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EUROROYALS - HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS

PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS ELOQUENT COMMUNICATOR:
Storyline: The professorial politician brought a European sensibility to American shores as a politician of unusual stripe and humble background, who valued integrity as much as ability, and knew how to give voice to the voiceless, but remained reluctant to become a reflective emperor again.

vMario Cuomo (1932-2015) - American politician. Outer: 3rd child of Italian immigrants, father was a ditch-digger, before becoming a pushcart peddler, then a grocer. Became a minor league baseball player in the Pittsburgh Pirate chain, but a head injury following a wild pitch curtailed his career. Initially wanted to be a teacher, but felt he couldn’t raise a large family on the salary. Won a scholarship to St. John’s, then went on to St. John’s Law School, graduating in 1956 with top honors. In 1954, he married Matilda Raffa, a teacher, three sons and two daughters from the union, with his oldest son, Andrew, ultimately serving as his closest political adviser, before establishing his own political career, including the governorship of NY in 2010, while his second son Chris became an attorney, and then a news anchor on morning TV. Became a lawyer as well as a law professor. Involved in various NYC cases, making a name for himself, and entered politics. Lost his first 2 elections, before becoming secretary of state in 1975, under Gov. Hugh Carey, holding the post for 4 years. Lost his 2nd bid for NYC mayor in 1977, then won as lieutenant governor the following year, under Carey, again, who was threatened by him. When Carey decided not to run in 1982, he was finally elected governor of New York, winning 2 additional terms. A keynote speaker at the Democratic National Convention in 1984, he proved to be an extremely compelling and articulate orator, which made him a national figure, although he continued to equivocate on a bid for that office during the late 80s and early 90s. An outspoken liberal, he proved to be an effective governor, and well-appreciated by the majority of his electorate, although he was ultimately undone by small issues rather than large dissatisfaction, and the electorate’s usual fickleness about extended stays in office. Eventually denied a fourth term in 1994, over his opposition to the death penalty, in what may have been a secret act of will on his part to remove himself from such a public stage, and returned to private life, as a lawyer in NYC. The author of several books, including “Why Lincoln Matters.” Died of heart failure on New Year’s day in his apartment surrounded by family after he listened with his last breath via IPad to his son Andrew being sworn in for a second term as state governor. Inner: Highly articulate, liberal-minded and introspective, with an expanded overview of the powerful and the powerless, from his upbringing. Self-styled progressive pragmatic Self-imposedSelf-imposed glass ceiling lifetime of continuing to develop his communication skills, and maintaining his concerns about the dispossessed, while showing a curious indecision around rising too high on the American political landscape, for fear, perhaps, of losing his freedom of thought. vCarl Schurz (1829-1906) - German/American statesman. Outer: Son of a village schoolmaster in Germany, mother had a very strong personality. Discovered the power of his own oratory while participating as a student in the Revolutionary uprisings of 1848-1849. Slightly over 6’, but only 135 lbs, with a narrow waist and a broad chest, and a lithe, athletic grace. Imprisoned for a failed armory raid, he escaped through a storm sewer and spent 3 years on the European continent, before realizing its revolutionary moment had passed. Married Margaretha Meyer, the daughter of a Hamburg manufacturer, three daughters and a son from union, and wound up coming to the U.S. in 1852, landing in a German-American community in Philadelphia. His wife’s inheritance bankrolled their initial stay, where he taught himself English by voraciously reading both novels and newspapers. Went to Washington on a visit, meeting some of the primo politicos of the time, who advised him if he settled in a new state, he would be among them in no time. Took their advice, and in 1854, went to the midwest, where he had relatives, and 2 years later bought an 89 acre farm in Wisconsin, near a rural German enclave. Brought his parents and two sisters over from Germany, while becoming a lecturer, although fared poorly financially, since he was far more urban than rural. Lost his first race for the lieutenant-governorship of Wisconsin by a little over one hundred votes, while showing himself to be far too thin-skinned initially for a political career, despite being an effective speaker. Managed to draw notice to himself, however, and, as a Republican, he became active in the anti-slavery movement. Campaigned for Abraham Lincoln during his senatorial race in 1858, and by 1860, he was a nationally-known figure, thanks to press attention to his well-wrought speeches. Campaigned vigorously for Lincoln in 1860, and, after he was elected president, became his his minister to Spain, although found diplomatic life “insipid.” Resigned the following year to fight in the Civil War on the Union side as a brigadier general of volunteers, ending his military career as a major general, proving himself a competent commander. Found himself in financial straits at war’s end, and entered the newspaper business, moving to St. Louis as a partner in a successful German-language daily, the St. Louis Westliche Post, where he would employ future publisher and fellow immigrant Joseph Pulitzer (Rudy Giuliani). A daughter subsequently died, and his wife went to Germany for an extended multi-year stay, a practice she had pursued throughout their marriage. Toured the South at the behest of Pres. Andrew Johnson (George Wallace), and filed a highly critical report advocating enfranchisement for ex-slaves. The report, however, was shelved. A keynote speaker at the 1868 Republican convention, he showed a more conciliatory view of the South than his party. Afterwards he was elected U.S. Senator from Missouri, to become the first German-American to reach that high an office, and helped organize the liberal Republican movement. Tried in vain to form a third Liberal Republican party in 1872, while actively opposing the corrupt U.S. Grant (Omar Bradley) administration. Became a widower in 1876, when his wife died. Appointed Secretary of the Interior in the Rutherford B. Hayes (Jimmy Carter) administration in 1877, where he was sensitive to the needs of Indigenous Americans and conservation, and helped install the merit system in the civil service. Moved to NYC in 1881, and became editor of the NY Evening Post. Continually involved in presidential politics as a voice of honest government, he eventually left the Republicans when the Democrats showed more of a zeal for reform. Spent his last 2 decades as an editorial writer for Harper’s Weekly and as president of 2 civil service reform associations. Strongly anti-imperialist, he wrote his autobiography in 3 volumes at life’s end. Spent the last years of his life with his two spinster daughters, and died of pneumonia with his children around him, whispering in German, his final words, “It is so easy to die.” Inner: Proud, independent, deeply patriotic and high-minded. Aristocratic liberal, more into principles than specific underdogs. Articulate, brilliant orator, with great integrity, allowing him exercise wide influence through his writing and his speeches. Great charm, witty, but also self-righteous, immodest, vain and presumptuous. Steppingstone lifetime of bringing his European awareness of equity to the American political landscape, while trying to amend his own sense of the emperor within, in order to be more in tune with more democratic times. vLeopold II (1747-1792) - Austrian Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: 2nd son of Empress Maria Theresa (Mary Renault) and Franz I (Joseph Albers). Brought up in a large, affectionate domestic circle, where both his parents were involved in the raising of their children. Warm and close relationship with his older brother, the future Joseph II (Michael Moore), even though the latter showed a later, boorish disregard for the interests of both himself and his family. Succeeded his father as duke of Tuscany, when Joseph became emperor in 1765. The same year, he married Maria Luisa (Julia Louis-Dreyfus), the daughter of the king of Spain, 8 sons and 6 daughters from the union, including his HRE successor, Franz II (Rudy Giuliani), and his Tuscany successor, Ferdinand III (Andrew Cuomo). Raised his children in the same manner he grew up, while showing himself quite obsessive in his ideas on child-rearing, insisting on self-expression, free play and an equally modern approach to education, taking a holistic approach to it, while demanding constant reports from his children’s tutors to monitor their progress. Strongly influenced by the ideas and ideals of the enlightenment, and, during his 25 year reign in Tuscany, he also played the paterfamilias, creating the most effective secret police in Europe, so that he could be constantly informed of the goings-on in his realm. Encouraged representative institutions, while creating a more equitable taxation and tariff system. After his brother died in 1790, he assumed the mantle of HRE, as well as becoming king of Hungary and archduke of Austria. During his brief reign, he dismantled some of the centralized state machinery of his brother although kept the integrity of his reforms, including the emancipation of the peasantry, while giving increased religious liberty to non-Catholics. Tried to win back some of the people his brother had alienated, and addressed himself to the potential problems of the French Revolution, supporting its monarchy, with the promise of using force if necessary to maintain it. Made a defense alliance with Prussia, but died of rheumatic fever shortly before France declared war on Austria. Succeeded by his son, Franz II. Inner: Highly intelligent, benign autocratic with a great need to know everything he possibly could about all his undertakings. Final imperial lifetime of being given a strong, loving foundation, and extending it to both his private family and state, acting as the information-master of his 2 realms, from the vantage of being at the hierarchical head of the table, an experience he would no longer need, once it was over. vFerdinando I de’ Medici (1549-1609) - Italian duke of Tuscany. Outer: 5th son of Cosimo I de ’Medici, mother was the daughter of the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Younger brother of Francesco (Michael Moore), whom he succeeded. Made a cardinal at the age of 14, and moved to Rome, where he proved to be a great lover of the arts, building the Villa Medici there as a display showcase. Inherited the family ducal title in 1587, and hurried to claim it, fearing he would be outmaneuvered by his brother’s wife Bianca, for whom he harbored a pathological hatred, the singular dark mark on his otherwise admirable escutcheon. She, however, followed his brother in death, so that he did not renounce his cardinalate until 2 years later, when he married Christine, the daughter of Charles III of Lorraine, 5 sons and 4 daughters from the union, with most not extending the line. His eldest succeeded him as Cosimo II (Andrew Cuomo). Able to solidify his duchy’s relationship with France through the union to counteract Spanish influence in Italy, which his predecessor could not. Helped Henri of Navarre (FDR) in his quest for the throne of France through secret loans, then cemented their relationship once he was king, when the former married his niece Marie (Sara Roosevelt) in 1600, although later felt quite bitter towards her for not controlling the monarch’s insatiable sexual appetites. Used his son’s marriage to an archduchess and cousin of the HRE, to seal relations with the House of Habsburg as well, while also providing soldiers for their war against the Turks. Proved a tolerant and benign ruler, accepting heretics and Jews, while his duchy flourished under him, reflecting his enlightened policies and just rule. Greatly increased the commercial viability of Tuscany, supervising the Medici banks abroad, while enhancing his naval capabilities and continuing his brother’s development of the port of Livorno. Patronized musicians, artists and architects, and greatly enhanced his duchy on all levels, leaving a prosperous state at his death. Inner: Hard worker, very conscious of commerce and financing, with a developed eye towards the arts. Generous and accessible. Pat-on-the-back lifetime of accruing to his sense of commerce, finance and rule, as the scion of a family that exhibited alternating expertise in that realm. Gregory IX (Ugolino di Conti) (c1147-1241) - Italian pope. Outer: From a family who were counts of Segni. Cousin of the future Pope Innocent III (Michael Moore). Received a solid education at the Univ. of Paris and Bologna, and became a clerical lawyer. After his cousin achieved the Chair of St. Peter, he was made papal chaplain and then cardinal-deacon, followed by archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. Proved to be a gifted negotiator for the papacy, going on legations to various Italian cities, as well as France and Germany in 1207, in an effort to settle the dispute as to who rightfully should succeed to the latter polity’s throne, ending the war of succession between opposing camps. Following his cousin’s death in 1216, he was instrumental in the choice of his successor, Honorius III (Josef Albers), who made him a plenipotentiary legate. As such, he served as peacemaker between various Italian city-states, while also preaching crusade throughout Italy. Chosen by St. Francis of Assisi to be the first protector of the Franciscan Order in 1220. Seen in extremely positive terms by his contemporaries, as a wise, prudent, knowledgeable and eloquent representative of the Church. Despite his advanced age, and a certain reluctance on his part, he succeeded to the papacy in 1227, with none of his gifts showing any sign of diminishment. Assumed the name of Gregory because he was created pope at a monastery bearing the original Gregory’s name. When the HRE Friedrich II (Yukio Mishima) refused to honor his promise to crusade in the Holy Land, he excommunicated him and threatened to depose him, which caused the emperor to rally his Roman nobles against him and he was attacked while celebrating Mass on Easter Tuesday. Forced to quickly leave Rome and wound up in Assisi. Prayed at the tomb of St. Francis, before gathering evidence to canonize him, which was officially done. Although Friedrich eventually went to Jerusalem, as pope he ordered the various orders not to obey him, and in 1229 confirmed the excommunication. After his refusing to return to Rome, the Tiber suddenly overflowed its banks, which was seen as a divine sign of displeasure, causing Friedrich to submit to him, and the two had a meeting at Anagni, where the former took off his cloak and paid obeisance to him, receiving a kiss of peace in return, at which point the chastened emperor returned to Germany, although retained his animosity towards the Holy See. Both the Franciscan and Dominicans grew stronger under his pontificate, as he personally conducted the funeral services for St. Dominic. Created the Monastic Inquisition in 1233, with Dominicans investigation French heresies, while he worked towards a reuniting of the eastern and western churches, receiving a nod from the former acknowledging papal primacy, before talks between the two sides broke off. Created fourteen cardinals during his papacy, including two, the future Innocent IV (Rudy Giuliani) and Alexander IV, who would succeed to the chair of St. Peter. Supported the Teutonic orders as well, in their attempts at Christianizing Prussia, while also sending missionaries to Asia and north Africa. Hostilities broke out between himself and Friedrich once again in 1239, when he excommunicated him a second time, and as the latter was marching on Rome to lay siege to the Eternal City, he died, nearly 100 years old, after a run of fourteen turbulent years in the Chair of St. Peter, in which he continually asserted his authority. Inner: Elegant, eloquent, virtuous, noble, and deeply versed in all matters pertaining to the Church. Strongly opposed all heresies, and bestowed many privileges on the Univ. of Paris, while also watching over any professors who felt philosophy superseded theology. Ecclesiastical egghead lifetime of making his mark on the thirteenth century Holy See of Rome along with his longtime family members, as the most scholarly of the trio. Nehemiah (fl. 5thcentB.Z.) - Hebrew provincial governor. Outer: Of noble birth, and probably from the tribe of Judah. Became a high official in the court of the Persian emperor Antaxeres I (Shah Massoud). Served as the monarch’s cupbearer, which gave him direct access to his ear. After hearing of the devastated state of Jerusalem, he asked to be sent there to refortify it, and was given permission to do so as the province’s new governor, after both the Temple of Solomon and city had been laid waste by the Babylonians. Given letters of passage, as well as access to timber from the royal forests, since it was also in Persia’s best interest that its client state not fall into the hands of other enemy kingdoms. Probably preceded the return of the spiritual leader of the community Ezra (Isaac Asimov) by a dozen years, returning around 445B.Z., although different sources give variant dates for the coming back of each. Made a night journey around the walls and enlisted the help of residents to not only repair them, and completely rebuild where necessary, but to set up rotating guards in case the city were attacked again, completing the task in just 52 days. Proved an equitable ruler, insuring his charge was fed, while canceling previous debts and making sure that those in power did not get more than their fair share of new land allotments. Also made a record of the genealogy of all the nobles, officials and people living in Judea while enforcing a code that made the community observe the Torah, its commandments and regulations. Worked in concert with Ezra (Isaac Asimov) the exiled community’s spiritual leader, in order to give him a new urban foundation in which to re-inculcate the Judaic community with Mosaic Law, and maintain the deep covenant they had with their sense of the divine. Completed the Book of Chronicles, which was begun by Ezra, so that the two would be forever linked in biblical chronologies. After twelve years in Jerusalem, he returned to the Persian court, then came back, only to find its inhabitants had returned to their slothful ways. Once again, he purged the province, and made the Sabbath holy, re-enforcing the Law per his ongoing sense of duty in keeping his charge observant and living in strict accordance with their ancient traditions. Inner: Well-organized, generous and highly competent. His singular negative trait would be a sense of competitive superiority with some of his predecessors, whom he would disparage. Commendable commander lifetime of discharging his duties in highly capable fashion, as a builder, a recorder and a continuer of Mosaic tradition at a time when all three attributes were much needed to bring his contemporary present up to the high standards of the past.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS AUTOCRATIC REFORMER:
Storyline: The thin-skinned crusader gets the job done, whatever he undertakes, while stirring up conflicts galore with his credo of my way or the highway, and his inability to brook any opposition to his considerable will.

Rudy Giuliani (Rudolph William Louis Giuliani) (1944) - American politician and businessman. Outer: Family owned a bar & grill. His grandfather had been forced to close several cigar stores because of the Italian underworld, and his family held a huge animus against the Mafia. His father, a former amateur boxer, had served time for armed robbery in his mid-20s and also worked as an enforcer for a brother-in-law’s loan-sharking business. Mother was a former spelling champion who became a bookkeeper. An only child, he grew up listening to Italian opera, and went to Roman Catholic schools, where he developed a lasting passion for political philosophy and debate. Attended Manhattan College, where he was president of his fraternity, and originally wanted to be a doctor or a priest, while majoring in political science. 5’8 1/2” with dark brown eyes and prematurely bald. At 20, he went on a retreat with Trappist monks, but decided he was too worldly for the calling, and opted for the law instead, while subsequently always putting his professional life ahead of his private one. In 1968, he married educator Regina Perrugi, his second cousin. The union was later annulled by the Church, per his request, since he hadn’t gotten a special dispensation for it. Graduated magna cum laude from NYU law school and worked as a clerk for a federal district judge. Got a half-dozen deferments to escape the draft, while getting the judge he was clerking for to write a special letter of exemption for him. From 1970 to 1975, he was an asst. U.S. attorney in the southern district of NY, establishing his reputation as an aggressive prosecutor, although many of his triumphs were overturned on appeal, thanks to an excessive sense of righteousness. His exploits eventually became the basis for the 1979 film, Prince of the City, which he has never been able to watch. High profile trials continued to enhance his reputation, and he switched political allegiances from a liberal Democrat to a liberal Republican in the late 1970s, while working in Washington. In 1977, he became a partner in a prestigious NY law firm, and in 1981, he was appointed associate attorney general in the Justice Dept. under Ronald Reagan, where he focused on narcotics law enforcement. Married during this period to Donna Hanover, a TV anchorwoman, son and daughter from union. In 1983, he returned to head the U.S. Atty’s office in NY, where he was very aggressive on numerous criminal fronts, with a priority against organized crime. Had several spectacular cases ranging from Wall Street to municipal corruption to organized crime. In 1992, he was elected mayor of NY, for the first of 2 terms. Cleaned up the streets, and made the city safer and saner, albeit far more divided, by enforcing laws against minor infractions, in order to curb larger ones. Empowered the police, disregarded any and all criticisms directed his way, dismissed anyone who disagreed with him, and was seen as a fascist dictator by many, with little compassion for the poor and minorities, since they were often the targets of his over-zealous constables. Ran the city as if it were a business, focusing on efficiency, rather than political patronage, as had been done in the past, while putting together an effective team of strong loyalists. Incurred the wrath of his party by endorsing Democrat Mario Cuomo in a losing bid to extend his stay in the governor’s mansion. Constantly courted conflict, although he was able to win a second term in 1997. Cut 20,000 workers from the city’s payrolls in the process, while ending race and gender preferences in city contracts. In 2000, he ran for senator against Hillary Clinton, but his public battles with his wife, and his overt display of his mistress, Judith Nathan, coupled with a bout with prostate cancer forced him to withdraw, particularly after his numbers bottomed out. Announced at a news conference his intention to divorce his wife, much to her shock, winning the lasting enmity of his children over the egregiously insensitive spectacle, and moved in with a gay couple when she gave him the boot. Experienced his finest hour near the end of his term through his calm leadership during the crisis aftermath of the 9/11/2001 destruction of the World Trade Center, despite having his emergency command center destroyed when he put it in one of the buildings prior to the tragedy, then pushed the good will and restored reputation he had gained by trying to extend his term of office. Eventually left NYC with a $4 billion deficit. Won “Person of the Year,” honors from “Time” magazine for his efforts, although was later denied custody of his children, and divorced in 2002. Upon leaving office, he began an extremely lucrative consulting firm, Giuliani Partners, whose client list would include such terrorist-harboring states as Qatar, while he basked in the adulation of his 9/11 triumph, making some $8 million dollars in speaking engagements as an expert on the so-called ‘war on terror,’ before joining a Texas law firm, and using the synergy of business, politics and big money to create a viable network for himself, as well as ballooning his net worth to somewhere between $18 and $70 million. Authored “Leadership” the following year, a self-glorifying account of his sense of stewardship. Married the twice-divorced Nathan, a registered nurse who had helped him in his bout with cancer, in 2003, which gave them 6 marriages between them. It would later be revealed that he billed obscure city agencies for the security expenses needed to see her on the sly. Gave a stirring speech at the 2004 Republican convention, only to subsequently push his former police commissioner, Bernard Kerik, on the president as homeland security director, to his subsequent embarrassment, when the latter proved mobbed up and a tax delinquent. Resigned from the Iraqi Study Group, to chase after money rather than attending meetings, in order to focus on the 2008 Republican presidential nomination. Immediately began fudging on his abortion stand, to make himself more palatable to the conservative wing of the party, while showing himself an enthusiastic supporter of the Iraq War, despite being a harsh critic of the Bush administration’s decision-making. One of the initial favorites for the nomination, before questions began to rise around his past actions. Subsequently spent the coin of his campaign warmongering and endlessly invoking 9/11, in his continuing exploitation of his one true moment of national glory, while having to deal with tainted associates, as well as lacerating, highly critical views of his third wife by the press. After earlier suing the NRA while an adamant gun-control mayor, suddenly saw the light and endorsed them, claiming 9/11 as his mind-changing point, in yet another cynical pandering to his newly sought-after base. His posturing, however, would win him the dance with the devil endorsement of the Rev. Pat Robertson, despite the latter’s repugnance for many of his stances. His judgments, exploitative business practices and associates, however, would come back to haunt him, and force the country to look anew at its self-proclaimed, ‘America’s mayor,’ sending his numbers and support spiraling downward. Forced to bow out after spending $59 million for one delegate, in a spectacular flame-out, that ultimately saw him support John McCain. Later mulled over runs for NY governor and senator, which he serially decided against, thereby ending his public political career, in favor of lucrative positions milking his singular moment of glory for all the money and prestige he can possibly get out of it. In 2015, he claimed Pres. Obama didn’t love his country, just to remind everyone he still had the capacity to irk and alienate even as a sideline figure long out of the limelight. Forced later to retract the claim when it elicited an extreme negative reaction. In January of 2016, he left his law firm to join Greenberg, Traurig a major lobbying outfit, with dozens of deep-pocket clients, looking to privatize prisons. In the wake of police shootings of black citizens, he spewed hate and venom, claiming 99% of boac children had the potential of being criminally inclined, before giving an exclamation point laden speech at the RNC, underlining the Hillsry-bashing theme of the convention. Continued throughout the campaign to be a strident Trump supporter, backing him on all his claims, no matter how egregious or outrageous. However, he opted out of a position in his administration, in favor of pursuing his goals of wealth and power in the private sector. Became an adviser instead on cybersecurity, only to see his website mysteriously disappear for a while soon afterwards in an obvious hack Has a net worth of $45 million. Inner: Tenacious, iron-willed, conflict-prone and absolutely incapable of handling criticism. Dictatorial, divisive, and autocratic, with a demand of absolute loyalty from his subordinates, and an ability to share the spotlight, but with a definitive urban view that worked on some levels. Only sleeps four hours a night. In-your-face lifetime of standing up to perceived evil, meting out his own brand of justice irregardless of constitutional rights and proving to be a non-stop embarrassment both in an out of the public eye. Joseph Pulitzer (1847-1911) - Hungarian/American publisher. Outer: 2nd son of a retired grain merchant who was Jewish, mother was Catholic. The former died young, while the latter soon remarried, Had a well-tutored childhood, then left home at 17, and after being rejected as a volunteer by both the Austrian and French armies in 1864, he migrated to America, and enlisted in the Union army, spending much of his time as an orderly. After the war, he went to St. Louis, and worked under the tutelage of fellow immigrant Carl Schurz (Mario Cuomo), becoming a reporter for his German-language newspaper. Cut a foolish figure with his scarecrow frame, hooked nose and guttural English, but was able to transcend his unimposing physical presence and become a top-notch reporter. Married Kate Davis, a cousin of former Confederacy president Jefferson Davis (Lyndon B. Johnson), and an eyeful, who was both distant and aristocratic, 7 children from the union. Won a seat as a Republican on the Missouri legislature in 1870, and 2 years later he was named secretary of the Republican convention. Broke with Schurz 4 years afterwards and joined the Democratic party to work for Samuel Tilden (Thomas E. Dewey) on his failed run for the presidency. 2 years following, he bought the St. Louis Dispatch at a public auction for $2500 and later added the St. Louis Post, which laid the foundation for mass-circulation journalism, with a sensationalistic presentation of the news, and publicity stunts and self-advertising, mixed with crusades for civic reform. Added the New York World to his stable in 1883, after his chief editorial writer shot and killed a political opponent of the Post-Dispatch, and turned it into the leading Democratic daily in the country. Supported labor, attacked trusts and proselytized for reform, while always acting as a competent manager, well aware of the bottom line, which made him a considerable fortune. Saw newspapers, above all, as vehicles for entertainment, and designed his to have the biggest circulation possible in order to attract advertising, although he was also a conscientious reformer, taking a middle-class view of the world around him. Introduced the comics, sports, women’s fashion and illustrations to the daily newspaper world. Continued adding to his stable, but frayed nerves, severe ailments, and failing eyesight which ultimately led to blindness, forced him to give up direct control of his empire in 1889, although he remained its overseer, while traveling extensively. In 1896, an intense competition with William Randolph Hearst’s publishing empire, caused both to whip up a war against Spain for the primary purpose of selling newspapers. At his death from a heart attack aboard his yacht Liberty, he left $2 million for the nation’s first journalism school at Columbia Univ., and $250,000 for his prestigious Pulitzer prizes awarded each year, beginning in 1917, for excellence in a variety of fields of journalism. His last words, in German, to his secretary, were, “softly, quite softly, quite softly.” Inner: Alternately autocratic and kindly, treating his underlings as if they were children, although he was always generous with them. Saw journalism in terms of being an independent informational source, and was the precursor of the muckrakers of the 20th century. Had aristocratic tastes, despite his concern for commonality, but ran his empire as if he were a true emperor. Prize lifetime of reinventing himself in an alien democratic milieu, and proving himself to be quite adept in all his undertakings, despite his ongoing contradictory character, and his inability to see anything that interfered with his own view of things, as exemplified by his ultimate blindness. vFranz II (1768-1835) - Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Grandson of Empress Maria Theresa (Mary Renault). Father was the future emperor Leopold II (Mario Cuomo),. Mother was Maria Luisa (Julia Louis-Dreyfus), a Spanish princess.. Brought up in his parents’ lively household in Florence and taught all the virtues of the Enlightenment, while being given freedom of expression and play. Difficult and sly as a child, he was brought to the imperial court at 17, and found himself in a completely opposite environment, under his martinet uncle, Joseph II (Michael Moore), where he was forced to control all his emotions and impulses. Sent to Hungary to join a military regiment, much preferring its simple rules and routines to the constant judgments of his uncle. In 1788, he married Elizabeth of Wurttemberg, a German princess for political reasons, one short-lived daughter from union. His wife died shortly afterwards, the day after his uncle. His father reluctantly succeeded to the throne, and 2 years later, in 1792, he became the last of his line to claim the title of Holy Roman Emperor. In 1790 he married his double first cousin, Maria Theresa of the Two Sicilies. Had 14 children all told, 13 by his 2nd mate. Affectionate husband and father, finding his release in happy domesticity, just as his father had. Greatly feared the French Revolution, and became more and more rigid and reactionary in response to it, despite realizing an inherent need for reform in his office. Struggled to make it more efficient, employing a police network of spies and informers, and generating a ton of paper, as an absolutist throwback. Defeated twice by France, he imperiously elevated Austria to an empire, and after his third defeat in 1806, he was forced to abdicate as HRE by order of Napoleon, when the latter dissolved the old empire he had inaugurated a millennium before as Charlemagne. The following year, his wife died, and he once again wed a first cousin, Maria Ludovika. Lost a 4th war to Napoleon, and, though he despised him, married off his eldest surviving daughter, Marie-Louise (Aaliyah), to him. Present at many battles which finally brought down Napoleon, and afterwards supported his chief minister, Klemens Mettenich’s (Henry Kissinger) backward look at empire and absolutism. Several months after his third wife’s death in 1816, he wed a fourth and final time to a Bavarian princess and widow, Karoline Charlotte Auguste, who was nearly a quarter century his junior. Although highly conservative in his politics, he patronized the arts and sciences, and introduced new technology. Died of a sudden fever, while surrounded by his family on the day following the anniversary of his father’s death. A cult of the good emperor began immediately afterwards. Succeeded to the Hapsburg realms by his inept and epileptic son, Ferdinand. Inner: Affectionate nature through early upbringing, although forced to reign himself in. Only domesticity gave him release, uptight and highly conservative to the outside world. Hard worker, upright, moral, but a relic of an age past. Half-realized lifetime of learning to loosen up emotionally within a family framework, but unable to integrate his emotion and intellectuality in the larger service of rule. vCosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) - Italian duke of Tuscany. Outer: Oldest surviving child of the 5th grand duke of Tuscany. His icy mother and homophile father were bitter antagonists. Tall and heavyset, with an upturned mustache. In 1660, over the objections of her family, he married Johann of Austria, the niece of Louis XIII (Michael Bay) of France, Marguerite-Louise d’Orleans. Missed his own wedding because of the measles, and the match proved equally disastrous, with the flirtatious princess bored beyond belief with her straitlaced mate, 2 sons from union. the lively duchess was well-liked, while he was not. Became the 6th grand duke of Tuscany in 1670, and wound up ruling longer than anyone else in his family, 53 years, although continually saw his power curtailed. Repeatedly tried to get his marriage annulled, while his wife incessantly plotted around returning to France, and finally did so in 1675, becoming a nun, albeit a worldly one, who continued to meddle from afar. Became more and more devout to escape the various pressures on him, showing himself to be religiously intolerant, by persecuting Jews and heretics. Had a change of heart over his wife, who spurned his proposal for a reconciliation. Both problematic sons proved barren, so that he saw his line was due for extinction. Wanted a republican form of government, albeit the European powers-that-were eagerly awaited the end of his family, to reclaim the territory, making provision to do so five years before his death. His wife died two years before him and tried to leave her holdings to distant relatives, although he won them back as one of his last acts. Succeeded by his son, Gian Gastone, who wound up last in the line, and the duchy reverted to France at the latter’s death fourteen years later. Inner: Reserved, devout, great benefactor of the church, but dull and sobersided. Disappointing lifetime of experiencing his power whittled away on all sides, intimately, politically and dynastically, and being forced to deal with it as a last man standing of his line. Innocent IV (Sinibaldo Fieschi) (c1195-1254) - Italian pope. Outer: From a noble merchant family, father was a count of Lavagna. Received a solid education at Parma and Bologna, and became a professor of canon law at the latter, before being appointed auditor of the Roman Curia. An expert on the subject of law, he was made vice-chancellor of the Church and Cardinal Priest, before serving as governor of the March of Ancona from 1235 to 1240. May also have been bishop of Albenga at the same time. Following the death of Gregory IX (Mario Cuomo), and an extremely brief pontificate that lasted a little over two weeks, the papacy was empty for a year and a half, while the excommunicated HRE Friedrich II (Yukio Mishima) was exerting his considerable power in the Papal States, including kidnapping two prelates. In 1243, he was elected pope by unanimous accord, despite a reluctance n his part to take the position. Both he and the emperor had mutually admired one another prior to his elevation to the Chair of St. Peter, although he distrusted him, and refused to receive his subsequent messengers congratulating him on his high office. In their subsequent negotiations, however, neither side would give in the papacy’s demand that the empire hand over the portions of the Papal States that it held. Friedrich was able to manipulate political sentiment against the pope throughout Italy, forcing him to secretly return to Genoa in disguise, before going to Lyons, where he was able to operate in a highly supportive environment. Called a council of bishops there, with the containment of Friedrich as their main order of business, although its attendance was sparse, despite the presence of Baldwin II (Roald Emmerich), the beleaguered Latin emperor of Constantinople. The bishops within the range of Friedrich’s reach were too afraid to attend, limiting their ultimate number to about 150, with almost all from France and Spain. The Council deposed and excommunicated the emperor, and ordered a crusade against him, which caused turmoil all over the continent that was not relieved until the emperor’s death in 1250. Able to return to Italy afterwards, although he did not feel Rome was safe for the papal court until 1253. Continued in the same reformist tradition as his predecessors Innocent III (Michael Moore), Honorius III and Gregory IX, while seeing himself as a supreme arbiter over all earthly matters, as vice-regent of the heavens, just as his fellow thirteenth century popes had. Published an authoritative commentary on the Decretals of Gregory IX, while authorizing torture in the inquisitional practice of eliciting confessions from heretics. Canonized several saints, while ignoring many Church abuses, since his entire focus was on weakening the power of the Hohenstaufens, the family of Friedrich. Interfered in various affairs of state, including non-Christian domains, such as the Mongol Empire, although his stances had little effect there. Paid far more attention to political than spiritual matters, as his taxation policies in the Papal States made him increasingly unpopular, while similar demands on the laity of other countries, also gave rise to constant plaint lodged against his meddling ways. Played a role in the deposition of the king of Portugal, per the latter’s brother’s request, then tried the same with Friedrich’s son, Manfred, in Sicily. Wished to incorporate Sicily into the Papal States, but did not have the economic or political wherewithal to do so. In recompense, he offered the Sicilian crown to a variety of both English and French royalty, who all refused, while excommunicating Friedrich’s other son, Conrad IV (Antonio Banderas). After the latter’s sudden death, he finally recognized the hereditary claims of his two year old son, Conradin. Forced to move to Agnani because of the political tensions he created. Manfred submitted to him in order to buy time, and was made papal vicar for southern Italy, although it did not stop him from organizing a rebellions, replete with riots over the authority of the kingdom’s nine year old English sovereign. Already on his death bed, the news hastened his departure. Inner: Extremely political, far more so than spiritual, with a severe will that refused to be brooked. My way or the highway lifetime of following in the papal footsteps of his longtime family members, as an unbending prelate bent on making papal will supreme throughout Europe.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS MESSIANIC MUCKRAKER:
Storyline: The antic documentarian loves centerstage finger-pointing and making himself larger-than-life, while fighting the good fight against the corruption and evils of democracy gone wild.

vMichael Moore (Michael Francis Moore) (1954) - American documentary filmmaker and writer. Outer: Of mostly Irish as well as English and Scottish descent. From a working-class background. Father was an assembly-line worker and mother was a secretary. Raised a Catholic. 6’, well over 300 pounds, with a penchant for baseball caps. Attended the Univ. of Michigan at Flint for a year before dropping out to found an alternative weekly. Briefly served as an editor and columnist for “Mother Jones” magazine, before being fired. Also worked for consumer advocate Ralph Nader, although left on bad terms, despite remaining friendly with him. Ran bingo games to help raise money for his first film, Roger & Me in 1989, about the closing down of a GM factory in his hometown. The film put him on the public map, and he became a ubiquitous gadfly, both in print and celluloid afterwards. Married Kathleen Glynn in 1991, daughter from union. Produced two TV series, “TV Nation” in 1994 and “The Awful Truth,” in 1999, although the printed page and documentaries would prove to be more effective media for him. Wrote several bestselling works, including, “Downsize This,” in 1996, “Stupid White Men,” and “Dude, Where’s My Country?”, taking on the power elite from the vantage of populist outrage. Won an Academy Reward in 2003 for his documentary on U.S. gun culture and violence with Bowling for Columbine, then gave a highly critical acceptance speech of George W. Bush’s recent invasion of Iraq. In 2004, he released Fahrenheit 9/11, a further expose of Bush shenanigans around the war on terrorism, and became a deeply divisive character himself, for his in-your-face populism, and ubiquitous presence as an administration scold. Able to manipulate the subsequent hue and cry into the most commercially successful documentary ever made, and tried to get it nominated for Best Picture, rather than Best Documentary. Detractors claim he is as loose with his facts as those he attacks for their similar disregard for the truth. Despite his uberpopulace stance, he lives in a $1.9 million dollar home in NYC, and enjoys a chauffeured limousine, while not tooling around in his VW. Nevertheless, he enjoyed his love him/hate him status in the political brouhahas of the Dub OOs, while continuing to amass a handsome fortune for his efforts. Took on America’s health industry in his follow-up film, Sicko, romanticizing both Canada and Cuba’s approach in comparison with the U.S., while eliciting the interest of federal investigators for visiting the latter. Nevertheless, signed a lucrative 50% of the gross contract with his distributor, in his ongoing role as highly well-paid populist. In that spirit, his next effort, Capitalism: A Love Story, showed him to be the New Deal Democrat he always has been, with the same scattershot approach to all his subject matter, pleasing his fans, and failing to impress anyone else. Ended his marriage after two decades in 2014, and plunged into film festivals and theater restoration, before bringing forth Where Do We Invade Next in 2015, looking at other progressive countries to ask if they can have extraordinary public education, high quality health-care systems, low crime rates, humane working conditions and great quality of life, why can't America? Worth some $50 million from his documentary efforts. The film, however, proved to be his worst performing offering ever. The following annum, he produced Michael Moore in Trumpland a 73 minute cinematic voyage into the head of a dejected working-class citizen in one of the “Brexit” states of the mid-west that could lead to a Donald Trump upset victory, a happenstance he worries mightily about. After it came to pass, he became a continual heckler from the sidelines, underscoring all the latter’s egregious faults. Launched the website Trumpileaks for whistleblowers in 2017, seeing the president as a clear and present danger to democracy. In that light, he made his Broadway, debut, “The Terms of My Surrender,” a one man show with a limited run, hoping to help the president also have a very limited run in the White House. Worth some $50 million. Inner: Colossal ego, genuine sense of moral outrage, and reformer to the bone. Loves to provoke and goad, while evincing an excellent instinct for audience stimulation, be it positive or negative. Can you hear me now? lifetime of taking centerstage in the social and political frays of his times, as a galloping gadfly only too eager to sting the larger corrupt horses of both business and state. vLincoln Steffens (Joseph Lincoln Steffens) (1866-1936) - American writer. Outer: Father was a Canadian, but moved to Illinois, and then became a partner in a paint and oil concern in California, growing quite wealthy from it. Mother was an English émigré. Eldest of 4, with three younger sisters. Enjoyed an idyllic childhood, then after attending a military academy, he graduated from the Univ. of California at Berkeley, and headed for Europe for 3 years, spending most of his time studying in Germany, where he picked up his positivist Christian socialist views. Slightly built, with the goateed look of a European artist. Secretly married Josephine Bontecou, who was a decade his senior, and as strongly opinionated as he, in 1891. The unconventional union was childless, and she became a novelist before turning into an invalid and dying of Bright’s disease in 1911. Returned to the U.S. in 1892, and was told by his sire, who refused to support him any longer, to learn to be practical, which he did by becoming a reporter on the NY Evening Post, for the next 6 years, where he specialized in financial and police news. Served as a city editor for NYC’s oldest newspaper, the Commercial Advertiser, putting together a staff of inexperienced college grads to breathe new life into it, and then tried some fiction, but did not find his true métier until he turned to magazine writing in 1902, thereby joining the muckrakers of the time, in exposing massive public corruption. After the turn of the century, he became an editor and staff writer at the prestigious “McClure’s” for 5 years, during which time his exposure of municipal corruption, which was compiled into book form, “Shame of the Cities,” made him a national name. More the isolator of problems, than their solver, he, nevertheless, remained an uncompromising beacon of the ideals of democracy, while appealing to the anger and outrage of his readership. Far more interested in the emotional resonance of his writing than the facts behind his accusations, thanks to an overarching view that success in industrial society naturally breeds moral decay. An activist, as well as a reformer, he operated from a moral Christian base, as well as a socialistic philosophy, and increasingly became more fascinated with revolutionary activity outside the U.S., after feeling muckraking had not truly changed things. Eventually alienated his American base with his radicalism, and made several trips to Mexico during its civil war and revolution of the teens, as well as to Russia, following its morphing into the U.S.S.R., myopically pronouncing afterwards, “I have been over into the future, and it works,” despite living quite comfortably off of his stock market earnings. Remarried in 1924, to Ella Winter, an Australian-born journalist and activist who was over 30 years his junior, one son from the union. Although he never joined the American Communist Party, she did. The following year, he began working on his memoirs, which would be most lasting work. Became a gadfly lecturer, and settled in Carmel, California, where he wrote his extremely well-received “Autobiography” in 1931. Spent his last three years in ill health, although continued churning out articles and receiving visitors, never wavering in his admiration for the Soviet Union. Died at home of a heart ailment. Inner: Lively and inquisitive, although not particularly deep. Compassionate, highly ethical, and shrewd, with a gift for memorable aphorisms. Radical and yet deeply democratic, with a host of luminaries for friends. Although one of the original muckrakers, he claimed it was a tradition started by the Biblical prophets. Quixotic lifetime of serving as a knight for democracy in sludge-proof armor, while putting his true coin in questions raised rather than answers given, and joining his crypto-brothers as a journalist of his times, from, as usual, a far more leftist perspective. vJoseph II (1741-1791) - Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Oldest son of HREs Maria Theresa (Mary Renault) and Franz I (Josef Albers). Raised in a warm, loving family atmosphere. Given an excellent education and showed a keen interest in politics, although he did not think much of the court he inherited. Quite like his mother in his extended work hours, and obliviousness to discomfort. Passionately in love with his wife, Isabella of Parma, whom he married in 1760 and who died of smallpox in 1763, leaving him devastated. Their only daughter passed from pleurisy 7 years later. Became emperor at the age of 24 at death of his father, although was dominated by his indomitable mother until her death, 15 years later. Continually chafed under her, since the only thing they both agreed upon was effecting change. Wanted to be viewed as a great general, staying with his troops in 2 campaigns, although both proved disastrous. Showed himself to be an enlightened despot who wished to change everything about his realm, from top to bottom. Continued the reforms of his mother with a passionate zeal, making many enemies in the process, particularly with the Church, whose power he greatly diminished. Had a general concern for his subjects and abolished serfdom, while emancipating the Jews, thereby enhancing the cultural life of Vienna. Founded schools, hospitals, insane asylums, poorhouses, orphanages, and granted freedom of the press, but alienated the more conservative elements of his realm through his abolishment of hereditary privilege. His concern for his subjects wore heavily on his own body, and his health failed him. War, along with revolts throughout his realm, a poor foreign policy and his own premature death overturned many of his reforms, and he died unmourned by the powers of Europe as well as the elite of his own dominion. Racked by pain in his last months and constantly coughing up blood, nevertheless, he focused on affairs of state, signing 80 documents on his last full day, then died, shaking from convulsions. Succeeded by his brother, Leopold II (Mario Cuomo). Inner: Energetic, impatient, restless and imperious, felt the world could be rationally ordered. Hated by the clergy and nobles, but loved by the common people. His lack of tact and diplomacy alienated his own ministers and undermined his effectiveness. Unintegrated lifetime of being slightly ahead of his time, with an inability to fuse his vision with the tactful action to fully implement it. Francesco I de’ Medici (1541-1587) - Italian duke of Tuscany. Outer: Father was Cosimo I de’ Medici, mother was the daughter of the viceroy of Naples. Brother of Ferdinando I (Mario Cuomo). Inherited his father’s suspicious and despotic nature. Appointed head of government at 13, while his sire was still alive. Took Bianca Cappello, from a wealthy Venetian family, as his mistress in 1563, after she had been abandoned by a lover, and she remained the love of his life, despite formally marrying the Holy Roman emperor’s archduchess sister in 1564, 6 children from union, 2 of whom survived. Succeeded his sire as grand duke in 1574, receiving the title from the HRE Maximilian II (Darryl F. Zanuck), whose House of Hapsburg guaranteed his dynasty’s hereditary right to Tuscany in return for his acting as a vassal of the empire. Seen as a tyrant like his father, and was not well-liked. Had 2 dramatic tragedies in his family within a week period in 1576, with a brother murdering his wife, and a sister strangled by her husband, in each case, for suspicions of adultery. Twice refused to be a candidate for the throne of Poland. Fed into the commercial life of his stronghold by strengthening his fleet, draining the marshes, developing Livorno as his domain’s premier port and opening several trading posts in the eastern Mediterranean. Patronized artists, commissioning many sculptors and founded the Uffizi picture gallery, which housed his house’s fine collection. Had a passionate interest in the natural sciences, particularly chemistry and the possibility of discovering the ‘philosopher’s stone,’ which could alchemize gold from lesser metals. When his wife died in 1578, he finally married Bianca and had her crowned the following year, and the duo ultimately died within hours of one another from malaria. Produced no male heir, and was succeeded by his brother, Ferdinando. Inner: Aloof, dutiful and controlling, but with a romantic sensibility. Carbon copy lifetime of continuing as a clone of his far more powerful father, as well as his own genetic line, while tempering his distant nature with genuine love, and passion for artistic beauty and magical science. Innocent III (Lotario de’ Conti di Segni) (c1160-1216) - Italian pope. Outer: Father was a Roman count, mother was of noble birth, as well. Nephew of Pope Clement III. Small and handsome. Studied in Rome, before going to the Univ. of Paris, and, through the auspices of his aristocratic relatives, finished his education at the Univ. of Bologna, where he took up canon law. Because of his family connections, he rose easily through the church hierarchy, becoming a cardinal-deacon at 29. The rival Orsini family, however, was in control of Rome during the time, forcing him to suspend his larger career, and pen a trinity of books. On the death of Celestine III in 1198, he was elected to the papacy as a nonparty candidate, and immediately showed his reforming zeal, considering his pontificate the most important position in both the secular and religious worlds. Before he could mount the Chair of St. Peter, he had to receive both priest and bishop’s orders, since he had never done so beforehand. Reorganized his secretariat to deal with the papacy’s increased orders of business, and immediately set about bringing Rome to heel, a task that took the first decade of his papacy, as he steadily regained control of the Papal States. Claimed the right to choose the new German emperor, and did so with Otto (Chris Patten), in 1201, although his rival Philipp (J. William Fulbright) proved the more powerful until his murder in 1208, at which point the magnates chose Otto, and he was duly crowned in Rome. Otto, however, claimed the Kingdom of Sicily, and he was immediately excommunicated, before being deposed, at which point Friedrich II (Yukio Mishima), still a teenager, won the crown. Stood up to the kings and emperors of his time, claiming the divine right to choose them. Authorized force against the Catharist heresy in southern France, initiating a genocidal crusade against them, after they failed to respond to his preaching. Wished to restore the sacred spaces of the Middle East to Christian hands, and initiated the Fourth Crusade, only to see it dissipate its energies via various subplots, including a retaking of Byzantium in order to try to reseat its rightful emperor, amidst even further destruction and bloodlust, while he tried to spin the chaos into a healing for the split eastern and western churches. His last hurrah was the convocation of the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, in an attempt to effect the purification and reforms so badly needed by the Church, while also secretly hoping to redirect the energy of the Crusade. It would be the most widely attended convocation of the Middle Ages, and easily dominated by him, with 70 canons focused on heresies and crusade. Readily gave support to St. Dominic to set up a new order, the Dominicans, to complement the far more passive Franciscans. Totally worn out, he died in the middle of negotiations for shipping for the Fourth Crusade, leaving a strong legacy behind of a reformist pontiff with a very clear vision of where he wished the medieval church to go. Universally seen as one of the most powerful figures ever to occupy the Chair of St. Peter. Inner: Potentate at heart, although recognized the needs of ordinary people, and the power of simple faith. Saw himself as a temporal ruler, with the Catholic Church a state, like any other European polity, so that heresy would be viewed as a treasonous offense. Confident, patient, approachable and simple, with a sense of humor. Proud of his voice, seeing it as a vehicle of power. Sceptre-in-hand lifetime of bringing his ongoing reformist zeal to an institution long on tradition and short on tolerance for change, making him a crusading champion of orthodoxy, and a figure of considerable ecclesiastical stature, despite his small size.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS JUT-JAWED STRUTTER:
Storyline: The fascist fulminator loves to play the strong man, only to continually fall prey to his weaknesses, and in his latest debacle, winds up upside down on a meathook as testament to his meat-headed leadership and continued inability to make his imperial will manifest for any significant length of time.
Benito Mussolini (1883-1943) - Italian dictator. Outer: Oldest son of a blacksmith, who was also a socialist journalist, and strongly anti-clerical, naming him after Mexican revolutionary Benito Suarez (Lazaro Cardenas), who fought against clerical privilege. May have had the same sire as his previous go-round in this series. Mother was a schoolteacher. One of 3 children, with a brother and sister. Grew up in poverty, while his father spent his money discussing politics in taverns and on his mistress. Restless, disobedient and aggressive as a child, he was a bully at school and unhappy at home. Sent off to 2 schools, but was expelled from both for violent behavior. 5’7”, pale and jut-jawed with piercing eyes. Eventually became a teacher, although he found the work unsuitable, and wandered, read voraciously, while evincing a compelling magnetic character and a gift for verbal persuasion. Began agitating for a trade union, was arrested and imprisoned several times, then came back to Rome in 1904 with a reputation as a rabble-rouser. Became a schoolteacher again, before returning to trade-union agitating, journalism and radical politics. During this period he took up with Ida Dalser, whom he may have married, although their union ended when he had her committed to a lunatic asylum in 1917 as an unbalanced criminal. Their one son would later be institutionalized as well, while the existence of both would be an embarrassment for him as he rose to power, and would be suppressed until after his death. After being imprisoned again and released, he fell in love with one of the daughters of his father’s mistress, Donna Guidi, and married her in 1915, before being incarcerated for a 5th time, 3 sons and 2 daughters from the union, including Vittorio, a film critic, Bruno (Bruno Kirby) a bomber pilot, and Romano, an acclaimed jazz pianist. Wrote for a number of socialist journals, before founding a paper of his own, The Class Struggle, which proved highly successful and landed him the editorship of the official socialist newspaper. Opposed Italy’s intervention in WW I, then switched his position, seeing war as a pathway to the socialist revolution he so ardently championed. Wounded in the fighting after briefly being on the front, he returned home to become an equally fervent anti-socialist and confirmed fascist, calling for a dictator to bring Italy together, while immodestly proposing himself as just the chap for the job. Formed a fascist party in Milan, calling it the Fasci di Combattimento, using ancient Rome for the basis for his tightly bundled imagery. Well aware of the effects of political theater, he developed a staccato style of delivery, and surrounded himself with black-shirted cohorts, so that the crowds he attracted rarely listened to what he actually said, which was often contradictory, but reveled in the performances he orchestrated. Used the fascist salute of the extended right arm because he thought it was more hygienic than a handshake, despite rarely washing himself. A totall exhibitionist, he loved whipping off his shirt and appearing bare-chested, as symbol of his vital masculinity. Won 1.5% of the vote in 1919, then exploited a general strike, and marched on Rome with his fellow fascists, creating a threat that toppled the government, which feared civil war or a Communist overthrow, even though he was only expecting a compromise from the king. In 1922, he became the youngest prime minister in Italian his/story over a coalition government. Offered a list of ministers to the king who were not all fascists, but made it clear he would be the ultimate authority. By 1924, he had secured dictatorial power for himself, and proved extremely popular, getting the trains to run on time, imposing order on the previous chaos, improving the lot of the common worker, carrying out social reforms without alienating his industrial base and inaugurating an ambitious array of public works. Weathered three assassination attempts, including being shot in the tip of the nose in 1926 by an unbalanced Irishwoman, which caused him to create a police state in recompense, while boldly declaring he loved danger, but the Italian people did not. In his consolidation of power, he destroyed all opposition parties, closed newspapers and banished all dissidents, while reinstituting capital punishment for all political crimes. Signed a concordat with the papacy in 1929 to gain its blessing, despite no sense of religiosity on his part, and subsequently oversaw a largely ill-fed and impoverished nation, which continued as such via his constant emphasis on style over substance. Through his absolute control over his homeland over the next decade, he was hailed throughout Europe as a savior and the prototype of the vigorous strongman, while constantly being lauded by the conservative press through his own carefully cultivated personality cult as the second coming of Roman dictator Julius Caesar (Charles de Gaulle). In a desire to be a true emperor, he invaded Abyssinia in 1935, determined that Italy would have an empire, and easily defeated the ill-defended country within a year, with the injudicious use of poison gas, although continual guerrilla movements would eventually liberate it in 1941. Had mixed success in his contributions to the Spanish Civil War despite the Fascist victory there, and invaded Albania for no other purpose than to try to show Italy it was a world power. Privately decried the weakness and softness of his nation, and its non-bellicose nature, while constantly trying to present it to the world as otherwise. Made an alliance with Germany’s Nazi dictator, Adolf Hitler, creating the Rome-Berlin Axis, which sucked his country into the continent’s second in its series of world wars, despite complete misgivings about Italy’s role in such a misadventure. Proved equally anti-Semitic, albeit from a political, rather than racial prejudice. A poor general, himself, he watched as Italy fared worse and worse in the fighting, chafing under his role as secondary partner while Hitler refused to divulge any of his plans to him. Attacked Greece through Albania, but was roundly defeated, then had to be extricated from North Africa. After the Allies invaded Sicily in 1943, he was voted out of office by a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council and was arrested by royal command. Imprisoned, then rescued by the Germans and taken to Munich, he established a republican Fascist government in the north of Italy. Refused to leave the country, even though the Axis war effort was collapsing, because he wanted to make a final stand in the mountains, although only a few men chose to follow him. Tried to escape disguised as a German soldier, but was recognized by partisans, and executed with shots to the chest, along with 18 others, including his mistress, Clara Petacci (Monica Bellucci). Trucked to Milan afterwards, his corpse was displayed upside down in a public square at an Esso gas station, then cut down and left in the gutter, in a final act of complete ignominy. Buried along with Petacci in an unmarked grave, then later dug up, and hidden in a crate in a Capuchin monastery, before coming to its final resting place in an elaborate crypt in a family plot near where he was born. Inner: Aggressive, bombastic, vainglorious, ruthlessly repressed all opposition, while continually concerning himself with outer trappings and gestures, rather than core values. Felt “war is to men as maternity is to women.” Inveterate lecher, although had strong feelings for his final mistress, Petacci. Bigheaded lifetime of becoming the living embodiment of the control ethic to which chaos often gives birth, before ultimately getting his comeuppance for his overextended vanity, and deciding to abandon the political realm in order to work on his unintegrated interior in his next go-round in this series. nAngelo Brunetti (1800-1849) - Italian revolutionary. Outer: Son of a blacksmith. Lived and worked his entire in the Campo Marzio district of Rome. A burly giant, he carted wine from the city’s surrounding hills, and owned a tavern outside Rome’s northern gates. Married with at least two sons. Active with the carbonari, he joined Guiseppe Mazzini’s (Palmiro Togliatti) Young Italy Movement in the 1830s. By the mid-1840s, he had become a key Roman player, thanks to his impressive size and his ability to give direct perspective of ordinary social needs. Nicknamed “Ciceruacchio” a reference to the Roman orator Cicero (Abraham Lincoln), for his gift of rousing speech. When Pope Pius IX (John Paul II) was elected Pope in 1846, he came into his own, offering a moderately liberal collective brand of quasi-socialism as the answer to the general populace’s needs. Sponsored festivities the following year that gave populist ballast to his ideas and also supported the pope in his own liberalizing agenda. Gave a picnic for 400 lower class citizens and also a national banquet for 600 in order to mark the yearly celebration of the founding of Rome, and as a means of yoking together ordinary citizenry to show them that they were a political force unto themselves. Organized parades and processions, and was hailed by high and low alike for keeping the potential unruly city mob orderly and focused. Calmed tensions between the city’s Jewish enclave and the larger populace through direct action, as a further display of populist power. Began separating himself from the papacy, in order to implement the specific institutions which would give Rome’s common people far more political power. Became a leader of the militia contingent of his district, and worked in concert with other neighborhood militia captains, in order to educate lower class leaders into the larger cause. One of his sons, Luigi Brunetti, assassinated the pope’s minister, precipitating a crisis that ultimately caused Pius IX to flee Rome. In the aftermath, the Roman Republic was formed, and his ministrations kept the city relatively orderly, in the transition. Continued in his prominent position in the civic militia, and went on political missions to the national assembly. In the first democratic municipal elections in Rome’s long his/story, during the spring of 1849, he was elected to the hundred-member city council. Helped to defend the Republic, then joined the army of Guiseppe Garibaldi (Antonio Banderas), as French armies prepared to enter Rome. Caught, along with his two sons 6 weeks later, and all three were executed. Inner: Goodnatured, with a large heart, and the desire to make common cause with the ordinary citizens of Italy. Populist lifetime of learning how to take it to the streets in preparation for a far higher rise to power in the same arena, using far more brutal methods to effect his ends. nTheodor Neuhof (1694-1756) - German adventurer. Outer: Father was a Westphalian nobleman. Educated at the French court, before serving in the French and Bavarian armies, then went to England and Spain as a diplomat in the service of Sweden. Married the daughter of an Irish lord, one son from union also led a life of hustling among the nobility of Europe before committing suicide. Left Spain with his wife’s jewels in 1720, and spent the proceeds on the failed financial speculations of John Law (Joseph P. Kennedy) while in Paris, before going to Genoa, where he convinced some Corsican prisoners that he could free their isle if they made him king. Landed on Corsica, with the help of some Tunisian merchants, and proclaimed himself Theodore I in 1736. Successful in his initial engagements against Genoese control there, but after he was defeated, civil war broke out, and he was forced to flee. Returned twice, over the next 7 years, but was unable to establish his authority again. Fled to London, where he was imprisoned for debt, and finally secured his release by mortgaging his kingdom. Lived the rest of his life on the charity of wealthy English friends. Inner: Rascal, through and through, operating on the gift of salesmanship of false hopes. Pan-European in his intrigues, running from country to country under the false promises of his own charismatic presence. Gadfly lifetime of playing the manipulator on all levels, military, financial and political, only to ultimately spend his coin through his own ineptitude and wind up in obscurity. nSixtus IV (Francisco Della Rovere) (1414-1484) - Italian pope. Outer: From a family of extremely modest means. Became a Franciscan friar at an early age, then studied philosophy and theology at the Univ. of Padua, showing himself to be an adept student. Subsequently taught at various Italian universities, where he was noted as a learned don who was skilled in dealing with controversies while serving a champion of reform. Appointed minister general of his order at the age of 50. Made a cardinal 3 years later, and after publishing several treatises, and lavishing gifts on the duke of Milan who strongly backed him, he succeeded to the papacy in 1471, with seemingly unimpeachable credentials, taking on the name of Sixtus IV. As soon as he took office, all of his secular desires and ambitions suddenly came to the fore. Primarily concerned with adding to his family’s wealth and prestige as well as enhancing the power of the Papal States. Made two of his young nephews cardinals, including one, who had been his lover, while the other eventually became Julius II (Peter Jackson),who some sources claim was the result of an incestuous affair with his sister. 3 years later he elevated a third to the cardinalate, while showing a preference for handsome young men in his appointments. Showered offices and other benefices on other members of his family. Sponsored a failed expedition against the Turks, and also was unable to reunite the Russian and Roman Churches, as well as get support from Russia against the Turks. With his international failures, he focused on local Italian politics, with equally expensive and inconclusive results, considerably depleting the papal treasury in his failures. Endorsed a plot by his nephew to overthrow Lorenzo de’ Medici (Carl Sandburg), which resulted in the assassination of Lorenzo’s brother Giuliano (Nelson Algren), although he did not condone the latter act. Excommunicated Lorenzo in the ensuing scandal and put Florence under a papal interdict, while inducing the king of Naples to wage fruitless war in Italy. Finally absolved Lorenzo and removed the interdict, when the former made peace with the Neapolitan king. Incited the Venetians to attack Ferrara, then placed Venice under interdict, when he felt it was a dangerous rival to the papal states. Granted numerous privileges to the mendicant orders and condemned the abuses of the Spanish Inquisition. Also a patron of both arts and letters, as well as a founder and restorer of many institutions. Established a foundling hospital, repaired many Roman Churches and commissioned numerous artists, as well as becoming the second founder of the Vatican Library. Effectively made the papacy another Italian principality through his focus on the material rather than the spiritual, and was disliked for his heavy taxations and use of simony to further his goals. Inner: Obsessed with politics and war, with little real understanding of international dynamics. Far more effective at home, leaving a legacy of cultural magnificence to counterbalance his spiritual bankruptcy. Accused of everything from incest to murder to satanic practices by his enemies, who saw him as the Beast personified. Dualistic lifetime of doing a complete about-face once in power, as an exemplar of the various aspects of the fragmented country he came to personify over the centuries. Cola di Rienzi (Nicola di Lorenzo) (1313-1354) - Renaissance Roman populist. Outer: Son of a Roman wineshop owner, mother worked as a washerwoman. At the age of 10, when his mother died, he was sent to live with peasant relatives, then returned to Rome, where he somehow acquired an excellent education, with a deep knowledge of Latin classics. Through them, he became imbued with a sense of the greatness of early Rome. Married the daughter of a notary, and adopted the same profession. After being sent on a mission to the papal court at Avignon, he won the support of the Avignon pope, Clement VI (Louis Malle), who was greatly impressed with an eloquent oration he gave on the desolation of Rome, and he returned to the Eternal City as a papal votary in 1344. Won great popular support and was given dictatorial powers in the pope’s name. Titled himself as tribune of the sacred Roman republic, promoted reforms and sought an uprising to return Rome to its grandeur of old, as capital of a reunited Italy, with himself as emperor. The nobles rose against him, and he was defeated and fled in 1347, becoming a hermit for 2 years. Sought aid from the HRE Karl IV (Angela Merkel), who thought him a madman, and was jailed and sent back to Avignon to face the Inquisition. Absolved by the new pope there, he returned to Rome in triumph as a senator, but his brief rule was arbitrary and violent. After unsuccessfully addressing a riotous mob, he peeled off his armor and wrapped himself in a ragged cloak, but his gold bracelets gave him away. Subsequently seized, held in awe for a moment, and then stabbed to death, with his head ripped from his body afterwards, before being hung upside down in reflection of his future Mussolini postmortem display. Inner: Megalomaniacal, imbued with own sense of destiny and greatness. Alchemical existence, mixing the potency of the past with the instability of the present. Demagogic lifetime of giving play to the emperor-within in a reality that would serially support and deny that fantasy to further temper his experiences of rule. Konrad V (Conradin) (1252-1268) - German Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Son of HRE Conrad IV (Antonio Banderas). Claimed the throne of Sicily and Jerusalem, but was challenged by an uncle, the illegitimate son of his grandfather, Friedrich II (Yukio Mishima), who usurped the former crown in 1258. Forced to settle for the lesser duchy of Swabia, until his uncle died in battle and the Ghibellines, the Italianic Germanic party, invited him in to recapture Sicily from the French duke, Charles of Anjou. Enthusiastically received in several Ghibelline strongholds, before sweeping into Rome in 1268, even though he had been excommunicated by the pope. Set out for Sicily, believing it had already been won, while dividing the lands among his followers. Instead, he was defeated by Charles and fled back to Rome, only to be sent on his way to Astura. Arrested and handed over to Charles, he was tried for treason, and beheaded in the public marketplace. Last of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Inner: Inept general, with a completely unrealistic overview of the dynamics confronting him. Probably vainglorious and much taken with himself to the point of obscured vision. End-of-the-line lifetime of manifesting his martial ineptitude, and bringing a longtime ruling dynasty to its ignominious conclusion. Andronicus I Comnenus (c1118-1185) - Byzantine basileus. Outer: Father was the brother of Byzantine emperor John II (J. Paul Getty). Mother was a Kievan princess. The family had been involved in intrigues around the throne, causing his sire to flee, and that propensity for conspiracy was passed down to him in spades. Youngest of four children, with his oldest brother becoming a Muslim. Married an unknown woman, with two sons and a daughter from the union. Over 6’, handsome, with a charismatic charm and seductive grace, as well as an extremely libidinous nature. Spent the first part of his life in the army, where he was captured by the Seljuk Turks, before being ransomed after a year and returning to Constantinople. Became involved with the emperor Manuel I’s (Antonio Banderas) niece, princess Eudoxia, much to the shock of the court, taking her with him on campaign in Cilicia. After quitting two posts, he barely escaped assassination at the hands of Eudoxia’s brothers. Following his involvement in a conspiracy in 1153 to overthrow his cousin, he was imprisoned, and languished in a dungeon for twelve years, before finally making his escape, following numerous tries beforehand. Reached the court of the prince of Galicia, and used his charm to fashion an alliance between him and Manuel, effecting a reconciliation as he joined the emperor on an invasion of Hungary. Once again proved his disloyalty and fled this time to the court of the prince of Antioch, where he seduced his beautiful daughter Philippa, sister of the empress Maria (Melanie Griffith) much to the emperor’s howling rage, which forced him on the run once again. Came under the protection of Amalric I (Harold Alexander), King of Jerusalem, who invested him with a title, but his compulsive seductive ways, despite being in his mid-50s, saw him cohabit with Theodora Comnenus, the widow of Baldwin III (Alan Brooke) and a niece of the emperor, forcing them to flee once more to escape the latter’s wrath. Wound up in the Georgian court, and was granted estates in the east of that polity. A son and daughter came from the union. Finally settled in his family’s ancestral lands on the shores of the Black Sea, before his wife and her two small sons were captured and sent to Constantinople. Returned to retrieve them, desperately flinging himself before Manuel in 1180 and begging his forgiveness, while enchained. The dying emperor was able to give it him, before he and his partner continued their banishment in a castle on the Black Sea coast. When Manuel died, he took full advantage of the unpopularity of the empress as regent for their son Alexius II (Mehmet Agca Ali), and, with an army of supporters, marched on the capital in 1082, with the city’s troops joining the revolt, so that he received overwhelming acclamation on his arrival. Promptly massacred some 80,000 Italian inhabitants, women and children included, before methodically eliminating any and all who stood in his way of the throne. Eventually had the young emperor, sign his mother’s death warrant, although the latter refused to personally kill her, leading to both the regent, and he being serially strangled. Married his predecessor’s 12 year old bride, Agnes, to affirm his place on the throne, and, consummated the union, in his usual uninhibited manner. On a domestic level, he cleansed the administration of all corruption, while growing ever more corrupt himself from power. Tortured and slaughtered anyone who stood in his way, and was soon seen as the monster he truly was. After the fall of Thessalonica into Sicilian hands in 1185, his persecution mania reached new depths, as he ordered deaths by the score, including the execution of all prisoners and exiles, as well as their families, until the populace rose against him and declared Isaac II Angelus (Oscar LaFontaine) the new basileus. Captured, along with his wife and mistress, when a mob broke into his palace. While the two women were spared, his right hand was cut off and he was thrown into prison, where he sat enchained for several days without food or water, before being blinded in one eye and then brought before a mob, who beat him, and pelted him with ordure, while boiling water was thrown in his face by a prostitute. Hung up by his feet afterwards between two pillars, still alive, enduring the ordeal with extraordinary fortitude, until he finally died. His son, John was subsequently killed by his own troops, ending the direct Comnenus line. Inner: Great energy, hunger, and determination, although a dualistic character through and through, with his darkness easily superseding his light. Rapacious, libidinous, cruel and brutal to countermand his natural charisma. Janus lifetime of continually showing his two faces in all that he did, until his assumption of the throne brought forth his dark side to such extent that there was no light in him left at the end, as he wound up, upside down, just as he would in several go-rounds hence, whenever his thirst for power overwhelmed all other concerns. Lucius Catiline (c110-62BZ) - Roman politician and conspirator. Outer: From an old noble consular family of fading fortune, whose reputation he wished to revive to their glory days several hundred years earlier. Proved himself in the field, then supported Lucius Sulla (FDR) in his civil war in the early 80s, during which time he killed and beheaded his brother-in-law, before parading through the streets with it. Murdered his first wife, Gratidia, as well as their son, in order to marry the wealthy beauty, Aurelia Orestilla. Saw service abroad during the next decade, but in 73BZ, he was accused of adultery with the Vestal Virgin, Fabia, who was a half-sister of Cicero’s (Carl Sandburg) wife, although was acquitted. Elected praetor in 68, he became a governor in Africa, although was accused of misconduct in office, and once again was brought to trial, this time for extortion, but was acquitted, thanks to ongoing power elite support. Accused by Cicero of a trio of murders, while a host of other crimes, including incest with his daughter, were listed by others, although they failed to halt his overweening ambition. Running on a platform of the cancellation of debts, while proclaiming himself a champion of the poor and oppressed, he employed bribery in 63BZ in that year’s consular elections in an attempt to defeat Cicero, who gained sufficient support to win the office, while convincing many voters that his rival’s main aim was anarchy. Prosecuted and acquitted once again, possibly through more bribery, he then failed again in his bid as a consular candidate, and saw his highest ambitions would never be realized through ordinary means. Became a demagogue afterwards by exploiting agrarian unrest and proposing revolutionary reforms, while plotting the murder of all consuls, although the conservative elements of the Senate continued to stand fast against him. Prosecuted for his actions, and persecuted by Cicero in a series of polemics, he left Rome and joined an open rebellion against the Senate, with antigovernment riots that he provoked throughout Italy. Despite his own personal bravery, he was killed in battle, in the frontlines, enhancing the position of his enemies in the Senate. Two serial conspiracies would be linked to his name, although he was probably only responsible for the second one. His ultimate legacy would be mixed, with some viewing him as a genuine populist reformer, and others as an overambitious rouser of the rabble. Inner: Devious, murderous and highly manipulative, although brave to the point of foolhardy in the face of danger. Excellent public speaker, and able to touch the hearts’n’minds of the dispossessed, although his ultimate his/storical judgment would lie in the negative recordings of the power elite. Demagogic lifetime of showing absolutely no inhibition in his desire for power and glory, only to be undone by a far greater strategist and public speaker, whom he would do battle with again in subsequent eras of Italian his/story.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS THE SON ALSO RISES:
Storyline: The hard-ball playing heir readjusts to each epoch in which he finds himself, as a reflection of his deeply reflective father, ultimately taking on a brass knuckle persona to deal with late 20th and early 21st century politics, after many a far more empathetic go-round.

Andrew Cuomo (1957) - American politician. Outer: Of Italian descent, with his grandparents having immigrated to America. Father was future NY State Democratic governor Mario Cuomo, mother was a former teacher. Oldest of five children including three sisters and TV news commentator Chris Cuomo. Graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1979 from Fordham Univ., then got his law degree from Albany Law School in 1982. Began working under his sire, who had just been elected governor of NY, as his personal pit bull, with a facility for making far more enemies than friends. Managed his sire’s transition committee, while serving as a close adviser. Became an asst. district attorney of NYC in 1984, as his own career launch, and founded the state’s Housing Enterprise for the less privileged two years later. Married Kerry Kennedy, the daughter of the late Sen. Robt Kennedy in 1990. Three daughters from the union, including a pair of twins, which ended in divorce in 2003. Served as asst. secretary of the US Dept. of Housing and Urban Development from 1993 to 1997, then secretary of HUD from 1997 to 2001 under Pres. Bill Clinton, whom he would view as his political mentor. Made his first run for NY governor in 2002, only to withdraw after making a controversial comment about the state’s Republican governor’s reaction to the 2001 terrorist attacks in NY, calling him a non-leader, while citing NY Mayor Rudy Giuliani as a real leader while citing NY Mayor Rudy Giuliani as a real leader, despite his having done little but posture, then exploit the tragedy for enormous personal gain afterwards. Involved with Food Network star and cookbook author Sandra Lee since 2005. In 2007, he became NY State’s attorney general. Three years later, he was elected the 56th governor of NY, handily beating a Tea Party endorsed millionaire businessman, who proved to be his own worst enemy. Showed himself to be a liberal executive in certain arenas, championing LGBT rights, gun control and women’s rights, while also keeping an eye on a possible presidential run in 2016, not wanting to appear too liberal to the national electorate at large. Has proven to be a centrist and pragmatist in most of his dealings, which are rooted in progressive values. Able to deal with a Republican legislature through trade-offs, in creating a bi-partisanship atmosphere in Albany. In his re-election bid in 2014, his poll numbers dropped, with many voters impatient around NY’s faltering economy, and blaming him for its decline, although he managed to remain far ahead of any Republican rivals, through his keen political instincts, and his avoidance of debates, claiming they hurt democracy. His autobiography, “All Things Possible: Setbacks and Success in Politics and Life," which he released in coordination with his re-election campaign, totally flat-lined, showing a distinct lack of consumer interest in his life story. Announced 3 week quarantine periods for everyone returning from West Africa to NY, after NYC’s first ebola carrier blithely roamed its streets for a week. Subsequently forced by the White House to mute that order for fear it would scare away volunteers. Easily won a second term, raising 9x the amount of money as his little-known challenger, although given a Republican-controlled Senate to contend with. Lost his father the day he was sworn in for a second term, with his sire listening to his inauguration speech via IPad while drawing his last breath. Forced to deal with Sheldon Silver, a corrupt Assembly Speaker, and the possibility of his interference with his own anti-corruption commission’s investigation of him. Further denigrated by Michael Shnayerson’s “The Contender,” a chronicle, in part, of his unhappy marriage to Kerry Kennedy, where he was portrayed as an inconstant husband and highly controlling neat freak, as well as a criticism-intolerant politico, who, nevertheless, knew how to get things done. In conclusion, however, the author avers he remains very much a White House contender if not in 2016, then 2020. In 2015, his longtime girlfriend Sandra underwent a double mastectomy to deal with her breast cancer, while other liberals usurped his potential for challenging Hillary Clinton from the left for the Democratic nomination. Raised the minimum wage to $15 an hour per executive order, at fast food chains, while promising to do the same for all state workers. Also announced a series of initiatives aimed at protecting civil rights and stopping “the explosion of hate crimes” in the state, In addition to ordering state police to create a special investigative unit, Formed a legal defense fund as well for immigrants who cannot afford assistance on their own. Inner: Combative and prickly, a hardball player in the legislative arena, who has inspired little support from those who know him best. Continually blisters aides, while exhibiting paranoia around perceived enemies. Loves the word calibrate, in his continual readjustments around circumstances, and excels in back-room deal-making. Manipulative, machiavellian and difficult, exhibiting his dark side, after many a go-round of dealing with the light as a genuine champion of the dispossessed. Volte face lifetime of allowing his darkness to predominate in his ongoing dance with power in the various arenas of the monarchical and free world, in order to give full voice to his complex character. Robert F. Wagner (Robert Ferdinand Wagner) (1877-1953) - Prussian/American politician. Outer: Father was a dyer. Mother was a teacher. One of five children with three sisters and a brother. When he was nine the family moved to the U.S. but after a difficult decade in NYC, his parents returned to Germany. He, however, saw the benefits of his adopted country, and continued his education in the U.S. working his way through City College of New York, graduating in 1898, while converting from Luteranism to Methodism. Two years later he earned his law degree from NY Law School. Formed a law partnership which prospered, as he also evinced an avid interest in Democratic politics. Married Margaret Marie McTague in 1908, one son from the union, Robert F. Wagner, Jr. who would become three time mayor of NYC, beginning in 1954. Widowed in 1919, when his wife passed at the age of 34, he raised their son by himself, while ultimately converting to his spouse’s religion, Catholicism, in 1946. In 1904, he began his political career in the NY State Assembly. Lost, then rewon his seat in 1906, and two years later, was elected to the upper house. In 1910, he was named president pro ten of the senate. Despite being a machine politician, he, along with Al Smith (Antonio Villaraigoaa), the majority leader, were progressive reformers tuned to the needs of his working-class constituency. Promoted workmen’s compensation, and, after being elected to the state court in 1918, refused to issue injunctions against striking workers. Elected Senator in 1926, then won re-election thrice by wider and wider margins as an extremely popular populist. With the onset of the Depression, he championed deficit spending on public works that provided both jobs and purchasing power. Seen by many as a key figure in Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal, taking a leading role in drafting key legislation to implement it, including minimum wage standards and the right for workers to bargain collectively. The Wagner Act of 1935 established a National Labor Relations Board, while prohibiting unfair labor practices. Continued as a progressive voice in Harry Truman’s administration, including a desire to create a Jewish state in Palestine. Forced to resign because of ill health in 1949, he died several years later at his son’s home. Inner: Designed much of the legislative structure of the welfare state, seeing government as a much needed answer to the hard-hearted industrial world. Always championed the disadvantage, seeing himself as a much-needed balm to the inequities created by the super-wealthy and their disdain for the ordinary worker. Uberliberal lifetime of serving as a champion of the economically dispossessed during a time of radical need for reform in a country deeply depressed over its unbalanced social systems and loss of heart in its ability to functionally serve its vast majority. Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1769-1824) - Italian Grand Duke. Outer: Father was the future Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II (Mario Cuomo). Mother was the Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (Julia Louis-Dreyfus), daughter of the Spanish king. Third child and second son, out of a brood of 14, with his older brother, Franz II (Prince Charles) succeeding to the throne of HRE, as the last of the long Hapsburg line. Raised in an extremely liberal atmosphere, where self-expression and free play were emphasized. Succeeded to the throne of Tuscany in 1790, when his sire was elected emperor, and the same year married his cousin Princess Luisa of the Two Sicilies. Three sons and three daughters from the union, with the last stillborn, and the first two dying as young children. Maintained the moderate, liberal, enlightened reforms of his sire, and tried to remain neutral when the French Revolutionary Wars broke out, because of his small , highly vulnerable state. In 1799, however, French troops marched in to occupy Florence, and he was forced to flee to Vienna, to become a passive participant in the coalition against the martial machinations of Napoleon. A counterrevolutionary movement arose, inspired by the pope, and, after brutal fighting, Florence was recovered, through Austrian support. The latter, however, alienated the populace, and a provisional French government was set up in 1800, as Tuscany became the Kingdom of Eturia, as part of the Spanish empire, while he was forced to renounce all claims to his duchy. Made Duke-Elector of Salzburg in Austria, before being promoted to Prince-Elector of the HRE, which was dissolved by Napoleon in 1806. Lost his wife in childbirth in 1802, and eventually was made Grand Duke of Wurzburg, a new state created for him. Finally restored to his original title in 1815, following the ultimate defeat of the French forces under Napoleon. His duchy would enjoy a near-decade of peaceful prosperity under him in his second incarnation as its leader. In 1821, he wed his first cousin once removed, Princes Maria of Saxony, who was over a quarter of a century younger than he. No children from the union. On his death, he was succeeded by his eldest son Leopold II (Robert F. Wagner Jr.). Inner: Courted peaceful progress, a stance made impossible by the martial manipulations surrounding his small duchy. Once finally reinstated, he showed himself to be a liberal reformer, and exercised fair-minded rule. Delayed gratification lifetime of being caught in a squeeze between far greater European powers, before ultimately showing himself to be a conscientious reflection of his enlightened monarchical sire. Cosimo II de’ Medici, 4th Grand Duke of Tuscany (1590-1621) - Italian Grand Duke. Outer: Father was Ferdinand I de’ Medici (Mario Cuomo). Mother was Christina de Lorraine, the granddaughter of Catherine de’ Medici (Indira Gandhi), queen of France. Eldest of nine children, with three brothers and five sisters, although only three wound up extending the line. Succeeded to his position in 1609 at the death of his sire, inheriting a stable state, thanks to the ministrations of his progenitor. Married Maria Magdalena of Austria, the sister of the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II (Kurt Waldheim). 5 sons and three daughters from the union, with the majority never marrying. Had a frail body, which greatly hampered his ability to carry on in the dynamic boots of his sire. Generally avoided intervention in foreign affairs, beginning the three generation decline that would spell the end of his house. Maintained a large fleet, as a defense-minded ruler, and also served as a patron of the eminent scientist, Galilei Galileo (Werner Heisenberg), an earlier tutor of his, whom he appointed court philosopher and mathematician. After a bout of fever in 1615, his health deteriorated and he died five years later of tuberculosis. Succeeded by his ten year old son, Ferdniand II (Robert Wagner, Jr.). Inner: Frail and incapable of furthering the power of his house. Weak-bodied lifetime of beginning the precipitous decline of a once great ruling house, as reflection of his own highly vulnerable constitution.


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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS SLIPPERY DIPLOMAT:
Storyline: The competent bureaucrat ably acquits himself in all the tasks given him without standing out in any of them, while hiding and denying any wrongdoing on his part in his need to be stage center in his various times without truly effecting them.

Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007) - Austrian statesman and diplomat. Outer: Of Czech descent. Father was a conservative Roman Catholic school inspector who changed his name from Waclawik to Waldheim. Oldest of 3, with a brother and sister. His sire was openly anti-Nazi, and was eventually forced to resign his position, before being briefly jailed. Volunteered for the Austrian army in 1936, before studying for a diplomatic career. Conscripted into the German army after the Anschluss in 1938, he served on the Russian front until he was wounded. His subsequent role as an interpreter and intelligence officer for a German Army unit stationed in the Balkans that had conducted brutal reprisals on Yugoslavian partisans and then oversaw the deportation of the entire Jewish population of Salonika, Greece to Nazi death camps, was denied by him, despite documents to the contrary. Claimed instead, that he had studied law at the Univ. of Vienna for the rest of the war, although when confronted decades later, he stated he had been dishonest, but disclaimed any knowledge of the tragedies conducted by his unit, nor his direct participation in them. Married Elisabeth Ritschel in 1944, and his wife proved to be his mainstay, 2 daughters and a son from the union. At war’s end, after completing his schooling at the Consular Academy, he entered the Austrian diplomatic service, leading his country’s first delegation to the U.N. a decade later, after serving in France, and in the foreign ministry, before being made ambassador to Canada in 1956. After serving as director general of political affairs in the Austrian foreign ministry, he became his country’s ambassador to the UN for two separate terms. From 1968-1970, he served as Austria’s foreign minister, although failed to gain election on a conservative ticket for the country’s presidency in 1971, losing to the socialist candidate. Served 2 terms as secretary-general of the UN, from 1972-1981, proving himself efficient in the post, albeit less-than-stellar, and was vetoed for a third term by China. Wrote 2 autobiographies in the 1980s, “The Challenge of Peace” and “In the Eye of the Storm,” both of which glossed over his war activities. Ran again for the presidency of Austria in 1986, during which time his past was hurled back at him by the World Jewish Congress, although he weathered the implications with firm, ‘Neins!’ and was elected to the post. The U.S., however, placed him on a permanent ‘watch list’ of undesirable aliens prohibiting him from returning to the country, which was never lifted, while he suffered international censure. During his six years, Austria wound up shunned by foreign leaders, while his supporters blamed his difficulties on a deliberate smear campaign. Hospitalized the last month of his life with an infection, before dying at home of a heart infection. Inner: Never singled out for adroitness or brilliance in any of his endeavors, showing himself to be merely capable and no more. His skills were honed for diplomatic communication, not self-revelatory disclosure. Far more the administrator than the decision-maker, with little desire to reform or change things. Seen as a tyrant to his underlings, and a toady to those above him. Mich nicht lifetime of avoiding any sense of culpability for past actions, despite continually placing himself in the spotlight, where a highly public confrontation with his earlier actions was virtually an inevitability. Alfred von Waldersee (1832-1904) - German general. Outer: From a military family with an aristocratic background, via an illegitimate ducal descent. Pursued a military career beginning at 18, and rose steadily in the officer’s ranks, ultimately joining the Prussian General staff. Became a military attaché and won the attention of Gen. Helmuth von Moltke (Yitzhak Rabin) with his concise reports, while steadily rising in rank. Made aide-de-camp to King Wilhelm of Prussia, the future emperor Wilhelm I (Helmut Kohl), as his prestige and personal power grew, thanks to the accuracy of his reports. Elevated to chief of staff of the military governor of Paris following the successful Franco-Prussian war, and proved himself an able diplomat, as well,. as the German representative in postwar Paris, where he met his wife. In 1871, he married Mary Esther Lee, the heiress of a NY merchant, and widow of a Danish Prince who had renounced his title. In 1882, he was made deputy chief of staff to the aging Moltke on the German General Staff. Advocated a preventative war against Russia, winning the support of Kaiser Wilhelm II (Benny Begin), despite the strong opposition to him by the latter’s parents. Succeeded von Moltke as chief of staff in 1888, although his negative assessment of Alfred von Tirpitz’s (Avigdor Lieberman) naval plan alienated the mercurial Kaiser, and he was replaced by Alfred von Schlieffen (Yitzhak Shamir) and given command of a corps instead. Elevated to field marshal and given command of the German expedition to China to support the legations fighting against the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. Arrived too late for the central fighting, but conducted several punitive operations around Peking. Returned to Germany and died soon afterwards. Inner: Strongly anti-semitic, reactionary and narrow-minded. Able and resourceful soldier, although not in the same league as either of his fellow chiefs of staff. Arrogant, with a penchant for intrigue, which hampered his higher ambitions. Manipulative lifetime of playing his usual secondary role, while allowing his personality defects to deflate his larger ambitions, an ongoing theme of his. Ludwig Cobenzl (Johann Ludwig Joseph, Graf von Cobenzl) (1753-1809) - Austrian diplomat and foreign minister. Outer: From a noble Austrian family, younger cousin of Philipp von Cobenzl (Shimon Peres). Like his cousin, he became a protegé of Austrian minister Wenzel von Kaunitz (Menachem Begin), who viewed him as a son and assured his ministerial rise. Became minister to Russia in 1779, and played a leading role in the negotiations when Poland was partitioned a 3rd time in 1795, gaining a sizable territory for his own country. Negotiated several treaties with France during the early Napoleonic era, including the Treaty of Campo-Formio and was made foreign minister in 1800, as well as head of diplomacy for the HRE, as vice-chancellor from 1801 to 1805, when the Treaty of Pressburg at year’s end saw the fruits of his diplomatic work undone. Recognized Napoleon’s imperial title in 1804, but was held responsible for the emperor’s defeat of Austria at the disastrous Battle of Austerlitz the following year, and was dismissed, spending the rest of his life in retirement. Left an extended written testament to his career, rationalizing his various moves in order to try to enhance his posthumous reputation. Like his cousin Philipp, he was a member of the secret brotherhood of the Illuminati under the name Arrian, taking his appellation from an ancient Greek his/storian. Inner: Competent in all he did, but ultimately saw all of it unravel at career’s end. Abrogated lifetime of enjoying considerable power, thanks to familial connections, only to be ultimately undone by a far superior military and political mind than his own, leaving him once more a footnote rather than a major his/storical player, per his ongoing secret wish. Ferdinand II (1578-1637) - Austrian Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Eldest son of an archduke, who ruled Inner Austria. Mother was the daughter of the duke of Bavaria. Educated by Jesuits at the Univ. of Inglostadt, which gave him a strongly Catholic cast. Lost his father at 12, so that a regent ruled until he took governmental reins at 16. Of middle height and compactly built, with reddish-brown hair and blue eyes. Managed to avoid the internecine squabbling around the throne, and after being elected king of Bohemia, and then monarch of Hungary and Croatia, he secured the proper backing to succeed his cousin, Matthias (Hermann Goering) in 1619 as Holy Roman Emperor. Needed the support of fellow Catholic nations to make his will manifest, and helped precipitate the Thirty Years’ War of central Europe’s religious intolerance for itself, when he deposed the palatinate king, Friedrich V (Oscar LaFontaine) who had opposed him, destroying in 1620 what would have been the first Rosicrucian state on the continent, an ideal that was way ahead of its time. Became a leading champion of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, although was somewhat indecisive, depending on counselors for his decisions. Restored the power of the clergy, and forced the majority of his subjects to convert back to Catholicism, while his intransigence exacerbated the continuing martial conflict between the continent’s counter-Christians. In 1600, he married Maria Anna, a Bavarian princess, 7 children from the union, with four surviving including, Ferdinand III (Andrew Lloyd Webber), who succeeded him. Six years after his wife’s death in 1616, he married Eleanor Gonzaga, an Italian noblewoman some two decades his junior, no children from the second union. Played a leading role in the opening decade of the Thirty Years’ War, and was directly responsible for the death of his treacherous general, Albrecht von Wallenstein (Arnold Schwarzenegger), for negotiating with the enemy. Set the course for the Hapsburg dynasty for the next century through his policies, as well as giving order and form to the Austrian state, despite leaving his heir a war-torn empire. Inner: Seen as sainted by his Catholic supporters, and tyrannical by his Protestant enemies. Spoke several languages, immersed himself in religious literature, and loved hunting. Seemingly good-natured, benevolent, generous and affable, but intransigent and obsessive on his positions. Deeply religious and highly moral, he attended masses all hours of the day and night. Revered the Blessed Virgin, and went on pilgrimages and endured self-abasement. Tunnel vision lifetime of rule dedicated to upholding the spiritual destiny of his state as he saw it, while proving himself an intransigent, albeit effective, vessel of the past, and proud of it, while privately indulging in his curious longheld need for punishment.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS FASCIST FLYBOY TURNED ENSEMBLE PLAYER:
Storyline: The streetwise support starts a whole new cycle as a lesser public figure in order to get more in touch with his interior after a round of mad bombing, and an ultimate flameout as the high-flying progeny of an endlessly posturing strongman.

Bruno Kirby (Bruno Giovanni Qidaciolu, Jr.) (1949-2006) - American actor. Outer: Of Italian descent. Father acted under the name Bruce Kirby, doing mostly TV work. Brother John became a well-known acting coach. Raised in the Hell’s Kitchen section of mid-Manhattan, he had a close creative relationship with his sire. 5’6”, and unprepossessing physically, with a high voice and droopy face, making him into a natural character actor. Moved with his family to Southern California in his late teens, and began getting TV and film work in his early 20s, while his parents divorced. His best known early role would be in the Godfather, Part II as the young Peter Clemenza. By coincidence he had been cast as the son of Richard Castellano, who was the mature Clemenza, in a shortlived 1972 sit-com called “The Super.” Able to play off his fast-talking and edgy New York persona to entertaining effect. Worked on Broadway as well as off-Broadway in a number of productions, most notably “Lost in Yonkers” in 1991, while his two biggest film hits outside of The Godfather, would be in a pair of Billy Crystal comedies, When Harry Met Sally and City Slickers. Close friend of the latter, as well as Rob Reiner, appearing in his This Is Spinal Tap, as a hyper Frank Sinatra fan, which he was in real life, as well. Able to work effectively in both comedy and drama, and was also an occasional TV director. Highly selective in his fare, he turned down many roles because they weren’t up to his standards. The latter part of his career saw him mostly doing TV work. Didn’t marry until his mid-50s, wedding actress Lynn Sellers. Died from complications from leukemia, after being diagnosed with the disease only three weeks beforehand. Inner: Able to project an everyman persona. Had a great gift for friendship, and took tremendous pride in his work. Edgy, although he kept his ego largely in check, and got a genuine kick out of the small things in life. Transition lifetime of switching to the pure emotional realm of self-expression, allowing him to enjoy himself without an overt expression of power, until crypto-internal poisons of the past robbed him of an ultimate happy and long-lasting ending. Bruno Mussolini (1918-1941) - Italian bomber pilot. Outer: 2nd son and third child of future fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Younger brother of film critic Vittorio and older sibling of noted jazz pianist Romano. Mother was the daughter of his paternal grandfather’s mistress. Fell victim as an infant to diphtheria, and hovered between life and death, before recovering. Despite the absentee role that his father played in his life, he reveled in his status as a member of Italy’s first family. Began publishing a weekly with his older brother Vittorio at the age of 12, before becoming a miniature version of his father, as a compulsive seducer and a lover of fast, powerful machines. At the age of 17, he became Italy’s youngest pilot, as a member of the Italian air force. As a bomber pilot, he participated in the 1935 Ethiopian campaign, making numerous bombing runs against a country with no air force. Followed that fray by participating in the Spanish Civil War on the nationalist side, running numerous forays. Fascinated with speed and breaking records, he set one in a 1938 flight to Brazil. The same year, he married Gina Ruberti, the daughter of one of his progenitor’s education ministers. A lifelong boxing fan, he was made president of the Italian Federation of Pugilists in 1939. Flew missions in WW II, and was killed test piloting a four engine Italian bomber, when he slammed into a house. His father would exploit his death afterwards, despite having had little to do with him, or his siblings and mother during his own joy ride around power. His wife would drown five years later during a late night boating party with British soldiers. Inner: Like father, like son, an aficionado of power, speed and seduction. High-flying lifetime of taking full advantage of his provident birth and like many others, ultimately crashing through to another plane in order to explore the creative rather than destructive side of himself.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS PERSONAL RECLAMATION PROJECT:
Storyline: The former dictator’s darlin’ rises up out of an ignominious ending to reclaim her own independence and pursue the far more active path denied her by giving away all her power to a powerful figure old enough to be her godfather.

Monica Bellucci (1968) - Italian actress. Outer: Mother was a painter under the name of Maria Gustinelli, father owned a trucking firm. An only child, she studied law for a year at the Univ. of Perugia, then decided to exhibit her striking beauty as a model. 5’9”, with a voluptuous figure and large feet. Fluent in English, French and Spanish, as well as her native Italian. Moved to Milan and became one of Italy’s top mannequins, before making her acting debut on Italian TV in 1990, and her film debut in La Riffa the following year. Cited both Claudia Cardinale and Sophia Loren as inspirations to become an actress. In 1990 she wed fashion photographer Claudio Carlos Basso, before amicably divorcing soon afterwards. Introduced to the world audience in 1992, in Francis Ford Coppola’s Dracula, although continued working primarily in Italian film, scoring her biggest triumph in Malena, before becoming more of a presence in American cinema, including the three Matrix films, and the worldwide phenomenon, Mel Gibson’s The Passion of the Christ. Has taken her career slowly, preferring to work with talented people in order to bring out her own innate abilities, after her previous go-round of allowing a schoolgirl crush to define her adult life. In 1999, she married French actor Vincent Cassel, one daughter from the union. Lives in Paris and London, with separate apartments from her husband so as to avoid falling into routine. Consistently ranked as one of the world’s great beauties, she serves as the face for Dolce & Gabana’s perfume, “Sicily.” Has won several minor awards for her emoting, while viewing her family life as far more important to her than her career despite ultimately divorcing after fourteen years. At 50, feels finally liberated, while embracing aging as a sign of maturity and emotional fulfillment. In 2015, she became the oldest “Bond girl” in Spectre as affirmation of her feeling age is just an arbitrary number. Inner: Comfortable within herself, as a combination of breathtaking beauty, insightful intelligence, and the ability to both love and be loved. Sees herself more as a European, than as an Italian, and has no desire to be grist for the Hollywood mill. A believer in the mysteries of life, rather than any formal religion. Right side up lifetime of allowing herself full maturity after earlier throwing herself away on a schoolgirl infatuation she never permitted herself to outgrow. Clara Petacci (1912-1945) - Italian mistress. Outer: Father was a physician, who directed a clinic, and ultimately served as a doctor for Pope Pius XI. The middle of three children, with an older brother and a much younger sister, Maria, who became an actress under the name of Miriam Di San Servolo/Miriam Day. Born a little over two weeks after her German counterpart, Eva Braun, although the two never met. Studied music with a well-known violinist, while developing a schoolgirl crush on Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, sending him a letter after a failed assassination attempt on him in 1926. The duo would finally meet in their separate cars a half dozen years later. Married Italian Air force lieutenant Riccardo Federici, although separated from him, while flooding Mussolini with letters, and the two soon became an item, despite his having other mistresses at the time, and being nearly three decades her senior. Both an amateur poet and painter, she also saw her family rise in status because of her association with Il Duce. Their first four years would see them largely as besotted admirer and her strutting object of affection. By the time they became lovers, she was more than willing to sacrifice any other aspect of her life for him, and spent much of her time idling languidly playing solitaire, awaiting for him to show up, as he became equally possessed with her. Disliked by the fascist elite who saw only potential scandal in her, while she remained extremely protective of him, to the point of trying to fashion their escape together when the inevitable end of his regime came in 1945. Foiled, however, and caught, she was shot in the chest by partisans, and died as she was trying to shield her lover with her body. He, however, was killed immediately afterwards, as was her brother. The next day, they, along with five others, were strung up upside down at an Esso petrol station. Her skirt, for modesty sake, was pinned by an onlooker, after it slipped down over her head. Beaten beyond recognition by an angry mob afterwards, even though she had only been the companion of Il Duce, and had done nothing political her entire life. Although her sister also shared his bed, she lived out her full life, after appearing in Italian cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. Kept a diary throughout her adult life, which eventually would be published, and was portrayed by actress Claudia Cardinale in the 1984 biopic Claretta. Inner: Extremely romantic and highly expressive, despite limited talents, while willing to sacrifice everything for love. Ossessione lifetime of both living and dying for love, in a desire to wrap herself around power as a means of both elevated self-identity and self-importance through association rather than any accomplishment on her own.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS EXPRESSIONISTIC EXHIBITOR:
Storyline: The Teutonic romantic finally finds a far more palatable venue for himself than shaky thrones, as he shows a far greater grasp of finances and cultural tastes than he ever did of politics, in his own personal journey from the compromised halls of power to the far more magical realm of imaginative undertakings.

Erich Pommer (1889-1966) - German/American film producer. Outer: Of Jewish descent. One of four children of a middle-class household that moved to Berlin in 1905. Originally wanted to be a physician, although he was not academically inclined, despite being a voracious reader. Worked briefly for a men’s clothing outfit, but his fascination with the theater, soon led him towards film in 1907 with the Berlin branch of the Gaumont company as a salesman, after a sister got a job there as a secretary. Learned all aspects of the business, before becoming director of Gaumont’s branch in Vienna in 1910. 5’7” Drafted in 1911 for a compulsory year of service, then hooked up with Eclair in Vienna, which gave him his first opportunity to produce films. In 1913, he married Gertrude Levy, one son from the union. Seriously wounded during WW I after winning the Iron Cross, as the German film industry was suddenly denuded of its opponents’ wares, forcing it to become far more self-reliant. After his discharge, he became owner of the production company Decla, working in close association with his wife. Merged with Bioscop, and in 1923, both outfits were absorbed by UfA, Germany’s largest production company. Beginning with the landmark German expressionistic masterpiece, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari in 1919, he went on to become a top German producer during the 1920s and 1930s, evincing a tastemaker sensibility along with a keen commercial eye. Briefly assayed Hollywood during the 1920s, although remained in Germany otherwise, until the advent of the Nazis in 1933, after which he was forced to flee. Went to Paris, Hollywood again, and then London, where he co-founded Mayflower Productions along with actor Charles Laughton, and briefly tried his hand at directing. Stayed in NYC after the outbreak of WW II, and was seriously ill. Recovered and became a U.S. citizen in 1944. Following another short stint in Hollywood, he returned to Germany at war’s end in a U.S. army uniform, where he oversaw the restoration of the German film industry. At one point, both he and his wife had to work in a porcelain factory, because of untenable conditions in the destroyed country. Ultimately wound up in Hollywood in 1956. Had to have a leg amputated and was confined to a wheelchair, forcing him to retire, and was inactive the last decade of his life. Inner: Excellent commercial instincts, with a good eye for talent and properties as well. Very goal-oriented, and always looking to expand his reach in the industry. Uncrowned lifetime of successfully switching from the political to the theatrical and showing far more skill in the latter realm than he had ever evinced in the former. Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795-1861) - King of Prussia. Outer: Eldest son of Friedrich Wilhelm III (Benny Begin). Mother was an active part of her husband’s reign, before dying prematurely when her eldest son was fourteen. Of his four brothers and four sisters, he would be followed on the throne by Wilhelm I (Helmut Kohl), who would become the first German emperor, following the unification of the German states a decade after his death. Educated by private tutors, while also serving in the field, although evinced little talent for martial artistry, in lieu of a far greater interest in the romance of the German medieval past, and the country’s cultural heritage. In 1823, he wed Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria, no children from the union. His wife supported his interest in the arts, and, after much resistance, finally converted to his Protestant faith, seven years into their marriage, while proving an activist queen, once they mounted the throne in 1840, on his sire’s death. Far more the dilettante and romantic than the dynamic ruer, he had a deep nostalgia for the Middle Ages, which kept him forever looking backwards, during a time of much social upheaval on the European continent, which was steadily moving past the ancient ideal of royal rule. A complete and utter reactionary, he was deadset against German unification, preferring power to lay in the hands of the landed aristocracy and Junker class, just as it also had been. On ascending the throne in 1840, he muted his father’s policies in accordance with his own vision of how things should be, which were largely based on medieval structures, replete with estate rule and a benevolent patriarch at the state’s head. Although he eased press censorship, he adamantly refused any kind of popular legislative assembly, fearing it would temper the powers of the aristocracy. Despite his strong Protestant bent, he intervened in the Cologne church conflict, and gave support to the further construction of the Cologne Cathedral, eventually becoming the first Prussian king to enter a Roman Catholic house of worship. Tried to repress the 1848 revolution with the army, before realizing his/story was moving past him. Formed a liberal government afterwards, and came out in favor of German unification, and a conservative constitution, which would remain in place until the end of WW I, although once he had reestablished himself, he made countermoves to slow down the liberalization process. Remained committed to the idea of reunification, under his own terms with Prussia as the central state, which meant excluding Austria. Created a bicameral Parliament along the English line, with an aristocratic upper house, and a popular elected lower house, with a hierarchical taxpaying system deciding precisely who could vote its members in. His new constitution reserved considerable power to the royal house, so that the army and the aristocracy still retained absolute control over Prussia. Debilitated by a stroke in 1857, which left him partially paralyzed, and unable to rule because of his diminished mental capacities, so that his brother, the future Wilhelm I, took over as regent, while he spent his last several years in a largely vegetative state. Inner: Devout, romantic and mystical, with an aversion to change, despite living in an era of overwhelming transformation. Looking backwards lifetime of trying to hold onto ancient traditions, before being forced to compromise his reactionary stances in the face of profoundly changing times, which probably ended his thirst for rule, and sent him looking in a completely new direction for far greater fulfillment. Karl I Ludwig (1617-1680) - German Palatinate Elector. Outer: Father was Friedrich V (Oscar LaFontaine) of the Palatinate. Mother was English princess Elizabeth (Princess Margaret). Second oldest of 5 brothers and four sisters, including Sophia (Elizabeth II), whose Hanoverian house would eventually succeed to the crown of England the next century. His childhood was fraught with his father’s loss of the crown of Bohemia in 1620 through the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, so that his family had to go into exile. Wound up in the Hague in the Netherlands, and received a solid education there. Following the death of his older brother in 1629, and his sire three years later, he inherited rule in the Palatinate. Along with his brother Rupert, he spent most of the 1630s at the English court, trying to elicit help in regaining his Palatinate birthright. Managed to alienate Charles I (George VI) in the incipient stages of the English Civil War, through his friendships with the opposing Parliamentary leaders, feeling they were far more sympathetic to his aims than the crown. Left England as it descended into civil war, before returning in 1644, at the request of Parliament. Probably harbored a secret wish for the English crown himself, as he took opposing sides to his Royalist brothers, who were both generals in the losing cause. Accused by the beleaguered king of lusting after his crown, before finally being restored to the Palatinate in 1648, through the Peace of Westphalia, although the Upper Palatinate remained the province of the Elector of Bavaria. In 1650, he wed Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, the daughter of its landgrave, in an extremely combustible union, thanks to his wife’s temperamental nature. One son, Karl, who would succeed him, as well as a daughter. Despite a passionate beginning to their relationship, he soon tired of his wife’s increasingly more volatile disposition and, took on a sixteen year old mistress, Marie Luise von Degenfeld, with whom he would have thirteen children, before divorcing without his spouse’s consent and bigamously marrying her. Prior to that breech, his wife showered his inamorata with such violent rage, that she had to be kept prisoner in her own apartments, in an extremely tense household. Spent his whole three decade reign engaged in the long process of rebuilding and restoring his realm, as he pursued a pro-French policy, marrying his first daughter to their royal house, since the English never forgave him for his perfidy, following the Restoration of Charles II (Peter O’Toole) in 1660 to the British throne. Had to continually deal with a largely violent and unbalanced first wife, who, nevertheless, earned some household sympathy from his servants, for his abandonment of her. Lost his second wife in 1677, due to her excessive pregnancies, and two years later, he wed Elizabeth Hollander von Bernau, who was pregnant with a posthumous son when he died. Inner: Had a difficult nature himself, which his first wife directly reflected, while he was placed in a position of continually intriguing because of the unstable nature of his inherited holdings. Parsimonious and hypersensitive to criticism, while his own sense of self was constantly put to the test. Uneasy lies the head lifetime of dealing not only with withheld rule, but withheld love, as well, in a go-round geared towards teaching him about power on all levels, from the interpersonal to the international. Alexius IV Angelus (c1182-1204) - Byzantine basileus. Outer: Father was Isaac II Angelus (Oscar LaFontaine). Oldest of three brothers, with two older sisters. When he was 13, his uncle Alexius III (Benny Begin) staged a coup and overthrew his progenitor, blinding and imprisoning him. Suffered imprisonment, as well, along with his sire, before being smuggled out of Constantinople in 1201 by a pair of merchants, allowing him to take refuge in Germany with his brother-in-law, Philip of Swabia, the German king. Made the fateful decision of having the latter’s cousin, Boniface of Montferrat, divert the Fourth Crusade through Constantinople so that he could reclaim his progenitor’s throne, in return for a full complement of Byzantine warriors to augment their number, as well as transportation vessels and money. As the final sweetener to the deal, he pledged putting the eastern church, which had long been in schism from Rome, back under the authority of the pope. The following year, he made his return with the crusaders, although he was greeted largely with apathy, as his armed host laid siege to the city, causing Alexius III to flee. His father, Isaac II, now blind and enfeebled, was released from his prison, and made to proclaim his son as co-emperor. Immediately began to regret the promises he had made, as the presence of the crusaders in the city led to a series of riots and ugly confrontations, with mobs killing the interlopers, who felt that the young emperor had not kept his part of the bargain at all. Found the treasury virtually empty, so that he had to raise taxes, which made him deeply unpopular with his subjects, while his father resented his reduced status in being forced to share his throne with his son, despite being in no shape to rule. The clergy, too, resented his melting down their gold for payment and selling them out to Rome, so that he had absolutely no support base. At the start of the next year, he retaliated by setting fire to a host of crusader ships, and tried to engage the Venetian fleet against them. The populace rebelled soon afterwards, while he tried a rapprochement with the crusaders in order to save his place on the throne. Despite his desperate efforts, a conclave of senators, clergy and the general population met in St. Sophia and declared him deposed, with Alexius V (Helmut Kohl) as their choice as his replacement. Clapped in irons and dungeoned along with his father, which caused the latter’s death soon afterwards. After surviving two attempts at poisoning, he was strangled on orders of his usurper, and was little mourned afterwards. Inner: Immature and without the necessary vision to see the larger consequences of his actions. Failing grade lifetime of experiencing power through the eyes and mind of a callow youth, leading to his direct undoing through all his miscalculations, without being given the time to learn from any of his mistakes, so as to make many of them again in his next go-round in this series.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS UNIFYING FIGURE:
Storyline: The conservative centrist uses his bulk to personify a reunited Germany, serving twice in that symbolic capacity as a means of integrating his own traditional sense of right and wrong with shady political expediencies of the moment to get his way.

Helmut Kohl (Helmut Josef Michael Kohl) (1930-2017) - German chancellor. Outer: From a conservative Roman Catholic family. Father was an officer in the German army, and later became a financial official in the civil service. His older brother was killed in WW II, while he just missed service, despite being drafted and going through basic training. Forced to help pull bodies out of the rubble caused by Allied bombings, that shaped his desire for a peaceful united Europe. Attended the Univ. of Frankfurt and received a doctorate in political science from Heidelberg Univ. after beginning his political career with the Christian Democratic Union Party, working in one of its youth organizations in his native town. Grew to be huge, 6’4”, and over 300 pounds. Elected in 1959 to the Rhineland-Palatinate state legislature and a decade later became prime minister of the state. Married Hannelore Renner, a film translator in 1960, after waiting a decade to get his law degree, 2 sons from the union. A highly capable administrator, he rose within his party’s ranks to become chairman in 1973. Became known as Der Schwarze Riese, ‘the Black giant,’ from his size and clerical colors. Narrowly lost his first nationwide election for the position of chancellor in 1976, but put together a coalition to gain that vaunted goal 7 years later. As a conservative centrist, whose solid stewardship and modest reforms gained him re-election in 1987, he put himself in the position to effect the reunification of Germany in 1990, despite some loss of popularity beforehand, and he served as the first chancellor of his rejoined state, ultimately becoming the longest-serving German chancellor since Otto Von Bismarck (Menachem Begin). Made an issue of his scrupulous honesty, and was voted one of the “10 greatest Germans of all-time.” Although tremendously popular at the outset of the reunified state, his mass appeal waned once the economic reality of bringing together the imbalanced halves of Germany set in, and by the near-end of the decade, he was voted out of office after 16 years in power by the rival SDP party, under the stewardship of Gerhard Schroeder. Forced to step down as head of his party in 2000 over a growing financial scandal surrounding his own illegal slush fund, totaling over $1 million, he was then made to stand and be judged, which threatened to throw a huge shadow over his previous high reputation, particularly with his refusal to cooperate. His wife committed suicide in 2001 over a rare illness that made her allergic to sunlight. Frail and wheelchair bound since suffering a bad fall in 2008, he spent his final near decade at home, where he died, dealing with heart and gallbladder issues. Inner: His large size reflected a large appetite for power, although his basic conservatism gave him little imaginative running-room to truly implement his goals. Good-natured, athletic, and a hard worker, with a phenomenal memory for detail, but also rigid and unable to deal with the aftermath of his career. Rise’n’fall lifetime of drawing the hidden emperor within him out, through the reunification of the German state, only to suffer the moral judgment of his nation afterwards. Wilhelm I (1797-1888) - German emperor. Outer: 2nd son of the future king Friedrich Wilhelm III (Benny Begin) of Prussia. Mother was a strong-minded and a dynamic German noblewoman who far outshone her husband. Fought in the final stage of the Napoleonic Wars in 1814, and pursued military interests afterwards. In 1829, he married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the witty and temperamental daughter of a German grand duke, one son and one daughter from union, including his successor, Friedrich III (Oscar Lafontaine). Became prince of Prussia on the accession of his eldest brother to the throne of Prussia in 1840, and fled to England in 1848, during the abortive continent-wide revolution that year, earning the sobriquet of “Prince of Grapeshot,” after recommending force to subdue the republican rebels. Returned later that year when the smoke and gunfire had cleared, and the following year, he commanded a contingent of troops sent to put down an insurrection in Baden. Determinedly anti-constitutional, although with some liberal leanings, he was made military governor of the Rhineland province and became a central focus against the reactionary policies of his brother’s government. Became regent for his sick sibling in 1858, and 3 years later succeeded him to the throne. Although he represented himself as an avatar of the “New Liberalism,” his choice of ministers were predominately conservatives and moderates. Struggled with his parliament and almost abdicated in favor of his son in 1862 over the rejection of his demand for universal military conscription, before appointing Otto von Bismarck (Menachem Begin) his chancellor, and allowing him the run of state, despite disagreeing with some of his policies, including a campaign against the Roman Catholic Church. The latter engineered a series of wars calculated to give Prussia dominance of Germany, and after the last one, the Franco-Prussian War, he was named emperor over a unified Germany in 1871. Had difficulty in accepting the title of ‘emperor,’ because of his deep sense of Prussian tradition, and finally agreed to be German emperor, rather than emperor of Germany. Survived 2 attempts on his life, one in which he was seriously wounded. In later years, his wife gave Germany a bizarre figure, sitting in her wheelchair under a bright red wig, while his white-whiskered face became a comforting icon to his reunited nation. Inner: Conscientious, kindly, conservative and benevolent. Paternalistic lifetime of presenting an integrated, albeit traditional, character, to act as the embodiment of the unification of his longtime country. Friedrich III (1515-1576) - German Palatinate elector. Outer: From a princely German family. Strictly educated in Catholicism at his sire’s court, but in 1537, after marrying princess Maria of Brandenberg, he allowed his wife’s Protestant piety to heavily influence him. 11 children from the union. Publicly adopted Lutheranism in 1546, and became the first German prince to accept Calvinism somewhat later. Opposed the Catholic House of Hapsburg, which made his electoral position insecure, since the Peace of Augsburg did not cover Calvinists. Succeeded his sire as duke in 1557 and 2 years later inherited the elector Palatine from his childless predecessor, then served as a leader for the Protestant German princes, and a rallying force for the Reformation throughout western Europe. Made Heidelberg one of the major centers of the Reformed religion, attracting a remarkable group of religionists to his court. Sent his 2 eldest sons to aid Protestants in France and the Netherlands, while his own ambitions in Germany were largely frustrated. Following his wife’s death in 1567, he married Amalia of Neuenahr, who was nearly a quarter century his junior. No children from his second union. By the time of his death, the German Palatinate had become the bulwark of German Calvinism and the Protestant cause in Germany, although his oldest son’s Lutheranism caused him to be succeeded by his third son, Johann Casimir, who continued his father’s policies. Inner: Pious, with a strong reformist sense of mission. Base-building lifetime of acting as a ruling grounding force for the German Reformation, although his internal ambitions were largely thwarted due to the lack of coherence among his fellow Protestant princes. Heinrich VII (c1270-1313) - Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Son of the count of Luxembourg, whom he succeeded in 1288. In 1292, he married Margaret of Brabant, one son and 2 daughters from the union. Although only a relatively minor noble, he was elected German king in 1308, after being the 3rd candidate for the title, and was crowned the following year, becoming the first of the House of Luxembourg to ascend to the throne. Gained Bohemia by giving assistance to the Bohemian princess Elizabeth in her desire to dethrone her brother-in-law. Married his son John to her in 1310, then, with the backing of a combined German-Bohemian army, they captured Prague and were installed upon its throne, making his house the main rival to the powerful House of Hapsburg. Secured the approval of the German princes by lavishly distributing the imperial domain. Needed to renew the previous House of Hohenstaufen’s policy of making Italy the main source of imperial power. Went there and assumed the kingship of the Romans the following year. Accorded his title by Piedmont and Lombardy, and was able to reconcile their warring factions amidst promises of peace and justice, and his stance of being above their feuds. The double swords of the pro-imperial Ghibellines and the pro-papacy Guelphs, however, were soon unsheathed, when he levied taxes on Milan, a pro-Guelph city, to support his armies, which drove him into the Ghibelline camp, and precipitated a renewal of the hostilities. Entered Rome in 1312, and although part of the city was held against him, he was crowned HRE by the cardinals who were named by the pope for that purpose. Left Rome to campaign against Guelph forces in Tuscany, and though he was able to subdue a number of towns, he could not take Florence, the Guelph stronghold of Tuscany. Left for another expedition against Naples, but failed to capture Siena and died of a fever in the middle of the campaign. Succeeded by Ludwig IV (Willy Brandt). Inner: Last of his name, and first and last of his house to hold the title of HRE. Competent and ambitious, albeit unable to revive ancient imperial policy because of a lack of understanding of Italian politics and the new divisions of the country. Thwarted lifetime of attempting to integrate the past with the present and falling victim to his own inability to grasp the dynamics behind his own grasp for power. Alexius V Ducas (?-1205) - Byzantine emperor. Outer: From an aristocratic family. Rose to a high court position, and was known as Mourtzoupios, for either his bushy eyebrows, or his largely morose character. After marrying twice, he became lovers with Eudokia Angelina, a daughter of the usurping emperor Alexius III Angelus (Benny Begin). Participated in a failed revolt against the latter, which caused him to be imprisoned, until the deposition of Alexius, and the reinstatement of his younger brother Isaac II (Oscar LaFontaine), along with his son Alexius IV (Erich Pommer) in 1203, following a siege of the city by the Fourth Crusade. By the following year, the pair showed a complete inability to extricate the empire from its financial and martial woes, or defend the city from Italian and Latin interests. Became the head of the anti-Latin faction, and personally indulged in some street fighting against the crusaders still in Constantinople. During a time of particular upheaval, both emperors barricaded themselves in the palace, while asking him to intercede for them with the crusaders. Instead, he arrested them, and had Alexius IV strangled, which caused his weakened father to die shortly afterwards from shock. Crowned in early 1204, he immediately began fortifying the defense of the city, since its walls had been broached without too much difficulty by the rampaging crusaders. Personally led an attack against their camp, then courageously defended the city in the face of an assault by them, but the second time they attacked, they proved far too strong to repel, and he was forced to flee the city, along with his mistress and her mother to Thrace. Constantinople fell to Latin control, and would remain in their rapacious hands. Made it to the base of the deposed Alexius III in Mosynopolis, and married his mistress there, only to fall victim to the deposed emperor’s ongoing perfidy, when he was captured, blinded and brought back to Constantinople. Condemned to death for treason, he was thrown from the top of the Column of Theodosius, to become the last Byzantine emperor to reign in Constantinople prior to the establishment of the Latin Empire there, which would rule for a little over the next half century, until the city was finally recovered by an offshoot of the ruling house of Byzantium. Inner: Courageous and valorous, but given the impossible task of maintaining rule in a city fully acrawl with an alien force. Mission impossible lifetime of holding a decayed polity together against the larger forces of his/story, while dealing with his longtime family members. Benedict VIII (Theophylactus) (c980-1024) - Italian pope. Outer: From a noble family very much involved in Roman politics. Father was the count of Tusculum. Brother of the future John XIX (Oscar LaFontaine), who would succeed him, and uncle of the future Benedict IX (Benny Begin), who would also sit in the Chair of St. Peter. Pursued a political career, per his family’s calling, so that he had held no clerical office, nor was he ever consecrated, when he was thrust into the papacy by force in 1012, unseating an antipope who quickly disappeared. Two years later, he crowned the HRE Heinrich II (Mohamed Ali Jinnah), and maintained strong relations with him afterwards. Able to keep Italy in a relatively peaceful state by allying himself with the Normans in the south, while controlling other elements through the aggressive sponsorship of military and naval forces at his disposal. Visited Germany, where he consecrated the cathedral of Bamberg, then held a synod with the emperor where he supported the Cluniac reformation, while dealing with excesses of the clergy, including simony, or the selling of indulgences, and sexual incontinence. Continued to promote peace in the Christian realms of Europe, deliberately spreading the influence of the papacy, while also using his office to try to settle an ongoing dispute between two Italian ecclesiastical patriarchs, which would seep over into his brother’s pontificate. Showed himself to be effective in his own See, as well as in continental politics, with a surety in all he did, as both a reformer and a protector of his extended Italian territories, so that he was able to pass on a strong sceptre to his younger brother, when he exited the mortal coil. Inner: Competent, aggressive and very much in control. Accused of avarice, as his singular sin, despite scant evidence to prove it. Litany-laden lifetime of bringing his gift for rule to bear in a realm that demanded far more of his instinct for power than religiosity, and acquitting himself quite well.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS WOUNDED HEALER:
Storyline: The conscientious communicator tears at his throat in order to open it up to the full power of his desire to reform and remind the country he so closely identifies with, of its higher possibilities and commitments.

Oskar Lafontaine (1943) - German politician. Outer: Of French ancestry. Son of a baker killed in WW II. One of a pair of twins. His mother worked as a secretary to support the family. Short and squat. Attended a Jesuit high school, then studied physics at the Univ. of Bonn, and later the Univ. of Saarbrucken. Not politically active as a student, he didn’t enter politics until 1966, when he joined the Social Democratic Party, and became the leader of the party’s peace faction. In 1974, he was elected deputy mayor of Saarbrucken, then became the city’s oberburgermeister, the youngest chief mayor of a West German city. In 1979, he joined the national party’s central committee, and in 1985, he became minister president after his party won a majority in his state’s Landstag, before rising to Saar governor. Seen as an ‘enlightened monarch’ of Saarbrucken, raising taxes and trimming waste, while combining conservative practical politics with leftist rhetoric. Married a sculptress in 1982, later divorced, then married Christa Muller, an economist and activist against genital mutilation, one son from the second union. Rose to prominence in the 1980s, Rose to prominence in the 1980s, as a fierce critic of nuclear weapons and nuclear power, and seemed, by the end of the decade, to be on his way to ousting Chancellor Helmut Kohl, although the fall of the Berlin Wall and the ideal of German reunification, kept the longtime leader in power. In 1990, he ran for chancellor, with dire warnings about the negative effects of rapid unification, many of which came true, although he failed to capture the imagination of the electorate. Later that year, he was stabbed in throat by a deranged woman, in an unconscious reopening of the wound that had done him in his previous life of German rule. Recovered, became the premier of Saarland and went on to give an electrifying speech in 1995 to the Social Democratic Party, harkening them back to their leftist values, and gaining the leadership of the SDP after many years of its being Germany’s secondary party. Strongly anti-militarist, he became a controversial economic minister in Gerhard Schroeder’s government in 1998. Proved extremely unpopular for his anti-business reforms, which saw Germany’s growth projections drop, and its unemployment rate rise, and was quickly given the axe, as he resigned his post, his party leadership and his seat in Parliament, while taking the blame for his government’s failings for his heavy-handed ways. Retaliated with “The Heart Beats Left,” a sour-grapes assessment of his time in office, but rebounded as a reinvented populist, with oddly enough, a neo-Nazi following. Inner: Sharp wit and acerbic tongue. Talented opportunist, a mixture of Machiavelli and Marx. Scold lifetime of reopening the communication wound that undid him his previous existence, as he continues to try to serve as a wounded healer for Germany’s many international injuries. Friedrich III (1831-1888) - German emperor. Outer: Only son of Wilhelm I (Helmut Kohl). Mother was the daughter of a German grand duke. Known to his family as ‘Fritz.’ Good-looking, tall, broad-shouldered and bearded. First Prussian prince to attend a university, he also received a complete military education as well. Visited England as a young man with his parents, and fell in love with the English princess royal, Victoria, the daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (Joseph Albers). In 1858, he married the 17 year old Victoria (Princess Margaret), 8 children from union, including his successor, Wilhelm II (Benny Begin). Extremely happy union, although the princess was never popular in Germany because of her outspokenness. Esteemed for his liberal views and sense of goodness, while both he and his wife had a loathing for Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (Menachem Begin), which was returned in kind. Influenced by his wife’s liberal views, but also favored a strong central government. Spent nearly 3 decades in waiting to assume his royal role, during which time he was a successful commander in several wars. In 1887, he fell ill with cancer of the throat, although his condition was wrongly diagnosed until it was too late. Suffered incredible agonies at the hands of his physicians as they repeatedly failed to treat him. Succeeded to the throne on the death of his father in 1888, but only lived for a few weeks, breathing through tubes inserted through an open wound in his throat. Died prematurely, robbing the late 19th century of a promising integrating figure, just as fates had decried that the early 17th century would be denied a potential enlightened leader. Inner: Dignified, with a strong sense of the traditions of his house, but at the same time, open to change and most assuredly would have led Germany in a different direction from that of his ill-fated son. Thwarted lifetime of suffering painful wounds of communication, rendering him impotent and helpless after a long and eager wait to strut his stuff on the world’s stage. Friedrich V (1596-1632) - German elector of the Palatine. Outer: Son of Palatine elector Friedrich IV (Benny Begin). Received a French education, and succeeded his father in 1610. In 1613, he married the beautiful Elizabeth Stuart (Princess Margaret), the daughter of James I (Kenneth Tynan) of England, after her other marriage plans fell through, 3 sons from union, including his successor Karl Ludwig (Erich Pommer) and Prince Rupert. The following year they began their joint rule. The duo tried to make the Palatine a buffer state between Catholic and Protestant Europe based on Rosicrucian principles, but the continent was not ready for the enlightened wedding of science and spirituality that their idealism warranted. Became a director of the Protestant Union and when the Protestant Bohemian estates revolted against the Catholic HRE, Ferdinand II, they offered the crown of Bohemia to him in 1619. After being crowned in Prague, however, he soon found himself in an untenable military position, and his army was thoroughly routed at the Battle of White Mountain by the Catholic League, earning him the sobriquet of “the Winter King,” for his brief reign. Although 2 armies later fought for his cause, they, too, were routed, and his dominions were seized by the duke of Bavaria, while he was forced to go into exile to the Hague in 1622, and lived there for most of his last decade on moneys from England and Holland. Lost a son in 1629. Despite support from several German Protestant princes, he was never able to restore himself, and died while trying to reclaim his throne in the martial wake of the king of Sweden, Gustavus II Adolphus (Yukio Mishima), who predeceased him a few weeks earlier. Inner: Intelligent, idealistic, strong sense of mission and purpose. Shining moment lifetime of briefly acting as a focus for bringing a revolutionary sensibility to Europe, which was not ready to embrace the precepts he tried to stand for. Sigismund I (1368-1437)- Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: 2nd son of HRE Karl IV (Angela Merkel). Younger half-brother of Wenceslas I (Benny Begin). Well-educated, could speak 7 languages fluently, and developed into a gifted orator. Had a fierce sense of religiosity, although no moral sense. Active hunter, drinker and lover, taking on mistresses before he was in his teens. Tall and slim. In his early 20s, he married Mary I of Anjou, the daughter of the king of Hungary and Poland, who died in childbirth along with their one son, and he was made king consort on her father’s death, and crowned 5 years later. Given the margrave of Brandenburg on his father’s death in 1378, but he had to pawn it a decade later to raise funds to defend his realm after his wife was deposed. Intervened in the struggles of Wenceslas with his nobles, changing sides several times before he was made vicar general of Germany, the year after his first wife died. Led an army in a disastrous crusade against the Turks, barely escaped capture, then imprisoned Wenceslas and tried to take Bohemia, but was forced to release him when own realms were invaded. Married again in 1408, to countess Barbara of Celje, who went on to exert a strong influence over him, while pursuing her own lovers, as he did. One daughter from the union. Finally crowned German king at the age of 42 after the death of his rivals. Campaigned in Italy, then settled the western schism of the Church, and signed the death sentence for martyr Jan Hus (James Agee) at the subsequent Council of Constance, after promising him safe conduct, earning him the enduring hatred of the Czechs, as well as the opprobrium of his/story for the act, despite his doing so in order to prevent further schism. Claimed the kingship of Bohemia on his brother’s death in 1419, for which he was bitterly opposed by the Hussites during the next decade, and was forced to fight a series of wars which were mostly military disasters, making him delay his coronation. Led a 2nd unsuccessful crusade against the Turks in 1328, then returned to Italy. Spent most of his life doing battle away from his native realm, causing his nobles to ultimately form a union to protect themselves from him. Finally crowned king of Bohemia in 1436, a year before his death. Last of the line of the House of Luxembourg, since he left no surviving sons. Inner: Passionate, cultivated, cruel, charming and ambitious. Final acting out on an imperial level of his medieval appetites, before trying to channel them into more productive social reform. Scattershot lifetime of crusading for his own hunger for vast power while winning the enmity of whole nations in the process, and subsequently being reviled in his/story despite his vision and his abilities and his bringing the western church together for the price of the life of a heretic. Isaac II Angelus (1156-1204) - Byzantine basileus. Outer: From an undistinguished house that rose when one of the daughters of the emperor Alexius I (Michael Milken), married his grandfather, giving powerful rise to his immediate ancestor’s fortunes. Father was one of several military commanders his house produced. Married to an unknown woman, two daughters and a son, Alexius IV (Erich Pommer), from the union. Participated in a provincial revolt against his predecessor, Andronicus I (Benito Mussolini) but was not immediately punished for it, until the former’s agents tried to arrest him, at which point he killed their leader, then hid in the Hagia Sofia, where he was subsequently crowned in the city’s great church. Somewhat reluctant initially to take the throne, for fear of mob violence against him. On his return to the city, the dethroned emperor Andronicus was captured, tortured and killed, leaving him with an extremely chaotic situation in the wake of the latter’s misrule. Made dynastic marriages with his niece and sister to shore up alliances, and, following his wife’s death, and soon after being enthroned, he wed Margaret of Hungary, a Hungarian princess aged ten, for political purposes. Two sons from the union. His initial forays in the field were successful, against the Norman king of Sicily, although they extracted revenge by destroying a fleet sent to free his older brother Alexius III (Benny Begin), and then interfering with his attempt to regain Cyprus, while the Bulgarians rose against him, reestablishing their empire. Forced to deal with several claimants to the throne, although all failed in their aims, and then had the Third Crusade march through his lands, in their inimitable locust-like fashion. Tried resisting them, and lost a key city, while his navy was steadily whittled down through his various failed martial adventures. Proved to be corrupt in his domestic policies, selling governmental offices for bribes, while the provincial tax collectors became extortionists again, so that the empire suffered a general decline on all fronts under him, thanks in large part to his dependence on unqualified underlings. Spent lavishly on building and expensive gifts to the churches, so as to deplete his treasury, and surrounded himself with people who never criticized his actions. Engaged in continuous warfare with the Bulgarians, to Byzantium’s ongoing detriment, and while out on the field, taking time off for a hunting expedition, his brother Alexius III overthrew him, then blinded and imprisoned him. Spent the next eight years in a dungeon cell, before Alexius III was forced to flee, although he was barely functional by the time he reemerged into the daylight, and his son Alexius IV took over the reigns of government, to little avail. Rioting put Alexius V (Herlmut Kohl) on the throne, and on the imprisonment of his son, his weak constitution gave out, and he died of shock, while Alexius IV was strangled shortly afterwards. Inner: Had mediocre abilities, coupled with an untalented crew surrounding him, making for a blindingly second-rate attempt at reviving a former first-rate empire, despite putting considerable energy into its external affairs. Unsteady as she goes lifetime of being handed a dysfunctional empire, and not being up to re-righting a listing ship of state. John XIX (Romanus) (?-1032) - Italian pope. Outer: From a noble Tuscalan family very much involved in both Roman politics and intrigue. Father was a count of Tusculum. Younger brother of his predecessor, Benedict VIII (Helmut Kohl). Like his sibling, he never pursued a clerical career, and instead held several political posts, including consul and senator, which he assumed on his sibling’s enforced elevation to the papacy. Had to be ordained as a bishop in order to allow him to succeed his brother in 1024 to the Chair of St. Peter. Took on the name of John XIX, and immediately tried to buy his acceptance by lavishing gifts on the Romans to curry their favor. Accepted a large bribe to allow the patriarch of Constantinople to be given the sanction by Rome over all eastern churches. When the action was made public, it caused such outrage throughout ecclesiastical ranks, it had to be immediately rescinded. Earlier rejected a proposal by the Constantinople patriarch to have his sphere of influence recognized by the Roman church, which would directly feed into the Great Schism between east and west around mid-century. Supported Konrad II (David Ben Gurion) as successor emperor of the HRE and crowned him with great pomp and circumstance in 1027, further cementing ties between the church and empire. Held a synod to try to resolve the dispute between two Italian patriarchs, over who had jurisdiction over the other, only to reverse his decision two years later. Made an agreement with Constantinople so that each See would sponsor churches that operated in the traditions of the other, and brought his powers to bear over various disputes within the ecclesiastical realm, while taking the important Abbey of Cluny under his protection. Reportedly killed by a mob of angry peasants, although this is probably an apocryphal story summing up a general feeling about him, and his less-than-stellar pontificate. Succeeded by his nephew, Benedict IX (Benny Begin), who would further disgrace the papacy with his arbitrary actions. Inner: Quite open about taking money for favors, which would ultimately lead to the rumor of his demise coming at the hands of his disgruntled congregants. Uneasy lies the head lifetime of bringing a materialistic and highly secular overview to a sacred throne, and acting accordingly, to his office’s and his own ultimate detriment, in his ongoing difficult lessons of rule.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS SCIENTIST/STATESPERSON:
Storyline: The empirical experimenter switches genders in order to try yet another test of his/her ability to integrate the political with the logical in the great laboratory of world power, as a means of expanding her own considerable skills at problem-solving.

Angela Merkel (Angela Dorothea Kasner) (1954) - German chancellor. Outer: Father was a Lutheran pastor and mother taught English and Latin. The oldest of three with a younger brother and sister. Grew up in a small country town north of East Berlin, where her father held a pastorate, while the family had free access to the west, and owned two automobiles, which were not usually accorded pastors. Enjoyed an intellectual household despite tensions with her sire, who taught her to be tight-lipped, and initially hoped to be a teacher or translator, although those careers were closed to her in the communist east. Conformed to the dictates of the state while growing up, despite feeling it was inhuman and unsustainable. 5’5”, with blue eyes and dark blonde hair. Studied physics at the Univ. of Leipzig, earning her doctorate in 1978. The year before she married physics student Ulrich Merkel. No children from the union, which ended in divorce in 1982. Fluent in Russian, for which she won a prize, as well as English. Gained her doctorate with a thesis on quantum chemistry, and worked in the field as a researcher and laboratory physicist until 1990. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, she became far more interested in politics, joining the Democratic Awakening Party the following year. Quickly became a deputy spokesperson for the transitory government, while abandoning her career in physics. The following year she was elected to the Bundestag, from the northern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, which would be her political base throughout her career, as an apostle of the center-right. After her party merged with the Christian Democratic Union Party, she became a minister in Helmut Kohl’s cabinet. Although he referred to her as “my girl,” he gave her succeedingly more powerful posts, since she proved a quick study, and was unafraid of going after rivals, which led to her being named the CDU’s Secretary-General in 1998. The same annum, she wed quantum chemist professor Joachim Sauer, after a longtime connection to him. He, in turn, would stay in the background during her entire public life. No children from the union, although he had two adult sons The following year she became the party’s first female chairperson, in lieu of financial scandals surrounding Kohl, after directly criticizing him, despite his former role as her mentor. Ran for chancellor in 2002 against Gerhard Schroeder, although lost because of a lack of support from her own party, since its old-boy network was deliberately denied her. Became the leader of the conservative opposition to Schroeder, taking a pro-U.S. stance, to the point of supporting the American invasion of Iraq, which was unpopular among her own electorate. Although her liberal pro-market positions did not always resonate with her constituency, she beat out Schroeder in the 2005 election to become Germany’s first female, as well as, East German, chancellor. The contest was close enough for both sides to declare victory, although she successfully created a sufficient coalition to rule, after a considerable amount of concessions and backroom negotiations. Immediately focused on foreign policy to high approval ratings, before tackling much needed internal issues, in less successful fashion, with an unpopular tax increase and controversial health care reform. Served on the G8 group of world economic leaders, and chaired the summit held in 2007, while also acting as president of the European Union. In 2008, she apologized in an emotional speech to the Israeli Knesset for Germany’s shame in the Shoa, and pledged to be the country’s strong ally. Germany’s subsequent economy was sufficiently strong enough for her to win a more significant plurality in 2009 for a second term, particularly in light of the rest of Europe’s failing economic status. In 2010, she announced multiculturalism had been a failure, since Germany was a Christian nation at heart, and immigrants should make some sort of effort to adopt to the country’s culture and ways, while at the same time declaring that Islam was now part of the Deutsche make-up. Along with French leader Nicholas Sarkozy, she became Merkozy, part of a resented duo that would take a leadership role in the financial crises enveloping the Europe Union, while the general depressive economic atmosphere in Europe saw a loss in confidence in her leadership by 2011, and a desire for the country to pursue another direction as the year spun out. Given a host of honors and prizes, including several from Jewish institutions, as well as being acknowledged as the most powerful woman in the world during most of her term of office. Lost her partner Sarkozy in the 2012 French presidential elections to a socialist, but vowed to maintain Germany’s austerity program in the face of higher spending growth-oriented policies elsewhere, only to see her party suffer a crushing loss immediately afterwards in the country’s most populous state over just that issue. In the 2013 national elections her party won decisively, insuring her of a third term as chancellor, although they did not win enough seats for a Parliamentary majority, because of her relatively weak liberal coalition partner. More than willing to levy sanctions against Russia for its aggression in the Ukraine the following year, with a continued desire to keep the European Union strong, with Germany at its economic heart. As such, she gave the leftist government of Greece considerable grief over a timeline for paying off their debts. In 2015, she oversaw a new quota that will force some of Europe’s largest companies to increase the number of women in their boardrooms to 30% by 2016. At the same time, she tried to broker a peace, along with the French president at Minsk with Vladimir Putin and his foreign minister in the hopes of averting a Civil War in Ukraine. Took a hardline stance against Greek debt forcing the nation against its electoral will to accept an austere bail-out deal to deal with its huge debt, in her desire to keep it in the Eurozone at all costs. Opened her borders to a host of Syrian refugees, and has become known as Mama Merkel to some of them for her compassion on their plight, despite internal problems galore with cultural clashes at the move. As a result she demanded they need to assimilate, calling multiculturalism a delusion, while promising to cut back after 2015 on how many more the country allows in. Named Time’s Person of the Year for her central role in Europe’s socio-economic life, the first woman so honored since 1986. The Alternative for Deutschland Party, a far right coalition with an 85% male membership, began making inroads in local elections against her CDU, with one of its leaders, Frauke Petry, an East German scientist like herself, albeit some three decades younger, proving to be a dark and dangerous shadow reflection of her on the German political landscape. Won re-election as chair of her party at the end of 2016. In concert called for a full-face veil ban to underline her desire for refugee assimilation. Able to subsequently rebound in popularity through her sense of competence and pragmatism, then announced Europe must depend on itself and not the US, in a slam at Pres. Donald Trump’s lack of interest in key issues facing the continent. Turned to China as a new potential partner to thwart her sense of America’s degradation under him, while also more closely allying Germany with France. Won an unprecedented fourth term in 2017, although at the same time, the far right AfD made huge electoral strides, becoming the third most powerful party in the Bundestag or Parliament. Has a net worth of $11 million. Inner: Reserved, dogged, earnest and deliberately bland, in keeping with her scientific bent, where results are far more important than political grandstanding. Flexible and tough, as well, using her keen powers of observation and analysis to choose the right time to make her moves. High;y rational and pragmatic, with a mechanical view of the dynamics of the world. Loves details, does not hesitate in correcting herself, and attacks problems in terms of their ultimate solutions. Usually holds her emotions in check, which makes her difficult to identify with. Extremely cautious, relying on polls to gauge the country, and still seen by many Germans as from the east, and not one of them. Her nickname is ‘Mutti,’ or ‘Mommy.’ Unification lifetime of returning to her prior longtime stomping grounds, to employ her astute scientific skills in dealing with an extremely complex state as a supreme rationalist with the innate ability to deal with power on a variety of levels. kChaim Weizmann (1874-1952) - Russian/Israeli statesman and chemist. Outer: Grew up in rural western Russia. Father was a prosperous Jewish lumber importer, and local headman, who had an eclectic library, replete with radical journals, scientific works and Zionist literature, which his son devoured. 3rd of 15 children, with 12 surviving into adulthood, and all but one becoming professional people. Enjoyed the natural setting of his childhood, and maintained a love of trees his entire life. Also much fascinated with Jewish culture and ideals, becoming a fervent Zionist, while harboring a dislike for clerics, and those who exploited their religiosity for political and personal gain, garnered from his sire. Spoke Yiddish at home, and didn’t learn Russian until his near teens. At 11, he went to secondary school in nearby Pinsk, where his scientific aptitude was encouraged. Because of restrictions in his native country, he studied chemistry in Germany and Switzerland, supporting himself by teaching. Received his Ph.D. magna cum laude at Fribourg, Switzerland, then taught chemistry at Geneva Univ. while pursuing organic chemistry research, with a focus on dyestuffs and aromatics. Sold patents, and was able to help with the education of his younger siblings. Married Vera Khatzman, a medical student in 1906, 2 sons from the union, one of whom was killed during WW II on an air force mission, while the other became an Irish farmer. Settled in England 2 years previous, and taught at the Univ. of Manchester, becoming a naturalized British subject in 1910. Figured out how to extract acetone from maize, and served as a negotiator with the British government on the Zionist cause, taking a greater and greater role in the movement after the start of WW I, ultimately becoming head of the World Zionist Organization, which would become his primary focus. Thanks to royalties from his patents and shrewd investments, he was relatively well off financially by the 1920s. Served as a fund raiser and exhorter, while traveling the world, using a cautious stance in his negotiations with heads of state, while viewing himself as “the greatest tax collector in the history of the Jewish people,” in his efforts. Came into conflict with the extremists in the organization who accused him of being too cozy with the British government, and in 1930, he resigned his position in a pique, although was prevailed upon to reconsider. Given a vote of no-confidence at the subsequent 1931 congress, he returned to science, founding a research institute in Palestine, while trying to save German Jewry after the rise of the Nazis in 1933. Placed back in office 2 years later, he was a supporter of partition of the Palestinian state, which won him further opprobrium, and was rejected by the Arabs. Aided the Allied military effort during WW II by providing essential pharmaceuticals. Denounced the violent tactics of the Jewish underground, and again lost the Zionist presidency in 1946. In 1948, his personal persuasion helped to get American recognition of Israel, and the following year, he was elected first president of the new nation, although the labor he had put into the effort had clearly worn him out. In failing health, he rode out his term of office, without playing any kind of political role. Finally died at home after a long and painful illness. Given a state funeral that saw more than a quarter million people file past his bier. Penned his autobiograpjhy “Tril and Error,” in 1949. Inner: Tenacious, highly diplomatic and unswerving in his aims and goals. Dual lifetime of vast achievement in the scientific and political laboratories of his time, providing the necessary balance to the more aggressive adherents of Zionism to help forge modern Israel. kAlexander Humboldt (Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander, Freiherr von Humboldt) (1769-1859) - German naturalist and explorer. Outer: Mother was of Huguenot extract, father was a Prussian officer. Brother Wilhelm became a well-known scholar, diplomat and linguist. Following his sire’s death when he was 10, he was raised by his mother, an exceedingly contained Calvinist, who had both brothers educated privately in hopes they would attain high civil service office. Initially sickly and a poor student, he found his life’s calling in Berlin, where he trained as an engineer and discovered his passionate interest in botany. Began collecting plant specimens, but found the surrounding area limited in scope. Joined the recently opened School of Mines in Freiberg, and employed his prodigious memory and extraordinary capacity for work in gaining the foundation for his further studies in geology and mineralogy. Spent 2 years there and left sans degree to take a position with the Mining Department of the Prussian Government, where he got his grounding in field work, invented a safety lamp, established a school for young miners, and supervised all mining activities. Resigned his post in 1797, and, after several disappointments, finally gained permission from the Spanish government to visit the Spanish colonies in Central and South America. Set sail in 1799 and spent the next 5 years in strenuous physical exploration, covering more than 6000 miles with a French botanist. Climbed peaks, without the aid of supplies, studied ocean currents, gathered specimens, and returned to Europe, after a brief stay in the U.S., with a mountain of information. Made Paris his base, and spent the next 23 years publishing his findings, which ranged from meteorological data to flora and fauna to volcanic activity, and proved that the surface of the Earth had been formed by sedimentation from a liquid state. Also wrote on the political, social and economic conditions of New Spain, although his compassion for the slave laborers who toiled in the mines went largely unheeded. Highly gregarious, he dominated the scientific salons of the city, although he lived quite simply, since his fortune had been spent in his pursuits and publications, keeping him in financial arrears for the rest of his life. Due to his generosity, many poor students who showed promise were given their scientific starts, and he was held in highly affectionate regard by one and all. Forced to return to Berlin in 1827, because of financial circumstances, he was made to serve as tutor to the Prussian crown prince, and take on the duties of the privy council. Able to sidestep the government’s fear of liberal-minded people, in his organization of an international scientific conference, while he was also a popular lecturer. In 1829, he visited Russia to view their mines, although he was under guard and wraps not to comment upon the country’s despotic political situation, which he abhorred. Explored central Asia as well, adding to the geographical and geological knowledge of those largely unknown and unexplored territories. Married to science, seeing the extended community as his family. Spent his last three decades in Berlin, traveling once a year to Paris, while pursuing his fascination with magnetic fields, and using his international reputation to coordinate a world-wide exploration of that phenomenon. Spent the last part of his long life with pen put to paper, writing a four volume opus called Kosmos, in which he limned the structure of the universe according to scientific tenets of his day. Died while working on the 5th and last volume, his capacities undiminished despite his many years. Inner: Magnanimous, extremely generous and a fiend for work and the dissemination of knowledge. Probably the last great generalist, which has lessened his overall reputation. Focused lifetime of pure scientific exploration, unencumbered by political concerns, save on a personal level, proving to be not only an intrepid investigator, but a skilled expositor, in an all-around go-round dedicated wholly to scientific method. kOtto von Guericke (1602-1686) - German scientist and politician. Outer: From a patrician family that had been living in Magdeburg for 3 centuries. Educated at the Univ. of Leipzig and studied law at the Univ. of Jena, before completing his education at the Univ. of Leyden in 1623 with mathematics and mechanics. Traveled in England and France, before returning to Magdeburg, where he married in his mid-20s. Forced to leave Magdeburg when it was destroyed, and became an engineer in the army of Gustavus II Adolphus (Yukio Mishima). Returned to help rebuild his native city, and from 1646 to 1681, he served as its burgomeister as well as magistrate for Brandenburg. An active astronomer, he correctly predicted that comets periodically return. In 1650, he invented the air pump, in his experiments with vacuums, while discovering that although air travels through the latter, sound does not. Performed a famous experiment before the HRE in 1654, in which he placed 2 copper bowls together and removed the air from their hollow center. Horses subsequently could not pull them apart, because of the air pressure around them. In 1663, he invented the first electric generator, and 9 years later, he became the discoverer of electroluminescence. In 1666 he was raised to the peerage by the HRE. Finally retired in 1678, and spent his last years in his son’s home in Hamburg. Inner: Great curiosity, and a devotee of scientific method, allowing him to add immeasurably to the practical knowledge of his time. Luminescent lifetime of placing most of his focus on the physical, rather than the political sphere, and showing his ongoing expertise in both discovery and experimentation. kWilhelm IV (1532-1592) - German landgrave. Known as “William the Wise.” Outer: Father was Philip the Magnanimous. One of 4 brothers. Participated with his brother-in-law, Maurice of Saxony, in the princely rebellion of 1552 that freed his father from a 5 year captivity at the hands of the HRE Charles V (Napoleon Bonaparte). On his sire’s death 15 years later, his limited inheritance forced him to concentrate on internal policy, rather than foreign affairs. Sought a compromise twixt the Lutherans and Calvinists within Hesse-Kassel, his domain, and proved to be a talented organizer and a highly skilled economist. Continually looked to unite the various factions of the Reformation against Catholic intransigence, although was reluctant in the use of arms, and could only operate with minimal resources. Compiled a territorial survey that became a model of statistical efficiency. In addition to his political and economic pursuits, he was an active astronomer, constructing numerous instruments and calculating many stellar positions. Patronizing both art and science, he kept up with the scholarly pursuits of his time, as a Renaissance man thrust into an age of reformation and counter-reformation, with the ability to integrate learning with accomplishment. Inner: Information-master, with an equally perceptive view of the heavens and the earth, and the patterns that best described the both. Eye-in-the sky lifetime of pursuing his ongoing dual interests with his usual sense of accomplishment, in his ability to transliterate information into both action and achievement. kKarl IV (Wenceslas) (1316-1378) - Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Eldest son of the King of Bohemia, mother was the sister of the last native Bohemian king.In 1323, he went to the French court, and married Blanche, the sister of Philippe VI (Henry Luce). Two daughters from the union with one, Catherine marryying Rudolph IV, the founder of the Austrian Hapsburg dynasty. Following his wife’s death in 1348, he wed Anna of Bavaria, with whom he had a short-lived son. Medium-sized, black-haired, broad-faced with a habitual stoop, not particularly impressive-looking. Studied at the French court under various teachers, including Pierre Roger (Abraham Lincoln), the future pope Clement VI, then was called back to Luxembourg in his mid-teens to head the administration of his father’s provisional acquisitions in northern Italy, after which he became margrave of Moravia and captain general of Bohemia. Despite difficulties, he built up the army and suppressed the growing power of the nobility, although his father grew suspicious of his abilities and dismissed him in 1335. The duo affected a reconciliation and he became an indispensable statesman and diplomat, then took over the duties of his father, when the latter went blind. Through his efforts, Clement VI raised the bishopric of Prague to an archbishopric, giving Bohemia ecclesiastical autonomy. An ardent supporter of church construction, he often directed the erection of each edifice, while proving a prodigious all-around builder. Although his predecessor as German king, Ludwig IV (Dan Halutz) had earlier been excommunicated, he had not relinquished his throne. Elected king of Germany in 1346, although Ludwig refused to acknowledge him. Succeeded to his father’s throne of Bohemia the same year, when the latter died at the Battle of Crecy against the English. Prepared to attack Ludwig, but he died the following year, and he was able to win over his supporters peacefully. Fashioned Prague into a political, economic and cultural center of central Europe, while making the kingship of Bohemia an integral element of the Holy Roman imperial throne for the next 400 years. Established his own hereditary line by law, and through treaties created the basis for the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. When the rabble-rouser Cola da Rienzi (Adolf Hitler) came to his court to enlist his aid in setting up a republic in Rome, he saw him as the madman he was, and held him in captivity for 2 years, before handing him over to Clement. Founded the first university in central Europe, and was extremely interested in science. Married a third time to Anna von Schweidnitz, and finally got his successor, Wenceslaus (Kaiser Wilhelm II), as well as a daughter and short-lived son. In 1354 he led an army into Italy to secure recognition of his throne and in 1355 was given the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire. Once in his possession, he quickly left Italy to its own problems and returned to Prague, where he issued a Golden Bull, which cemented Bohemia’s position in the imperial hierarchy. Married a fourth time to Elizabeth of Pomerania, and had 6 children with her, including the future HRE Sigismund (Oscar Lafontaine). The latter part of his life was dedicated to securing the crown for his inept son, Wenceslaus. Had a garish funeral, and was acknowledged as one of the last splendid embodiments of the Middle Ages. Wrote his autobiography, and was influential in the development of the German language. Inner: Wise, humane, learned and lettered, called “the priests’ king.” His primary concern was protecting his family’s interests, since he was as dynastically-oriented as his fellow rulers of the time. Devout, ambitious, collected every recorded vestige of his lineage. Also addictively acquisitive. Farewell lifetime of one last go-round as an emperor before eventually dipping into the world of aristocratic and uncommon commonality to bring his special blend of wisdom and learning to the world-at-large. Leo IX (Bruno of Eguisheim-Dagsburg) (1002-1054) - German pope. Outer: From a noble German family, with his father, a count, first cousin of HRE Konrad II (David Ben-Gurion). Both his parents were noted for their piety and learning. One of several brothers. Showed himself to be both precocious and sensitive as a child, and was educated by the Bishop of Toul, who ran a school for the sons of nobility. Attacked by an animal one night and hovered for a while between life’n’death, during which time he had a vision of St. Benedict (Michael Eric Dyson), who delivered him back to the living by touching his wounds with a cross. Became a canon in Toul, and when Konrad was made emperor in 1024, he served in the royal chapel. Made bishop of Toul in 1026, proving himself more than up to the task of dealing with famine and war, as a sword-wielding minion of the Prince of Peace. Tall, with red hair, and a martial look to him. Modest in all he did, he served the Holy Roman Empire as a legate, fashioning a firm peace between France and the empire that lasted for generations, while building a reputation as a zealous reformer in the Cluniac mode. Selected pope in 1048, by as assembly in Worms, which received the benediction of both the HRE and the Roman delegates to it. Initially resisted the honor, then wished to be freely elected by canonical decree and the vox populi of Rome, and set out for the Eternal City, along with the future Gregory VII (Michael Eric Dyson), arriving in pilgrim garb, to popular acclaim, and was consecrated pope, taking on the name of Leo IX. Later proposed popes only be elected by cardinals. A traditional reformer, he demanded celibacy of the clergy and an end to all simony, or trading for spiritual favors with money. Traversed the Holy Roman Empire with its emperor Heinrich III (Yitzhak Rabin), presiding over synods and meetings of various officials as well as clergy to emphasize his reformist stances, while earning the nickname of the “Pilgrim Pope.” Returned to Rome and held an Easter synod in 1050 dealing with an ongoing controversy over the material presence of Christ’s body in the Eucharist. Held provincial synods in Italy, as well as further Easter synods, while also visiting his native Germany. Had many relatives in England, where he dealt with churchly matters from afar. In 1053, he personally led an inexperienced army of Italians and Swabians to face the Normans in southern Italy, only to be roundly defeated. His Christian foes, however, honored him, while asking for forgiveness in doing battle with their spiritual leader. Nevertheless, he was held hostage for nine months after giving himself up, until he acknowledged Norman conquests in Calabria and Apulia, which he did, at considerable cost to his own well-being. During his captivity, he learned Greek to better understand the Eastern church and sent a letter to the Patriarch of Constantinople, declaring the Donation of Constantine, which was later proved a forgery, was genuine, in its declaration that Rome was the primary See in the Catholic world. His claim was rejected, precipitating the unresolved schism between the eastern and western churches, since he had been the first pope who used the faux document as his claim to power over all Catholics. Died soon after being carried back to Rome the following month. Canonized in 1082 with his feast day April 19th. Inner: Gracious, modest, highly intelligent and well-liked. Firm in his dealings, traditionalist at heart, and respected by all with whom he came in direct contact. Heilig lifetime of acting as both warrior and peacemaker, as well as strict reformer, proving to be the most consequential of his countrymen to sit in the Chair of St. Peter during the Middle Ages. Daniel (623BZ-c533BZ) - Judean prophet and Babylonian governor. Outer: Of royal birth. Captured by enemy soldiers and taken as a teen from Judah during the Babylonian Captivity to Babylon with three others, and renamed Belteshazzar. May have been castrated, before being trained in his captor’s culture and language for service to the Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar II (Nicolae Ceausescu). As such, he refused to eat the royal fare served him, setting up a ten day challenge where he and his compatriots ate only vegetables and wound up looking healthier than the other trainees, winning the admiration of his captors. After his re-education, he and his companions entered the king’s service, impressing the royal court with their wisdom, beauty and intelligence. When the monarch’s wise men failed to interpret a troubling dream the king had in which he saw a huge tree made of various substances, cut down by deific order, he was able to do so. Saw the rise’n’fall of a quartet of world powers in the dream, with his own One God trumping all, and was rewarded with the governorship over the entire province of Babylon with the king’s wise men in his charge. His renamed three companions, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego were all made administrators, while he stayed at the royal court. The king had a huge gold idol built, while some of his astrologers denounced the Hebrews, as loyal to their God and no earthly authority. When they refused to bow to it, his three companions were all tied up and thrown into a furnace that was so hot, it killed the soldiers who tossed them in. The trio easily survived with the help of an angel and the deeply impressed Nebuchadnezzar praised their God and allowed them to retain their positions. The latter lost his sanity afterwards for seven years, living like a wild beast, before coming to acknowledge the power of the Hebrew One God, at which juncture he regained his mind. The king’s son, Belshazzar eventually succeeded him, and the prophet continued his role as a dream sayer, with several telling visions. When Belshazzar had a great feast, using the gold goblets taken from the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem as drinking vessels, a disembodied hand suddenly appeared and wrote, “Mene, mene, tekel upharsin” on a wall. The prophet was eventually brought in to interpret it, which he did, giving dire prediction about the king’s fate, which immediately came to pass because he was slain that very night, and the Medes took over the kingdom. Made a high-ranking administrator under the usurpers, although he won the jealousy of those under him, who manipulated the new king into issuing a decree that anyone bowing to anyone other than his royal self would be executed, forcing the prophet to be thrown into a sealed lion’s den by the reluctant monarch. Saved once again by the grace of an angel, so that his accusers and their family were tossed into the den in his stead. Remained in exile his entire long life, eschewing the return from the Babylonian Captivity, since he was firmly rooted where he was, and felt his God was with him, no matter the name of the land under his feet. As such, he would serve as symbol of his people during their own near double millennium long exile from the Land long Promised them. Completed his prophesying with a vision of the four empires that would rule the displaced Israelites during their diaspora along with a channeled exhortation of his God to wait, and carry his faith and destiny inside him, rather than look outside for their material manifestation. Different accounts exist of his end days, with his final tomb believed by many to be in Iran. Eventually seen as a righteous prophet in all three One God religions. Inner: Deeply spiritual with an all-abiding love for his sense of the divine. Subject of both myth and symbol, but probably based on a real person, who walked somewhere between the two. Completely understood the bestial nature of humanity, but as an asexual being was always above it. Lion-hearted lifetime of trusting in his sense of the divine to transcend tests of his mortality, while serving as symbol of the long exile his people would have to go through before finally re-claiming what they felt was deity-deeded property given to them from the on-high.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS RIGHT-WING INTRIGUER:
Storyline: The war-loving Reichswehrian walks the halls of power in various states of sobriety and insobriety for many a go-round, before finding his larger ambitions halted by an ancient enemy he continues to underestimate.

Kurt von Schleicher (1882-1934) - German general and chancellor. Outer: Part of an old Brandenburg military family of the minor aristocracy. Father was a Prussian army officer. Joined the German army in 1900 as a subaltern in the foot guards. Able to garner the support of several high-ranking officials, and served on the Eastern Front, where he won an Iron Cross, although incurred the wrath of Gen. Erich von Ludendorff (Dan Halutz) and wound up working at press head quarters. When his earlier mentor, Wilhelm Groener, succeeded von Ludendorff as head of the German Army, he became his personal adjutant with the rank of major. Showed a talent for organization, staff politics and political maneuvering during the chaotic days following Germany’s defeat in WW I. Played a key role in the early Weimar Republic, helping to create the pact that allowed Germany to remain a potentially militaristic state, while heading the Black Reichswehr program, geared towards illegally rebuilding the German army. Also helped organize the illegal Freikorps, a right-wing paramilitary group of ex-soldiers employed to suppress left-wingers and communists throughout the country in what was viewed as a populist vigilante movement, when in reality, it was government controlled. When Groener retired, he remained as an adjutant to the new head of the army, Hans von Seekt. By 1926, he had risen to the rank of colonel, while the election of Paul von Hindenburg to the presidency insured the army’s viable continuance as central to the new state. Engineered von Seekt’s downfall, and aided Groener’s return, becoming his chief political adviser when he was appointed Minister of Defense. Able to accrue enormous power through his gift for intrigue, creating an elaborate intelligence network with spies in every ministry. Also made many enemies via his manipulations while rising to major-general by 1930. Played a pivotal role in helping Heinrich Bruning become German chancellor in 1930, before switching his support to Franz von Papen, seeing him as easier to control. Admired the Nazi’s ability to mobilize mass support, despite seeing them in adverse terms, and hoped to use them towards his own ends. Married Elisabeth von Henning in 1931, a divorcee with a daughter, no children from the union. Helped to force von Papen from office in late 1932, and subsumed his role as chancellor as the final member of the Weimar republic to hold that post. Tried to control the Nazi party, earning the enmity of its head, Adolf Hitler, who joined with Papen to try to oust him. With the backing of the heads of German industry, Papen was able to persuade Hindenburg to replace him with Hitler as chancellor, while promising the by-now senile president that he would personally prevent the latter from implementing his extremist policies. The switch was made, and he became a prime target of the vengeful dictator, as well as some army leaders. Assassinated by a host of gunmen in his Berlin flat during the notorious Night of the Long Knives in 1934. His wife was killed as well, trying to protect him. Inner: Urbane, vain, devious, highly manipulative and a master at intrigue. Had a great desire to restore Germany to its preeminence via a marriage of the military and labor, and felt his abilities at negotiating and exploiting would be sufficient to do so. Totally underestimated the Nazis, as well as the army’s hostility towards him. Thwarted lifetime of trying to create a populist dictatorship, only to find his self-styled sense of being a visionary nearsighted at best, with his inability to realize the greater repercussions of all his actions. Alfred I, Prince of Windischgratz (Alfred Candidus Ferdinand Furst zu Windisch-Graetz) (1787-1862) - Austrian field marshal and military governor. Outer: From a Bohemian noble family. Began his military career in the Hapbsburg imperial army in 1804 as a lance officer. Participated in the various Napoleonic wars, serving with distinction, while steadily rising in rank, so that by 1833, he was a lieutenant field marshal and general of division, as well as being further ennobled as a prince. Married, with at least two sons. Made head of the army in Bohemia, as well as military governor and, as such, he was asked to suppress the 1848 uprising in Vienna, although found no political support for what he was doing, and quickly withdrew to Prague, which had also fallen to the continent-wide insurrectionists. Both his wife and eldest son were killed in the uprisings, which caused him to suppress the revolutionaries with a vengeance, bombarding the city and setting up a military dictatorship throughout Bohemia. Subsequently headed a large army that laid siege to Vienna, ending the unrest there as well, while evincing an extremely harsh and unforgiving hand in his martial rule. Executed numerous popular leaders, which made him a hated figure throughout Germany, particularly among members of its democratic party. Helped engineer the abdication of the ineffectual Austrian emperor Ferdinand I in favor of his teenage nephew, Franz-Joseph (Edgar Bronfman) at year’s end. Given command in Hungary against their insurgents, he occupied Budapest and drove the rebels outside the city. but he was too slow in the follow-up to be effective, allowing them to regather in even greater number. Finally relieved of his command in 1849, and retired to private life. Published a defense of his actions in 1851, and shortly before his death took part in public debates, in an attempt to rehabilitate his reputation. Inner: Largely mediocre commander, despite evincing earlier heroics on the battlefield. Reactionary champion of the status quo, and harsh suppresser of any and all democratic sentiments. Autocratic lifetime of serving the mittel-european aristocracy’s resistance to change they could not completely control, only to have times ultimately rush past him, necessitating a return in similar martial/governmental manner, to see if he could better exploit a populist movement, from above. Friedrich William I (1688-1740) - King of Prussia. Outer: Father was a German elector who later became Frederick I of Prussia. Mother was the daughter of Ernest Augustus of Hanover (Prince Philip). Youngest and only surviving son of the union, with his older two brothers dying young. Grew up in a lush, extravagant court, although his ascetic nature was out-of-sorts with it, particularly after his stepmother went mad. In 1706, he married his first cousin, Sophia Dorothea, the daughter of the future George I (Prince Charles) of Englan and Sophia Dorothea (Princess Diana). Devoted to his wife, although she was incapable of showing affection. 7 sons and 7 daughters from the union, with his third and eldest surviving son, Friedrich II (Michael Milken) his successor. Overtly despised him, and raised him in strict Spartan manner to make a man of him, bullying and controlling all aspects of his young life. Had Friedrich’s favorite beheaded under his window, when the two had planned to run away together, and just barely refrained from doing the same to him. Served in the War of the Spanish Succession, and later spoke of his participation in the Battle of Malplaquet as the greatest day of his life. Acted as regent for his father in 1711, and later that year converted to Pietism, becoming a zealot. Also grew bloated and fat from drinking. Succeeded his progenitor in 1713, and immediately reduced the size and splendor of the court, while imbuing the state with his energetic sense of industry. Doubled the army, while creating a regiment of giants, the Potsdam Grenadiers, and upgrading uniforms and equipment, so as to reorganize it into a formidable fighting force. Realizing the need to make his state financially independent, he pursued a mercantilist economy, doubling revenues, while repopulating areas and improving the lot of his peasants. Freed all serfs, and employed a yearly tax in lieu of aristocratic war service, preferring professional fighting men to a reluctant nobility in arms. Encouraged industry and manufacturing, and instituted compulsory primary education, while centralizing his government, and at the end of his reign, codifying the legal system. His focus was largely on internal policies, while he showed a curious indecisiveness about foreign affairs. Genuinely devoted to the Holy Roman Empire, supporting it during the War of the Polish Succession, although he was unable to gain any of his foreign policy objectives, so that his singular ally by reign’s end was France. Left his state a military powerhouse, however, when he died, which was subsequently molded into a world-class fighting machine by his brilliant general of a son. At his death he bequeathed a full treasury and an army of 60,000 to his highly successful successor. Inner: Boorish, stubborn and highly unpleasant, despite a genuine concern for the welfare of his people. Had no interests in art or literature, with his main release coming from drinking and smoking with his close coterie of friends, while discussing military matters with them. Brutal and tyrannical when anyone brooked his considerable will. Hands firmly on the tiller lifetime of reshaping the state he inherited into a formidable polity, while deliberately sacrificing any sense of the feminine for his overtly male competitive view of economic and political realities. Matthias Gallas, Graf von Campo (1584-1647) - Austrian field marshal. Outer: From a noble family. Entered the Spanish service in his mid-teens, and served in the Netherlands and northern Italy, before joining the army of the Catholic League and performing with distinction in several early battles of the 30 Years’ War. Took part in the war of the Mantuan Succession, then served in Albrecht von Wallenstein’s (Arnold Schwarzenegger) army, and was thought well enough of, to be given several independent commands. Made a field marshal in 1632, and then lieutenant general the following year. Turned on his mentor and was one of the generals responsible for the overthrow and assassination of Wallenstien in 1634, receiving some of his estates, as well as his command as a reward. His later campaigns were characterized by drunkenness, poor management and carelessness, and he became known as “destroyer of armies,” in which his troops were annihilated. Forced to resign his command, after a particularly galling defeat in 1644. Died the following year in disgrace. Inner: Unstable character, with some sense of martial artistry, but his failings sent him on an inexorable path towards self-destruction after reaching the apex of his power. Prisoner of the grape lifetime of evincing skills when his position was tempered by higher-ups, but literally showing himself to be absolutely drunk on power when given supreme command, a not uncommon theme of his. Lothair III (1075-1137) - Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Son of a German count who was killed in battle a few days before his birth. Succeeded to his father’s extensive lands in Saxony, and in 1088 was involved in an abortive uprising against HRE Heinrich IV (Yonatan Netanyahu). Supported the German king Heinrich V (Arnold Schwarzenegger) against his father Heinrich IV, and when the former took the throne, he was made duke of Saxony. Married Richenza of Northheim, an heiress, in 1110, and through her and his holdings, became the richest and most powerful noble in Saxony, although his independence alienated Heinrich, and he successfully championed local autonomy over royal authority in several rebellions, defeating him in 1115. One daughter from the union. When Heinrich died in 1125, he was elected to succeed him, but civil war ensued between his supporters and the House of Hohenstaufen, which was related to Heinrich. Konrad III (Sumner Redstone) of the Hohenstaufens was elected antiking in 1127, although he lost several strongholds, and could not maintain his claim. In 1130, 2 different candidates for the papacy solicited his support and along with a very small army, he marched on Rome in 1132 with the future Innocent II, who had persuaded him to oust the rival pope in return for receiving the imperial crown. Crowned by Innocent in 1133, then retired from the city a few days later, when a deadlock between the two opposing papal forces seemed inevitable, and returned to Germany after receiving the vast estates of his predecessor’s wife, Matilda (Rose Kennedy). Resumed his campaign against the Hohenstaufens, defeating them with his son-in-law, Heinrich the Proud (Menachem Begin) and won peace and conciliation with them. Extended German authority and actively supported Christian missionary activity in the territories east of him, and forced several heathen princes to pay tribute to him, before hieing off to Rome again in 1136, driving the forces of Roger II (Mohandas Gandhi), who supported the antipope, from the southern part of the Italian peninsula. Exhausted from his campaigning, he died on the way back to Germany, and was succeeded by the House of Hohenstaufen. Inner: Aggressive, ambitious, pious and crafty, able to make his will manifest in a variety of realms. Full display lifetime of attracting great power to himself and doing successful battle in an impressive show of strategy, strength and will, which he would have difficulty in matching in his lives to come. Leontius (?-706) - Byzantine basileus. Outer: Became a professional soldier quite early, and rose quickly through the ranks, eventually becoming a military governor. Distinguished himself in several campaigns against the Arabs, showing himself to be punitive in extremis, allowing the empire to successfully negotiate with their caliph for favorable concessions and treaties. Wound up in disgrace by a subsequent defeat at Sebastopolis in 692, when his Slavic contingent deserted, exposing his forces, which resulted in being thrown into prison for two years by the emperor Justinian II (Adolf Hitler). After being freed in 695, he was given another governorship, but used it to incite a rebellion against Justinian, feeding on the anger of many of his former inmates. With support of the Blue faction, along with the patriarch of Constantinople, he prevailed and had the emperor’s nose and tongue slit, before exiling him to Cherson in the Crimea. Proved an undistinguished ruler, forsaking his natural strength in aggressive military action, to a defensive posture as upholder of the empire. After losing Carthage in 697 and the exarchate of Africa, he sent a fleet to retake it, and when it failed to do so, it rebelled, deposing its admiral, and elevating a Germanic sailor, Apsimaros (Ernst Roehm) as their leader. The latter changed his name to Tiberius III, and successfully overthrew him, with the help of the opposing Green faction in 698. Had his nose and tongue slit and was imprisoned in a monastery, there to stay until the return of Justinian, mutilations and all, to reclaim his throne. Along with Tiberius, he was paraded through the streets and pelted with fecal matter, before both were led to the Hippodrome, to have the emperor place his foot on their necks to further jeers from the crowd, at which point, the two were beheaded. Inner: Ruthless and vengeful, showing a far great effectiveness when in motion, than in political stasis. Power-hungry lifetime of allowing his desire for both vengeance and status to overwhelm his commonsense, ultimately causing him to fall victim to a far greater will than his own.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS PATRONESS TURNED FUNNY LADY:
Storyline: The ruling class comedienne has an innate satirical sense of commonality, despite her earlier lofty social positions, and is able to easily make fun of ordinary life and love from her own unpretentious perspective.

Julia Louis-Dreyfus (Julia Scarlett Elizabeth Louis-Dreyfus) (1961) - American actress, comedienne and producer. Outer: Of Alsatian Jewish descent on her paternal side, and German, Mexican, British, French, Scottish, and Scots-Irish on her maternal side. Great, great granddaughter of Leopold Louis-Dreyfus, who founded the Louis Dreyfus Group. Mother was a special needs tutor and writer, father was a French-born billionaire businessman. Her parents divorced when she was one, and her mother remarried the dean of the George Washington Univ. Medical school. Has two half-sisters from her sire’s second marriage, and a younger sister, actress Lauren Bowles from her mother’s second union. Spent her childhood in NYC and Washington DC. 5’3”, with dark brown hair and brown eyes. Studied drama at Northwestern Univ. and began her career with Chicago’s Practical Theatre Company, as well as the Second City comedy group. Moved to NYC, and joined the cast of SNL in 1982 for two seasons. In 1986 she began her film career with Hannah and Her Sisters. Gained her greatest fame and following playing Elaine Benes on the long-running comedy, “Seinfield,” from 1989 to 1998, giving feminine ballast to the otherwise all-male cast, while portraying EB as comically superficial, despite her own innate depth and intelligence. Won a Golden Globe in 1994 for the characterization. Wed Brad Hall, a fellow cast member of SNL whom she had met in college, in 1997, two sons from the union. In 2002, she starred in the sitcom “Watching Ellie,” playing a lounge singer, although it failed to find an audience and was cancelled in the middle of its premiere season. In 2006 she found a vehicle more geared towards her talents, playing a divorced mother of one in “The New Adventures of Old Christine,” which lasted for five seasons. In 2012, she played fictional Vice President Selina Meyer on the cable series “Veep.” winning her third Emmy for it, which was the 13th acting Emmy nomination she received, in a record for female performances. Continued working on the large screen, but is best remembered for her small screen work. Revealed she had breast cancer during the fall of 2017. Has a net worth of $200 million. Inner: Unpretentious, practical and down-to-earth. Well-organized and well-socialized with strong views and a great desire to both edify and entertain. Ruling class lifetime of feeling compelled to serve as a comic role model for other women, in accordance with her own subtle wit and strong social sensibilities. Ava Alice Muriel Astor (Ava Playdell-Bouverie) (1902-1956) - American/British socialite and patron of the arts. Outer: From a doubly prominent social family. Mother was Ava Lowie Willling, descendant of the 2nd mayor of Philadelphia. Probably the product of an affair she had with an attorney named Hatch, although her official father was John Jacob Astor IV of the extremely wealthy Astor clan. Had one older brother, while her parents underwent an extremely tumultuous marriage, marked by infidelities on both sides, which eventually led to divorce. Her sire died on the infamous maiden voyage of the Titanic in 1912. Prior to that her mother took her to the UK, where the two of them lived for many years, enjoying the wealth and privilege of their position, with her mother marrying a baron and becoming Lady Ribbesdale through him. Became the friend and patroness of many artists and writers, in both the UK and America, after the duo returned following 25 years living overseas. She both subsidized Sadler Wells’ Ballet in the UK and the NYC ballet, among her many bequests. In 1924, she became the second wife of Russian Prince Serge Obllensky, one prince and one princess from the union, which ended in divorce in 1932. The following annum she wed Raimund von Hoffmanstahl, the son of Austrian librettist, poet and novelist Hugo von Hoffmanstahl (Stephen Sondheim), one daughter from the union, which ended in divorce in 1939 . Had a year-long affair with British choreographer, Sir Frederick Ashton in 1936, despite the fact he was a hoomphile, as were her two subsequent British mates. In 1940, she wed Philip John Ryves Harding, a journalist, one daughter from the union which ended in divorce in 1945. Her fourth and final marriage was to. British architect David Playdell-Bouveries in 1946, the grandson of an earl, and the duo settled ultimately in NYC and California before divorcing in 1952. Eventually died of heart failure at her NYC residence, and was outlived by her near centenarian mother by two years. Also outlived by all four of her husbands. Buried in the Astor plot north of NYC. Inner: The product of illegitimacy, which she would continue to explore in her private relationships, looking for love with unconventional mates in order to expand her own sense of connection on an intimate level. Experimental lifetime of using her wealth and social position to enhance the arts, while also broadening her ideas around relationships, before returning as an acute social commentator on the foibles of ordinary existence. Maria Luisa of Spain (1745-1792) - Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. Outer: Father was the future Carlos III (Ashton Kutcher) of Spain and the current king of Naples and Sicily at the time of her birth. Mother was Maria Amelia (Dakota Johnson), the eldest daughter of the king of Poland. Fifth of six daughters, along with six sons, as well as second surviving child. Had a strict Catholic upbringing. When she was 14, her sire became king of Spain, and she moved there with her family from Italy. Originally.set to marry future HRE Joseph II (Michael Moore). although Louis XV (Mikhail Gorbachev) intervened with his own dynastic wishes, and instead she was married by proxy to the former’s brother, Leopold II (Mario Cuomo) in 1764, after renouncing her rights to the Spanish throne. Traveled to Austria and the two were officially wed the following year, in what was seen as a happy union, as she played the dutiful and loyal wife, even with her spouse’s many extra-marital affairs. Soon after the wedding, her husband became Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the duo moved to Florence, where they resided for the next quarter of a century in a grand palace. Immediately proved her mettle by providing the poor of the duchy with food and medical assistance when a famine struck the area. Never crowned as Grand Duchess, and had little interest in politics or her social position, preferring to spend her time with the upbringing of her large brood of children. Had 16 offspring all told, with 12 daughters and four sons, including HRE Franz II (Rudy Giuliani) and Ferdinand III (Andrew Cuomo), Grand Duke of Tuscany, both of whom succeeded her husband. Died two months after her spouse in Vienna and was buried there, with her heart placed separately in an urn, from her body which is entombed in the Imperial Crypt. Inner: Generous and kind with a pleasing charm and disposition. Seen as an ideal of female virtue. Never enjoyed the formality of her position, much preferring her wifely and motherly duties to affairs of state. Royal domestic lifetime of serving as an unpretentious ruler far more concerned with family than with the rituals and privileges of power.


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