobility, and a military family. Mother was Spanish and father was Portuguese. Received a good education, and joined the Spanish army at 19. Served in both Flanders and Italy and distinguished himself on the battle field. In 1527, he married Marina Ortiz de Gaeta, although the two never saw one another once he departed across for the New World in 1535. Nevertheless, he dutifully sent her money, and when she finally departed for Chile, he had been dead for a year. No children from the union. Fought initially in Venezuela, before joining a force set to reinforce Francisco Pizarro’s (Fidel Castro) in his put down of an uprising in Peru. Chose the Pizarro brothers in the bloody civil wars between their supporters and those behind Diego de Almagro (Alfredo Stroessner), and rose to the rank of Field Marshal. Formed a partnership with the Spanish delegate-governor of Chile, Pedro Sanchez de la Hoz (Augusto Pinochet) in 1540, and set out with some 150 men across the desert for what was viewed as a land of great risks and little potential reward. On the trek, his partner tried to murder him, although his plot was foiled. Nevertheless he was allowed to live. In 1541, he officially founded city of Santiago, laying plans for the eventual capital and colonizing the area despite continual harassment from the natives. On the death of Francisco Pizarro that year, had himself elected military governor, while severing official ties with Peru. Tried to make peace with the previously abused natives there, although the greed of his cohorts, while he was away, inflamed them, and though he returned in time to fight off their attack, they burned Santiago to the ground. Able to expand the colony’s sphere of influence over the next half dozen years, while he continued exploring the vast area, only to be driven back by fierce antagonistic native forces. in 1547, he returned to Peru in order to confirm his governorship, only to be involved in another fierce battle between conquistadors over new laws invoked by Spain, and once again he chose the winning side. Had his governorship formalized, although his enemies tried to have him removed from office for immorality, for openly living with a mistress, Ines de Suarez when his wife was back in Spain. Able to marry off his mistress to one of his captains, and then spent four years fighting the Mapuche, a fierce tribe of southern Chile, who were able to resist his pacification efforts. Eventually he was captured in battle, and executed by them shortly afterward, with a variety of mutilation stories linked to his death, which was probably by being clubbed in the head. Inner: Intelligent and simpatico unlike most of his bloodthirsty brethren. Skilled soldier and administrator, with an instinct of choosing the right side in the various Spanish contretemps in which he became involved. Saw Chile in agricultural terms, rather than a personal pot o’gold for himself. Survivor lifetime of ultimately falling victim to forces beyond his control in his ongoing sacrificial sense of identification with a country only too eager to thwart his humanitarian efforts.

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PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST AS MILITARY BEAST:
Storyline: The right-wing reactionary continually compromises revolutions, only to ultimately find himself the target of others all too eager to overthrow him as well.

Augusto Pinochet (1905-2006) - Chilean general and dictator. Outer: Of French and Basque descent. Mother was a formidable character who wanted him to be a soldier, and lived to great age. Father was a middle-class government worker, who wished his son to study medicine, and died when the latter was still a young man. The eldest of six. Educated by conservative Marist priests, he was twice rejected by the country’s military college, because of a weak constitution. Had a wide bullish face with small pale-blue eyes. Finally accepted, he graduated in 1937 as an infantry officer. Rapidly promoted, he also continued his studies at the Chilean war academy, where he taught geopolitics, which regards nation-states as living entities. a philosophy shared by the Nazis. In 1943, he married Lucia Hiriart Rodriguez, the daughter of wealth and political influence, three girls and two boys from the union, which saw her as a strong-willed political animal who influenced him greatly. In the early 1950s, he took part in the arrests of communists and union leaders, heading a concentration camp for some of them. After a Socialist, Salvador Allende, was elected president in 1970, the CIA spent millions of dollars to create a chaotic atmosphere in the country and blunt the former’s effectiveness. Appointed commander-in-chief in 1973 by the unaware president, and a month later he led a coup which overthrew him, with the help of the CIA. Promptly appointed himself President, suspended the Constitution and closed Parliament, while converting soccer stadiums and military bases into prisons, where suspected liberals and leftists were rounded up, some 3000 in number, and subsequently made to disappear, after being tortured. Thousands fell victim to his brutal regime, as he became America’s man in South America, as a staunch anti-communist. Murder squads also killed dissidents in exile. Maintained a cult of personality, while claiming to enjoy the special protection of the Virgin Mary. Neo-liberal Americans, known as “the Chicago Boys,” revamped the state-dependent economy, destroying national industry and much of agriculture, while accruing to the wealth of the elite, as unemployment rose to over 30%. Lost a plebiscite to remain in power another decade in 1989, and began visiting England, feeling quite comfortable there. Remained commander of the army until 1998, while no prosecutions were ever initiated against high-ranking officials of his rank regime. After resigning as commander of the army he became Senator-for-life. Put under arrest while in London in 1998, under a Spanish warrant for crimes against humanity. Because of his frail health, as a result of several minor strokes, he was allowed to return to Chile, where he eventually died of cardiovascular disease and a heart attack before he could be brought to trial. His family was subsequently arrested and accused of tax evasion, as a final coda to his corrupt existence. Inner: Ultra-conservative Catholic nationalist. Largely unremarkable, save for his willingness to employ any means possible to crush perceived enemies. Expertly played factions off one another, while brutally controlling every aspect that he could of his country’s inner and outer life. Iron-fisted lifetime of usurping the heart and soul of his country in the name of law and order, as a right-wing nightmare from which Chile was forced to slowly awaken. Porfirio Diaz (Jose de la Cruz Porfirio Diaz Mori) (1830-1915) - Mexican dictator. Outer: Of mixed Spanish and Mixtec ancestry, he was born into a poor family, and never achieved full literacy. Mother was a Zapotec, father was a criollo, who died when his son was three. One of seven children. Studied for the priesthood at 15, and then law, before becoming a soldier. Joined a band of guerrillas who were fighting Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Hugo Chavez), and remained in the army afterwards, becoming a cavalry general. Earned a reputation as one of the heroes of the Cinco de Mayo victory over the French in 1862, and aligned himself with Benito Juarez (Lazaro Cardenas) afterwards. In 1867, he married his niece Delfina Ortega Diaz, who died in 1880 from complications from child birth, after producing seven children, with five of them dying in infancy. Ran against Diaz in 1871 for president, and when he lost he rebelled. Following Juarez’s death in 1872, he was amnestied. With the help of the Catholic Church and the U.S. he led an army into Mexico City in 1876, and seized power in a dubious grab. Wed Carmen Romero Rubio, the daughter of a wealthy, politically active family and some three and half decades younger than he, in 1881. Remained in power until 1911, save for 1880-1884, when he ruled through a puppet replacement. Despite being a nominal liberal, he manipulated the law, suppressed all opposition and placed associates in key subordinate roles, while keeping the new wealth of country in the hands of a very few. Allowed foreign investment to develop the country’s vast resources, including mineral wealth and oil, with different countries controlling alternate aspects of the economy. Also laid thousands of miles of railroad tracks to connect the important cities and ports, so as to literally rewire the country. Alleged to have said, “Poor Mexico, so far from God and so close to the United States.” Maintained a strong, centralized government, so as to keep decision-making in the hands of a few. After the turn of the 20th century, the country suffered a recession and the miners went on strike, while exiles poured forth their displeasure in print, underlining the lopsided social system of the country. Never picked a successor, and in 1910, he was forced to steal the election from Francisco Madero (Nicolás Maduro), an unimposing spiritualist, who looked like he was going to win. A revolution ensued, and he was undone by it in 1911. Quickly resigned and spent the rest of his life in exile in France. Inner: Managed to control the country for thirty years through a deft sense of manipulation of its various elements, while the poor suffered continually under him. Hand firmly on the tiller lifetime of showing himself capable of maintaining power for a long stretch, before his usual and inevitable fall from political grace. Agustin Iturbide y Aramburu (1783-1824) - Mexican caudillo. Outer: Son of a wealthy Basque landowner and Mexican mother. The fifth child, although the only male to survive childhood. Studied at a Catholic seminary, then worked as an overseer at one of his family’s haciendas. As a teen he joined the army, and was commissioned as an officer. In 1805, he wed Ana Maria Ramona de Huarte y Muniz, daughter of wealth, and together they had six sons and four surviving daughters. May have been involved in the early rebellion against Spanish rule, only to quickly switch sides when he wasn’t given a leading role. Instead, he fought successfully for the Royalists against the rebels. Showed good martial talents, he rapidly rose in rank. In 1815, he was appointed commander of the army in the north and governor of the provinces of Valladolid and Guanajuato, Accused of extortion and violence, he was forced to resign commission. After being acquitted, he retired to private life for four years, and did some penance for his excesses. Rejoined the army at the near-end of the rebellion, and proposed to the rebels that they combine forces and fight for Mexican independence, after the Spanish viceroy had made him head of the royalist troops. His years of reflection, however, made him far more amenable to independence. After victory in 1821, he usurped power and made himself Emperor of Mexico as Agustin I, with a royal court patterned after European models. Initially viewed as a popular hero, he was undone by his own extravagance, unscrupulousness, and complete disregard of constitutional restraints. Challenged by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Hugo Chavez), he abdicated and left the country for Italy, with a generous yearly pension. Deciding in 1824 to make more bid for power, he landed in Mexico and disguise, but was recognized and arrested. Shot by a firing squad, without being given an opportunity to appeal his death sentence. Inner: Idolized by his soldiers, who saw his handsome figure as heroic. Highly ingratiating, although cold-bloodedly cruel in his dealings with prisoners. Haughty, impatient and unscrupulous publicly, although amiable privately. Believed to have designed the first Mexican flag. Opportunist lifetime of looking for ultimate power wherever he could manipulate his way into it, only to be summarily relieved of his life, as antidote to his constant two-sidedness. Pedro Sancho de la Hoz (1514-1547) - Spanish conspirator. Outer: From a small Spanish village and a poor family. Came to the New World in 1534 as a secretary to the conquistador Francisco Pizarro (Fidel Castro), and served as a clerk in his retinue. Returned to Spain, and managed to get a royal grant for the lands south of Peru, by exaggerated his relationship to Pizarro, before returning to the New World. Pedro Valdivia (Salvatore Allende) had already been made lieutenant governor of lands appropriated from the indigenes living there, so that Pizarro had the two agree to a partnership in order to join their forces, which they did in 1539. The following annum the small expedition left Cuzco, with seeds, swine, brood mares and 1000 indigenes along with a handful of Spaniards in order to establish a colony in the Chilean territory. During the journey there, he tried to murder Valdivia in order to retain sole leadership, but failed, when he crept into his tent but found his bed empty. The ever-fair Valdivia pardoned him, in return for accepting a subordinate status. Continued to plot against him, until his machinations were discovered by a subordinate, who arrested him. Subsequently unceremoniously beheaded, with his pate paraded through a public square. Inner: Inveterate plotter and schemer, always looking for more power, to compensate for his extremely humble background. Devious lifetime of outfoxing himself as prelude to his continual run in the New World as a usurper and compromiser of power won by others.

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PATHWAY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AS INIMITABLE OUTLAW:
Storyline: The recidivist renegade continually dances to his own drummer, while viewing law’n’order as a laughable impediment to his extreme will.

Pedro Aviles Perez (?-1978) - Mexican drug lord. Outer: Little known of his specific background, other than his being born in Durango and originally working a doctor, with access to drugs, before becoming a pioneer drug lord in the Mexican state of Sinaloa in the 1960s. Seen as the father of Mexican organized crime. Pioneered the use of aircraft in bringing marijuana into the U.S., and served as a teacher to the next generation via his organization. Ultimately killed in a shootout with the Federal Police, after being set-up by a member of the 2nd generation and former partner of his. Inner: Masked lifetime of taking his outlaw ways up to the next level, as a narco-trafficker intent on subverting Mexico and making the country a true danger to the Colossus of the North, via the latter’s endless appetite for stupefied escape. Pancho Villa (Jose Doroteo Arango Arambula) (1878-1923) - Mexican revolutionary. Outer: Son of a field laborer. Oldest of five children. Had little education, and after his sire died when he was 15, he began to work as a sharecropper to support his family. 5’10”. In 1894, he shot and killed an estate manager who had raped his 12 year old sister and fled to the mountains, joining a band of banditos. Arrested in 1902, he was forced to join the Federal Army, but soon deserted, killed an army officer and became leader of a group of desperados, using the nom de brigand of Pancho Villa. Stole cattle, robbed shipments of money and continually tried to steal from the rich, while giving to the poor. Also pursued straight work from time to time, mining, and peddling. In 1910, he joined those wishing to overthrow Porfirio Diaz’s (Augusto Pinochet) dictatorship and joined the Madero revolt as a leader of the revolutionary army. After the fall of Diaz, he resigned his command because of differences with another commander. Married Maria Luz Corral the same year with the view towards settling down, one daughter from the union who died young. May have also sired a son, by one of his numerous mistresses, many of whom claimed to be his widow after his death. A new rebellion began in 1912, and he was accused by Victoriano Huerta of stealing a horse, but was given a stay of execution and sent to prison from which he escaped, fleeing to United States. Following the assassination of Madero by Huerta, who then claimed the presidency, he returned and formed a successful guerrilla army of several thousand with Emiliano Zapata (Evo Morales) in response to Huerta’s subsequent repressive dictatorship. As commander of the Northern army, he was briefly provisional governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914, while robbing trains, printing his own money, and spending much of his time reallocating seized land. Suffered defeats the falling year, which weakened his position, and he was forced to flee after a fallout with fellow leader, Venustiano Carranza (Vicente Fox). In 1916, he conducted a raid across the U.S. border, killing 18 U.S. citizens in Columbus, New Mexico, the first such attack on American soil in over a century, which caused an expedition led by Gen. John Pershing (David Petreaus) to try to hunt him down. The object of constant search by both Mexico and the U.S., he evaded capture, and because of his immense popularity he was ultimately pardoned by his own government after the overthrow of Carranza in 1920. Went into retirement on his own ranch, only to later be gunned down by seven riflemen in in his car, who pumped it with over forty shots, probably on orders of the Mexican presidente, Alvaro Obregon (Humberto Ortega), who had earlier fought and defeated him. Became an icon of liberation afterwards, with many Mexicans still dreaming of his resurrected return during the century after his death. Inner: Coarse, yet a gifted military tactician, with a hatred of the wealthy, and a strong sense of compassion for those who had nothing. Loved being photographed, so that his image stands out as a seminal figure in the second phase of the Mexican revolution. Cruelly dispatched his enemies, and was quick to take action when needed. Felt no laws bound him, other than that of sheer survival. People’s hero lifetime as a legendary outlaw, who would live forever in the Mexican memory as an immortal upholder of social justice. Francisco ‘Chito’ Villagran (c1785-1813) - Mexican revolutionary. Outer: Father, Julian, was a farmer who took up arms in the first phase of the Mexican revolution, spurred by the ‘Cry of Dolores’ by Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo (Abimael Guzman). Also killed a man, which impelled him to join the revolution, as a means of escaping Spanish justice. Despite no military training, he participated in several skirmishes against royalist troops, winning some and losing others, while showing his battle mettle against overwhelming odds. Finally forced to surrender, he was summarily executed. Inner: Preliminary lifetime of acting out some of the elements of his next go-round in this series, in preparation for a full-scale assault on the myth-making consciousness of his country. Attila (406?-453) - Hun general. Known as ‘The Hun.’ Outer: From a nomadic Mongoloid tribe who originated in central Asia, and moved westward, ultimately invading the eastern Roman Empire in the 300s. Father was the brother of two of the tribe’s leaders. Succeeded one of them as Hun leader in his late 20s, along with his brother Bleda, whom he murdered a decade later in order to rule alone. Supposedly around 5’6”, although some sources have him much shorter. Had a large head, a dark complexion and small deep-seated eyes, along with a sparse beard. Lived most of his life in the saddle, even eating and sleeping on horseback, with meat stored under him, making for an extremely funky existence. During the late 430s he pillaged his way across eastern and Central Europe, while collecting large ransoms from the Byzantine Empire to leave them alone. When the payments stopped, he invaded the Empire, taking over Balkan lands and threatening the capital of Constantinople. Moved into the western Roman Empire, now about to fall, and in 450 made demand of the emperor, Valentinian III (Ethan Hawke) that his sister Honoria (Joan Crawford) marry him, with half his empire as dowry, an offer the latter easily refused. Found Italy not worth taking because of a famine and poor harvest, and instead wound up devastating a goodly section of the rest of the western empire in the next two years, controlling an area that stretched from the Danube to the Baltic Sea, and from the Rhine to the Caspian. Had numerous children by a variety of women, taking a wife, Chrenchildis, from Burgundian royalty while ravaging Gaul. Died on the wedding night of his next marriage to Ildico, who may have murdered him or he may have succumbed to internal bleeding following a burst artery after heavy drinking. His empire, which was fought over by his three sons, crumbled soon afterwards, without his force of personality at the helm. Inner: Fierce warrior, virtually indomitable on the battlefield with his galloping army. Bold, unpredictable and ruthless, rapacious conqueror. Delighted in battle, and saw human life as extremely expendable. Scourge of God lifetime of being one with his horse, while serving as an icon of the ages as a marauding, murdering mayhem-maker nonparallel.

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PATHWAY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AS PERENNIAL PRESIDENTE:
Storyline: The magnetic caudillo moves steadily leftward in his ongoing pursuit of power, as a populist determined to personify social justice, despite his never-changing autocratic ways.

Hugo Chavez (1954-1913) - Venezuelan presidente. Outer: Of Amerindian, Afro-Venezuelan and Spanish descent. The second of seven children of schoolteachers. Along with his oldest brother, he was sent to live with his grandmother, a devout Roman Catholic. Saw poverty firsthand, and had an early interest in achieving social justice Graduated from the Venezuelan Academy of Military Sciences in 1975 in preparation for a military career. 5’8”. Later went to Simon Bolivar Univ. In 1977, he wed Nancy Colmenares, two daughters and a son from the union. Always had an eye for women, with a long list of mistresses, with Herma Marksman, a revolutionary historian as the love of his life. Formed his own revolutionary force within the army, thanks to Marksman’s influence and tried to overthrow the Venezuelan president in 1992. The attempt failed and he was jailed. Pardoned by the latter’s successor, he turned to politics as his venue to power. Divorced his first wife, and in 1997, married Marisabel Rodriguez de Chavez, a blonde radio journalist. One daughter from the union, which ended in divorce in 2004. Continued his tomcatting ways, and was first elected to the presidency in 1998 via a landslide as a leftist reformer in the tradition of Simon Bolivar (Fidel Castro). Immediately began sweeping reforms as a populist and champion of the poor, winning him the undying enmity of the U.S., who labeled him a neo-fascist. Focused on South America for his support, while deeming the U.S. as the enemy of Latin America. Maintained a cult of personality, with his image everywhere, but was unable to stem the country’s high inflation, food shortages and other economic problems. Used a Sunday TV show, “Hello Mr. President,” to continually broadcast his opprobrium against U.S. leaders, while helping poor Americans heat their homes. Had a close relationship with Cuban leader Fidel Castro, providing him with 100,000 barrels of oil each day in exchange for doctors and intelligence agents. Also supported a violent guerrilla movement in Columbia, while jailing critics and dissidents at home. Kidnapped and overthrown by a coup in 2002, much to the delight of the U.S., who backed it. His successor, however, repealed laws that favored the country’s elite, and he was quickly returned to power. Withstood a recall referendum in 2004, then spent his last years battling cancer. Re-elected for another six year term in 2012, but died of colon cancer the following annum. Inner: Fiery, domineering, and autocratic to the max, a left-wing populist dictator, in the tradition of many of his conquistador confreres. Felt capitalism was destroying the world, and dreamed of a united Latin America. All power to the people, as well as me lifetime of playing with the polarities of autocratic control and populist justice in a mixed bag of achievement and failure sure to continue in his ensuing existences. Plutarco Calles (1877-1945) - Mexican presidente. Outer: Father was an alcoholic who never married his mother. Came from dysfunction and dire poverty. Raised by an uncle following the premature death of his mother, who imbued him with a violent hatred of the Catholic Church. In 1899, he married Natalia Chacon Amarillas, who died in 1927. He ultimately became a school teacher who joined the revolutionary struggle against Porfirio Diaz (Augusto Pinochet), and was made Commissioner of Police by his successor. Quickly rose to general in the subsequent prolonged struggle for Mexican independence through his gifted military abilities. Made commander of the army in his home state of Sonora, defeating fellow revolutionary Pancho Villa in 1915, before becoming governor of Sonora, showing himself sensitive to workers’ needs, by instituting collective bargain as well as social security and other much needed reforms. Angered both wealthy landowners and the Church, and fought them continually, eventually expelling all Catholic priests from Sonora. In 1919, he was appointed Secretary of Commerce, Industry and Labor by Presidente Venustiano Carranza (Vicente Fox), whom he helped overthrow with the help of Alvaro Obregon (Humberto Ortega) the following annum. Enjoyed the support of labor and in 1924, he succeeded Obregon, becoming more conservative and despotic the longer he stayed in power, with hundreds of enemies jailed, killed or “committing suicide.” Continued to sponsor reform, founded the Banco de Mexico, and restricted American involvement in Mexican affairs, and they, in turn, branded him a communist. A trip to Europe opened him up to the “social democracy” movement, while he pushed for land reform, because of the feudal system then in operation, with a small group of elites controlling much of Mexico. After the assassination of his successor in 1928, ruled through puppet regimes by forming the PNR, later the PRI, the governing party of Mexico which would rule for the next 70 years. By 1934, there were less than 350 priests in Mexico, because of his anti-church stances. Hand-picked Lazaro Cardenas as presidente that year, only to see him turn against him, and use his considerable skill to mute his influence to the point where he was forced into exile in the U.S. In 1941, he returned to Mexico but remained out of public life, becoming interested in spiritualism at the end, as well as believing in a higher power. Inner: Fanatically anti-clerical and an autocratic reformer, who brooked no opposition to his will, once in power, despite a genuine feeling of support for Mexico’s poor and landless. Mixed bag lifetime of realizing absolute power from extremely humble beginnings, only to ultimately find himself persona non grata by a genuine reformist successor, leading to a long retirement, in which to internally redesign himself for his next grab for power. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (1794-1876) - Mexican presidente. Outer: A criollo son of a colonial official, he had little formal schooling, despite his parent’s middle-class standing, before working for a merchant in Vera Cruz. In 1810, he was appointed as a cadet in an infantry regiment, and spent five years battling insurgents and policing indigent tribes. A royalist, he initially fought against Mexico’s move for independence from Spain, and rose quickly in rank, becoming a colonel by 26. Switched sides in 1821, seeing the royalist cause as lost, and was promoted to general. Alternately supported and then turned on the subsequent leaders of the revolution. Married Ines Garcia in 1825, two surviving daughters and two sons from the union, which ended with her death in 1844. When Spain invaded Mexico in 1829, he played a leading role in defeating them and won the presidency in 1833, an office he would hold off and on until 1855. Led forces against Texas in that state’s war of independence from Mexico, and, despite a victory at the Alamo, was later captured, and forced into retirement in disgrace. Returned to battle against the French in 1838, in which his left leg was amputated below the knee, and he was soundly defeated. Nevertheless, he was seen as a hero by the Mexican people, and within the next six years, he was leader of the country twice, thanks to a charm that masked his ineptitude. After his wife’s death in 1844, he wed 15 year old Maria Dolores de Tosta, although the couple rarely lived together. Also had numerous illegitimate children, making provisions for four of them in his will. In the Mexican War with the United States, he led troops again and was decisively defeated, going into exile outside the country in 1855. Tried for treason in absentia, he had his wealth and estates confiscated, while he continually plotted and schemed for a return to power. Attempted to fight for both sides during the French occupation ten years later, but was refused by each, and lived in several countries, including the U.S.A. during his banishment. Returned to the country in 1874, blind and impoverished, and died in poverty and squalor two years later. Inner: Opportunist extraordinaire. Fairly inept in a lot of his dealings, yet, nevertheless, a dominant figure for three decades in Mexican history. Hustler’s handbook lifetime of trying to take full advantage of any situation in which he found himself, in a need to expunge all his negative qualities in one tumultuous go-round. Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: Son of untitled nobility, and the second cousin of future conquistador Francisco Pizarro (Fidel Castro), he was a sickly youth. Received a classic education in law and civic affairs, although did not complete it. Had an adventurous, amorous youth before becoming imbued with the idea of sailing for the New World. Reaching Hispaniola before he was twenty, he became a farmer, developed syphilis, recovered, and participated in 1511 in the conquest of Cuba, earning a reputation for conquest and daring. Married Catalina Xuarez Marcaida, who died in 1522. Elected mayor of Santiago there, then, desiring more power, he raised an expeditionary force of about 600 men and set sail for the Yucatan, arriving on Good Friday, 1519. Burned his ships when he got there, so there would be no going back, after his commission had been cancelled by Cuba’s governor. Founded a settlement in what would be known as Veracruz, and began making allies in the area. Headed for the interior and the Aztec empire capital of Tenochtitlan, a three month journey. Made allies along the way of Aztec enemies, and on his arrival, he was viewed as the fulfillment of an ancient prophecy of the coming of the White God Quetzlcoatl. Took the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II (Nicolás Maduro) hostage and asked for a huge ransom of silver and gold, which he received. Driven out of the city, he regrouped and in 1521, captured Tenochtitlan. Wound up conquering a warrior empire of millions with a small force through extraordinary generalship and the playing off of native rivalries, as well as a handful of horses, which no one in the New World had ever seen. Began to build Mexico City on the ruins he had left, while importing many Europeans to stock his conquest. Made governor of New Spain in 1523, and the following year he went to Honduras, spending two years there. Called back to Spain in 1528, because the crown was worried he was getting too powerful, Wed Juana Ramirez de Arellano de Zunia the following annum, two sons and four daughter from the union. Had numerous children by mistresses, including his favorite La Malinche, a Nahua who was initially his interpreter, then his lover, one son from the union, the first of the New World’s mestizos. Journeyed back and forth from the Old World to the New, but his further ambitions were continually thwarted, as he explored the western coast of Mexico and discovered the Baja California peninsula in the 1530s. Went back to Spain in 1541, heavily in debt and the subject of numerous lawsuits. An ill-fated campaign against the Ottoman fleet ended his adventuring when he almost drowned. Tried to return to Mexico in 1547, but succumbed to dysentery, and died of pleurisy. His body was reinterred several times, before finally coming to permanent rest in Mexico. Inner: Graceful, charming and amiable as a youth, driven, ruthless and extremely ambitious as an adult, and quite embittered in his full maturity. Seminal lifetime of setting the tone for the conquest of Mexico and its subsequent subservience to Spanish will until its revolutionary drive for independence centuries later.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS ONGOING STUDY IN INEPTITUDE:
Storyline: The regnant also-ran slowly ascends from arrogant royalty to compassionate civility, while desperately trying not to maintain his longtime record of continually falling from power because of his ongoing inability to truly lon his own.
Nicolás Maduro (1962) - Venezuelan presidente. Outer: Of Sephardic Jewish descent on his paternal side. Father was a union leader. Raised Roman Catholic. Grew up in a working-class environment, and embraced socialism as a youth, while playing in a rock band as a teen. 6’2”, which is unusually tall for a Venezuelan. Never attended college, instead began his working life as a bus driver, which led to his heading the city bus drivers’ union. After two decades together, he married Cilia Flores, a fellow Chavez supporter, who became the first woman to head the National Assembly, in 2013. Had a son from a previous relationship, while she had two daughters from an earlier marriage. A strong supporter of future leader Hugo Chavez well before the latter’s election as head of state in 1998, although kept a low profile about it. Joined the MBR-200, which Chavez had set up, and later became a political party, the Movement for a Fifth Republic. Held posts within the party and also found a national drivers’ union which supported Chavez. In 1998, he was elected to Congress as a representative from Caracas, and quickly became the head of his party bloc. Named to several committees concerning social matters, and also was part of the constitutional assembly that helped rewrite the country’s constitution, which called for longer terms of office. Easily re-elected in 2000 for a five year term. Remained an enthusiastic supporter of Chavez, and was made Minister of Foreign Affairs, before becoming vice-president in 2012. On the death of Chavez from cancer the following year, he replaced him, even though the constitution stated that the Speaker of the National Assembly was next in line. In the subsequent election, he squeaked into office, claiming to be Chavez’ heir, beating Henrique Capriles, a former governor, despite U.S. attempts to destabilize and upend the country per its view of any socialistic state as an enemy of its own imperial interests. Followed the policies of Chavez, which favored the poor over the middle-class and wealthy, and reduced poverty, as well as enhanced literacy while giving ordinary people access to food and land. Surrounded himself with an inner circle loyal to him, while using Twitter as an important propaganda tool. Sent military forces to stores to insure state-lowered prices on appliances. Continually accusing the CIA of trying to undermine him, as Chavez had done. Under him, the economy worsened, particularly after oil prices plunged. Shortages led to black marketeering, along with hoarding, as hie approval ratings plummeted, in an ongoing extremely shaky economy. Inflation remains rampant while the currency is unstable, so as to give his opposition considerable heft against him. Like Chavez, he retains Latin American allies outside the country from leftist regimes. Nevertheless, he has been forced to deal with illegal migrants from neighboring Columbia, and rampant crime and shortages caused by them. Had to close a major border crossing which caused tensions twixt the two countries to spike, as his hold on power is continually threatened from numerous sides. Blocked a law giving amnesty to political prisoners, seeing it as yet another threat to his rule, using his own stacked court to declare it unconstitutional. Inner: Uncharismatic and justifiably paranoid, while committed to Chavez’ grand plan. Inflates the capabilities of his opposition, with no trust of anyone outside his inner circle. Me-too lifetime of climbing upwards on the shoulders of Hugo Chavez, before stepping directly into his shoes at his premature death, to see if he can finally prove himself as a leader, after many a go-round of being summarily upended from positions of power. Francisco Madero (1873-1913) - Mexican president. Outer: From a very wealthy landowning family in Northern Mexico, with numerous business holdings. Unprepossessing physically, he was small with a high-pitched voice. Educated at a Jesuit college, then in Paris at a business school, and finally the U.S. at Berkeley, where he studied agriculture. Afterwards, he operated one of his family farms, while introducing modern farming methods, and better working conditions for his peons, as a very generous philanthropist, building schools, hospitals and community kitchens, while learning homeopathy. A vegetarian and teetotaler, he was also very into spiritualism, claiming he channeled the spirit of former Mexican presidente Benito Juaraz (Lazaro Cardenas). After a demonstration against the longtime dictator Porfirio Diaz (Augusto Pinochet) was violently crushed in 1903, he became politicized, and began publishing an influential newspaper, El Democrata, while organizing political clubs. The same year he married Sara Perez, a landowner’s daughter, who actively supported her husband’s political life. No children from the union. In 1910, he formed the Anti-Reelectionist Party to challenge Diaz at the polls with himself as its primary candidate. When it looked as if he would win, Diaz had him thrown in jail. As soon as he was bailed out, he was smuggled by sympathizers to Texas and declared the 1910 election null and void, while calling for armed revolution. As rebel armies formed all over Mexico, he returned to lead an unsuccessful attack on a military garrison, which earned him the respect of the rebels, and when Diaz fled the country, he was elected presidente at the end of 1911. Unable to coalesce the various factions of the country, he proved quite naive in his dealing with the military, and he was soon ousted and arrested in the beginning of 1913. Four days later he was executed. Inner: Believed in the basic goodness of humanity. Honest, decent and idealistic, although no match for the machismo needed to rule a highly unruly state. Miscarried lifetime of mixing privilege, spiritualism and revolution in an uneven brew which ultimately ended with his usual martyred defeat. Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816) - Venezuelan revolutionary and general. Outer: From an upper-class Venezuelan family. Father was a wealthy merchant from the Canary Islands and his mother was from a rich creole family. Had one younger brother, who died as a child. Enjoyed an extremely privileged upbringing, making him spoiled and somewhat arrogant. Rejected by both those of Spanish blood and creoles, because of the great wealth of his family, leaving him with a strong sense of being an outsider, which never faded. Had a first-rate education at the Royal Univ. of Caracas, showing a particular affinity for languages, and in 1772, he joined the Spanish army as a commissioned officer. His arrogance, however, alienated his fellow officers, although he proved himself an able commander, fighting in Morocco and then against the British in Florida. Continually made powerful enemies, forcing him into exile. Traveled in the U.S., where he became imbued with revolutionary ideals, then across Europe and into Russia, where he was briefly the lover of Catherine the Great (Indira Gandhi). Returning to London in 1789, he tried to get support for an independence movement in South America, but failed to manifest anything tangible. While there, he married a farmer’s daughter, Sarah Andrews, who did not accompany him on his adventures. Two children from the union. While in France, in 1792, he was offered the rank of Marshal to halt the Prussian and Austrian invasion and proved himself in battle, although he was subsequently arrested twice, and just barely avoided the guillotine, through his verbal acuity. Snuck out of France in disguise in 1797, and went to London, although he was largely a persona non grata on the continent, forcing him to see if he could drum up support for the revolution in the U.S. Able to do so through his high-powered contacts, and landed with some 500 men near Coro, Venezuela in 1806, in a subsequent fiasco. In 1811, he and Simon Bolivar (Fidel Castro) declared independence there, although catastrophe awaited them, as he was named the first president of a breakaway Spanish republic in Latin America. Instead of serving as an active leader, he tried to gain an armistice with the Spanish, which infuriated Bolivar, and he had him arrested and turned him over to the Royalists. They, in turn, sent him to a Spanish prison, where he died a slow death several years later because of health problems. As a final ignominy, he was buried in a mass grave, so that his remains were never recovered. Nevertheless, he became ultimately viewed as a precursor to the liberation of Venezuela. Inner: Dashing and romantic, albeit arrogant and superior, eliciting much contumely around his character. Caught between a variety of worlds and never truly a part of any of them. Seen as a man of the 18th, rather than the 19th century, an anachronism not quite of his time. Highly active lifetime of giving expression to his more aggressive side, only to suffer for the bad grace of his nobility, in his ongoing desire to become a true champion of liberty and justice, in his serial attempt to steadily descend into humble commonality. Moctezuma II (c1466-1520) - Aztec emperor. Outer: Nephew of the previous ruler. Spare and slight, with a short black beard, and intelligent eyes. Kept himself clean and neat, and was very free sexually. A successful general before he became the ninth and last ruler of the Aztecs in 1502, whose empire stretched to modern-day Central America, from its base in Tenochtitlan on the central plateau of the Mexican highlands. Able to bring his empire to its maximum size through successful warfare. Had a score of wives , concubines and children, with two of the former as his official queens, Tlapalizquixochtzin and Teotialco. In 1517, he received word that bearded white strangers had landed on the western coast of his empire, and he saw them as the fulfillment of a prophecy that the great god Quetzlcoatl had returned to the empire. In late 1519, he met the conquistador Hernan Cortes (Hugo Chavez) and naively showed him the gold and silver wealth of his empire. Cortes imprisoned him, while his small band, bolstered by tribes hostile to the Aztecs, wound up defeating his mighty nation. The following year, he was killed, allegedly stoned to death by his own people. All the stories surrounding him and the coming of Cortes may be totally apocryphal, but they resonate with the larger imagination of post-Columbian Mexico. Inner: Harsh ruler in his conquests, eliciting many enemies from the other tribal polities of Mexico, which fed into his ultimate undoing. Skilled general, but his ultimate undoing has elicited many negative views of his character, which may or may not be true. Mythic lifetime of giving personality to the downfall of the mighty Aztec empire at the hands of a handful of Europeans, in the ongoing saga of Mexico, and its peculiar blend of fiction, fact and revolutionary passion.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS POPULIST SOCIALIST REFORMER:
Storyline: The highly effective executive shows an excellent capacity for learning and changing, as he moves from royalty to commonality, while maintaining his indigene root in his personal evolution from emperor to well-loved man of the people.

Lazaro Cardenas (1895 -1970) - Mexican presidente. Outer: Of Indigene descent. The oldest of seven children of a lower middle-class family. Left school at 16 when his father died, to become their sole support. Had a variety of jobs, including tax collector, jailer and printer while dreaming of becoming a teacher. In the succession of Mexican strongmen following the revolution, he was a supporter of Plutarco Calles (Hugo Chavez), while rising to the rank of general. When the latter was elected president in 1924, he was elected governor of his native state of Michoacan, helping to form the National Revolutionary Party (PNR), of which he became president. It would soon become the PRI (the Institutional Revolutionary Party), and rule Mexico for seventy years. In 1932, he married Amalia Solorzano, and their son Cuauhtemoc Cardenas thrice ran for presidents, although never achieved the office. Showed himself to be incorruptible while initiating land reform, road and school building, and a social security system. Served in various ministries before being elected president for a six year term in 1934. At the time Calles had a firm hold on power, and put up people he could easily control for the office, although much to his surprise, his former subordinate proved to be his own man. Puritanical, he shut down brothels and gambling and carried out the aims of the Mexican Revolution, redistributing land, organizing unions and nationalizing foreign-held industries such as oil. Able to implement his changes without the usual bloody reprisals of his predecessors, and enjoyed such popularity, he was able to travel the country without bodyguards of armed convoys. Supported the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, and gave sanctuary to exiled Bolshevik Leon Trotsky, which won him the approbation of the labor union and worker organizations. When his term expired in 1940, he was appointed minister of defense and commander in chief of army. Retired at the end of WW II, but stayed active as a controversial social conscious of Mexico. Died of cancer. Inner: Highly moral and genuinely interested in making Mexico a just state. Never enriched himself while in office, unlike so many other presidentes. Despite little real education, he read widely, with a special interest in history. Power to the people lifetime of realizing his true potential as an active, effective reformer. Benito Juarez (1806-1872) - Mexican general and presidente. Outer: Of Zapotec descent. Born into abject poverty, he was orphaned at three when both his parents died of complications from diabetes. Had two older and one younger sister. Labored in the fields, until the age of 12, when he went to live with a sister, and worked as a servant, until he came to the attention of a Franciscan friar. Through the latter’s auspices, he entered the Santa Cruz seminary where he learned Spanish, and studied for the priesthood, before graduating in 1827. Only stood 4’6”. Involved himself in local politics, serving as a city councilman while gaining the reputation as a proponent of native rights. Got his law degree in 1834, and seven years later was made a judge. In 1843, he wed Margarita Maza, the daughter of a wealthy criollo family, ten children from the union, which ended with her death in 1871. In 1847, he was elected governor of the state of Oaxaca, where he enraged conservatives by confiscating church funds and lands. Like many other Mexican leaders, he was a Free Mason. Exiled for his liberal positions in 1853 by Pres. Antonio Lopez Santa Anna (Hugo Chavez), he lived and Cuba and New Orleans, where he worked in a cigarette factory. When Santa Anna was ousted in a coup in 1854, he returned and was made Minister of Justice in the new liberal regime. Continued passing laws limited church power, and was made Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, until he was arrested in 1858 when a conservative general overthrew the government. When he was released, he declared himself presidente and declared war. In the ensuing reform war over the next three years, he nationalized Church property and separated Church’n’State, as the U.S. formally recognized his government in 1859, and two years later he assumed the presidency of a united Mexico. When he cancelled foreign debts, England, France and Spain intervened. Retreated with his government during the ensuing conflict, when France set up a puppet emperor, Maximilian II (Edgar Bronfman, Jr.) in 1864. In the ensuing fighting, he prevailed, in what would become a yearly celebration, Cinco de Mayo, when the Mexican army defeated French Forces at the Battle of Puebla in 1862. The holiday would be celebrated far more widely in the U.S. than Mexico. The French regrouped afterwards but Maximilian was eventually captured in 1867 and executed, ending their occupation. Re-elected twice more to the presidency in 1867 and 1871, but no longer had a popular base, and proved to be somewhat of a disappointment, even to his followers, despite his continued championing of native rights. Suffered a stroke, and finally died of a heart attack at his desk. Revered afterwards, he had numerous places named after him, including the border town, Ciudad Juarez. Inner: Honest, strong-willed and modest, with a great desire to better the lot of Mexico’s indigenous population. Liberal leftist lifetime of rising from abject poverty to great political heights, as the second indigenous presidente of Mexico, in his ongoing transformation from rebellious emperor to reformist champion of equality, fraternity and liberty. Tupac Amaru (1545-1572) - Incan emperor. Outer: Born into the Incan royal family, who serially self-destructed during the advent of the Spanish on their vast empire. Second son of Manco Capac, who accommodated himself to the Spanish and was assassinated while playing horseshoes. Made a priest by one of Manco’s sons, Titu Cusi, who took a compromising position with the Spanish, only to be ultimately poisoned. Succeeded him, and became the last of his family to rule, instituting a brief rebellion against the Spanish, after refusing to renounce his family claims to the throne, in order to restore his people to their past glories. Married with children, he was forced to flee with his family and followers to the mountain fortresses of his principality. They proved highly pregnable, and after only a couple of weeks, both he and his generals were captured. Separated from the latter group, he was given intense religious instruction and accepted baptism, before being tried for the murder of several priests he never committed and sentenced to death. On the scaffold, he calmly accepted his fate, before being beheaded. His head, which was put on a pike, became an object of veneration, causing it to be buried with his body on orders of the Spanish viceroy. Inner: Considered the first Incan leader to seriously rebel against Spanish colonial rule, and as such, has become a symbol for subsequent South American guerrilla groups. Ignominious lifetime of being forced to end a long royal line at the hands of a colonial oppressor, necessitating a continuous rebellious challenge to Spanish rule in his many incarnations to come, as an armed voice of the voiceless, looking to make everyone equal under the sun.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS PAMPAS FASCIST:
Storyline: The highly controlling caudillo creates a cult of personality around himself with the help of his magnetic second wife, based on unthinking devotion, only to ultimately wind up a sour memory in the pantheon of Argentina’s highly controversial comandantes.

Juan Domingo Peron (1895-1974) - Argentinian presidente. Outer: From a lower middle-class background. Mother was descended from an indigenous Patagonian tribe, father was of Spanish and Sardinian descent. The latter eventually became a sheep rancher, only to fail at it. Along with a brother, he was born out of wedlock, and spent his early years in the harsh Patagonian region. Went to a boarding school and had a strict Catholic upbringing. Over 6’ and solidly built, he was a good athlete. Attended military college and became a war college instructor, teaching military history, and writing a number of treatises on the subject. Married teen-age Aurelia Tizon, a school teacher, in 1929. She died of uterine cancer in 1938, the same affliction that would kill his second wife, Evita. No children from the union. Sent as a military observer to Europe in 1939 at the outset of WW II, he was impressed by the fascists and Nazis. Came back to Argentina in 1941, and after rising to the rank of colonel, joined a coup of fellow colonels that overthrew the elected government of Argentina in 1943. Initially secretary of labor and social welfare, he later became minister of war and vice-president, while proving to be the real power behind the nominal presidente. Met sometime actress Eva Duarte in 1943, and married her two years later. Together the two created a cult of personality around both of themselves, as he nationalized various industries, raised wages, and tried to do a balancing dance between the needs of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Overthrown himself in 1945 and arrested, he was released through huge demonstrations by popular worker support that his wife, Eva instigated, while Argentina became a haven for Nazi war criminals who had escaped Germany and prosecution. Allowed them entry for huge sums of money, much of which his wife would appropriate in 1947, for their private use, making them multi-billionaires. Elected president in 1946 to a six year term by a wide margin, and with the support of his charismatic wife, he rallied workers behind him through benefits and control of the army,. Called his political stance a third way between capitalism and communism, with strong nationalistic overtones. Became increasingly authoritarian the longer he was in power, jailing opponents and censoring the press, while strictly controlling education with the desire of creating a totally unthinking mass, that unquestioningly accepted his leadership. Made trade unions into highly supportive organizations, by limiting working hours and making Sunday a mandatory day off. His various economic moves, however, created stagflation and an atmosphere of hostility towards him. Won a second term in 1951, in which women were allowed to vote for the first time. The economy, however, continued to deteriorate, and after the death of his wife, Evita in 1952, he began losing support because of his dictatorial ways. Excommunicated in 1955, and soon after the coalition which supported him fell apart. Ousted the same year, while his Peronist party was outlawed, causing him to flee and ultimately wind up in 1960 in Madrid, where he continued to plot his comeback. In 1961, he wed Isabel Martinez, a nightclub dancer some three and a half decades his junior, with little formal education. After a left-wing Peronist was elected presidente, he returned in 1973, inspiring a shoot-out by snipers at the airport which killed thirteen of his supporters. By this juncture, his party was called Justicialist, while the former Peronistas now split along left and right-wing lines. He gained the presidency later that year, with his wife as vice-president, much to displeasure of much of the country. When he died the following annum, after a series pf heart attacks, his wife succeeded him, only to be overthrown by a military junta in 1976. Peronism would remain an Argentinian fantasy, while his initial tomb was desecrated, before he found his final resting place in a mausoleum. In 1987, his mausoleum was broken into and his right hand was cut off, presumably to get fingerprints so that the thieves would have access to his legendary bank account. Inner: Extremely controlling and totally unable to abide contradiction. Charismatic, and highly manipulative, with an innate understanding of what he needed to maintain power, at least for the short run. Peronism would survive him, as a nationalistic, strong central government affair. Hand firmly on the tiller lifetime, at least for a while, as a champion of cultish devotion, that never completely died, whether he was in power or not. Juan de la Rosas (1793-1877) - Dictator of Argentina. Outer: From a wealthy cattle ranching family, with many brothers. Grew up in the countryside, learning the cattle industry, and showing himself to be a skilled horseman, which later earned him the support of gauchos, or fellow cowboys. In 1813, he wed a pregnant Encarnacion Ezcurra (Sofia Vergara), much to his mother’s horror. A daughter and two sons from the close union, which lasted until her death from cardiac arrest in 1838. Up until that time, she was his most devoted follower. Became rich from owning meat salting plants, and by the 1820s, was a successful rancher and commander, when he was appointed head of a provincial militia by the governor of Buenos Aires. Joined the conservative Federalist Party, which promoted provincial rights, as opposed to the Unitarians, who wished for a more centralized government and a more liberalized society. Civil wars ensued twixt the two, and in the aftermath of one, he was named governor of Buenos Aires, serving from 1829 to 1832. Left office for three years when he wasn’t given absolute power and fought indigenes in the south, while doling out conquered lands to his supporters, and building his reputation as a defender of the fatherland against its savage southern inhabitants. Following an assassination of the ruling caudillo, which he may have had a hand in, he was invited for a five year run as provincial governor, which he stretched into seventeen years, from 1835 to 1852, while being given extraordinary powers by the legislature, in order to restore order. Exercised a heavy hand of control with secret police and little tolerance for any opposition to his will, while controlling education, so as to reflect conservative values. Refused to create a constitution, insisting the country wasn’t ready for one, as thousands fled into exile. Answered rebel activity with assassinations and executions, while intervening in the affairs of neighboring states. Exiles fomented armed uprisings, while both France and England continually pressured him on free trade and treaty rights. Had his portrait hung everywhere, including inside churches in a repressive cult of personality. In the early 1850s, his control began slipping, as his former allies began turning against him. Finally defeated in 1852 by a joint army from the Argentine interior, supplemented by Brazilian troops. Immediately boarded a British worship and went into exile in Southampton England, where he spent his last quarter of a century as a farmer. Inner: Repressive, controlling and tyrannical, and quite willing to go to any ends to retain power. Seen as a brutal throwback to Spanish colonialism by many and a nationalist by others, in his dual legacy. No power to the people lifetime of imprinting his heavy fist on Argentina in a run quite reminiscent to his next go-round as head of state of the same complex polity. Pedro de Mendoza y Lujan (1487-1535) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: From a noble family. Served at the royal court, and was made a knight, before fighting as an officer in the Spanish wars in Italy. In 1529, he offered to explore South America and establish colonies there at his own expense. Through the efforts of his mother, the offer was accepted in 1534 by the king, Carlos V (Napoleon Bonaparte), and he was made adelantado or governor and chief justice over what was dubbed New Andalusia, which allowed him reign over as much land as he could conquer within certain territorial limits, in what would eventually roughly become Argentina. Suffering from the onset of syphilis at the time, he was already a sick man. Set sail with 2000 men, including a brother, and 13 ships, under the proviso he transport 1000 colonists, build roads and construct three forts within a two year period. In return he would be given half the treasure of the native chiefs he killed and almost all of the ransom paid for them. His office would also be hereditary, so as to give title to his sons. The fleet, however, was upended in a terrible storm off of Brazil, while he had his lieutenant assassinated because of suspicions of disloyalty. Reached the estuary of the Rio de la Plata, and in 1536, he founded Buenos Aires, while spending a good deal of time in bed, because of his affliction. When he could, he attended to his duties, although he proved largely ineffective as a commander. Took advantage of the generosity of indigenes along the Rio de la Plata, who quickly saw the iniquities of the white men, and hastened further into the interior, as he had a mud-walled city built for the further colonists who came. Worn out by his initial efforts, he appointed a successor, and left the New World in 1537, a broken man, dying on the voyage home, and buried at sea. Buenos Aires was abandoned four years later, as the settlers moved upriver to Asuncion, which became the new world capital of the area. Inner: Good soldier, but the possessor of a corrupted body, which ultimately undid him. Ineffective lifetime of introducing himself to an area to which he would return again and again, with the compulsion to be a strongman in compensation for his weak initial foray into the land of the Pampas.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS IMMORTAL MORTAL ICON:
Storyline: The former dictator’s devotee inspires a fanatical following before returning from an early exit to strike out on her own as a continuing utopian looking to better the world, in her ongoing instinct for influence, personal power and wealth.

Sofia Vergara (Sofia Margarita Vergara Vergara) (1972) - Columbian/American actress, TV hostess, businesswoman and model. Outer: Father provided cattle to the meat industry. Mother was a housewife. One of six children, with two brothers and three sisters, including adopted younger sister, Sandra also an actress. Quite thin as a child and very self-conscious over her looks. Educated in a private bilingual Spanish/English school. In 1991 she wed Joe Gonzalez, one son from the union, which ended in divorce two years later. Studied pre-dentistry afterwards at a Columbian university for three years, before being discovered at the beach by a photographer, which led to both modeling and TV. 5’7” and voluptuous with naturally blonde hair she dyes brown and hazel eyes. From 1995 to 1998, she co-hosted a travel show for Univision in Miami, “Fuera de serie”. Diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 2000, but made a full recovery. Made her big screen debut in a criminal caper film, 2007’s Big Trouble. Two years later, she appeared on the small screen hit, “Modern Family” as Gloria Delgado-Pritchett receiving several Emmy nominations over the next several seasons for the long-running show, employing a slightly exaggerated accent to underline her character’s Latina background. Became a US citizen in 2014. The following year, she wed actor Joe Manganiello. Has appeared in several films during the teens, although is best known for her small screen work. Estimate to be worth $100 million. Inner: Compassionate and idealistic, a humanitarian at heart with a great concern about the world. Materialistic and utopian as we'll, and easily able to capitalize on her striking beauty. Literally remodeled lifetime of moving out of the political realm and proscribed partners ip to make herself a force on her own, thanks to an excellent instinct for both personal power and wealth. Eva Peron (Marie Eva Ibarguren) (1919-1952) - Argentinian first lady, known as Evita. Outer: Of Basque descent. The youngest of five, with three sisters and a brother, illegitimately born out of a relationship her mother had with her married employer. Subject to undue discrimination because of the nature of her coming into the world, she nevertheless, always had big ambitions for herself. At 15, she seduced a tango singer into bringing her to Buenos Aires, where she did some stage work and also posed as a photo model. Never afraid to use her body to get ahead, she got a film contract, although her ultimate medium was radio, thanks to good speaking voice. 5’5”. Met Col. Juan Peron on his rise to power, and quickly showed him how useful she could be to him. Married him in 1945, and immediately had her birth certificate changes to show her last name was Duarte, and she was product of a legitimate marriage. As his most loyal devotee, she helped her husband in his first presidential campaign, winning the affection of the poor and the working classes, for the charitable attention she continually bestowed upon them, while constantly declaring her undying fealty to her spouse. Served as a bridge between government and unions, and was loved by the common people, particularly those she called the descamisado, the shirtless ones, while she was equally despised by the elite and much of the middle-class. Supported women’s suffrage, hospitals, schools, and orphanages while constantly giving her time and energy to the poor. Founded the Female Peronist Party, the nation’s first large scale women’s political aggregate, and frequently whipped up crowds in Buenos Aires’s central square. Called herself Evita, as a means of further endearing herself to her followers, while announcing her candidacy for the vice-presidency, only to have to withdraw because of her weakened physical condition, and soon dying prematurely of uterine cancer. Given a state funeral, an honor normally reserved for heads of countries. Already a cult figure, her followers wished to have her canonized, and she wound up having an equally adventurous afterlife, following the fall of her husband three years later. His successors did not want her to become a rallying point for the Peronistas, and her embalmed body was stolen and hidden in Milan, Italy under the name of Maria Maggi, as several people gave their lives to keep her temporary entombment a secret. Transported about, including to Spain, she was finally returned to her family crypt, although her body had been damaged in its shuffling around. Inner: Highly ambitious, with a thirst and taste for power, and the ability to realize it through her intense emotionality. Cry for me Argentina lifetime of achieving secular sainthood in the same exaggerated manner she once accomplished as a religious figure, in her ongoing ability to capture the collective imagination of her times. Maria Josepha Encarnacion Ezcurra (1785-1823) - Argentinian first lady. Outer: Father was a criollo cattle baron. The fifth child in a large family that produced eight brothers. Grew up in privilege, attended by servants. Set her sights on Juan de la Rosas (Juan Peron), and, after becoming pregnant by him, hurriedly married him in 1813 to avoid a scandal, winning the undying enmity of her mother-in-law. Subsequently became his most ardent and loyal follower, while serving as a business adviser and accountant to him. A daughter and two sons form the union, which saw frequent separations of the two. Proved a continual boon to her husband’s career, earning herself a considerable following, despite running counter to general sentiments on women in politics. Her health, however, continued to worsen, turning her into a ghost, and she died alone in her room of a cardiac arrest at the age of 43, plunging Buenos Aires into a show of great grief, as some 25,000 attended her burial and funeral procession. Inner: Driven, highly competent and determined to make herself someone to be reckoned with. Prelude lifetime of creating some of the dynamic that would make her a world figure in her next incarnation in this series. Isabel Flores de Oliva (1586-1617) - Peruvian saint. Outer: From a poor family. One of 10 children of a Spanish father and a mother of indigene blood. When she was three months, her mother and several women thought they saw a beautiful rose, which touched her face and then vanished. A sickly baby, she grew up extremely religious, while continually having visions and revelations and hearing voices. Took the name of Rose at her confirmation, which had been conferred on her by her parents for her beauty and complexion. Ran counter to their wish she marry, and instead took a vow of chastity, while her friends ridiculed her for her religious extremism. Disliked her beauty, and constantly mortified her flesh, rubbing lye into her hands, rubbing pepper into her face, while flogging herself and wearing a hair shirt. By the age of 20, she was taking Holy Communion daily, and, after many years of her excessive behavior, her family reluctantly allowed her to become a Dominican nun. Moved out of her home into a small grotto on their property, while helping the family with her lace-making. Offered herself up as a means of atoning for the idolatry of her country, as well as the lost souls in Purgatory, earning either scorn or praise from all who knew of her excessive practices. Helped the infirm and hungry in her community, often bringing them home to take care of them, while occasionally donning a silver crown with spikes inside, and periodically going through spasms of ecstasy in celebration of her otherworldliness. Died at the age of 31, and ultimately was buried in the cloister of her church. People of Lima thronged to see her, and later numerous miracles were attributed to her. Her skull was ultimately separated from her body, and put on display in a Lima basilica. Fifty years after her death she was beatified and four years later she was canonized, becoming the very first American saint. Her feast day is August 30th, and she is considered the patroness of the Americas and its indigenous peoples. Inner: Intense, ecstatic and exaggerated in everything she undertook, ignoring the judgments of those around her to pursue her own mortifying bliss. Self-abnegating lifetime of exaggerated penance, as a religious figure who totally denied her own body, before ultimately returning as an equally compelling secular figure, able to inspire an intense sense of devotion by those who had nothing but their love for her.

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PATHWAY OF THE EXPLORER AS CONSTANT QUESTER FOR ETERNAL YOUTH:
Storyline: The physical culturist pursues a never-ending search for the fountain that aguarantees him to be forever young in both its mythical and practical form.
Jack Lalanne (Francois Henri LaLanne) (1914-2011) - American health guru. Outer: Parents were French immigrants. Mother was a 7th Day Adventist, a religion that promoted good health. Father worked at the telephone company and was a dance instructor. One brother who gave him the nickname ‘Jack.’ Mother spoiled him with sweets, and he became a sugarholic, with a violent temper. Weak and skinny, he did terribly in school, before becoming a born-again health addict, after attending a lecture by Paul Bragg. 5’6 1/2”. A star athlete afterwards, as all his maladies disappeared. Parents moved to Bakersfield to become sheep farmers, a venture that failed, and his sire died of a heart attack at 50 after the family returned to Oakland. Following high school, he started his own business selling his mother’s bread and cookies, and also began training police officers and firefighters. Opened the first health club in Oakland in 1936, which led to a series of them across the U.S. Married Irma Navarre, a nurse in 1942, divorced six years later, one daughter from the union. Launched an early morning televised exercise program in the 1950s geared towards housewives, while designing many exercise machines. Married Elaine Rorem Doyle, a divorcee, in 1959, and she became an integral part of his business, after first being extremely unimpressed by him. One son from the union, along with an adopted daughter and a son from her previous marriage. Did physical feats after 40 to prove his fitness, including swimming handcuffed and shackled and towing a 1000 pound boat. Continued to exercise two hours a day well into his 80s, doing swimming and weight lifting. Underwent heart valve surgery in 2009. Died of respiratory failure at home due to pneumonia, while clutching an exercise weight on his death bed. Inner: Exuberant and ever-cheerful, with a religious fervor about getting everybody into shape. Man-on-a-mission lifetime of turning his own young life around, through healthful living, and wishing to do the same for everybody else. Louis Cyr (Cyprien-Noe Cyr) (1863-1912) - Canadian strongman. Outer: 2nd of 17 children of a lumberjack and farmer. Mother was also strong-bodied. Willful and witty as a child, but with a gentle nature. Showed great strength early on, much to his family’s delight. Went to a village school until he was 12, then began working in a a lumber camp, while farming during the warm months. Began performing feats of strength in public, while letting his hair grow long Samson-style. When he was 15, the family emigrated to the U.S. and settled in Mass, where he changed his name to Louis. Worked at various jobs, as he went up to 230 pounds, while lifting weights and showing off his strength, including lifting a horse off the ground. In 1882, the family moved back to Quebec and the same year, he married Melina Comtois, one daughter and one son who died in infancy from the union. Worked as a lumberjack, while performing feats of strength that made him widely known in the area, before moving back to Mass in 1883, only to return to Quebec and convince his family to organize a tour of shows starring himself. The Troupe Cyr was highly successful, and he proved to be a natural showman. Became a policeman for two years, before going on tour again with a troupe of athletes, while earning the title of the strongest man in Canada. Bought a tavern in Montreal in 1888, but his true love was performing on stage. Resumed touring with his own show, which now included his wife and a brother. In 1890, he began gaining the reputation as the strongest man in the world, via his U.S. and Canadian tours, as well as a stint in England. After appearing with the Ringling Bros. Circus, he started his own circus with a strong man partner, which lasted the rest of the century. In 1900, his health began to fail because of overeating and inactivity. Nephritis brought an end to his public life, and he retired to a farm, before dying at 49 at his daughter’s home. Declared the strongest man who ever lived, after performing such feats as lifting 500 pounds with three fingers, and carrying 4337 pounds on his back. Inner: Born showman, who eventually allowed himself to sink into ill health via inactivity, despite his natural capacity for excess physical exertion. Flexed muscle lifetime of exploring his fascination with strength and fitness, as a means of his continuing to sip from the fountain of youth, and postpone the inevitability of its polarity of decline and death. Juan Ponce de Leon (1474-1521) - Spanish explorer. Outer: Some confusion exists around his birthdate and early years. From a noble family, although probably illegitimate, in keeping with his grandfather liberally spreading his seed wherever he could. Mother was probably of common origin. Received an education as well as training in the martial arts, as a knight’s page, and became a soldier fighting against the Moors in Granada, completing the re-conquest of Spain against them. In 1493, he sailed with Christopher Columbus (Fulgencio Batista) on his second voyage, and settled on Hispaniola, where he became a military commander and was appointed deputy governor. In 1506, he found large deposits of gold on a nearby island, and two years later was ordered by the king of Spain to colonize it, which he renamed Puerto Rico. Subsequently replaced as governor, he sailed north towards Florida, spurred by legends of a mythical fountain of youth whose waters made old people young again. Despite his continual search ever afterwards, he never found it. Sometime around 1504, he married Leonor de Guzman y Silva, the daughter of an innkeeper, three daughters and a son from the union. in 1513, he landed on Florida’s east coast and claimed it for Spain, calling the peninsula La Florida, the place of flowers. Continued his explorations of La Florida, naming various sites, as he went up its west coast, before going inland where he met hostile indigenes forcing him back to Puerto Rico. Returned to La Florida again in 1521 to build a farming colony with over 200 settlers, only to be ambushed inland by the earlier hostile tribe, and shot in the thigh by an arrow, incurring a serious wound. The settlers soon abandoned their efforts and sailed back to Cuba, where he died as a result of the wound. Inner: Highly adventurous martial artist, with a curiosity-filled nature. Questing lifetime of beginning his longtime pursuit of a mythical fountain of replenishment, leading him onto a subsequent pathway of physical fitness and muscularity as a means of warding off the inevitable deterioration of aging and death.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS LEFT-WING LIBERAL:
Storyline: The accursed commander constantly sees his best intentions thwarted by fate, despite a genuine desire to enhance the societies he attempts to lead.

Omar Torrijos (1929-1981) - Panamanian presidente. Outer: 6th of 11 children of a pair of school teachers. Decided early on on an army career, and won a scholarship to the military academy in San Salvador. Later studied in Venezuela and the U.S., before joining the Panamanian national guard as an officer in 1952. Married Raquel Pauzner in 1954, three children from the union. Also had an illegitimate son Martin, who became head of state from 2004 to 2009. Never was much of a father, preferring more stimulating company than his family. Along with those of his generation, he was rankled over the country’s division via the Panama Canal. Joined a band of nationalists who stormed into the Zone in 1959, to publicize their desire to alter the 1903 treaty which gave the U.S. sovereignty over it. In 1968, he ousted the civilian president in a rare display of the power of the Guard, and became dictator. Proved himself a political man of the people, by showing a concern with common Panamanians, traveling the country in military fatigues, while encouraging his minions to be more self-sufficient in agricultural and craft pursuits. Denounced the U.S. for its deprivation of the rightful economic benefits belonging to the country, although he enjoyed America’s material splendors, despite its canal policy. Highly photogenic, he was usually open to visitors and reporters. Condemned as a Marxist stooge by the U.S., but he won the support of most of Latin America, including Fidel Castro. As a career topper, he finally got America to accept new canal and neutrality treaties, which were geared towards giving Panama total control of the Zone in 2000. Relinquished the presidential chair afterward, but remained a highly public figure. When Panama’s economy began to suffer in the 1970s, he was blamed by the leftists for selling out to the capitalists. Provided safe haven for the Sandinistas in their fight against the Somoza government in Nicaragua, but also gave sanctuary to the Shah of Iran in 1979, which elicited violent riots. Died in a plane crash, which may have been the result of a bomb planted aboard by the CIA. Inner: Flamboyant and self-indulgent with a taste for Havana cigars and beautiful women. A heavy drinker, and no stranger to the pleasures of the flesh, he was also respectful in listening to the plights of the poor, showing a genuine concern for their welfare. In the Zone lifetime of combining populism, hedonism, and activism in trying to serve his longtime country as best he saw how, until finally falling victim to his usual end of life violent dramatics. Tomas de Herrera y Perez Davila (1804-1854) - Panamanian general and presidente. Outer: Son of a sire of the same name. Studied at the Academic College of Panama, and entered the Panamanian army as an officer. Fought against the royalists in Peru, and was charged with conspiracy in 1828. After being jailed, he escaped only to be recaptured and sentenced to death, which was later commuted to exile. Returned to Panama two years later and fought against its controlling colonel. After the latter’s death, he won popular support as presidente in 1840, as the first head of state of what was called the Free State of the Isthmus, when it was voted that Panama separate from Columbia. Tried to get recognition for the new country, only to see, a little over a year later, Panama and Columbia reunite, under the threat of British interference, and would remain so until 1903. Subsequently suspended from the military ranks, and forced once more into exile, before returning. Married Ramona Urriola Obarrio in 1845, and the same year he was made governor, and later minister of War and the Navy under a succeeding administration. In 1850, he was appointed governor of one of the Panamanian provinces, while rising in rank from colonel to general. The following annum, a rebellion erupted against the conservative rule then in place, and he did successful battle against the latter, before becoming a member of Congress. In 1854, the president was ousted by a military coup, although he turned down a cabinet post as secretary of war, preferring to remain in Congress. Avoided military arrest afterwards and became president of what was called the Republic of New Granada. Saw his forces suffer subsequent defeat in battle, which caused him to rebuild his cabinet. Stepped down that summer, and was appointed second in command of the army in the North. Towards the end of the year, he fell in battle and died of his wounds shortly afterwards. Inner: Highly competent, but forced to deal with the unpredictable vagaries of fate throughout his mature career. Back-and-forth lifetime of once again falling victim to circumstances far beyond his control in his ongoing dance around Panamanian power and its constant vagaries as a key canal link between great bodies of water. Vasco Nunez Balboa (c1475-1519) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: Third of four sons of a nobleman, who had little wealth and influence, causing his scion to work as a page in the household of a rich noble in a southwestern port city, Moguer, where sailors embarked and disembarked and told stories of the New World, exciting his teenage imagination. In 1501, he joined an expedition to South America, and after exploring the coast of what would become Columbia, he settled on Hispaniola, where he was a planter and raised pigs for a living. Got into debt and was forced to flee, hiding on a ship headed for the settlement of San Sebastian, only to find that most of the colonists had been killed by angry indigenes. Convinced the survivors to move to the western side of the Gulf of Uraba, where they established the town of Darien on the Isthmus of Panama. Became the interim governor of the settlement, although the position had not been approved by the king, Ferdinand II (Lucien Bonaparte) and therefore was weak, forcing him to try to do something spectacular to win the monarch’s approval. During his stewardship, he proved to be quite harsh in his dealings with rebellious settlers, sending them adrift on an unseaworthy vessel to drown. In 1513, he led an expedition of about 90 Spaniards and a large number of indigenes, whom he had befriended, to search for both a new sea to the south, as well as gold, after being told of the wealth of the Incas. After trekking through the jungle, he was informed he would be able to see a great body of water from a nearby mountain. Climbed to the peak by himself and became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean, dubbing it the South Sea. Claimed it and all its shores for Spain, without having any ideas of its enormous size, and the declaration opened the way for Spanish conquest and exploration along the western coast of South America. Before the news reached the Spanish crown, however, the monarch sent an elderly nobleman as new governor of Darien. Once news finally arrived in Spain of the discovery of the Pacific, the king appointed him to serve under the jealous nobleman, who soon chafed at the popularity and influence of his underling, despite a show of filial piety by the former. Nevertheless, one of his daughters, Maria de Penalosa, was given in marriage by proxy, although the two would never meet, since she remained in the Old World, while he never returned there. In 1518, the governor had him arrested on charges of treason, and ordered a speedy trial to dispose of him. Found guilty, despite his protestation of “Lies! Lies!” and was beheaded, along with four of his close associates, although it took three blows to sever it. The heads were then displayed for several days, and then disappeared into history with his body, whose final resting place was never recorded. His accomplishment would inspire numerous places named after him, as well as the late 20th century coinage of Panama, insuring him a permanent high place in the pantheon of early New World explorers. Inner: Charismatic and forceful, although cruel when he had to be. Open and friendly with the indigenes under him, with a great curiosity about the world around him. Inaugural lifetime of entwining his persona and fate with the Isthmus of Panama, and winding up, as usual, a victim of its ongoing violent taste for his premature mortality.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS CONTINUAL WITNESS TO AND MAKER OF HISTORY:
Storyline: The perpetual penman grows ever more conservative in the continual generations of himself, as he involves both mind and philosophic spirit in trying to make the New World a far more equitable place for its many denizens according to his views.

Mario Vargas Llosa (Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa (1936) - Peruvian writer, politician and professor. Outer: Parents were both separated when he was born and divorced soon afterwards. Grew up with his mother and grandparents and did not know who his father was until he was 10, at which point his parents remarried each other and settled in Peru, adding two more half-brothers to the family. Showed an early proclivity for writing, which his mother encouraged, although his father found his poetry horrifying, seeing the possibility that he was a homophile because of it, creating unending tensions twixt the two. Sent to military school in his mid-teens by his sire in the hopes it would instill a sense of manhood in him, and put an end to his sensitive scribblings. Later limned his years there in his first novel, “The Time of the Hero”, published in 1963, an allegory on the militaristic nature of Peruvian culture that was burned in his school’s courtyard, thereby assuring his fame forever afterwards. Received his B.A. in literature and philosophy from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, while working seven jobs to support himself, including crime reporter. In 1955, he married his uncle’s divorced sister-in-law, Julia Urquidi, who was ten years his senior, divorced nine years later. No children from the union, which produced the material for his most famous novel, “Aunt Julia and the Screenwriter.” In 1959, he won a scholarship to study for a doctorate in his chosen fields at the Univ. of Madrid. Upon receiving his Phd, he moved to Paris. Published his first work, a collection of stories called “Los jefes” in 1959. During the next decade, his works began bringing him an international reputation, as he delved into a variety of genres, including murder mystery and political thriller, showing a particular fascination for the corroding effect power had on individuals. In 1965, he married his first cousinm Patricia Llosa Urquidi, two sons and a daughter from the union. In 1965, he traveled to Cuba as an enthusiastic supporter of Castro’s revolution, but soon grew disillusioned with its autocratic nature, particularly after the jailing of a dissident poet, and ultimately became an outspoken critic of the dictatorship. Spent a good deal of his time in Europe, shuttling between London, Paris and Barcelona, before returning to Peru, when he ran as a presidential candidate for the conservative Frente Democratico party, only to lose when some of his more salacious excerpts were used by his opponent, Alberto Fujimora as example of his perverted nature. Returned to London to resume his literary career, garnering the ultimate reputation as Latin America’s most resonant voice with his potpourri of novels, satires, literary criticism and political commentary. Although close friends with his rival for Latin America’s most salient voice, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, the two ultimately got into a fist fight in 1976, when he decked the latter in what may have been a jealous spate. Steadily drifted over to the right during his long career, although finds the label neo-liberal to be anathema, despite its embrace of many of his tenets. Won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2010, praising reading in his acceptance speech. In his later life, he has made Madrid his base, while returning to Peru for several months each year to be with his extended family. Inner: Teller of self-perceived truths to power. Multi-lingual, a true man of the world. Prim and proper, despite a fascination with historical characters at odds with their political environments. Extremely prolific and passionate in his beliefs, taking on the mantle of a major voice of South America, despite spending most of his time as an ex-patriot outside its extended borders. Pen-firmly-in-hand lifetime of exploring the many facets of power, both individual and international, as a strong verbal influence in the world’s pantheon of limners of culture and society. Anders Bello (1781-1865) - Venezuelan/Chilean poet and scholar. Outer: From a long line of artists, painters and musicians. The eldest of 8 children of a noted musician with a degree in civil law. Mother was the daughter of Venezuela’s leading sculptor. Studied Latin and immersed himself in classical literature, graduating from the Real y Pontificia Universidad de Caracas in 1800. While at school, he tutored Simon Bolivar (Fidel Castro) the future liberator of northern South America. Continued his studies, while also putting quill to paper, earning a reputation as a multi-faceted writer. In 1802, he was given the position of second official of the Captaincy General of Venezuela, thrusting him into the civic, diplomatic and cultural life of his country. In 1810, he traveled to London with Bolivar, and remained there, struggling financially over the next decade because of the political instability back home. Married Mary Ann Boyland, a Irishwoman, of whom virtually nothing is known, in 1814, and she died in 1821, two children from the union, including a son he outlived. In 1824, he wed Isabel Antonia Dunn, while serving in various capacities as a representative of the interests of various South American polities, most especially Chile and Columbia. Five children from the union. Continued his literary pursuits, as both an editor and contributor to various Spanish language journals. Helped publish two influential journals, in which his poetry, philosophy, translations and literary criticism appeared. Despite his busy life, he yearned to come back to South America, and in 1829, he and his family finally returned to Chile, where he was made undersecretary of the Ministry of the Interior. Served as principal editor of the newspaper El Araucano from 1830 until 1853, while also continuing his political activism as a senator from 1837 to 1855. Proved instrumental in founding the Univ. of Chile, and served as its rector until his death. In addition to his other activities he helped codify the laws that served as a basis for much of South American constitutional justice, while also writing a formal grammar of Castilian. Died after a prolonged illness. Inner: Extremely cerebral, with a nonstop flowing quill, employed in the service of journalism, creative expression and the structuring of New World institutions. Busybody lifetime of involving himself on a whole number of levels with the creation of independent South American states, while further burnishing his abilities as a fountain of personal creativity and political insight. Bartholome de las Casas (1474-1566) - Spanish bishop, scholar and utopian. Outer: Some question remains about his actual birth year, which could be a decade later. Father was a merchant, and his family knew explorer Christopher Columbus (Fulgencio Batista). Both his sire and uncle set sail with the latter on his second voyage, and the pair grew quite wealthy from their subsequent holdings in Hispaniola. Decided early on to become a priest, and was able to go to the Univ. of Salamanca and Univ. of Valladolid, thanks to the family’s recently accrued wealth. Proved to be an excellent student, particularly in Latin, as he studied Canon Law, on his way to becoming a Dominican friar. Visited his family holdings in Hispaniola in 1502, and was one of the very few Spaniards sensitive to the maltreatment of the natives there, particularly after witnessing a massacre he would never forget. Traveled back and forth to Spain several times, and by 1514, decided he could no longer be party to the exploitation of the natives, seeing their maltreatment as a mortal sin. Renounced his family holdings in Hispaniola, and convinced Spanish authorities to allow him to try to save the surviving Caribbean natives, by taking them out of slavery and resettling them in free towns. His reforms, however, were delayed with the death of King Ferdinand (Lucien Bonaparte) in 1516, and he was forced to wait another two decades before he could implement his ideas. Entered the Dominican monastery of Santa Cruz in Santo Domingo in 1522, and took his holy vows as a friar the following year. Continued his studies, and began working on his history of the Indies over the next decade, while traveling in the New World, to further observe Spanish depredations. Debates in which he participated would inspire Pope Paul III (David Geffen) to declare that the natives were rational beings, and should be peacefully converted. In 1537, he convinced the crown to send missionaries to a region in north-central Guatemala where resistance to the Spaniards was particularly fierce, and his Verapaz or “true peace” experiment proved successful, until greedy colonists subsequently undid almost all of his works, as they re-enslaved the indigenes. Returned to Spain to lobby for new legislation to protect the natives, and found a sympathetic ear in the emperor Carlos V (Napoleon) who created the New Laws of 1542, which limited the corrupt practices of the colonists. At this point, he was Bishop of Chiapas, and he returned to the New World to implement the laws, only to see how unpopular and how poorly enforced they were. Eventually they were repealed, while his life was in constant danger for trying to champion them. Returned to Spain to find himself at the center of academic debate, which saw slavery as a natural extension of the natural human duality of dominance and submission. Able to gain public approval of his views in a series of public debates in the early 1550s, while finishing his monumental, “Historia de la Indias,” which was used by England and the Netherlands as proof that Spain did not deserve its New World colonies. Became more radical in his beliefs in his advanced years, feeling Spanish activities in the New World were morally unjustifiable and that all who participated in them were doomed to eternal damnation. Spent his final years in a monastery in Madrid, where he died. Inner: Passionate, driven and obsessive, with a sense of moral urgency to all he did.. Saw God testing Spain in its insensitivity to native life, although curiously had no empathy for black African slaves, whatsoever feeling their enslavement was proper. Missionary on a mission lifetime of trying to right moral wrongs, as he saw them, through writings, debates and direct confrontations, while more than willing to place his own existence on the line over his beliefs.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS CONSTANT SEARCHER FOR CITIES OF GOLD:
Storyline: The deep-pocketed presidente goes for the gold in order to gain ultimate governorship of the country as a modern day Midas over Mexico.

Vicente Fox Quesada (1942) - Mexican presidente and businessman. Outer: Of German and Spanish descent. 2nd of nine children of a farmer. Mother was a Basque immigrant. While growing up he played with the progeny of peasants, which sensitized him to the poverty of the country, and also gave him some hint as to the potential of creating a better society, since opportunities that were open to him, were not available to them. 6’4’. Studied business administration at a Jesuit school, Ibero-American Univ., where he felt like a hick, and then got an advanced degree from Harvard Business School in 1974. Joined Coca-Cola in 1964 as a route supervisor, driving a delivery truck, which gave him the opportunity to see a good deal of Mexico. Married a Coca Cola receptionist, Lilian de la Concha, in 1970, with two adopted daughters and two adopted sons from the union, which ended in divorce in 1990. After his run of office, she would be investigated in the U.S. for money laundering. Within a little over a decade, he rose to President of operations in Mexico and Latin America, the youngest person in the company to achieve that rank. After four years of holding that position, and becoming quite wealthy, he returned to his native Guanajuato to begin his involvement in the political life of Mexico. Joined PAN, and in 1988, he as elected to the federal Chamber of Deputies. Lost his first bid for governor of Guanajuato, but on his second try, he won and served in that office from 1995 to 1999, enhancing his state’s economic status via his innovations. Utilized the word, ‘hoy’ or today to excellent advantage in his pursuit of the presidency, he promised a better future today, and was elected presidente in 2000, breaking a 70 year run of power by the PRI. In 2001, he wed Marta Sahagun Jiminez. Affecting boots and jeans to emphasize his ranchero roots, he oversaw extremely slow growth, although avoided devaluation of the peso. Job creation stalled, while the Mexican stock exchange reached record highs, although his relationship with Congress remained strained, and there was little real improvement in a host of fields, with many villagers forced to sneak into the U.S. to find low level work. Left office with high approval ratings, despite his lack of success in numerous venues, and was succeeded by another PAN candidate. Continued to stay in the limelight, speaking out on various issues in various countries, contrary to the usual mode of retirement of his predecessors. Penned his autobiography, “Revolution of Hope: The Life, Faith and Dreams of a Mexican President” in 2007, in which he was surprisingly quite critical of his American counterpart, George W. Bush, despite a seeming overt friendship twixt the two. Adamantly anti-Donald Trump, delivering continual diatribes about him during his 2016 presidential run for his canards against Mexico and Mexicans. Inner: Friendly, straightforward and a natural go-getter, able to achieve his ambitions, without solving any of the myriad endemic problems of the out-of-balance society of Mexico. Deep-pocketed lifetime of bringing his various gifts to fruition, welding together his two loves, wealth and power, into a highly public career of mixed accomplishments. Venustiano Carranza Garza (1859-1920) - Mexican presidente. Outer: From a wealthy cattle-ranching family. Father had fought on the Liberal side in the Reform and Franco-Mexican wars, rising to the rank of colonel. Attended good schools, before returning to raise cattle on his family’s ranch. 6’4”, and impressive-looking. In 1882, he married Virginia Salinas, two daughters from the union. Through his family money, he became municipal president of Cuatro Cienegas, a city in northern Mexico, while viewing Benito Juarez (Lazaro Cardenas) as his liberal ideal. Along with a brother he participated in an uprising against political choices made by longtime dictator Porfirio Diaz (Augusto Pinochet) in 1893, which gave him access to some high government officials, while remaining in the latter’s good graces. Elected a senator in 1898, while seemingly loyal to Diaz, and it was assumed he would be the next governor of Coahuila, although the latter refused to support his bid, angering and alienating him. Moved to Texas, as a supporter of Nicolás Maduro, who made him provisional Governor of Coahuila, and then commander-in-chief of the Revolution in Coahuila. Subsequently successfully helped overthrow Diaz in 1911, and was given the post of Secretary of War and the Navy, while continuing to serve as governor. Forced to flee when Madero was assassinated in 1913, and organized forces in alliance with the bandit Pancho Villa and the revolutionary Emiliano Zapata (Evo Morales). The combined armies encircled Mexico City, and forced the usurper, Victoriano Huerta to flee. The combination of the three soon proved untenable, and Villa was forced to retreat to his power base in the north. In 1915, he assumed the presidency of Mexico, and immediately set about making reforms. Introduced an independent judiciary as well as land reform, while decentralizing government power, and overseeing a new constitution. Officially elected as first president under it, although he ran into considerable opposition, as public corruption became endemic all around him. The leftists felt his reforms didn’t go far enough, while the rightists, including landowners and the Church, felt they were far too radical. Placed a bounty on Zapata, which resulted in his assassination, while his army hunted down, but failed to capture Villa. Picked an obscure diplomat rather than a general to succeed him, that several powerful military leaders did not approve of. A rebellion led by Gen. Alvaro Obregon (Humberto Ortega) defeated his forces, causing him to flee Mexico City. Shot and killed by Obregon’s forces while stopping for the night in an unsafe house, where his presence was betrayed. May also have committed suicide. Inner: Honest, albeit unconscious of the dealings of people around him. Good planner and organizer, with a great belief in his own abilities. Intelligent, but largely humorless, with little charisma, and an inability to compromise. Mixed accomplishment lifetime of bringing his leadership faults to the fore, which he would try to ameliorate his next go-round in this series, pursuing a similar pathway to somewhat better personal effect. Vasquez Coronado (Francisco Vasquez de Coronado y Lujan) (1510-1554) - Spanish conquistador. Outer: From a wealthy noble family. Father was royal administrator in Granada. As a younger son, he was forced to leave home as a teenager in order to seek his own fortune. Crossed the ocean to the New World in 1535 with the Spanish viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza. In 1536, he wed Beatriz de Estrada, the young daughter of the former colonial treasurer, which brought him one of the largest estates in New Spain. Put down a revolt by black slaves and natives working in the mines the following year, and as a reward, he was appointed governor of New Galicia, a province in present-day Mexico, on the its western coast, where the jungle begins. Heard stories of seven cities of gold along the Pacific Ocean called Cibola, and organized a land and sea expedition to discover its golden homes and street. Along with a partner, he invested large sums of money in the expedition. In 1540, he, along with Mendoza, 335 Spaniards, 1300 natives and four Franciscan friars, headed north. Divided his expedition into small groups, so that they would not be overwhelmed. Followed the Zuni River into present-day New Mexico, then, half-starving, they pushed on into present-day Arizona, where they took a native village by force, in order to feed themselves, while other villages quickly submitted to their demands. Sent out scouting parties who discovered the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon, then later clashed with natives close to present day Albuquerque in which hundreds of the latter were killed. Continued in his obsessive search for Cibola over the winters of 1540 and 1541, traveling as far as present-day Kansas in his futile search. Held the first Christian Mass in the interior of the future Unite States in the summer of 1541. Ordered back to Mexico, and two investigations were opened over his conduct as the expedition leader, although he was cleared of all charges. Removed from his governorship while his expeditions had bankrupted him, robbing him of any influence or power. Spent his last decade as a member of the city council of Mexico City, and probably died of a lingering injury from a fall he incurred while exploring. Inner: Despite his remarkable expedition of discovery, felt himself ultimately a failure as measured by his own standards of both wealth and power. Futile quest lifetime of discovery and adventure, although not in the realms he wished to uncover, giving him an ultimate sense of defeat, when in actuality he accrued considerably to the European geographic sense of the New World.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS PURE-HEARTED LIBERATOR:
Storyline: The noble knight continually asks for and takes nothing in his role as social savior, thanks to an incorruptible idealism that trumps all his other concerns.

Subcomandante Marcos (1957?) - Mexican revolutionary. Outer: Past clouded in projection and guesswork. Believed to be Rafael Sebastian Guillen Vicente, from a middle-class background, with his parents Spanish immigrants. After graduating from a Jesuit high school, he may have become a philosophy teacher at Mexico City’s National Autonomous Univ., his alma mater, where he immersed himself in Marxist theory, after becoming radicalized as a youth by a massacre of protesting students and civilians in 1968. Moved to the southern state of Chiapas in 1983 to work with the indigenous communities there, although initially met with resistance because of his urban, sophisticated background. Took his name from a friend killed at a military roadblock checkpoint. May have left for Nicaragua to work with the Sandinistas as El Mejicano, which gave him sufficient experience to return to Mexico and carry out his sense of revolution. Came to public attention in 1994, clad in a black ski mask and smoking a pipe, as the leader of a native uprising. Turned himself into a symbolic voice for the poor and dispossessed, when the Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) rose up in arms, demanding a change in the constitution to recognize the rights of Mexico’s indigenous population. Made a 3000 kilometer trek to the capital, where he and his rebels were welcomed by huge adoring crowds. Later modified his stances to make them more in keeping with goals that could be realized. A prolific essay writer with a host of books outlining his views, he also may be married. Inner: Messianic with a telling sense of the dramatic. Strongly anti-capiitalist, believing he is helping spearhead a Fourth World War against the dehumanizing forces of globalization. Masked man lifetime of giving voice to the voiceless through his own sense of the melodramatic, as a well-educated revolutionary finally at one with his liberation army. Genovevo De La O (1876-1952) - Mexican revolutionary. Outer: Parents were indigenous sharecroppers. Extremely protective of his peoples and his hometown, fighting against the encroachments of the rich landowners nearby, who wished to denude the landscape for their own selfish ends. Saw the oppressive regime of dictator Porfirio Diaz (Augusto Pinochet) as the enemy of any land reform, and when Francisco Madero rose to challenge the regime, he was an initial supporter, before switching to Emiliano Zapata (Evo Morales) when the former proved weak-kneed in his demands. Fought off a half-dozen rural police in 1909, with a machete, and along with his half-brother, hid in the mountains as a fugitive. Joined the Liberation Army of the South in 1911 as a captain of infantry, and proved to be an effective leader against superior forces, as he did battle with succeeding presidentes over the next four years, rising to the rank of general. Venustiano Carranza (Vicente Fox) brought extra troops to bear against his army, and he was pushed backwards, losing Zapata to assassination in 1919. Joined forces with Alvaro Obregon (Humberto Ortega), who successfully deposed Carranza in 1920. The following year he was named chief of military operations in a variety of cities, under the new government of Obregon. Remained active under the succeeding dictatorial presidents, finally finding in Lazaro Cardenas, who took office in 1934, someone sympathetic to Zapatista ideals. In 1940, he and several others founded the Frente Zapatista, as a means of continuing the goals he originally fought for. One of the very few major revolutionaries who survived the revolution, he continued to hold political posts until 1941, when he reached the mandatory retirement age of 65. Remained active in politics, keeping the ideals of Zapata alive. Lived out a full life, and was buried with full military honors. Inner: Private life largely unrecorded. Dedicated Zapatista, using his life to change the imbalances he saw all around him. Activist lifetime of totally immersing himself in indigene aims as a full-blooded member of that minority in order to fully understand and feel the need for profound change in Mexican society. Jose de San Martin (1778-1850) - South American revolutionary. Outer: Fifth and youngest son of a provincial Spanish governor, and unsuccessful soldier. Lived a privileged life, although his dark complexion gave rise to rumors about an indigene mother. When he was 7, his father was recalled to Spain, where he was given a good education, showing himself to be skilled in math. Joined the army at a cadet at 11, and by 17, he was an officer, having seen action in North Africa and France. Fought the British as a member of the Spanish navy, and was captured, although released in a prisoner exchange. Continued to engage in battle as a skilled soldier, rising to the rank of Adjutant-General. Commanded a skilled light cavalry unit, and seemed destined for a long career serving the Spanish crown. In 1811, however, he returned to Argentina, which he had not seen since age 11, and joined the independence movement there, as a member of the Freemasons. Became the highest-ranking Spanish officer to defect to the patriot side in all of Latin America. His move was initially met with suspicion, but he soon proved himself, drilling his first recruits into an effective fighting force. In 1812, he wed Maria de los Remedios de Escalada, a daughter of the local Argentinian aristocracy, in what was probably an arranged marriage. One daughter from the union, which ended with his wife’s death in 1823, at the age of 25. Proved victorious in his first engagement in 1813, cementing his position, and within short order was head of all the armed forces in Buenos Aires. Belonged to the Lautero Lodge, a secretive group dedicated to freeing all of Latin American from Spanish colonial control. Continued to forge efficient fighting forces under him, while accepting the governorship of the Province of Cuyo in Chile. In 1816, he finally won approval to cross into Chile and attack Peru from the south via his Army of the Andes, which numbered some 5000 by year’s end. Appointed Bernardo O’Higgins (Humberto Ortega) as his second in command, and saw to it that everything met his fighting specifications. Crossed the Andes in 1817, and his meticulous planning helped him lose a minimum of men and animals, allowing him to enter Chile unopposed. Scored an impressive victory over the Spanish and rode into Santiago in triumph. Returned to Buenos Aires to collect funds and reinforcements in his desire to next liberate Peru. Had to return to southern Chile to suppress one more attempt to keep it under their colonial wing, and his victory there insured the Royalists would never be a power in the country again. In 1820, he marched on Peru, bringing a printing press with him to bombard its citizens with pro-liberation propaganda, and by the summer of 1821, he had proved victorious. Peru declared independence shortly after and he was named its protector with the responsibility of setting up a new government. Proved an enlightened ruler, stabilizing the economy, freeing slaves and giving freedom to the country’s indigenous population. Met Simon Bolivar (Fidel Castro) in 1822, although the two did not get along. Decided to step down, anyway and give Bolivar the glory of crushing the final Spanish retaliation, since he knew the latter would never do the same for him. Returned to Peru, where he had a mixed reputation, and abruptly retired rather than court further controversy. Hastened to Argentina where his wife was dying, although didn’t arrive in time, and decided to take his young daughter to France and resettle there. In 1829, he was called back to Argentina to settle a dispute, but quickly found he was not welcome in the volatile atmosphere there. Finally returned once again to France and spent a quiet rest of his life in retirement. Buried in Buenos Aires in a stately tomb. Inner: Extremely spartan, a soldier through and through, with his singular pleasures cigars and an occasional glass of wine. Had little interest in frivolities, or anything that detracted him from his highly focused goals. Very detailed oriented, trying to leave nothing to chance. Declined all honors offered him, including land and money. Sword-in-hand lifetime of extraordinary martial accomplishment, coupled with a modesty of character that made him truly unique in the volatile liberation annals of South America. Manco Capac (c12th century) - Founder of the Inca dynasty of Peru. Outer: Believed to be the son of the sun god, Inti, and Mama Quillia, goddess of the Moon in Incan legends. Although he was considered to be a fire and son god like his sire, and the first Sapa Inca, or sole ruler of the Inca people, there is no concrete evidence that he actually existed, and instead he is the product of numerous myths. One has him a stranger to the Cuzco Valley, who gathered the various tribes together on the borders of Lake Titicaca and persuaded them that he was the son of the sun and moon. Taught the tribes agriculture and how to dress against the weather, while his sister-wife, Oclia Huasco showed the women how to weave and obey their husbands, as lords of their households. Abolished human sacrifice, while initiating the dual concepts of an invisible supreme but unknown God and a visible one, the sun, the source of light and fertility. Laid the foundations for the Inca capital city of Cuzco or navel and center of the Earth, high up in the Andes. Divided his peoples into several tribes, with lesser chiefs over them, as lieutenants of the Sapa Inca. Raised temples to worship the heavens, which were adorned with gold and silver, so that the empire he created was both deeply spiritual and reflectively material from the glittering wealth of the earth. When he felt his essence was diminishing, he passed his scepter down to his eldest son, and died peacefully after a reign of thirty or forty years, with his body embalmed and subsequently worshiped. Inner: Benevolent, kindly and visionary albeit quite forceful and convincing, with a desire to civilize an extended area and give it the imprimatur of both spiritual grace and material well-being. Legendary lifetime of founding an empire that would thrive for generations, before the depredations of the Old World brought it to a violent halt.

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PATHWAY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AS IMPECCABLE INDIGENE WARRIOR:
Storyline: The messianic mutineer tries to act with honor and integrity with the blood oaths he takes in his desire for a far more equitable world for his peoples.

Evo Morales (Juan Evo Morales Ayma) (1959) - Bolivian revolutionary and president. Outer: Of both European and Aymara descent as a mestizo. From an indigenous family of subsistence farmers. One of seven children, with only three surviving past childhood. Organized a community soccer team at 13, with himself as captain, and was made training coach for the whole region within two years. Nearly 6’ tall. Attended a Tech institute and finished his education in Oruro, showing little real interest in academics, as he worked in a variety of jobs, while also playing trumpet for the Royal Imperial Band, which allowed him to criss-cross Bolivia. Had an interest in journalism, but not the patience to get a degree in it. Served his mandatory military service in 1977 and 1978, then rejoined his family, who had moved to Cochabamba, to become a farmer. Learned Quechua, and became a cocoa grower, the basic ingredient in cocaine. Founded his own soccer team and became a cocoa grower trade unionist, rising to a leadership position, with his anti-U.S. imperialist stance, as well as anti-government rhetoric against their attempts to destroy the country’s cocoa crop, which he saw as symbol of Andean culture. Arrested numerous times, he entered electoral politics in 1995, focusing on land reform and the redistribution of gas wealth in order to elevate the level of existence of the country’s indigenous population. His activism saw him expelled from Congress in 2002, although three years later he was elected president, aligning himself with left-wing dictatorship in Cuba and Venezuela, much to the U.S.’s displeasure. Pushed for agrarian reform and literacy, while scaling back the U.S. economic presence in the country. Following a failed attempt at recalling him in 2008, he instituted a new constitution, and won re-election in a landslide the following year, declaring he wished to decolonize the country while declaring himself a communitarian socialist. Nationalized the gas and oil industry, and granted the right to indigenous societies to create their own legal systems. Helped oversee Bolivia’s view of Mother Earth as a living entity, and gave nature its own rights, while demanding in late 2009 at a climate-change conference in Copenhagen that the industrialized nations pay billions for raping the planet. Curiously, tried to build a freeway through a national park, which caused much marching and protesting against him, the first dent in his overwhelming popularity. Despite all, he easily won an unprecedented third term in 2014 with 60% of the vote on the strength of the stability he has brought to the country. Unmarried, although he has a son and a daughter by two different mothers, and may have secretly married one of them, Maria Luisa Resendiz, a Mexican national, just prior to his re-election. His second term would see a potential compromise between economic growth and environmental concerns with concessions given transnational and foreign petroleum concerns over previous pristine land. Forced to deal with secret indictments by the US in a DEA sting called “Operation Naked King,” in an effort to undermine his leadership after he had earlier expelled the agency from his country in 2008. Inner: Charismatic, combative and highly competitive, despite a desire to make the country a large-scale cooperative. Unlike other leftist leaders, has not created a cult of personality around himself. Bases his decisions on intuition and remains a polarizing figure to the larger Bolivian electorate, still unused to the political expression of indigene will in their lives. Power to the people lifetime of bringing his charismatic character to bear on Bolivia in his ongoing desire to make the world a far better place for his low-born place in it. Emiliano Zapata (1879-1919) - Mexican revolutionary and peasant messiah. Outer: Of Mestizo descent. From a poor peon farming family, who, nevertheless, owned their own land. Father was a horse trainer and dealer, who sold animals and dealt in livestock breeding. The third of at least three brothers. Grew up in the southern state of Morelos, where workers were dependent on the plantations they worked for everything. Those who tried to run off were hunted down and killed. 5’9” or so and lean, with a thin, high voice. At 16, he serially lost both parents. A dashing youth, he earned a reputation as a skilled horseman and bullfighter at town fairs and rodeos, and worked as a horse trainer. in 1908, he hooked up with Ines Alfaro, the daughter of a livestock dealer, and had three children with her. The minor scandal caused him to be drafted into the army, before he bought his way out. Subsequently had dozens of lovers, in a free-wheeling love life, with at least five more illegitimate children. Elected mayor of his home town in 1909 and immediately began championing for the return of land stolen by the sugar plantations, during the long regime of Porfirio Diaz (Augusto Pinochet). Subsequently led a small revolt in 1910 against local haciendas, occupying and redistributing their land, then became an active supporter of Francisco Madero (Nicolás Maduro) in his attempt to overthrow the corrupt regime. A picturesque character by now, with his drooping mustache, intense large eyes, ammo belts and sombrero. After his initial success fighting federal forces in the southern states, Diaz fled the country, but he soon broke with Madero because of his lack of interest in land reform. Allowed women as combatants under him, with some even serving as officers. Hated Madero’s usurping successor, Victoriano Huerto, a violent alcoholic, even more, but he was soon deposed by the combined armies of Pancho Villa, Venustiano Carranza (Vicente Fox) and Alvaro Obregon (Humberto Ortega), as he renewed the revolution under the slogan of “Tierra y Libertad” - land and liberty. The four, however, were soon at one another. Redistributed land, burning haciendas, and executing those opposing his will. Occupied Mexico City with his peasant army, then began serious agrarian reform, establishing an agricultural credit bank, while remaining an enemy of the government. Eventually ambushed and assassinated, when he refused to listen to his cohorts, in what may have been an ultimate death wish on his part. Became an icon of liberation in the minds of his countrymen and women forever after. Inner: Idealistic, uncompromising and humble. Shy, reserved and completely uninterested in personal glory. Yet, continually projecting a sense of the melodramatic in all the unsmiling photographic images of him, indicating a hidden duality of character. Fair, cautious and resolute, much preferring the company of ordinary people to those in power. Martyred lifetime of serving the interests of indigenous Mexico as a champion of the common people and the country’s profound continual need for land reform. Vicente Guerrero Saldana (1782-1831) - Mexican revolutionary. Outer: Of African and indigenous descent. Father was an Afro-Mexican and mother was an Indio-Mexican. His sire was a muleteer, and he became one, too, allowing him to travel different parts of the country, where he became imbued with the idea of independence. Although his family supported Spanish rule, he chafed at their colonial status. Wed Maria de Guadalupe Hernandez, one daughter from the union. Worked as a gunsmith, and when the first phase of the Mexican Revolution broke out in 1810, he immediately joined it. Organized forces in southern Mexico and successfully led campaigns in the south, quickly rising in rank. Over the next eleven years, he proved fairly indomitable on the battlefield, and in 1819, when his sire asked him to surrender his sword, he responded, “I have always respected my father but my Motherland comes first.” The last part of that sentiment would become the motto for the southern state of Guerrero, which was named after him, following his premature death. Engaged in nearly 500 battles as a guerrilla, always crediting his soldiers with his victories. Wished Mexico to become a republic, and after its first two leaders wound up fleeing the country, he was elected its first presidente in 1829, despite losing the popular vote, because of demonstrations by the military. Became the first black and indigenous chief executive in the New World, in what would be a tragically short run of office. During his brief term, he abolished slavery his first year, while advocating social equality, as “Citizen Guerrero.” On his abolition of slavery, Texas, then a part of Mexican territory, threatened revolt via its white American slave-holders and he was forced to make it an exception to his declaration. His presidency was resented by the upper classes and other ambitious military leaders, who attacked his cabinet, forcing his minister of war to resign. A revolt in late 1830 removed him from office and he immediately tried to rise another rebellion in response. Captured aboard a vessel, he was brought to trial, where he was found guilty and executed by firing squad. He would subsequently be accorded hero status, with his aides continuing to fight for what he believed in. Inner: Humble, modest and dedicated to an egalitarian society, as he would be in all the subsequent lives in this series. Ultimately a victim of ongoing racial and class prejudices. Power to the people lifetime of embodying Mexico’s invisible majority, as the very first Afro-indigene to rise to the highest echelons of power, before being undone by the fear and hatred of others far less evolved than he. Tupac Amaru II (Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui) (1742-1781)— Incan revolutionary. Outer: Mother was Incan, father was Spanish. and their son Identified far more strongly with the former. Sent at 10 to study in the Jesuit College of San Francisco de Borja, which educated indigenous boys of noble birth. Good at languages, he went on to law school. In 1760, he married Michaela Bastides Puyuahua, an Afro-Peruvian, and together they had three sons. Given the title of Marquis of Oropesa, while inheriting the hereditary chieftainship of two areas of Peru. Owned a large cacao estate and gained considerable wealth from transporting merchandise and quicksilver, which enabled him to travel extensively around Peru, while using some of his capital to help those on society’s nether levels. Sensitive to the hard lives of the indigenes, who were forced to do slave labor for the Spanish, he staged a rebellion, using the nom de revolt of the last Incan emperor, Tupac Amaru (Lazaro Cardenas). Gathered sympathetic followers from America-born Spaniards or criollos and indigenes, forming an army, which kidnapped and executed the Spanish governor in 1780, while also inflicting heavy damage on royalist troops. The anger unleashed, however, could not be controlled, giving his followers considerable pause, and he was captured in 1781, after a betrayal by two of his officers. His wife and sons, who were also involved in the rebellion, along with other family members and some officers of his army were all subsequently sentenced to death. Forced to witness the execution of his wife, oldest son and an uncle, before he was drawn and quartered, over a period of six hours. His remains were then scattered, although the revolt continued, with the Spaniards killing the rest of his family, save for his youngest son, who served a life imprisonment in Spain. The revolt only managed to inspire some minor reforms, but, as the first of its kind, inspired others to take up arms against their colonial overlords, and ultimately overthrow them next century, before it came to full flower again. Inner: Claimed to be a direct descendant of his namesake. Extremely sensitive to injustice, particularly after his pleas for redress fell on deaf crown ears. Liberator lifetime of initiating himself as a heartfelt revolutionary intent on social justice, a role he would repeat over and over again, often with similar results.

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