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EUROROYALS - DESERT KINGS: MUSLIM & CHRISTIAN EMPERORS & GENERALS

PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST AS ETERNAL ZEALOT & MARTYR:
Storyline: The messianic crusader continually searches for his complex self in the theatrical tasks he sets up for himself, entwining a biblical sense of purpose with an eccentric need to be both worshipped and adored, no matter the master or belief system he serves.

Ayman al-Zawahiri (1951) - Egyptian doctor and terrorist idealogue. Outer: From one of Egypt’s most respected Sunni families of doctors and scholars. His grandfather was the grand imam of Al Azhar, one of the most important mosques in the Arab world. Graduated from an exclusive prepatory school, and became an accomplished surgeon in his mid-20s, as well as a learned scholar and poet, and fairly fluent in English. Became involved with the Muslim Brotherhood at an early age, whose original aim was to nonviolently create a single Islamic nation from the Arab states, which was banned in 1954, and its members imprisoned and tortured. In 1973, the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Jamaat al-Jihad, was founded, with the same aim under violent auspices. In 1979, he married Izzat Nuwair, 3 daughters and a son from the union. As a low-ranking member, he was imprisoned for 3 years for carrying an unlicensed pistol after the assassination of Anwar Sadat in 1981. During this time, his resolve hardened, and he came to see that only violence could truly change his/story. Released in 1984, he opened a clinic in a Cairo suburb, treating some of the wealthiest family in the area. Left the clinic the following year to join the Red Crescent to battle the Soviets in Afghanistan, returning home only once, before devoting himself completely to the movement. Worked in both Afghanistan and Pakistan as a doctor, where he met Osama Bin Laden, and together the duo fomented plans to export and expand terrorism. Became Bin Laden’s top aide and ideologue, convincing him of the need for armed action, while uniting his group with Al Qaeda. Traveled throughout Europe in the early 1990s, using false papers, and made at least one, and possibly more, fund-raising trips to California in 1991. Kicked out of Pakistan in 1993, he fled to the Sudan, all the while taking charge of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, which stepped up its campaign against the Egyptian government. Received a death sentence in absentia in an Egyptian court late in the decade. Joined Al Qaeda and became the brains and organization behind the terrorist network, and was probably responsible for the planning of several of its more spectacular acts, including the embassy bombings in Africa in 1998. Split with Bin Laden, taking only a few followers with him, and then rejoined him, although the Egyptian Islamic Jihad felt his association denigrated their own group, bringing it far too much international attention. Convinced Bin Laden to go after the far enemy, the U.S., rather than corrupt Middle Eastern regimes. Remained in Afghanistan following the WTC bombing in September of 2001, in which he may or may not have been involved. His family was killed three months later in the Tora Bora region, where he was also wounded, before disappearing, to reappear periodically via ideological tapes, while rumors continually abounded to his whereabouts. Remains more active than Bin Laden, touring border areas and making fund raising appeals, while periodically issuing tapes calling for ongoing violent Islamic revolution. Able to establish a command-and-control base in the wild Waziristan region of northern Pakistan, where he remains a major player in worldwide terror. Obsessed with taking down Pakistani president Pervez Musharaff, to the point of splitting Al Qaeda into Egyptian and Libyan factions, with the latter viewing him as far too extremist and self-righteous for the group’s own good, which may ultimately prove his undoing. Also forced to counter charges from within against Al Qaeda’s indiscriminate slaughter of civilians and Muslims alike. Took over the leadership of the group on the death of Osama bin Laden in 2011, and announced that their target would be the near enemy of the apostate regimes of the Middle East, rather than the far enemy of the West, in response to the secular uprisings of the Arab Spring. Inner: Brilliant and forceful intellect. Polite and sensitive, albeit driven by an intractable ideology. Ardent supporter of the education of women and their participation in military activities. Wounded and wounding healer lifetime of operating out of the same guerrilla mode he had earlier employed, while in the service, once again, of his martial brilliance and ongoing desire to remake the world according to his own disruptive ideologies. T. E. Lawrence (Thomas Edward Lawrence) (1888-1935) - British soldier, author and archaeologist. Known as “Lawrence of Arabia.” Outer: Son of an Irish lord and the governess of one of his daughters, who ran away together to London. One of 5 brothers. His parents never married, which his son later discovered, much to his lasting consternation. Fascinated by knights, chivalry and medievalia as a child, along with a lifelong passion for his/story. 5’5”, slim, continually testing his physical capacity for endurance. Slept little and ate little, often existing on bread and water. Matriculated as a scholarship student at Jesus College, Oxford, showing a particular interest in military architecture. Spent 1909 visiting 36 crusader castles, where he was beaten, robbed and left for dead. Did further study in the Middle East studying language and customs and mapping the area while on archaeological digs, which he later viewed as the happiest time of his life. At the outset of WW I, he joined the Map Dept. of the War Office as a civilian, and served in intelligence in the Middle East in that capacity. 2 of his 4 brothers were killed in WW I. As an adviser, he joined the army of an Arabian emir, Faisal, fighting the Turks, and became deeply involved in the uprising, providing eccentric self-flagellating leadership and guerrilla expertise towards his dream of a united Arabian nation. Captured, beaten and raped, which scarred him deeply, giving him a sense of his own frailty and ordinariness. Abhorred sexuality after that, although probably was a homophile at heart. Returned to England just before Armistice and refused honors for his considerable accomplishments, working on his memoirs instead, although he cultivated friendships with the famous, and made himself easily accessible to the media. Became a propagandist for the Arab cause, before enlisting in the RAF under the name of Ross. Flushed out and forced to retire due to his growing fame, he enlisted in Royal Tank Force under the name of T.E. Shaw, where he worked on designing high speed sea-planes. Retired, and his singular pleasure was speeding on his motorcycle, occasionally over 100 mph. Killed shortly afterwards from a skull fracture in a motorbike accident, when he swerved to avoid hitting 2 young bicyclists, but hit one anyway. Never regained consciousness and died soon after. Penned a well-read autobiography, “Seven Pillars of Wisdom,” which he rewrote three times. Inner: Ascetic religiosity bordering on the masochistic. Loathed physical contact, even shaking hands, preferred clasping his hands behind his back and bowing on meeting someone. Prodigious writer and data-master, as well as martial adept. Man-on-a-mission lifetime of pursuing his own garbled sense of identity through an alien culture, while searching for an equally alienated sense of God within, through the hubris of outer heroics and the humility of mock-anonymity. Charles Napier (1782-1853) - English general. Outer: Outer: From a handsome, aristocratic family. Father of the same name was an officer, whose first wife had died, after which he married the divorced and scandalous Sarah Lennox Bunbury (Gwyneth Paltrow), who, in turn, was the daughter of a duke, and of royal descent, but whose own daughter was illegitimate. Oldest of three brothers who all became generals, with the third also becoming a military his/storian. One sister was adopted by an aunt, while the other two sisters were raised at home. Short-sighted and sickly as a child. Ultimately resembled a short, thin biblical patriarch. Near-sighted and extremely unprepossessing physically. Relative of Charles James Fox (David Lloyd George). Pursued a military career, beginning at 17, and was active in the Napoleonic wars and the War of 1812. Commanded Northern England during a Chartist uprising, and maintained an uneasy peace there. Held military offices in Greece, beginning in 1822, where he was a firm, but just governor, and was able to institute many reforms. Also fathered 2 daughters in Greece. Unable to enter the fight for Greek independence without resigning his commission, he returned to England. Married Elizabeth Oakeley, a sickly widow in his early 40s, and after she died 6 years later, he moved to France. Married another sickly widow, Frances Philips, in his mid-50s, who outlived him, and was promoted to major general 2 years later. Sent to India in his late 50s, he provoked a war in the Sind, and was knighted and became the Sind’s first British military governor in 1843. An apocryphal, albeit highly ironic, message was attributed to him, “Peccavi,” Latin for “I have sinned.” A firm believer in western-style rule, he established a model police force and promoted trade, while exhibiting a messianic and highly combative character. Left India because of his wife’s ill health and came back to England, but was named Commander-in-Chief for India in 1849, and returned to participate in the Sikh war, then quarreled with the British governor, James Dalhousie (Rupert Murdoch). Resigned in frustration and returned home to England. In retirement, he wrote on military affairs, and continued to hold onto his many grudges, quarrelling voluminously, until he fell ill and died of a liver disease. Inner: Sadistic and mystic, believed himself to be divinity incarnate. Outstanding soldier and conscientious commander, paying careful attention to the needs of his soldiers. Gifted administrator, generous, autocratic, enthusiastic, hot-tempered, both loved and hated, without the ability to let go of his anger, which ultimately ate him alive. Biblical patriarch lifetime of desiring to both rule and be worshipped, only to be brought back down to Earth by competing modern world egos. Robert Clive, Baron Clive of Passy (1725-1774) - British soldier and administrator. Outer: Eldest son of an impoverished family of squires. Led a wild youth, showing a turbulent temperament at various schools and, at 18, was sent to India as a writer in the service of the British East India Company as a means of controlling him. Reached Madras penniless and in debt because of the protracted voyage. Educated himself in the governor’s library, but became so bored, he tried to blow his brains out with a pistol that misfired. Entered military service against French interests in India in 1746 and proved himself a brilliant guerrilla warrior, ending the French imperial stronghold on the subcontinent. Returned to England in 1753, where he married Margaret Maskelyne. A son from the union eventually became governor of Madras. Lost a bid for Parliament and came back to India in 1755 as a lieutenant colonel. Became involved in Bengal’s affairs, proving himself adept at both military affairs and governance. Made a considerable fortune in Bengal and returned to England in 1760, where he was given an Irish peerage and lived in high style as one of the country’s wealthiest men. Finally gained a seat in Parliament, but his political career was thwarted by the jealousy of others. Returned a third time to India in 1765 as governor and commander-in-chief of Bengal, where he made the British East India Company virtual ruler of India’s 2 richest provinces, but his attempts to restructure the company were less successful. A pivotal figure in the establishment of the British Empire in India, he reached the pinnacle of his career with his 2nd government. Also became addicted to opium. Made many enemies, and on his return to England in 1767, he was forced to defend himself before Parliament, but was exonerated of charges of corruption. Became deeply depressed as his health weakened. His end remains clouded but he probably committed suicide with an overdose of opium. His reputation was finally rehabilitated in the 1930s, with a best-selling biography on him. Inner: Moody, melancholic, haughty and proud. A resourceful and courageous commander, with a boundless sense of self-confidence in his military abilities. Secular lifetime of returning as an alien to a land of earlier conquests, and actualizing his military and leadership gifts, but without the profound sense of spirit behind them, leaving him prey to the vagaries of the material world without the will to continue. Aurangzeb (Muhi-ud-din Muhammad) (1618-1707) - Indian Mughal emperor. Outer: Grandson of Mughal emperor Akbar (Arundhati Roy). 3rd son of emperor Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal, for whom her husband built the Taj Mahal. A devout orthodox Sunni Muslim, he identified with his faith far more than the traditions of his royal lineage. From the age of 18, he held a number of appointments, showing his martial prowess in several campaigns, while nearly subjugating the 2 Deccan provinces of which he was made viceroy. Did battle with his oldest brother for his father’s throne, defeating him decisively and then confining his ailing father in his castle, while executing several potential rival relatives. Married four times, and had at least 10 offspring. Began his reign in 1658, and established himself as a feared and roundly disliked ruler for his ruthless aggressiveness and martial skills. Fought against Hindu Indian king Sivaji (Shah Massoud), eventually defeating him, and using his grandfather’s tactics, reconciled with him and gave him imperial rank, which is how he dealt with all his enemies. Sivaji, however, ultimately fled his embrace, and died a free ruler. Expanded his empire to such extent, it could no longer be ruled effectively. Made his government so top-heavy with its ruling elite, that he destroyed its financial base. After 1680, he allowed his Muslim beliefs precedence over his administrative instincts and made all non-Muslims subordinates in his governments, which occasioned a revolt supported by his 3rd son, which he put down. Forced to do battle against Hindu guerrillas for the rest of his reign because of his religious intransigence. Also dealt with agrarian revolts which were more secular in nature, while the Muslim-Sikh split that still festers centuries later also began during his reign. Decreed increasingly puritanical ordinances that were enforced by moral censors, and put tremendous strain on his financial networks through his highly unpopular methods, including a much-hated poll tax on Hindus. Despite a reign of nearly half a century, he left an empire that could not hold together, and within another 50 years of his death, it totally fell apart, when he returned in alien form to exploit its splintered weaknesses. Had a simple funeral, and was buried beside one of his teachers. Succeeded by his eldest son, Muazzam. Many of his policies were discontinued after his death, although the damage and problems they caused would remain and be legion. Inner: Excellent military strategist and tactician, but far less talented as an administrator. Ruthless and austere, shunned all pomp and splendor, thinking music and display were sinful. Puritanical, fanatical, pragmatic and singularly dedicated to conquest and control at whatever the cost. Self-acclaimed ‘Ornament of the World.’ Centerstage lifetime of exhibiting his usual overboard religious proclivities, while ruling through fear, vigor and oppression, exhibiting not an ounce of love, save for Allah, which showed him he would have to return to the west in more restricted manner. Selim I (1470-1520) - Ottoman emperor. Known as “the Grim.” Outer: One of 3 sons of Ottoman emperor Bayezid II, and the most warlike. Large, fierce, with fiery eyes and a choleric complexion. Appointed a provincial governor, he often executed anyone who disagreed with him on the spot. Married Aishe Hafsa Sultan, by whom he had his successor, Suleyman I (Mark Zuckerberg). Forced to manipulate his way into the succession, he fled to the Crimea where his son was governor. Raised an army, and seized Adrianople, before winning the support of the Jannissaries, the elite military corps, and marching with a force of them to Istanbul, where he forced his father to abdicate. Probably had him poisoned en route to his birthplace. Ascended the throne in 1512, and promptly had his brothers strangled, and then listened from the next room as his nephew suffered the same fate. Eliminated all claimants to the throne, paving the way for his son Suleyman. Fanatic and religious to the extreme, he wished to purge the empire of all Shi’ia heretics, to make it pure Sunni. Did battle with the Shi’ite shah Ismail I in Iran, defeating him, and then turned towards the east and the provinces of Anatolia, incorporating them into his growing empire. Proved triumphant against the Mameluke rulers of Syria and Egypt, bringing them, as well as Palestine, under Ottoman rule. Wound up executing 7 of his grand viziers. Received the symbolic keys to Mecca by its sharif, acknowledging him as leader of the Islamic Sunni world. Succeeded by Suleyman I. Despite his cruelty, he also supported men of culture, taking his/storians on his campaigns, and wrote a book of Persian odes. Died painfully of cancer, remarking he had no journey left to make, save to the hereafter. Inner: Fanatically religious, extremely intolerant, with no regard for human life. Great warrior, who also harbored an aesthetic sensibility beneath his hard edge. Skilled goldsmith, with a devotion to literature and poetry. Blazing scimitar lifetime of giving full expression to his religiosity, and warrior and poetic sensibilities, while finding the combination of Islam and conquest much to his martial and devout liking. Simon IV de Montfort (1165?-1218) - French crusader. Outer: Of the French nobility, father was a baron, mother was the sister of the English Earl of Leicester. Little known of his early life, until he succeeded his sire in 1181. In 1190, he married Alix de Montmorency, a French noblewoman, 2 daughters and 3 sons from union, including Simon de Montfort (Robert F. Kennedy). Joined the 4th Crusade in his late 20s, which came under Venetian control and was diverted to the Adriatic Sea area. Fought there, but left the crusade in 1202, after the city of Zara was sacked, contrary to the pope’s orders not to attack Christian citizens. Returned home, and through his mother, inherited the earldom of Leicester. Remained on his estates, before being called to participate in the Albigensian Crusades in 1209, an internal French conflict between the north and south of France geared towards rooting out the heretical gnostic Christian sect of the Cathars. Ruthless in his obliteration of them as a champion of orthodoxy, he massacred whole towns, and piled up bodies by the score. After the heated 4th Lateran Council in 1215, he was made governor of the conquered territories, and continued in his role as a fanatic crusader within his own lands, relentlessly rooting out infidel Christians. Gave himself a series of titles for his efforts, but his own peoples rose up against him and he eventually died in the 9 month seige of Toulouse, which was defended by Raymond VI (David Grossman). Had his head smashed in with a stone, afterwards, by the women of Toulouse. Following his death, his territories were ceded to the crown by his eldest son, who also abandoned his crusade. Inner: Fiery and fanatically religious, with a tunnel vision sense of Christian orthodoxy. Deeply committed to the Dominican order. Cross-eyed lifetime of rabidly and cruelly chasing after ungodly enemies, and finding himself completely consumed by the task, with a symbolic cerebral reminder at the very end of how little real heart he manifested. Baldwin I (c1061-1118) - French king of Jerusalem. Outer: 3rd son of the Count of Boulogne, and younger brother of Godefroi (Orde Wingate), whom he idolized, almost to excess. Modeled himself on his older sibling, studying everything he did. Somewhat of a scholar, but he saw himself as a sinner in comparison with his handsome brother, projecting a perfection on him to which he could never measure up. Extremely tall, bearded and pallid. Intended for the Church, he became a prebendary, but suddenly decided to don crusader mail, and married a high-born Englishwoman. Along with his wife, he accompanied his 2 brothers on the First Crusade in 1096. The 3rd brother, Eustace, played only a minor role and returned home to manage his vast estates, while the other 2 remained. Saw the Crusades as an opportunity to acquire great estates and wealth, since he was a junior member of a princely family. His first wife died during his initial foray into Asia Minor, which cost him her considerable wealth, and he became hyper-acquisitive afterwards. Marched against the Seljuk Turks, took Tarsus without a fight and then usurped the principality of Edessa, by conspiring against its aged prince and having him killed, in 1098. Strengthened his political position by marrying the daughter of an Armenian noble, and found himself wealthy beyond his wildest imaginings, while giving his fellow crusaders their eastern bulwark for the next half century. When his brother died in 1100, he was elected to the kingship of Jerusalem, despite never having been there. Briefly grieved his beloved sibling’s death, then rejoiced in his good fortune. Led a successful campaign in the south, showing off his martial skill, and was crowned king of Jerusalem later that year. Well-loved by his subjects, for his genuine delight in rule, his sense of order and his love of the dramatic. Consolidated his position, then began seizing coastal cities over the next decade, capturing all but 2. Forced his wife to enter a convent in 1113 and married the countess dowager of Sicily. Died without an heir and was succeeded by a cousin, whom he had named as count of Edessa. Inner: Grave and somber, looked more like a bishop than a warrior. Ruthless, lusty, pragmatic, but also with a genuine warmth and tenderness. Had an exquisite manner and a kingly presence, towering over everyone else. Enjoyed finery and never appeared in public without a mantle hanging from his shoulders. Loved work, despised idleness and was interested in every aspect of his kingdom. Courageous soldier, simple manner. Christian knight lifetime of actualizing his regal ambitions from a material, rather than a spiritual viewpoint, giving balance to his otherwise over-the-edge religiosity with a glimpse of the humanity hidden beneath it. Otto III (980-1002) - Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Son of HRE Otto II (Orde Wingate), mother was a pious Byzantine princess. Had three sisters. Elected German king at the age of 3, he was crowned shortly after his father’s death. Kidnapped by a rival duke, but was released, while his regency was held by his mother until her death in 991, and then grandmother, Adelheid (Margaret Sanger), who were both extremely competent. Well educated by Gerbert (Alastair Reynolds), the most learned man of the age, who taught him Greek, Latin and German. Later invested him as pope as Sylvester II. Thanks to his familial predecessors, he was recognized as heir to the throne without serious opposition. Marched on Rome, and installed his cousin in the pope’s chair, as Gregory V, who, in turn, crowned him HRE at the age of 16. A handsome figure, with a deep sense of tradition and his/story, as well as an innate feel for the power of propaganda. After leaving, he returned to make Rome the center of his empire, with himself as the leader of global Christianity, while immodestly adopting the title, “emperor of the world.” Despite his focus on the Italian past, he was usually ill in Italy. Readopted ancient Roman ways as well as Byzantine splendor, and worked the rest of his brief life to actualize his sense of Christian mission. Made a pilgrimage to the tomb of a mystical archbishop in Prague, then returned to Italy to lay seige to a town that had rebelled against him, although later pardoned its inhabitants, in a display of Christian charity, which angered the Romans, who wanted the town destroyed. Eventually besieged in his palace by the Roman populace. Placated them and retreated to a monastery to do penance. Unable to regain control of Rome, he died while awaiting reinforcements. Succeeded by his uncle, Heinrich II (Sampat Pal Devi). Probably passed on from malaria, and his body was taken back to Germany by his soldiers to be buried there. Inner: Deep sense of himself as a Christ figure, doing holy martial work on Earth. Wished to glory both ancient Rome and himself in a Christian state with himself as godfigure. Idealized Charlemagne, and after opening his tomb, wore a ring he had until his death. Often frequented monasteries, caves and sanctuaries. His official robe was a cosmic world mantle. Self-worship lifetime of playing with the fantasies of divinity, only to be brought down-to-earth by his own vulnerable mortality. Flavius Julius Constans (c323-350) - Roman Emperor. Outer: 3rd and youngest son of Constantine I (Arundhati Roy) by his 2nd wife, Fausta (Indira Gandhi). Raised as a Christian and proclaimed Caesar on Dec. 25th at 13. Engaged to the daughter of the praetorian prefect, but the match never came about because of political reasons, and he showed little interest in women afterwards, as an active homophile. After his father’s death in 337, there was a purging of the lesser figures in their extended family over the next several months, by order of his brother Constantius. By the fall of that year, he became joint Augustus with his brothers Constansius II (Orde Wingate) and Constantine II (Sampat Pal Devi) with Italy, Illyricum and Africa as his sphere under the supervision of his eldest surviving sibling, Constantine II. Became the sole brother to be baptised, and proved himself to be a fanatic upholder of the orthodox faith. Killed Constantine II when his troops invaded Italy in 340, and took over the whole of the West. Visited Britain in 342, the last reigning emperor to do so. A strong supporter of Catholic orthodoxy, he lavished favor on the clergy, and persecuted both pagans and Jews. Extorted as much money as he could from his subjects, and sold government posts to the highest bidder. When Magnentius (Kim Philby) was declared emperor in Gaul in 350, he fled to a town in the Pyrenees, where he was dragged from a temple, after seeking refuge there, and killed. he was eventually killed in a military uprising. Inner: Depraved, dissipated and avaricious, but with a strong sense of orthodox Christian religiosity. Unpopular with his own troops, as well as virtually everyone else. Foreshortened lifetime of giving vent to his martial spirituality while keeping his humanity well hidden, against the backdrop of a highly competitive family of military adepts, in his on-again off-again attempts at trying to integrate his messianic sense of self with his earthly gifts. Mattathias Hasmon (?-c165BZ) - Judean high priest and patriarch. Outer: From a priestly Judean family, who came to be known as the Maccabbees, from the Hebrew word for ‘hammer.’ Had 5 sons, Judas (Moshe Dayan), Eleazar (Alan Brooke) John (Harold Alexander), Jonathan (David Grossman) and and Simon (Edmund Allenby). A strict orthodox patriarch, with an uncompromising belief in the righteousness of his religion. Felt extremely constrained by the secularization of his domain and when the Syrian Seleucid king, in whose realm Judea sat, published a decree in 167BZ which abolished Mosaic law and downgraded the Temple of Jerusalem into an ecumenical place of worship, it divided the country into reformers and rigorous traditionalists, with his family firmly in the camp of the latter. After he murdered a Jewish reformer, he took to the mountains with his sons, and following his death, his 5 sons waged fierce guerrilla warfare and prevailed over a far superior fighting force. Inner: Fierce, fanatical and unyielding in his devotion to Judaic orthodoxy. Fierce-eyed lifetime of serving as patriarch for a band of military adepts, imbuing them with the same adamant sense of religiosity that has been his ongoing unbalanced signature, no matter the belief system at its core. Xerxes I (c519-465) - Persian emperor. Outer: Father was Persian emperor Darius I (Mark Zuckerberg), mother was the daughter of Cyrus II (Arundhati Roy). Born after his sire assumed the throne, and was designated heir apparent, even though he was not the oldest son. Served as a governor of Babylonia for a dozen years, and when his sire died in 486BZ, he assumed the throne. Married Amestris, daughter of a conspirator, with a foul reputation herself as a powermonger. Pacified Egypt, using extremely strongarm methods, then did the same to Babylonia, pillaging its temples and destroying the statue of its god, Marduk. A zealous Zoroastrian, he styled himself king of the Persians and the Medes, rather than united with the previous two kingdoms, as his father had been. Prepared for war with the Greeks, after being convinced he needed to avenge his father’s loss at Marathon in 490BZ. After a three year build-up, he led a massive invasion of Greece in 480, and when a storm destroyed the bridges at Hellespont, he had the seas whipped for their disobedience to his divine will. Although initially successful, he suffered defeat in a naval battle at Salamis, and was forced to retreat. Although the war would continue another 13 years, he showed little interest in it, and his failure marked the beginning of the decline of his house. Retreated into a massive building program, showing himself to be a more pretentious builder than his adept father in that realm, while heavily taxing the populace for his projects. Spent the last part of his life largely withdrawn into himself to lick the wounds of defeat, and wound up involved in harem intrigue, which led to the annihilation of his brother’s family, at the behest of his queen. Finally succumbed, after being physically attacked by members of his court, including his commander of the guard, who killed both him and his oldest son. Another son, Artaxerxes I (Shah Massoud) succeeded him. Inner: Nervous, fiery, then indolent, with an absolutist sense of divine right, and a strong identification, as always, with his religion. Some sources identify him with Ahasueras and his wife as Esther from the Biblical Book of Esther, although their personalities don’t fit the story. Wound-licking lifetime of failing to surpass his father as either builder or destroyer, and ultimately self-destructing around his inability to truly see himself and his adverse affect on other people. Romulus (c770-c716BZ) - Roman king. Outer: Mythic figure but with a basis in his/story. Legend had it that he and his twin Remus (Shah Massoud), were noble offspring who were flung in their cradle in to a river by the usurping king’s men, for fear they might one day challenge for the throne. Washed ashore, they were suckled by a she-wolf and raised by shepherds, until Remus was brought before the usurped king, who recognized him as his grandson. A successful rebellion followed, and having tasted power, the brothers set off to found a city of their own. The twins, however, quarreled over which of the Roman hills to build on, and like Cain, he slew his brother. Opened a temple within the walls of his city, and offered asylum to anyone who came to it, providing the mass of the burgeoning city’s Roman population. The overwhelming amount of males led to an infamous grab of Sabine women at a festival to be their wives. A war ensued, and he married a Sabine woman, to placate his angry neighbor, son and stepdaughter from union. Proved himself an able warrior, as Rome grew larger and more powerful underneath him, via the military and political institutions he oversaw. His accomplishments, however, only made him more and more arrogant and more and more roundly disliked. Disappeared one day in a storm, while performing a public religious sacrifice, after his audience had scattered. Is thought to have been murdered by the senators that had remained standing around him, who later divided his body and hid its parts under their cloaks, to get away with their regicide. Inner: Extremely religious, warrior through and through, but with little ability to brook opposition. Fratricidal lifetime of creating the basis for a martial empire, through the murderous exercise of sheer will, only to be consumed and made to disappear because of his stormy outsized sense of self.

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PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST AS ETERNAL ZEALOT & MARTYR:
Storyline: The messianic crusader continually searches for his complex self in the theatrical militaristic tasks he sets up for himself, while secretly competing with his crypto-twin-in-arms in their mutual love of display of outrageous eccentricities in the name of sacred purpose.

Ahmed Shah Massoud (1953-2001) - Afghani guerrilla fighter. Outer: Father was a police commander, who ultimately wound up in Kabul. Raised a Sunni, he was fluent in several languages, with a great love for both culture and sports, and a passion for chess. Initially an engineering student in Kabul, he became politically active with the Jamiat-e Islamic party, and was forced to flee to Pakistan in 1974 for his beliefs. Disclaimed Islamic extremism and terrorism, seeing them as excessively self-destructive pursuits. Returned and led a successful rebellion in Panjshir, but was betrayed by party leadership, and was forced once again to flee to Pakistan, as his party split in twain. Returned to battle the Russian invasion, and gained a nearly mythic reputation as “The Lion of Panjshir,” during his successful defense of the region against the Soviet invaders during the 1980s, defeating them 9 times in head-to-head battle, to become one of the greatest guerrilla leaders of the 20th century. Also had to do battle with numerous other rebel leaders, who were jealous of his reputation, and, in the process, he survived several assassination attempts. Received no aid from the Saudis, who mistakenly though he was a Shi’a, while covert funds from the CIA mistakenly went to a violently corrupt warlord, so that he was forced to operate on a fraction of what could have been available to him. In his mid-30s, he wed the daughter of a comrade, although he kept the marriage secret for security reasons, 6 children from the union. Claimed to be a reasonable Muslim, presenting himself to be for the education of women and employing them in the work force, although he insisted his wife wear a head-to-toe burqua. Able to unite the northern regions and create an administrative and legal system which was unique to Afghanistan. Subsequently became minister of defense in 1992 in the interim government, although the corruption and brutality of the period left the city in ruins, and he barely escaped with his life 4 years later, when the Taliban took control, after showing himself to be a moderate pro-democracy reformist. Unable at the time, to overcome ethnic factionalism, or to control his troops, who committed numerous atrocities, for which he would never be forgiven, as their titular head. Retreated, but maintained his command of the Northern Alliance against the Taliban, and continued to do brilliant battle against them. Always showed himself to be the most resourceful when he was closest to defeat. After fighting for his country for nearly a quarter of a century, he was assassinated by a pair of al-Qaeda-trained Algerians posing as Belgian journalists of Moroccan descent, who shot him through a television camera, just 2 days before the successful attack on the World Trade Center in NYC, which might not have happened, had he been the one directly receiving American aid during the Russian invasion and occupation. Died in his Land Cruiser, while being rushed to a helicopter to take him to a hospital. His death had been ordered by Osama bin Laden, and the very last thing that he did was laugh at a question that the faux journalists asked, “What will you do with Osama if you get him?” Inner: Charismatic, politically moderate, and able to work martial wonders with limited means. Noted for his cocked beret and fierce fighting abilities. Also treated prisoners benevolently. Held a mischievous sense of his own mysteriousness. Martyred lifetime of doing battle against an old brother and antagonist, only to be eliminated just before he could actualize his ambitions of defeating him. Orde Wingate (1903-1944) - British general. Outer: The Bible & sword were a family tradition. Father was a deeply religious colonel. Related to T.E. Lawrence on his mother’s side. Brought up on the Puritan doctrines of the Plymouth Brethren by two older parents, and was an outstanding rider and gifted linguist. 5’6”. Deeply introverted, he was an insatiable reader of his/story. Educated for the military at the Royal military Academy, where he underwent the ritual hazing of being hit with knotted towels while nakedly going through a line of his fellow cadets, by walking very slowly and staring into the eyes of his assailants, instead of running with his head down like everyone else, causing them, in turn, to back off. Commissioned a 2nd lieutenant in the artillery in 1923. Served in the Sudan for 5 years, before becoming an adviser to the Jewish Settlement Police in Palestine. Organized night guerrillas for Jewish settlers against Arab raiders, with a deep sense of his/story of the Holy Land. Married Lorna Moncrieff Patterson, an 18 year old, in his early 30s, one posthumous son. Became a passionate Zionist, and was relieved of duty and recalled to England in 1939. In 1940, he raised and led a guerrilla unit, the Gideon Force, that retook the Ethiopian capital from the Italians, although he was dismissed and demoted to major for his interference in local politics. Suffered severe depression, as well as malaria, and attempted suicide while in Egypt in 1941. Convalesced in England, before being called to Burma, where he brilliantly organized a “Chindit” force of guerrillas against the Japanese. The name derived from the griffinlike creatures who symbolized guardianship over the Burmese. Won numerous medals for bravery and was made a major general by age of 40. Despite his continued military successes, he was still subject to catatonic depressions. Died in a US AAF plane crash in India, after visiting one of his Chindit blocks behind enemy lines. Despite their good press, his operations cost much money and many lives and ultimately accomplished little. Inner: Articulate, well-read, eccentric, militarily quite creative. Natural loner, neurotic, scruffy, restless and intense. Often would receive visitors stark naked, as a way of proclaiming his fearsomeness. Dedicated, patriotic soldier with no respect for authority. Sensitive and callous, with a zealot’s sense of religiosity marked by suicidal overtones. Gifted guerrilla leader, often antagonizing his superiors with his lack of respect for staff officers. Alternate-cultures black belt lifetime of exploring the guerrilla underworld of the martial arts, while giving voice to his own ongoing subterranean personality. Charles Gordon (1833-1885) - English general. Known as “Chinese” Gordon. Outer: 4th son of a general in the artillery. Educated at Woolwich, and commissioned a 2nd lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. Distinguished himself in the Crimean War with his battlefield fearlessness. Later served for 2 years on the international commission surveying the Russo-Turkish frontier. Volunteered for British forces in China during the 2nd Opium War in 1859, and later became involved in the Taiping rebellion, leading the ‘Ever Victorious” peasant army, with only a cane, in suppression of that religious uprising. Returned to England a hero in his early 30s, and spent the next 5 years pursuing a mystical Christian path and helping the poor boys of Gravesend. Went into service of the khedive of Egypt as governor of Equatoria in the Sudan in 1873, and 4 years later, he became that area’s governor-general, vigorously suppressing the slave trade. Resigned for reasons of ill health, returned to England, and joined the staff of the Viceroy of India designate in 1880. Resigned and returned to China, persuading the Chinese government not to go to war with Russia. Spent a year in England, then commanded the engineer post on Mauritius for a year, before briefly reorganizing local forces in the Cape Colony in 1882. After coming back to England, he spent a year in Palestine studying the Bible. Asked by Leopold I of Belgium to govern the Congo, then was sent in 1884 to evacuate Egyptian troops from Khartoum, in the wake of an uprising of a religious figure called al-Mahdi (Osama Bin Laden), ‘the Awaited One.’ Killed unnecessarily during the seige of Khartoum on the steps of the Governor’s Palace, and was viewed as a great hero-martyr by the English, despite al-Mahdi’s strict instructions to spare him. The uprising of the Mahdi also died with him. Inner: Deeply and fanatically religious, with an eccentric sense of duty and martyrdom. Self-confident, gifted administrator, excellent tactical skills. Melodramatic lifetime of giving full play to his need to be hero-worshipped and martyred, as answer to his crypto-twin’s similar memorable proclivities. James Wolfe (1727-1759) - English general. Outer: From a family of professional soldiers. Elder of two sons of a lieutentant colonel, who became a general. Wished nothing else than to be a soldier, despite ill-health as a boy, and grew into a tall and slender redhead. Educated at Westerham and Greenwich, before being commissioned into his father’s old Marine regiment as a 2nd lieutenant. Transferred and fought in Flanders, then served in Scotland under the Duke of Cumberland, against the Jacobites and Bonnie Prince Charlie (Ethan Hawke) in 1746, but refused to shoot a wounded highlander, despite being ordered to by the Duke, which won him the plaudits of his peers. Returned to the Netherlands, where he was wounded, before winding up doing garrison service in southern Scotland from 1749 to 1757. Always aware of his physical limitations, he, nevertheless, pushed himself, never letting himself give in to his weaknesses. Breveted as a colonel, for his energy and dedication in an abortive expedition into France, then was given a brigade command under Jeffrey Amherst. On his return to England, he was made major general and given command of 9,000 troops for the seige of Quebec in 1759. His first assault was repelled at a heavy cost, so he came around to the north of the city, and scaled the cliffs to the Plains of Abraham with five battalions, before engaging in an epic battle, where both he and opposing general, Louis Montcalm (Edmund Allenby) died of their wounds. After being shot in the chest, he heard shouts confirming his victory and died as France lost its last stronghold in the New World. His demise would be immortalized by painter Benjamin West (Steven Soderbergh), in a dramatically rendered painting, “The Death of General Wolfe,” that would feed into his mythic memory. Inner: Continually won the respect of his superiors for his bravery. Both dashing and painstaking. Kindly and gentle, but a strict officer, and a soldier through and through. Live fast die young lifetime of doing both epic battle with his/story, as well as his own body in a memorable testament to his own superior martial artistry and his ongoing need to be martyred in battle. Sivaji (1630-1680) - Indian king. Outer: Of Hindu Maratha descent. From a noble and martial lineage, who served as mercenaries and revenue collectors for their Muslim rulers. Mother was of royal descent, who imbued him with the idea of independence from their overlords. Father was Shahaji Bhonsle (Sampat Pal DEvi), who had served many masters as a military officer, including the Mughal emperors. Less than five feet tall. Raised a Hindu, and felt he had been given a divine mission to free the stalwarts of his religion, a belief that sustained him throughout his life from his teens onward. Took a formal oath at 17 with his friends, as all slit ceremonially their thumbs in a vow to re-establish their people as the true inheritors of India. Became a master of guerrilla warfare, using light cavalry units, and was able to build fortified strongholds on mountain tables, allowing him to make forays and easily escape afterwards, while establishing his primacy as a warlord, who prized wile over sheer strength. Did much martial mischief, and in 1664, sacked Surat, the main port of the Mughal empire, which brought him to the attention of Aurangzeb (T.E. Lawrence), the Mughal emperor, who felt this and other acts were a direct affront to his power. Eventually subdued by the emperor’s elephantine army and was forced to pay respects at his court. Held under house arrest along with his son, while being given a low rank in the imperial hierarchy, while constantly under the threat of execution. In 1666, he feigned he was ill, and began to send out enormous baskets filled with sweets for the poor as a penance. Escaped with his son hidden in one of them, and the story inspired his followers, so that within 2 years, he had rebuilt his base, through a tough land revenue system, while expanding his domain. Built a strong naval force to aid both his defense and economy, and with resources, a reorganized army, and a reform-minded administration, he had himself crowned in an elaborate ceremony in 1674 as an independent king, ruling through a cabinet of 8 ministers. Although a tolerant ruler, with many Muslims in his service, he made his subsequent forays into battles of religion, Hindu vs. Muslim. Had several wives and 2 sons. His last years were lived in sorrow when his elder son defected to the Mughals, and had to be brought back with great difficulty. Worn down by internal strifes and discord among his ministers, as well as the constant pressure of guarding his kingdom, he died before he could fulfill his territorial ambitions. After his death he became a figure of near-divine status, particularly among Hindu fundamentalists. Inner: Clever strategist and tactician. Guerrilla adept, with a divine sense of Hindu mission, and high principles. Playing with the god-within lifetime of cleaving to extremely strong religious beliefs, and allowing them to be his guiding beacon in what he felt was a divinely led existence of supremacy and rule. Mehmed II (1432-1481) - Ottoman emperor. Known as “the Conqueror.” Outer: 3rd son of Murad II (Sampat Pal Devi), a relatively enlightened ruler. Mother was a slave girl, probably of Christian origin. Born during a plague that carried off two of his father’s brothers, and subsequently was not favored by his sire. Spent a lonely childhood, brought up largely by his nurse, near his father’s birthplace. When his two older brothers died in their teens, he was unexpectedly the heir to the throne. His sire was shocked at his lack of education, and although a difficult student at first, he quickly absorbed the Koran and the state of the state, although he developed an aloof disposition from which he would never descend. Sent by his sire at 12 to Edirne with his tutors, and the same year, his father abdicated and put him on throne. A series of crises ensued when the empire’s enemies took advantage of the child sultan, and his father returned from retirement to put down a crusader incursion. A Jannissary revolt ensued, and his father resumed the throne in putting it down, although he still considered himself sultan. Eventually the two came to better terms, and on his sire’s death in 1451, he severely punished the elite military Jannissaries, and began preparing himself for the capture of Constantinople, taking great care on all levels in his preparations, including neutralizing other potential foes with treaties. Forged his defenses, as well as the greatest guns ever seen, and in 1453 personally led the seige, and then, instead of sacking the city, turned its holy Christian shrine and supreme Byzantine architectural structure, the Hagia Sophia, into a mosque. Symbolically transformed the city through that act, which now came to be known by its popular name of Istanbul. Restocked the city with a mixture of Muslim, Christian and Jew, along with their spiritual leaders, to keep it an important commercial center, and created new institutions for his own peoples, so that the city was a major commercial player again, and within fifty years, it would be the largest urb in Europe. Saw himself as a great conqueror afterwards and the emperor of all Islam, in the old Roman tradition. Began trying to reconstitute the old Easter Roman Empire, while assuming the title of “Roman Caesar.” Spent the last quarter century of his life campaigning to actualize his dream, ultimately extending his empire into Anatolia and the Balkans, whose wide swath would serve as the Ottoman Empire for the next four centuries. In addition to conquest, he reorganized the government, codified the laws, expanded education and greatly amplified the culture of the empire, opening it up to the world, by inviting European artists in, and sponsoring translations of important western works. All the sciences flourished under him as well, so that the empire was a wellspring of activity, enjoying one of its golden ages. All came at a cost, however, and his high taxes made him less and less loved, to the point of mass discontent. Seized with violent colitis on his last campaign, which aggravated his arthritis and gout. In torturous pain, he was supposedly give an overdose of opium on his son’s orders, which blocked his intestines, and he died poisoned by his own system. Succeeded by his son, Bayezid II. Inner: Skilled general, excellent sense of order, but complete autocrat, punishing all who brooked his will severely. Aloof Re-integrator of the east and west, with a far more secular view of his empire than a rigid religious one. I’m-in-charge lifetime of bringing all his leadership skills to bear on the political, but not on the personal, forcing him eventually to abandon thrones and take on more ordinary incarnations, in order to purge himself of the poison of absolute power that he had long been quaffing. Godefroi de Bouillon (c1058-1100) - French crusader. Outer: 2nd son of a French count, mother was a duke’s daughter. Descendant of Charlemagne (Napoleon) on both sides of the family. Older brother of Baldwin I (T.E. Lawrence), who idolized him. His mother was extremely pious, instilling in all her sons a deep sense of their own Christianity, while his father was away for most of his childhood. Had enormous strength, and once wrestled a huge bear. At the side of William the Conqueror (Arundhati Roy) during the Norman Conquest of England. Fluent in both French and German, he trained in knight’s skills. His uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, named him his heir. Won back his duchy through his service to HRE Heinrich IV (William Paley), and was able to protect it from further incursions. Horrified at the sack of Rome in 1082, he fell into a fever and promised afterwards when he recovered that he would fight no more in the West, but rather use his martial skills for spilling non-Christian blood. Among the first to go on the First Crusade with his brothers, through a mixture of religious zeal and a sense of adventure. Headed an army of some 10,000 knights and over 70,000 foot soldiers when he reached Constantinople, gathering men as he marched to the east. After proving his martial prowess, he led his crusaders into Jerusalem, where they committed wholesale slaughter, spilling the blood of everyone they saw, including women and children. Offered the crown of Jerusalem, but refused to be called king on religious grounds, preferring the title of protector. Held that post for exactly a year. Laid the groundwork for later dynastic struggles with his own arbitrary sense of rule and inability to get along with cohorts. Succeeded by his brother Baldwin on his relatively early death, after which, his fame grew to legendary proportions. Inner: Tall and handsome, with far greater skills as a soldier than as an administrator. Pious, noble and extremely able, although imperious and with much blood on his hands for the wholesale slaughter of Saracens and Jews in his conquest of Jerusalem. Extremely religious and ascetic. Sometimes prayed so long before a meal that his entourage were forced to eat cold food. Chivalrous lifetime of acting out the archetype of the chivalrous Christian knight, and making up in legend for what he lacked in reality, before returning to complete his destiny as a benign heart-spirited ruler in the Holy Land. Otto II (955-983) - Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Son of HRE Otto I (Arundhati Roy), and his 2nd wife, Adelheid (Margaret Sanger), and product of a happy home. Crowned co-regent of Italy and Germany with his father at the age of 6, and was made co-regent emperor 6 years later. Received a good education, and was filled through it with the glories of Rome, feeling it was his destiny to finish the conquest of southern Italy which his father had begun, as a means of transposing the Roman Empire of old onto their current German kingdom. In 972, he married Theophanu, a learned and pious Byzantine princess, after his father’s successful negotiations with that empire, son Otto III (T.E. Lawrence) was his successor. Also had three daughters. Small, brave and impulsive, he was sometimes known as “the Red.” Succeeded as HRE on his father’s death the following year, and was accepted without opposition, although he had to put down several revolts early in his reign, nearly losing his life in one. Subsequently became estranged from his mother, when she tried to exercise power over him, causing her to leave the court. Continued his father’s policies, and by 980, he had secured his German domains. Set up a splendid court in Rome which was attended by western European royalty and gained recognition of his authority from all the Lombard principalities. Invaded southern Italy afterwards, but was decisively defeated there by an Arab force, and just managed to evade capture by a lucky chance. In 983, he crowned Otto III as king of Germany, and died in his palace in the presence of the pope, who gave him last sacraments, while he was trying to bring Venice under his imperial control. Reconciled with his mother beforehand, and made her regent. Despite disturbances in the hinterlands, he left his three year old son a relatively secure realm at his death. Inner: Strong sense of Christian duty, as well as a greater view of himself being a part of a much larger his/storical process. Empire-securing lifetime of giving further foundation to the political creation of his father, while passing on to his son a similar sense of dynastic stability, despite having been struck down by disease in his prime. Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius)(317-361) - Roman Emperor. Outer: 2nd son of Constantine I (Arundhati Roy) by his 2nd wife, Fausta (Indira Gandhi). Younger half-brother of Crispus (Guy Burgess), who was executed when he was 9. Highly regarded by his father, he was made a Caesar at 7 and given the east as his domain, and proved to be the most effective ruler of his surviving brothers. In 335, he married the daughter of an uncle. At his progenitor’s death in 337, he was given the rich Eastern part of the empire, and subsequently ordered the massacre of virtually the entire faction of his uncles and nephews. His younger brother, Constans (T.E. Lawrence) killed his older brother Constantine II Sampat Pal DEvi) in 340, then in turn was killed by a usurper a decade later, leaving him as sole emperor. Spent most of his time fighting to maintain his crown, against usurpers and Persians, with uneven success, proving more effective in civil wars that doing battle with foreign elements. A supporter of Arian Christianity, which he instituted as the state religion, and was heavily influenced by his court eunuchs. Wed the daughter of a half-uncle, and after her premature death, he married a second time in 353 to Eusebia, a Macedonian, although she, too, made him a widower in 360. After his first wife’s death, he married a second time in 353, although she, too, made him a widower in 360. Through his wife Eusebia’s influence, he made his cousin Julian (Whittaker Chambers), one of the far to survive his purge, Caesar in 355. The latter, however, elicited his jealousy because of his subsequent military successes, although named him his successor to avoid any crisis after his passing. Celebrated a Triumph in Rome, then spent the rest of his reign fighting on the Danube and in Mesopotamia. Gave the empire nearly a quarter century of stability. Married a third time to Faustina, towards the end of his life, and had a posthumous daughter from the union. Contracted a fever and died on the way to fight a rival Augustus for the throne, while nominating Julian on his deathbed, inadvertantly opening the way to a pagan revival. Inner: Competent general and sound administrator, and easily influenced by those around him, including wives, courtiers and eunuchs. Great self-control, as well as religiosity, but also highly suspicious, which rendered him both cruel and harsh. Inspired loyalty and brought dignity to his office, although he was a stern judge of those who opposed him, instituting numerous treason trials. Highly superstitious, with a mediocre intelligence, but a great sense of duty. Considered vain and stupid by his contemporary his/storians, whom he must have strongly alienated. Sword-in-hand lifetime of integrating his inner sense of religiosity with his outer sense of empire, in order to give his ruling house continued ballast. Artaxerses I (465-425BZ) - Persian emperor. Outer: Son of Persian emperor Xerxes I (Ayman al-Zawahiri). Surnamed the long-handed, since his right hand was longer than his left. In 465, his father and older brother were killed by the commander of the guard, who raised him to the throne. Several months later he killed the patricidal officer in hand-to-hand fighting. Enjoyed a forty year reign, the longest of his house, which was largely peaceful, although punctuated by insurrections, which he was able to put down. Had several sons by several concubines, which ultimately caused difficulty with the succession, but only one son, Xerxes II (Sampat Pal Devi), by his queen, Damaspia, whose origin is unknown. Signed a treaty with Athens in 448BZ, in which both sides agreed to stay out of their respective territories, and remained neutral in their Peloponnesian War with Sparta, for the length of his reign. A Zoroastrian like his father, he was far more tolerant of other beliefs. Died the same day as his queen, although his designated successor, Xerxes II, immediately wound up besieged by a half-brother and other conspirators, and had the dynasty’s shortest reign, 45 days, following his sire’s relatively untroubled four decades upon the throne. Inner: Gentle and noble spirit, extremely competent in all he did, with good diplomatic instincts. May have been Ahasueras, the king mentioned in the Biblical Book of Esther, while his wife may have been Esther, although some sources assign those identities to his father and mother, whose his/storical personalities don’t fit the two at all. Steady hand on the tiller lifetime of capably doing his duty, without imprinting a larger personality on his times, thanks to a modest character. Remus (c770-c753) - Alba Longan leader. Outer: Mother had been a Vestal Virgin, whose punishment for being pregnant was to have been burned alive. One of a set of twins with Romulus (Ayman al-Zawahiri). Along with his brother, he was flung into the Tiber by the king’s men, but they floated to shore in a cradle, suckled by a she-wolf, and then taken in by shepherds. Brought before the rightful king, whose throne had been usurped, he was recognized as his grandson, and initiated a rebellion to restore himself. The rebellion proved successful, and the brothers, tasting power in it, decided to hie off and found their own city. On coming to the seven hills of Rome, both bickered over which hill to begin building on, and he was killed by his brother when he defiantly leapt over one of his walls. Like all the early kings, his story is both myth and possibility. Inner: Sibling rivalry lifetime of falling victim, as always, to the superior skills of his longtime competitive compatriot.

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PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST AS OUT-OF-HIS DEPTH POLITICIAN:
Storyline: The able warrior is unable to transliterate his effectiveness on various battlefields in the far more subtle realm of politics, particularly where peace is a process, rather than the usual dominance/submission goal of the either/or realm of combat.

Ehud Barak (Ehud Borg) (1942) - Israeli general and politician. Outer: Born on a kibbutz near the Lebanon border, which his parents helped to found, after emigrating from Lithuania and Poland in the 1930s. Three younger brothers. An accomplished pianist, he also became fluent in Arabic, while acting as a cutup in high school, which bored him. Somewhat slow and not particularly physical, as well as solitary, giving little indication of his future career. Enlisted in the military at 17, and took on the name Barak, which means ‘lightning.’ Received a B.Sc. in physics and math from Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, then completed his education at Stanford Univ., where he studied systems analysis. Squat and apple-cheeked, with a supposed 180 IQ. In 1969, he married Nava Cohen, whom he met while she worked for the IDF Intelligence Corps, 3 daughters from the union. His lock-picking skills earned him admission to an elite army unit, and he went on to become Israel’s most decorated soldier in a 35 year military career which culminated in his becoming chief of staff. Engaged in hand-to-hand combat, as well as once dressing in drag to mount a raid on a PLO safe house in Beirut. Led the raid on the Palestinian group which killed Israeli athletes during the 1972 Olympics in Munich. Throughout his career, he showed himself to be extremely independent, occasionally turning off his radio when behind enemy lines so as to not to have any of his missions pre-empted or aborted. Retired from the military in 1995, then used his martial reputation to become leader of the Labor Party’s successor, One Israel, although was far less effective as a politician than as a soldier. Employed American political and media advisers to run an American-style campaign to defeat Benjamin Netanyahu for prime minister of Israel, drumming the single word, ‘Stuck,’ into the Israeli electorate in 1999, and won a landslide victory. Became stuck himself over his inability to resolve the Palestinian question, despite staking his office on it, and was soundly defeated by Ariel Sharon in 2001. Retired afterwards to private life to lick his wounds, and work as an advisor to the U.S. based Electronic Data System. Divorced in 2003, when his wife gave him the choice, politics or me, and he chose the former. Two years later, he became a partner in an investment company, then established Ehud Barak Ltd., which made him an Israeli millionaire. After failing to regain leadership of the Labor Party in 2005, he remained a party member. Enjoyed a political resurrection in 2007, when he achieved his goal in a run-off, which translated into his being appointed Minister of Defense for the ruling Kadima Party. At the same time, he married Nili Priel. As defense minister, he threatened all-out war against Hamas at 2008’s end, promising to pursue victory to its bitter end, then saw his popularity soar as Israel’s invasion into Gaza to obliterate Hamas’ military threat progressed, while the rest of the world recoiled in horror at his country’s excess. In the subsequent elections in early 2009, however, his Labor Party came in a distant third, as Israel continued to lurch ever rightward, and he subsequently refused to join the Likud coalition government before reluctantly changing his mind, much to the bitter opposition of many of his fellow party members. Later, he created the Independence Party, in order to be far more hawkish than his earlier perceived moderate public stances, while bringing himself more in line with Prime Minister Netanyahu’s desire to attack Iran. Eventually served as a moderating infuence, before abrupty announcing his retirement from politics in late 2012, with the coming January elections, while covering himself in his exit statements so as not to seem too dovish. In what may be a comeback ploy as head of the Labor Party, released interview tapes in 2015 portraying himself as a resolute man of action, forced to deal with governmental incompetence, particularly on the part of Binjamin Netanyahu, in his desire to save Israel from the threat of Iran, but was continually foiled. Thought that the interviews would remain background for his book “Wars (Milhamot) of My Life” and not be leaked because military censors in Israel would never approve them for publication or broadcast. The military high command, however, ordered the censor to allow the tapes to come out in public, and that it is they who want Netanyahu weakened. Inner: Blunt, defiant, smug, arrogant and overconfident. Short-tempered, with a reputation as a cold fish. Classical pianist, but not a good listener to any music other than his own. Loves taking apart watches and putting them back together again. Comeuppance lifetime of showing his martial expertise and then clearly being out of his depth in the far more complex political arena, ultimately becoming a victim of circumstances far beyond his abilities, before doggedly entering the same arena again. Sir Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby of Megiddo and Felixstowe (Edmund Henry Allenby) (1861-1936) - English general and administrator. Outer: Eldest son, and 2nd child of a country gentleman, mother was the daughter of a reverend. Had an athletic upbringing in the countryside, while developing lifelong interests in ornithology and botany. Initially wanted to enter the Indian Civil Service, although he failed to pass the exams. Big and strong, albeit somewhat clumsy. Educated at the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst. Not a particularly good student, but popular with his classmates. Married Adelaide Chapman in 1896, one son from the union, who died in WW I. At 21, he joined a company of Dragoons and saw active service in Bechuanaland and Zululand. Later served in South Africa during the Boer War under Horatio Kitchener (Charles Bronson) as a member of his staff and in the field. Returned to England to command the 5th Lancers, and became an inspector general of cavalry and cavalry corps commander during the opening stages of WW I. In charge of the V Corps, before being placed in command of the 3rd Army, but his lasting reputation began when he was given control of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in 1917. Through dint of his personality, he infused the army with a new fighting spirit and won a brilliant victory over the Turks at Gaza despite water shortages and general supply problems, which led to the capture of Jerusalem in December of that year. Aided by T.E. Lawrence’s (Ayman al-Zawahiri) Arab irregulars, he joined him in a victory parade through the city. Despite losing some of his troops to the French front, he eventually received reinforcements from elsewhere. Through innovative use of his cavalry, he won decisive victories at Damascus and Aleppo and ended Ottoman power in Syria. Made a viscount and field marshal in 1919. Appointed high commissioner for Egypt the same year and held that post for 6 years, proving a highly competent administrator, under whom Egypt was recognized nominally as a sovereign state in 1922. Made numerous mistakes but always dealt with his role with integrity. After his retirement, he fished, traveled and bird-watched. Rector of Edinburgh at the time of his death, from a burst blood vessel in his brain. Inner: Recognized as Britain’s best field commander of WW I. Aggressive, vigorous, excellent planner and strategist, as well as executor of saidsame. Despite a violent temper, and an innate irascibility, he was devoted to children. Strong sense of duty, sincere, widely read. Unimaginative and heavy-handed in his administrative work. Dominating, intimidating character, great physical and moral courage, good observational skills, keen eyesight. Repeat lifetime of rising above a conventional army career to show his superior abilities in a theater in which he had shone nearly a millennium previously, in his ongoing exploration of Christian warrior-hood. Sir Henry Havelock (1795-1857) - British general. Outer. Father was a self-made shipbuilder who later went bankrupt. Educated at Charterhouse, then studied law, but his sire’s bankruptcy caused him to take a commission in 1815. Barely 5’ tall. Without influence or money, he transferred to the Light Infantry in India and fought in the First Burmese War. While traveling to India, he had been impressed by a fellow officer’s humble yet fervent Christianity, which would instill the same within him. Still only a captain in his early 30s, he won distinction in the First Afghan War, then showed his proficiency in languages, serving as an interpreter of both Persian and Hindi, both of which he had learned in England. Married Hannah Shepherd in 1829. Promoted to major in his late 40s, through his battlefield heroics, but was forced to return to England because of the debts incurred by his eldest son and his brother. 2 years later, he returned to India, and in 1854, he rose to the rank of general. Served in Persia, through the behest of James Outram (Harold Alexander), then came back to India in 1857 after the Indian Mutiny had begun. Marched his troops 126 miles in 9 days during the hottest part of the year, and proved victorious over the rebels, then was outraged to discover the massacre of British civilians in Cawnpore. In the thick of the fighting for the rest of the year, he was awarded a knighthood just before he fell ill with dysentery and died. Inner: Devout Christian, also very fussy, stern and tidy. Despite his diminutive size, extremely energetic and determined, as well as having an excellent military imagination. Whittled down lifetime of making up for an unimposing small stature with a deep-seated spiritual sense and an equal military determination, using his keen intelligence and drive to prevail, while being in subordinate positions for his entire career, as a means of experiencing humility. Louis Montcalm (Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Montcalm) (1712-1759) - French general and governor. Outer: From an old aristocratic family. Commissioned as an ensign at the age of 12. Became an active soldier at 15, and saw action against the Austrians in the opening campaigns of the War of the Polish Succession in 1733. 2 years later, he succeeded to his father’s property and title. Returned to active duty in 1740 with the War of the Austrian Succession, distinguishing himself, while suffering 5 saber wounds before being captured in 1746, and exchanged shortly afterwards, winding up a brigadier general. Married Angelique Louise Talon du Boulay, whom he originally wed for influence and position, and spent several years with his family, with whom he was quite close, then was appointed major general and commander of French forces in North America. Came to Quebec in 1756, and had difficulties with the Marquis de Vaudreuil, the civil governor, and their continual feuding would ultimately cost France its colonies in North America. Enjoyed considerable success both offensively and defensively, earned a promotion and was given precedence over Vaudreuil in military matters. During the English general, James Wolfe’s (Shah Massoud), campaign against Quebec in 1759, his fortifications and defense held the English at bay for 2 months, before a surprise nighttime attack on the Plains of Abraham brought the 2 together. Despite having superior forces, Vaudreuil refused him artillery support from the city, and both he and Wolfe were killed in the battle, to become part of popular legend. Inner: Devoted father and family man, had great charm, popular with his troops, and had considerable military skills. Anything but calm, had a temper, and was impatient. Uncalm mountain lifetime of acting out his unintegrated political half through direct confrontation with his co-leader, and ultimately falling victim to the heroic martyrdom of battle’s cry. Baldwin II (?-1131) - French king of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Outer: Father was a French count. Oldest of 5, with 2 younger brothers and 2 younger sisters. Held the castle of Bourg as a feudal domain, before accompanying his cousins Godfroi de Bouillon (Shah Massoud) and the future Baldwin I (Ayman al-Zawahiri) to Palestine on the First Crusade in 1096. In 1100, he was named count of Edessa by Baldwin when the latter became king of Jerusalem, and entered the service of Bohemund II as ambassador between Antioch and Edessa. In 1101, he married Morphia of Melitene, an Armenian princess, 4 daughters from union, including Melisande (Unity Mitford), Alice (Unity Mitford), and Hodiema (Diana Mitford) with three of them marrying French nobles in the Holy Land, and the 4th, Ioveta (Nancy Mitford) becoming a nun. Captured by the Seljuk Turks in 1104, and held in Mosul, he wasn’t ransomed until 4 years later. Fought his way into Edessa to reclaim his principality from the regent Tancred, and went on to recover most of his lost territory, before combining with the latter to capture Tripoli the following year. In 1118, he was crowned King of Jerusalem on an Easter Sunday, only to see his kingdom immediately invaded by armies from Syria and Egypt, although they subsequently retreated without a battle over his fierce determination to defend himself. After Antioch was crushed in a battle known as ‘the Field of Blood,’ he helped the principality recover. Saw the Knights Templar formed in Jerusalem, and established the first written laws for the kingdom. Captured once again by the Turks in 1123, he escaped the following year, and went on to forge an effective alliance with the Knights Templar and the earlier-formed Hospitallers, and with their aid expanded his kingdom and held off the Turks, although failed to take Damascus. Since he had no sons, he named Fulk V (David Grossman) of Anjou and Maine and his daughter Melisande, as his successor 2 years before he died, probably of typhus. Buried beside Baldwin I and Godfroi, as the last of the Jerusalem kings who had fought in the First Crusade. Inner: Just, honest, cautious, punctilious, and singularly chaste in an age of licentiousness. Earned the nickname of “the Goad,” for his constant prodding. Didn’t care for the trappings of royalty at all. Extremely pious, and was supposedly in prayer so often, his knees developed callouses. Crusader lifetime of martial derring-do, and extended captivity to balance his active aggressiveness with a meditative religiosity in order to make him, in his own eyes, as well as others, an ideal Christian king. Edmund II Ironside (c988-1016) - English king. Outer: 3rd son of Aethelred the Unready (Bob Hope) and his first wife, Aelflaed. One of a family of 11 or so children. In defiance of his father, he deserted him and married Ealdgyth, the widow of a slain Danish earl, taking her from imprisonment in a nunnery to do so, 2 sons from the union, who eventually escaped to Hungary. Received the submission of the Danish confederacy in 1015, and established his own rule in Northumbria and Mercia, which threatened the very kingship itself. HIs rival, the Danish King Canute (Whittaker Chambers), however, enjoyed far greater support throughout England. Crowned in London on the death of his father in 1016, after a power-struggle twixt the two. Deeply offended his brother-in-law, a Mercian earl who opposed him. Defeated the Danish Canute (Whittaker Chambers), then was utterly routed and wound up giving the north of England to Canute, while he retained only Wessex. Died suddenly of a sickness or perhaps the murderous resentment of the ealdorman Edric, who was known for his incredible strength, and the kingship of all of England went to Canute. Inner: Willful and rebellious, but a talented martial artist. Truncated lifetime of doing direct battle with his violent peers, and ultimately falling victim to wills more strident than his own, in a largely unrealized go-round of extremely brief rule. Simon Maccabeus (?-134BZ) - Judean ruler. Outer: From an old priestly family. Father was Mattathias Hasmon (T.E. Lawrence). One of 5 brothers, including Judas Maccabeus (Moshe Dayan), Eleazar (Alan Brooke), John (Harold Alexander) and Jonathan (David Grossman). After his father killed a Jewish reformer who was trying to Hellenize Judea, the family took to the mountains, and his 5 sons launched a guerrilla campaign against the Seleucid garrisons of the king of Syria, as well as their Jewish supporters, so as to prevent the imposition of Greek Hellenism on Jewish culture and keep it biblically pure. Last surviving son of the successful uprising, and though he was never officially anointed, he was regarded as the first of the Hasmoneans, with the official title of High Priest and governor of Judea bestowed upon him in 140BZ. A wise and shrewd ruler, he made a mutual defense pact with Rome against possible invasions by the Syrian Seleucids and the Egyptian Ptolemies. Treacherously murdered by his son-in-law, along with his 2 oldest sons, but his third son, John Hyrcanus I (David Sarnoff) established the Hasmonean dynasty over Judea. Inner: Honorable, pious, with the guerrilla shrewdness of his family. Like his brothers, lived and died by the sword. Guerrilla adept lifetime of continuing with his longtime family line, this time as its youngest member in order to establish the bridge-base that would see his successors continue the family’s struggle for spiritual/political survival.

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PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST AS INNER & OUTER HIS/STORIAN:
Storyline: The former competent commander turns in his sword for a pen, so as to allow his imagination to roam over landscapes he had heretofore helped shape in the concrete world of do or die.

David Grossman (1954) - Israeli novelist and journalist. Outer: From a religious and Zionist family on his maternal side, and a non-religious one on his paternal. Mother had been born in Palestine, father had emigrated from Poland at the age of 9 with his widowed mother and sister. His sire became a bus driver, then a librarian, which fed into his son’s love of books. Grew up in a Jerusalem housing project and felt a particular affinity with Sholem Aleichem (E. L. Doctorow), after his progenitor told him the Yiddish-language author limned exactly the life he had left in Poland. The older of two brothers, he appeared on radio in a quiz show competition, then worked as a chid actor in adaptations of world literature. Learned second-hand of the Shoah via a number tattoo on an aunt’s arm, which shocked him. Took great pride as a teen in the Israeli victory in the Six Day War, and in 1971 did his national service, working in intelligence, although saw no action in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Slight and bespectacled with sinewy arms, strawberry-blond hair and large emotional eyes. Met his future wife Michal Eshal, a psychologist, during this period. She was from a family of leftists and they spent their first year together fiercely arguing, until he began to see her point of view. The duo married in 1976, after they had both left the army. Two sons and a daughter from the union. Got a BA in philosophy and theater in 1979 from Hebrew Univ, before deciding to become a writer. Worked in radio afterwards, eventually becoming an anchor on Israel’s broadcasting service. A peace activist with a leftist bent, he initially avoided writing about politics in his stories, although not his journalism. Deeply bothered by the change in Israel’s self-view to arrogant conqueror following its military victories, he penned his first novel “The Smile of the Lamb” in 1983, exploring that theme allegorically. Pursued the Shoah next in “See Under: Love.” Despite his growing fame as a novelist, he continued to anchor a morning radio show and host an evening show on the city of Jerusalem, until he was ultimately fired in 1988, for reporting something the minister of security wanted suppressed, dooming him, as he stated at the time “to be a writer.” Wrote lighter works, while despairing of any reasonable resolution of the Palestinian situation until he lost his 20 year old son Uri during the 2006 Israeli-Lebanon conflict, when a rocket his his tank, ironically two days before a cease-fire was called. The loss was felt throughout the country since he was a national figure. Wrote “Woman Flees Tidings” as a means of self-healing, and has continued in a critical mode of Israel in his subsequent scrivenings, often receiving death threats for his need to limn the truth as he sees it. Lives in the hills above Jerusalem. Inner: Strongly humanistic, self-protective and sensitive with a youthful demeanor. An atheist although quite conversant with the Hebrew Bible. Seen by some as the consciousness of the country, a title with which he feels uncomfortable. Enjoys doing things that frighten him, since it gives him greater understanding of them. The pen is mightier than the sword lifetime of switching his focus from the martial to the mental in his ongoing need to understand his times, no matter how personally painful they may be. Archibald Wavell, 1st earl Wavell (Archibald Percival Wavell) (1883-1950) - British field marshal. His father was a major general, and he spent much of his childhood in India. After being educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst, he joined his sire’s old unit, the famous Black Watch Regiment, and saw service in South Africa during the last months of the Boer War, then served in India, before spending a year as a military observer with the Russian army. During WW I, he fought in Flanders, losing an eye in 1915, before being assigned as a liaison officer to the Russian Army in Turkey. Married Eugenie Quick, a colonel’s daughter, the same year. 3 daughters and a son from the union, with the latter dying in Kenya in the Mau Mau uprising in 1953. Joined Edmund Allenby (Ehud Barak) in Egypt and Palestine in 1917, serving on his staff. Took part in the liberation of Jerusalem that year, then served at Megiddo. During the 1920s and 1930s, he held a variety of posts, showing himself to be an excellent trainer of troops, before commanding British forces in the Middle East in 1939. Used the time to write, showing himself, showing himself to be a talented his/storian, penning his take on the Palestine Campaign, as well as Allenby, before writing “Generals and Generalship,” which his future adversary Erwin Rommel carried with him in the desert. Helped plan and supply logistical support for the successful offensive against the Italian army in Egypt and western Libya in late 1940 and early 1941, but was forced to suspend operations and contribute in an unsuccessful attempt at saving Greece from Germany’s swift conquest. Also failed in his BATTLEAXE offensive against Erwin Rommel in North Africa. Despite a paucity of supplies, troops and equipment, he was successful in Italian East Africa, Iraq and Syria, only to find himself replaced for his earlier failure. In mid-1941, he was sent to India as commander-in-chief, then was made commander of a coalition force formed to halt the Japanese advance in south Asia, but after the fall of Singapore in 1942, the coalition command was dissolved and he returned to India to organize its defenses against a possible Japanese invasion. Got bogged down in Burma, but was promoted to field marshal in early 1944, the same year he published an anthology of his favorite poets. Made Viceroy of India later that year, handling the difficult and tricky job well, making it easier for his successor, Louis Montbatten, to oversee Britain’s ultimate granting that subcontinent its independence. Retired in 1947, and was made an earl, as well as high steward of Colchester. His only son was subsequently killed in a Mau Mau raid in Africa, quickly making his title extinct. Inner: Taciturn, sturdy, keen and loyal and a writer, as well as a poet, of more than passing interest. Able to get much done with little, so that his ultimate military record, with its defeats, would not reflect his true skills. Pen and sword lifetime of continuing to open up his communication skills, while showing himself to be capable of possible tasks and incapable of impossible ones, in his ongoing education in mass martial artistry. Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (1738-1805) - British general. Outer: From an old moneyed and extremely well-connected family. 6th child and eldest son of the 5th Baron Cornwallis, later an earl, mother was the niece of Prime Minister Robert Walpole (Joschka Fischer). His younger brother William became an admiral. Educated at Eton College, where he injured an eye in a hockey game, giving it a permanent cast, and then Clare College, Cambridge, before being commissioned as an ensign in 1756 in the 1st Foot Guards. Strong and imposing, with a full face, large nose and heavily-lidded eyes. Finished his education at a military academy in Turin. Served in different posts in Germany during the 7 Years’ War, and was elected to Parliament in 1760. Returned to Germany, and fought over the next two years, receiving praise for his gallantry, before taking his father’s seat in the House of Lords on the latter’s death in 1762. Married Anne Jerningham, an elegant colonel’s daughter, in 1768, 2 sons and 3 daughters from the union. Continued rising in rank throughout the decade, becoming constable of the Tower of London in 1770, then was made a major-general, before being sent off to the American colonies in 1775, despite being in Whig opposition to the crown’s policies. Distinguished himself in the early part of the American Revolution before being outwitted and beaten by George Washington (George Marshall) at Princeton in 1777, receiving a rebuke from his commanding officer for his performance. After more fighting, he returned to England in 1778 and became a lieutenant general. Went back to America to continue in the fray, only to return to England in 1778 to be with his dying wife. At her death the following year, he felt any possibility of happiness had permanently departed his life. On his return, he was largely successful against the colonists until the war’s last year, when his forces were stretched far too thin. Lost one/third of his men in one encounter, then disobeyed orders in another, although proved successful. Eventually surprised at his citadel, Yorktown, by a Franco-American army led by Washington and Jean Rochambeau, and was forced to bear the ignominy of surrendering to the enemy there in 1781, although official peace ending the American Revolution would not occur until 1783. Could not bring himself to attend the ceremony, and had his second-in-command act in his stead. Received little blame, however, from either the public or the British press, and was paroled the following year, before turning down an offer to be governor-general of India in 1783. Accepted the post 3 years later with the understanding his authority would be expanded. Was seen as a fair and just administrator, while personally taking to the field against an implacable foe of the British Raj, soundly defeating him in 1792, thanks to having Europeanized his army. Created an effective police force, as well as an incorruptible civil service, while also pushing the English language on the subcontinent, creating a unifying element in a society otherwise deeply divided by caste, class, religion, poverty and wealth. Made 1st Marquess Cornwallis in 1793, and shortly before leaving India the same year, he issued a “Code of 48 Regulations,” which came to be known as the Cornwallis Code. It laid the foundation for British colonial rule in the country, setting standards for courts, services and revenue collections which held for a long time. Returned to England in 1794, and was made commander-in-chief and governor-general of Ireland in 1797. Put down a rebellion and defeated a French invasion, while showing leniency to his subjects. Resigned in 1801 when the king, George III (Jeffrey Archer), refused to grant Ireland Catholic Emancipation. Appointed once again as governor-general to India, he died of a fever shortly after arriving there, heading up the Ganges trying to stop some needlessly aggressive action. Inner: Brave, intelligent, compassionate, aggressive and skillful as a commander and tactician, but was remiss in his strategic abilities, sometimes misreading situations. Dignified and a devoted family man. Paid great attention to his troops and their needs, and they, in turn, were devoted to him. Highly competent administrator, and well-organized, understanding the importance of precedents and codes. Mixed bag lifetime of martial dominance and submission, while once again, showing his true strength lay with pen and paper, writing a codework that would serve as a colonial guidebook for decades. Robert Blake (1599-1657) - English general and admiral. Outer: From a family of merchants, father was well-to-do at his son’s birth, although later suffered setbacks. Eldest of 12 sons. Attended Wadham College, Oxford, which had recently been founded, but wound up spending a decade there, because his short, squat, ungainly figure offended the sensibilities of the college warden. Eventually graduated in 1625. Held strong Puritan leanings. His father died intestate, although the family business kept him in easy circumstances. Elected to the Short Parliament of 1640, but was defeated the following year. Joined the Puritan cause against the King when the English Civil War broke out in 1642. Showed his martial adeptness as a general in his defense of Lyme, and by holding Taunton from its besiegers for more than a year, before becoming governor there. Elected to the Long Parliament of 1645. In 1649, he was one of 3 “generals at sea” appointed to command the Navy, and proved himself one of the ablest seamen ever produced by England. Unsuccessfully blocked Prince Rupert, then chased him all the way to the Mediterranean, destroying many of his ships and subsequently dominating his Royalist foes. Served on the Council of State, and wrote “Fighting Instructions,” which detailed battle tactics on the seas for the next century. Also introduced the Articles of War, which became the basis for naval discipline. Did battle with the Dutch in 1652, triumphing in most of his skirmishes. After peace was declared, Commonwealth leader Oliver Cromwell (Robert Kennedy) instructed him to make the English a naval presence in the Mediterranean, which he did, defeating pirates, then a Spanish treasure fleet, without losing a ship. Finally forced to return home because of ill health, he died of a scorbutic fever at sea, just before his fleet made its triumphal entry into Plymouth Sound. His body was buried in Westminster Abbey, then after the Restoration, was dumped in a common grave. Inner: Chivalrous, genuinely humble, unselfish patriot. Theoretical republican, great military experimenter, champion of reform. Extremely resolute in battle, natural warrior, vigorous, enterprising and audacious. Hail Britannia lifetime of finally showing himself to be a warrior adept despite an ungainly physicality, thanks to a better integrated interior allowing him to stand strongly on the seas, while, per usual, penning the rules of the game in the process. Raymond VI (1156-1222) - French count. Outer: Father was a French count of the same name, cousin of Louis VII (Darryl F. Zanuck) of France, and brother-in-law of Richard I (Richard Burton) of England. Ultimately married 5 or 6 times, beginning in 1172 to Ermessende who died without issue in 1176, and his second union to Beatrice of Beziers, ended in divorced in 1189, with his wife supposedly becoming a Cathar afterwards, one daughter from the union. Afterwards, he married Bourgogne, the daughter of Amalric II of Jerusalem (Walt Disney), and divorced her in 1194, the same year his father died, and he became ruler of Toulouse, where he proved himself to be tolerant to the many ascetic Cathar heretics among his subjects. In 1197, he married a fourth time, to Joan Plantagenet, a member of the Plantagenet family, one son from the union, his successor, Raymond VII. His wife fled him in 1199 and died in childbirth. His 5th union, which may or may not have been official was to daughter of a Cypriot noble, which ended in 1202, and his final union was with Leonor, daughter of the king of Aragon, with whom he had earlier established peaceful relations. Showed himself to be more the poet than the warrior, although was a man of action as well. Implicated as an accessory in the murder of a papal legate in 1208, who had been urging him to act against the Cathars. Joined the crusade against them after the pope proclaimed it, perhaps as an act of penance in the legate’s death. His fellow crusaders from the North were led by Simon Montfort (T.E. Lawrence), a fanatic in his own right, and the count quickly found himself defending his own lands against their territorial ambitions. Defeated by Montfort in the Battle of Muret in 1213, and had his countship awarded to Montfort by the 4th Lateran Council 2 years later. With Aragonese help, he was able to reoccupy the city of Toulouse 2 years following, and then withstood a siege by Montfort, who was killed near the city. Able to regain most of his lands before his sudden death, but, because he had been twice excommunicated, was refused a Christian burial. Inner: Tolerant and just, although forced to act and react to the larger ambitions of others, both territorial and anti-heretical. Poetic and diplomatic, with a far greater desire for peace than war. Crypto-Oedipal lifetime of besting a longtime father figure, while showing himself to be extremely unintegrated on his female side, despite a poetic sensibility beneath his warrior mien. Fulk (1092-1143) - French king of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Outer: Father was a French noble, known as ‘the Surly.’ Distant kinsman of the future Baldwin II (Edmund Allenby) of Jerusalem. His mother, Bertrade (Coco Chanel) left her husband to bigamously marry the French king Phillipe I (Baldur von Schirach) when he was a child. Became Count of Anjou on his father’s death in 1109, and the same year, he married Ermengarde of Maine, 4 children from union, including Geoffrey Plantagenet, who eventually wed Matilda (Rose Kennedy) the daughter of Henry I (Joseph Kennedy, Jr.) and went on to sire the line of Angevin kings on the English throne known as the Plantagenets. Enlarged his realm by successful attacks on neighboring Maine, and was well-versed in warfare, while always looking to expand his sphere of influence, as well as his wealth. Went on crusade in Palestine in 1120, hooking up with the Knights Templar, and returned 9 years later, after his wife died and married the headstrong Melisande (Jessica Mitford), the daughter of the reigning monarch of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, Baldwin II (Edmund Allenby), who was convinced by him that he would be a worthy successor. Two sons from union who would succeed to the throne, Baldwin III (Allan Brooke) and Amalric I (Harold Alexander). Abdicated his county seat to his son, and became king 2 years later, although without the vast territory of his predecessor, since the other principalities opted for their own rule. Despite being designated as a joint ruler, he quickly assumed the mantle himself, which caused an estrangement in the union. In order to solidify it he accused his wife’s handsome young cousin, Hugh II de Le Puiset, of having an affair with her. After a revolt and failed assassination attempt on the part of the latter, the queen’s party rose to dominate, and his position deteriorated, so that she wound up running the government from 1136 onward. In 1137, he allied with the Byzantines against the northern Syrian leader, Zangi, and in 1140, aided the Muslims of Damascus against Zangi, while also building a series of fortresses to protect Jerusalem’s southern border, leaving his kingdom relatively secure on his passing. Died on a holiday to Acre, when his party became involved in a hunt, and he went sailing over the head of his horse, and his saddle fell on him, crushing his skull. Inner: Calm, intelligent, loyal and ambitious. Quick, decisive and alert. Understood that in order for the kingdom to survive, it had to understand the Muslim mind. Probably the brightest of the Jerusalem kings, making his exit through his head all the more poignant. Uneasy lies the crown lifetime of showing himself stalwart and dominant in battle, but ultimately thwarted in his desire to rule, in his ongoing struggles with integrating his spirituality, materiality and communication skills into a satisfying vehicle of enlightened dominance. Jonathan Maccabbeus (?-c143BZ) - Judean leader. Outer: From a priestly Judean family. One of 5 sons of Mattathias Hasmon (T.E. Lawrence), including Judas (Moshe Dayan), Eleazar (Alan Brooke) John (Harold Alexander), and Simon (Edmund Allenby) who went into revolt when the Syrian Seleucid king threw down the gauntlet of Hellenization to Judea, abolished Mosaic law and downgraded the Temple of Jerusalem into an ecumenical place of worship. Took to the hills with his family after his father slew a Jewish reformer, and along with them waged successful guerrilla warfare, despite their father’s dying at its very outset, so that Rome now recognized the independent state of Judea. When his older brother, Judas was killed in 160BZ, he took over the leadership of the revolt, although proved to be a more skilled diplomat than soldier, since he did not share in his sibling’s martial genius, although he showed similar courage. Married, 2 sons and several daughters. Through moves and countermoves, the enemy was defeated. Eventually he took up residence in Jerusalem in 153BZ, and fortified the city, before being anointed a high priest, making him the official leader of the Hebrews. Refused to compromise on his family’s principles, and eventually was able to lead his forces to victory over a foe whose resources and numbers were vastly superior. Continued an aggressive expansion, conquering the city of Acre, in 145BZ, then traded it off for recognition from the Seleucids. Lured into a trap by a rival and treacherously killed, while his sons disappeared into captivity. Inner: Whole family saw themselves as avatars of the Book of Joshua, reliving Biblical his/story with Yahweh standing in their swordhilts. Aggressive and politic, knowing when to hold them and when to fold them. Holy mission lifetime of maintaining his place in a powerful martial family, only to be undone by his own sense of being untouchable, as a lesson in humility he would not forget.

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PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST AS CHARISMATIC COMMANDER:
Storyline: The chivalrous soldier plays in the same arenas as his longtime crypto-brothers, paralleling their feats and their failures, while acting, along with them, as honored knight errants in deeply divided worlds, and continually trying to raise his game in the process.

Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis (Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander) (1891-1969) - British field marshal. Outer: 3rd son of the 4th Earl of Caledon, mother was an earl’s daughter. Inherited a family tradition of dignity, orderliness and discipline. Received his education at Harrow and Sandhurst, before joining the Irish Guards in 1911. Served with distinction in France during WW I, while being wounded twice before rising to battalion commander by conflict’s end, becoming the youngest lieutenant colonel in the British army. Led a German and expatriate militia to prevent Latvia from going communist during the Russian Civil War, then served in Turkey during a 1922 crisis, before noncombatant duty the rest of the decade. By 1930, he was a general staff officer, and 4 years later he was made a brigade commander in India, spearheading two successful campaigns there. In 1931, he married Lady Margaret Bingham, the daughter of an earl, 2 sons, a daughter, and one adopted daughter from the union. Returned to England and became a division commander in 1938, just in time for WW II, winning particular plaudits for calmly and competently overseeing the noteworthy evacuation of British troops from Dunkirk in 1940, after rearguard action in France. Given a whole Command to command, he was sent to Burma, to serve under Archibald Wavell (David Grossman), and once again oversaw an effective retreat into India in 1942. Although he had made his name in retreats, which would probably have ended the career of a lesser officer, he was made commander-in-chief of the English forces in the Middle East, and despite dealing with his difficult subordinate Gen. Bernard Montgomery, who continually criticized his abilities, he was able to clear North Africa of Axis forces by 1943. Afterwards, he became deputy to American Gen. Dwight Eisenhower then successfully led the serial taking of Tunisia and Sicily. Directed the invasion of Italy, and captured Rome in 1944, receiving his field marshal’s baton afterwards, in what would be the finest moment of his martial career. Made the Supreme Allied Commander of Mediterranean Forces, and accepted the surrender of German forces in Italy in 1945, before skillfully serving as governor-general of Canada from 1946 to 1952, proving popular with the populace. Acted as defense minister to Winston Churchill’s final government, then retired for his last 15 years to serve as the director of a number of companies. Saw Canada as a second home, and visited often with his wife. Had his memoirs, Memoirs, ghostwritten, revealing virtually nothing about himself. His wife predeceased him by two years, before he died of a perforated aorta. Inner: Charismatic, chivalric, skillful, and an avid sportsman. Had a machine-gunlike way of speaking. Highly organized and resourceful, with the ability to win great respect from his men. A mixture of charm and imperturbability, allowing him to plug up bad situations with aplomb, and exploit good ones with equal panache. For king and country lifetime of taking it up another notch, in his ongoing crypto-competitive careers with his fellow family members in the various arenas of British concern around the globe. James Outram, 1st Baronet (1803-1863) - British general. Known as “the Bayard of India.” Outer: Mother was the daughter of a Scottish writer on agriculture, and proved to be quite self-reliant and independent. His father was a civil engineer, who died when he was 2. Originally quite puny, he went to the Marischal College in Aberdeen, and the following year, he secured a cadetship in the Indian Army at 16, and gained recognition for subduing the wild Bhil robber tribesmen. After being made an acting adjutant to a battalion, he raised a unit of Bhil light infantry in 1825, and they proved extremely loyal to him, thanks to his hunting skills. Subject to sickness his whole early career in India, but through dint of a steely constitution, he built himself up into a strapping 6-footer. Married Margaret Anderson, his cousin, in Bombay in 1835, one son from the union. Distinguished himself in the early part of the First Afghan War in 1839, despite feeling the whole venture was foolhardy, then was made a political agent in the lower and upper Sind. Won the trust of the local emirs, and foisted a harsh new treaty on them in 1842, thanks to his negotiating skills. Just after he was dismissed and replaced by Charles Napier (Ayman al-Zawahiri), who would later give him his nickname, the “Bayard of India” in a toast, he defended the residency at Hyderabad against Baluchi tribesmen. Appointed resident at Baroda in 1847, he exposed official corruption there, only to be dismissed for his honesty, although he was later vindicated and restored to office, and promoted to major general. Given residency at Lucknow in 1854, he directed the annexation of Oudh, before commanding a two division expedition in Persia, defeating the enemy in a great slaughter in a rapid-fire campaign. Raised to lieutenant-general, he hurried back to India at the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, and joined Gen. Henry Havelock’s (Edmund Allenby) force as a volunteer, although declined a command, preferring to play a tactical role. Assumed command when the latter’s forces were blocked up, and directed the defense of the residency until he was relieved by Sir Colin Campbell’s (Russell Crowe) army. Commanded several columns of the latter’s army in a successful offensive move, then was made chief commissioner. Worked to soften the reprisal measures of George Canning (Chris Patten), India’s governor-general, against the landowning aristocracy, and helped secure their submission. Made a baronet in 1858, and was also appointed a member of the governor-general’s council. Returned to Britain in 1860, with his health shattered and retired. Inner: Generous, honest, open and friendly, with excellent communication skills. Esteemed by his superiors, and was widely popular with his peers and those beneath him. Strong sense of responsibility, kind-hearted, modest and chivalrous. Here Here lifetime of acquitting himself handsomely in all tasks given him, allowing him to take his game up a notch, so as to be in the same league as his crypto-cohorts. Joseph-Francois Dupleix (1697-1763) - French governor-general. Outer: Father was a director of the French East India Company. Sent to America and then India on a voyage in his mid-teens. Through his father’s influence, he was appointed to the superior council of Pondicherry, the capital of French India in 1720. Married an extremely strong-willed woman. Made superintendent of the French trading station in Bengal in 1731, the same year he became governor of Chandernagore, where he trebled the trade over the next decade, thanks to his considerable energy and high ambition. Detested India and his fellow officials, but never took a leave, burying his frustrations in his obsessive work habits while outliving many of his fellow European traders because of the terrible death-rate there. Lost most of his fortune before leaving Chandergore, and in 1742 he was appointed governor-general of all the French establishments in India, and was determined to recoup his losses, despite his failing health. After France and England went to war in 1744, he disobeyed his superiors and took Madras with a French fleet in 1746, then twice defeated British armies sent to help their nawab ally. After the European treaty ended the war of the Austrian Succession in 1748, and Madras was restored to the British, he tried to spread French influence further in India. Made local alliances with contending princes in Southern India to weaken the British East India Company, and the 2 companies went to war in 1751. Had the misfortune of going up against the military skills of Robert Clive (Ayman al-Zawahiri) and saw the defeat of almost all the French forces. His position continued to unravel and he was recalled to Paris, where he unsuccessfully sued the almost insolvent French East India Company for money he claimed he spent in their defense. After being initially well-received, with the thought of returning to India, he was soon hounded by creditors and his wife died. Married again, but to a woman of no wealth. Remained discredited and died in poverty and obscurity, although after his death his effects were sold off and his creditors finally satisfied. Inner: Great organizer and diplomat, but no real match for his long/time ally/enemy. Difficulty, as well, in working with others. Privileged secular lifetime of delving into the gross material world like his longtime compeer, only to be ultimately defeated by his own over-extended need to recoup losses instead of letting them go. Amalric I (c1130-1174) - French Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem king. Outer: Son of Fulk (David Grossman), the eventual king of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Mother was Melisande (Jessica Mitford). Younger brother of Baldwin III (Alan Brooke). Following the death of his sire in 1143, his brother ascended to the throne, but his mother refused to relinquish her regent role when he came of age. A civil war ensued, and he sided with his mother, while receiving the Country of Jaffa when he came of age in 1151. Besieged along with his mother by his brother, and the latter proved victorious, and was able to rule alone afterwards. Given the fortress of Ascalon by his sibling in a no-hard feelings gesture, 2 years later, to add to his fiefdom. in 1157, he married his third cousin, Agnes of Courtenay (Mary Pickford), after waiting for the death of the local Patriarch because he had pronounced them too close in kinship. Two children from union, Sibylla (Lucille Ball) and his successor, Baldwin IV (Benecio Del Toro). His sibling died in 1162, and the kingship passed to him. The only King of Jerusalem who had received an education via books, rather than battle. Rarely spoke to anyone if he could avoid it, although he evinced a strong curiosity about his realm and its peoples, continually questioning travelers for nuggets of information. Formed a close bond with his chronicler, William of Tyre, assuring him a very favorable review in his subsequent his/stories. Forced him to annul his marriage to Agnes, because of their close kinship, although he retained the rights of legitimacy and inheritance for his children. Proved to be both a strong and just leader, giving vassals the right of appeals against mistreatment by their lords, while continually at war, thanks to his legacy left him by his brother’s aggressive policies. Tall, bearded and comely. On ascending the throne, he invaded Egypt in order to break Muslim unity against his isolated kingdom, as well as hoping to actualize an earlier Crusader fantasy of capturing Cairo. Initially successfully in his first Egyptian foray, before a deliberate flooding of the Nile stopped him, he then had to deal with the Syrian ruler, Nur-ed-din (Osama bin Laden), and the ongoing war became a struggle for who would control the ancient land of the pyramids. In 1167, he personally led his troops into Egypt, forming an alliance with a caliph. Appealed to the Byzantine emperor and to France for help, while taking the great grandniece, Maria Comnena, of a Byzantine emperor to wife. 2 daughters from union, including Isabella (Diane Keaton), who would eventually become queen. Became more and more corpulent in later years, losing his interest in military affairs. Played cat-and-mouse in Egypt, with the help of the Knights Hospitaller, before retreating from Egypt at the arrival of Nur-ed-din. Unable to get help from Europe when the latter’s vassal Saladin (David Sarnoff) rose to power, and after a long seige and a famine, he was forced to sign a treaty with him and retreat. In 1170, Saladin invaded Jerusalem, but halted when he was made sultan the following year. Visited Constantinople, and was once more turned down in his pleas for help by Europe, before returning to defend his kingdom from the incursions of Saladin and Nur-ed-din, as well as the murderous sect of the Hashshashin. Died of dysentery shortly after Nur-ed-din, and was succeeded by his 13 year old son, Baldwin IV (Benecio Del Toro), who brought his mother Agnes, now working on her 4th husband, back to court. The last of the true warrior kings, and his kingdom would flounder without him. Inner: Projected a self-important princely air. Intelligent and self-reflective, with a boundless need for information-gathering. Lecherous, with a stammer, although pious and wise as well. Enjoyed intellectual pursuits, studying law and languages, and loved to hunt. Lusty and lofty lifetime of putting his imprint on the Holy Land, only to ultimately lose interest, and allow his weakened body to dictate his fading lack of resolve. John Maccabeus (?-c155) - Judaean guerrilla leader. Outer: Father was Mattathias Hasmon (T.E. Lawrence), one of 5 brothers, including Judas Maccabeus (Moshe Dayan), Eleazar (Orde Wingate), Jonathan (David Grossman) and Simon (Edmund Allenby). After his father killed a Jewish reformer who was trying to Hellenize Judea, the family took to the mountains, and his 5 sons launched a guerrilla campaign against the Seleucid garrisons of the king of Syria, as well as their Jewish supporters, so as to prevent the imposition of Greek Hellenism on Jewish culture and keep it biblically pure. Ultimately died at the hands of unfriendly tribesmen, some 6 years after his family had achieved recognition and independence. Inner: Warrior adept like the rest of his family, although of somewhat lesser skills. Ongoing lifetime of doing battle both with and against his longtime family members, initially as the least charismatic of the crew, despite an equal claim to skilled generalship, giving him something to successfully work on over the next double millennium.

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PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST AS WELL-LIKED LEADER:
Storyline: The no-nonsense notable wins the admiration and respect of one and all for his exemplary character, while continually proving himself the equal of his adept crypto-cohorts, in their combined chivalrous legacy down through the double millennial Christian age.

Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke (Alan Francis Brooke) (1883-1963) - British field marshal. Outer: Father was an Irish landowner who had moved to France because of a lung infection, only to die when his son was 8. Initially shy and unsure of himself as a fatherless stranger in a strange land. Attended a French school, but spent his summers in Ireland, where he developed a lifelong love of both fishing and ornithology. Also showed himself to be a good draftsman. His family had a strong military tradition, with 2 older brothers having served before him, one ultimately dying in WW I. Entered the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, and graduated in 1902 with a commission in the Royal Artillery. Began his career as a subaltern, serving for 4 years in Ireland, before being transferred to India, where he stayed until WW I. By war’s end, he was chief artillery officer for the British First Army, using the French system of creeping barrages to support attacking troops. Married Jane Richardson in 1915, daughter and son, who would serve in WW II. Attended the Staff College at Camberly afterwards, where he became a lecturer, showing himself to be a skilled trainer, in a subsequent post as director of military training for the War Office. Cut a trim figure, with an outwardly stern military bearing, although off-duty, he was friendly and relaxed, and kept company with all levels of his troops. In 1925, his first wife died at his side in an automobile accident, where he was driving. In 1939, he married Benita Blanche, a widow, and their daughter died in a riding accident in 1961, as a bookend reminder, along with his wife, who may have been the same being, about the fleeting nature of mortality. By WW II he was a lieutenant general and was given command of one of the two corps of the British Expeditionary Force in France, but was dismayed at the casual attitudes of the senior French officers, thanks to his own emphasis on discipline and training. On the German assault in May 1940, he used his corps to reinforce the Belgian army, only to see his BEF men overwhelmed. Used them to delay the Belgian advance, while personally visiting his commanders, including Harold Alexander and Bernard Montgomery, daily to make sure morale was high. Ordered back to England at the end of the month, only to immediately return, and demand no more British troops be sent to France. Oversaw the evacuation of the BEF via Cherbourg in July of that year, and then was given command of the British Home Forces, which he rearmed, retrained and reinspired to ready them for an expected German invasion. At the end of 1941, he was appointed chief of the Imperial General Staff, then was asked to serve as chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee. As soon as America entered the war, he became a leading strategist, involving himself in all the major Allied decisions, although was denied command of the Allied invasion of Europe, since it was deemed an American should get it. Got along well with both the Americans and the Russians, while winning the respect of all the Allied national leaders. In 1944, he was promoted to field marshal, and on his retirement from active service in 1946, he was made Viscount Alanbrooke. In 1949, he became Chancellor of the Queen’s Univ. of Belfast, a post he held for life. After retiring he spent his time studying and giving lectures on birds, replete with numerous illustrations. Never wrote his memoirs, having little interest in explaining himself to his/story, although a censored form of his diaries were published in 1957, and an unexpurgated version followed in 2001. Died of a heart ailment, a few days prior to his 80th birthday. Inner: Efficient, strong-willed, disciplined, patient and tireless, with nerves of proverbial steel. Quick-witted and incise. Kept daily diaries, which helped him relieve tensions. Loved and esteemed by all who knew him well, while seemingly remote and aloof to those who didn’t. Jolly good show lifetime of doing his duty, winning plaudits all around, and then spending his time in pursuit of his lifelong passion for natural phenomena. Richard Howe, Earl Howe (1726-1799) - British admiral. Outer: Father was a viscount, who became governor of Barbados, and died when his son was 9,. Mother was the daughter of a baroness, and later became the mistress of King George I (Prince Charles). Middle of 3 brothers, all of whom had distinguished military careers, also one sister. Known as ‘Black Dick,’ because of his swarthy complexion. Joined the Navy in 1740, and 4 years later, was part of George Anson’s epic circumnavigation of the world, although his ship failed to round the Horn, and was forced to return home. Served next in the West Indies, where he saw considerable action and earned rapid promotions, while suffering a severe head wound fighting with a pair of French privateers. Held commands at home and on the west coast of Africa afterwards. As captain of the HMS Dunkirk, he seized the French Alcide in the first naval action of the 7 Years’ War, in 1755, and then served in the English Channel, leading largely futile expeditions against the coast of France. In 1758, he became Viscount Howe, as part of the Irish peerage, on the death of his elder brother in battle. The same year, he married Mary Hartop, the daughter of a colonel, 3 daughters from the union. Won distinction the following year, at the battle of Quiberon Bay. In 1762, he was elected an MP for Dartmouth, and served as member of the Admiralty Board in 1763 and 1765, before becoming treasurer of the Navy for the last half of the decade. Became a vice admiral in 1775, and was appointed commander-in-chief of the North American station, despite being sympathetic to the colonists. Made peace commissioner the following year, along with his brother William, although his efforts proved in vain. Gave crucial naval support to William in the capture of New York in 1776, then resigned from a second peace commission in 1778 in a fit of pique. Resigned his command as well, but before it could be reluctantly accepted, France entered the war, and he stayed long enough to protect NY and frustrate a Franco-American attack on Newport, Rhode island. Declined to serve afterwards, thanks to opprobrium heaped upon both him and his brother by ministerial writers in the press, and his distrust of Lord North’s inept government. Returned to active duty in 1782, on North’s fall, and assumed command of the Channel Fleet. Despite being undermanned and outnumbered, he was able to relieve Gibraltar and deliver vital supplies to the beleaguered garrison there. In 1783, he was made Lord of the Admiralty, holding that position until 1788, with a brief lacuna the first year. Created Baron and Earl Howe in the Irish peerage in 1788, then returned to command the Channel Fleet against France in 1793. In 1794, he won the epochal victory of the First of June, the most spectacular battle of the war. Despite defeating a French convoy escort fleet, it arrived safely in France and he retired afterwards, before being called on to pacify some mutineers at Spithead, since he was trusted by the sailors as a just and honest man. On his death his Irish title was inherited by his younger brother William. Inner: Extremely capable and highly popular with his men. A better tactician than a strategist, with a good comprehension of all the particulars of command. Man’o’war lifetime of doing what was asked of him, until sheer incompetence from above caused him to privately mutiny, before returning to fulfill his duties towards king and country in highly competent manner. Richard Deane (1610-1653) - British admiral and general. Outer: Younger son of a strongly Puritan family. A relative would become Lord Mayor of London in 1628. Little known of his early life. Probably went to sea early, where he received some military training. At the outbreak of the English Civil War, he joined the Parliamentary army as a volunteer, and was given an artillery command, showing his superiors all the right stuff, so that when the army was remodeled, he was retained. Made comptroller of ordinance in 1645, and after further skirmishes, he was raised to the rank of colonel two years later and given a regiment. Married Mary Grymesditch in 1647, 2 daughters from the union. A staunch supporter of Oliver Cromwell (Robert Kennedy), he followed him to Wales, when the former refused a command in Ireland, then aided him greatly in battle, rising to the rank of brigadier general in the process. When the triumphant Puritan army entered London in 1648, he closely assisted Cromwell in his negotiations around the future of the kingdom. Assisted in framing the ‘Remonstrance of the Army.’ Showed great energy as commissioner for the trial of Charles I (George VI), and was one of those who signed his death warrant, making him a regicide. When the Lord High Admiralty was put into commission, he, along with Robert Blake (David Grossman) and Edward Popham, were made commissioners and appointed ‘generals-at-sea.’ Put in charge of the coast from Portsmouth to Milford, then had his sea service interrupted when he fought as a major general at Worcester in 1651. Made commander-in-chief of the army and navy in Scotland, pacifying the Highlands, via negotiation. Imprisoned a Scottish governor and minister, and fought along with Blake in the battle of Portland. Reorganized the naval service and refitted the fleet, paying great attention to the particulars of his administration. Died in battle off of Solebay. Inner: Determined Puritan, thanks to his upbringing, and very detail-oriented. Loyal and extremely competent, while being very well-thought of by all who worked with him. Regicide lifetime of following his beliefs to the point of putting country over king, and ultimately and uncharacteristically falling in battle, perhaps as recompense for his inversion of his usual chivalric standards. Baldwin III (1131-1162) - French king of Jerusalem. Outer: Father was Fulk (David Grossman), the king of Jerusalem, mother was Melisande (Jessica Mitford), daughter of her father’s predecessor, Baldwin II (Edmund Allenby). Became the first of the Latin kings to be born in the Holy Land. Following his sire’s death when he was 13, he and his mother were crowned as co-rulers for the next 7 years. An inveterate gambler while young, as well as lusty, he was also a good student, realizing the importance of information-gathering. More interested in his/story than theology, he studied the story of his kingdom in minute detail. During their stewardship, the Latin colonies in Palestine were strengthened by the 2nd crusade, although his troops were defeated in their initial foray, before the crusaders reached Jerusalem in 1148. Eager to impress them, he took bad advice, and his forces were soundly routed trying to seige Damascus. Tall, florid, blonde and bearded. The following year, the disjointed Crusade returned to Europe, leaving Jerusalem considerably weakened. Ascended to sole rule over the throne of Jerusalem at the age of 20, then quarreled violently with his mother for extending her regency past the legal time, while the royal council upheld her, splitting the kingdom between them, with his share, the poorer north, away from Jerusalem. A further dispute in Antioch between his aunt Hodiema (Diana Mitford), and her husband, which saw the latter assassinated, further weakened the kingdom. In 1152, he had himself crowned secretly in the presence of a handful of his knights, then besieged his mother, invading her territory and defeating her forces. Recognized as king afterwards, he reconciled with her, and used her advantageously, since she was a talented administrator, with an adroit political eye. Intervened in the surrounding Christian states through military force, but could not stop the capture of Damascus by Muslims under Nur ed-Din (Osama Bin Laden) in 1154. Able to avoid oppressive taxes, while imposing his will without the use of force, although he rebuked his high officers in public, rather than private, winning their enmity for the humiliation. In 1158, he married the 13 year old niece of the Byzantine emperor, Theodora, and with his father-in-law, planned an attack on Damascus which never came about. Like the Byzantines, he preferred diplomacy and the show of, rather than the use of, force. After his mother died of a lingering illness, he became inconsolable, and a few months later, he fell ill while on a journey through Tripoli with dysentery which developed into consumption, and died, possibly poisoned by a Syrian doctor sent to attend him. Left no issue, and was succeeded by his brother Amalric I (Harold Alexander). With his death, the heroic age in the Latin states ended. Inner: Highly intelligent, deeply religious, and cruel and gentle at once. Enjoyed reading his/story, and loved the minutiae of it. Capable commander, extremely frank, had the gift of command, as well as a kingly sense about him. Approachable, a devoted husband and popular. Had no vices, once he reached adulthood, and was looked upon as the ideal Christian king. Won the esteem of his enemies, as well his supporters, as a statesman, soldier, student and philosopher. Chivalric lifetime as a pure-hearted Christian king who would be remembered as the best of his line. Eleazar Maccabbeus (?-c160BZ) - Judaean guerrilla leader Outer: From an old priestly family. Father was Mattathias Hasmon (Ayman al-Zawahiri). One of 5 brothers, including Judas Maccabeus (Moshe Dayan), John (Harold Alexander), Jonathan (Archibald Wavell) and Simon (Edmund Allenby). After his father killed a Jewish reformer who was trying to Hellenize Judea, the family took to the mountains, and his 5 sons launched a guerrilla campaign against the Seleucid garrisons of the king of Syria, as well as their Jewish supporters, so as to prevent the imposition of Greek Hellenism on Jewish culture and keep it biblically pure. Killed in the early part of the fighting, around the same time as his brother Judas. Inner: Martial adept like the rest of his family. The-family-that-slays-together, stays-together lifetime of joining his longtime karmic crew in guerrilla warfare against a superior foe and perishing in the early part of the fighting as part of his lessons in surrendering completely to a cause larger than himself, which he would act out and act against in serial order over the next double millennium.

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