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EUROROYALS - THE FRANCO/RUSSO & RUSSO/SOUTH AFRICAN CONNECTION

PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS RATTLED REFORMER:
Storyline: The well-intentioned vessel of change continually resists his initial implementations, and instead of serving as a savior, as he wishes, winds up a bridge between the oppressive past and the uncertain future.

Mikhail Gorbachev (1931) - Soviet premier. Outer: Son of Russian peasants. Born with a strawberry birthmark on his forehead. Joined the Young Communist League in 1946, and for the next 4 years, drove a combine harvester, where he specialized in political indoctrination. In 1952, he went to law school at Moscow State Univ. where he met his future wife, while at the same time joining the Communist Party. Got his law degree 3 years later. Married to Raisa Titorenko in 1953, one daughter from union, although allegedly a 2nd daughter as well, who may have been impaired and never acknowledged publicly. Rose through a variety of posts, thanks to the patronage of the party’s chief ideologue, Mikhail Suslov, to become a member of the Central Committee in 1971 and then party secretary of agriculture in 1978. Made a full member of the Politburo in 1980, and his high visibility gained him the leadership of the country as general secretary in 1985 after the deaths of his 2 ailing predecessors, despite being the youngest member of that geriatric ruling body. Quickly consolidated his power by sending ossified officials and bureaucrats into retirement, and then electrified the world with his reforms and call for a new openness (glasnost) of the heretofore rigidly closed Soviet system. Undertook a restructuring (perestroika) of the executive and legislative branches of the government to try to democratize the Soviet political apparatus, with multi-party candidates and secret ballots, while finishing the job of repudiating Stalinist excesses of the past. Also cultivated trade and better relations with the West, signing a treaty with the U.S. to destroy part of the country’s nuclear stockpile, while ending the disastrous 9 year war with Afghanistan. His vigor and relative youth made him a heroic figure to the rest of the world, but the failure of his economic reforms and his curious vacillation in face of various crises weakened his position, as did resistance by the Communist Party. In 1989, he was elected chairman of the Supreme Soviet parliament, and served as a benign father symbol in the tacit Russian overseeing of the dismantling of the Soviet-bloc empire of Eastern Europe. Civil unrest followed in several Soviet republics, and he was forced to use military intervention in Central Asia. Agreed to the reunification of Germany, toyed with the U.S.S.R.’s joining of its longtime enemy, NATO, and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990, before his position began to unravel, because of his inability to make the full break with the past. Despite his desire to present socialism with a humane face, he fell into the abyss between the right and left wingers, thanks to his clinging to outworn communist ideals. Eventually grew overwhelmed by the task at hand and probably, on some level, desired a bloodless removal from office. Almost fell victim to a right-wing coup in 1991, spent several nervous days in captivity fearing for his life, and several months later was forced to resign. Ultimately undone by rival Boris Yeltsin, whom he had given a direct pathway to power. Made demands for a huge compensation package that was given him and after his fall from power, he became a journalist, while still maintaining his public posture as a basically respected and well-liked world figure, although hated in Russia for the breakup of the Soviet Union. Ran for the presidency in 1996 and received only 1% of vote. Later became a commercial spokesman for capitalist interests, and president of the Gorbachev Foundation, a nonprofit group promoting disarmament and environmental causes. Also a strong critic of his successor, while penning a number of tomes defending himself and his place in his/story. In 2008, he decided to form a new reformist political party, the Independent Democratic Party, along with tycoon Alexander Lebedev, in order to counter the iron grasp of Vladimir Putin, and his throwback politics. Surprised everyone by singing in a melodious voice at his 85th birthday in 2016, while continuing to warn against the fear-mongering and suppression of freedoms that Russia is experiencing, under the dictatorial Putin. Inner: Bridge figure between autocratic dictators of the past and more enlightened despots of the present. Enjoyed his perks of office and the luxuries of power, which probably blunted his own commitment to outright change. Dignified, open, and vain, a being still learning about democratic processes, and therefore increasingly less effective as his lessons became more complex. Shining moment lifetime of learning power from more modest beginnings, although still a paternalistic, aristocrat at heart and out of his depth in the more open modern world, which would prove his ultimate undoing. Pyotr Stolypin (1862-1911) - Russian prime minister. Outer: Born into a landowning middle class family. After receiving a higher education, he entered governmental service in 1885 and rose to the position of provincial governor in 1902. Proved to be an effective agricultural reformer in an area that was different economically from the rest of the empire, with hereditary peasant communes and individual farming, which led to a 2nd governorship in 1903, where his success in putting down revolutionary disturbances 2 years later won him appointment as Minister of the Interior the following year, and the prime ministership several months later. Initially an innovative reformer within a conservative framework, with some limited success at establishing a class of countryside yeomen farmers, while suppressing the revolutionary movement. One of the few to criticize Grigor Rasputin (Godfrey Reggio), the monk whose healing powers enthralled the empress Alexandra (Lana Turner), winning her enmity. Became more conservative the longer he held office, introducing a new electoral law that ensured a right-wing majority in the Duma, the Russian legislative body. His efforts at other reforms were frequently blocked by more conservative elements, and he eventually lost the confidence of tsar Nicholas II (Lex Barker), as well as more reactionary governmental bureaucrats. Assassinated by gunshot by a double agent under somewhat mysterious circumstances, while attending the Kiev opera. Inner: Reformer at heart going up against an intransigent machinery of state which eventually affected his effectiveness. Ultimately done in by a double agent when his power was waning, symbolic of his own dualistic stance as ineffective reformer. Martyred lifetime of symbolizing a dualistic government that was on its final pre-revolutionary legs, and taking on the shadow of its destruction. Alexander I (1777-1825) - Russian tsar. Outer: Oldest son of Pavel I (Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi), mother was a German princess who took the Russian name Maria Federovna. Spirited away soon after birth to be brought up by his grandmother, Tsarina Catherine II (Indira Gandhi) as an enlightened prince. Close, affectionate relationship with Catherine, who carefully supervised his education. Taught abstracts of reason, justice and equality under the tutelage of a Swiss Republican, while his weekly visits to his father imbued him with his militarism, so he became a combination of 2 irreconcilable systems, and in a sense, 2 personalities, the sensitive prince and the militaristic autocrat, which never integrated themselves. Tall, blonde and handsome, with a slight limp. Married in 1793 to a German princess, Elizabeth (Pola Negri), 2 daughters from the union, who both died quite young, and were probably the progeny of his wife’s other lovers. Although the pair grew to love one another, both were crushed by larger expectations they couldn’t satisfy, while she always felt herself a strange land stranger. Eventually, he took up with a beautiful Polish princess for nearly 2 decades, while his wife languished. Guilty of complicity in the murder of his incompetent capricious father in 1801. Didn’t really know his own country when he came to power the next day, speaking French better than he spoke Russian. Enjoyed imperial splendor, as well as a vague Christian mysticism, and was initially well-loved by his people for his modest, unassuming manner. Began as a liberal reformer, dreaming of liberating his country from its burdens of the past, but was unable to free its serfs, nor was he able to implement any of his plans, drawing back as soon as he realized reform would limit his powers. Made alliances with Austria and Prussia, who were defeated by Napoleon, then made an ill-advised treaty with him, only to break it, and have Napoleon invade Russia in 1812. After Napoleon’s retreat and eventual abdication, he briefly realized his dream of being the deliverer of Europe, coming to Paris as a prince of peace in 1814, and relegating his enemy to the island of Elba. Wanted a constitutional government from which he could retire, but turned it into an absolute monarchy after the defeat of Napoleon and ensuing treaties. Became more and more enamored of Christian mysticism during this period, and was soon surrounded by religious fanatics, charlatans and shadowy figures. Created a Holy Alliance, supposedly based on peace amongst the monarchs of Europe through Christian ideals, which ran totally counter to the nationalistic sentiments of the time. Began to see any sign of liberalism and progress as an affront to God, and grew more and more reactionary, seeing himself as God’s instrument against satanic forces. Many secret societies formed under him, while he gave added life to the inner life of Russia through his interest in mysticism. His last years were spent gloomily, with a desire to abdicate. Died suddenly of either malaria, typhus or pneumonia. After his death, his body disappeared, leading to all sorts of conjecture, including the finality of his career as a wandering monk. Succeeded by his youngest brother, Nicholas I (Louis B. Mayer). Inner: Refined, chivalrous, and complex. European in culture and outlook, but Russian to the core in his gloomy, mystic sensibilities. Wracked by an inner torment and a gnawing sense of personal inadequacy the longer he sat on the throne, because of his unintegrated upbringing. Dreamt of a simple pastoral life, but could never give up the throne to achieve it. Less and less able to integrate his internal dualities through power the longer he clung to his position. Missed chance lifetime of largely frustrated rule, thanks to his inability to let go of the past or understand love beyond the devotional, and see the true passions of his country. Louis XV (1710-1774) - King of France. Outer: Great-grandson of Louis XIV (Charles de Gaulle). 3rd and youngest, but only surviving son of the Dauphin of France and a Savoyard princess. His parents and older brothers all died by the time he was 2, 4 of them succumbing to smallpox. Crowned at the age 5, while Philippe II, duc d’Orleans (Boris Yeltsin), served as his regent until he came of age in 1723. Gave his ministers free hand during his first 20 years of reign. In 1725, he married Marie Lescyzynska (Pola Negri), the daughter of the deposed king of Poland, some 7 years his senior, 10 children from union, including Louise-Elizabeth (Diane Keaton) although he outlived both his sons, so that he was ultimately succeeded by his grandson, Louis XVI (Lex Barker). Attached to his wife, but she discontinued sexual relations with him after their last child due to her health, when he was 27. Very close to his unmarried daughters. More interested in his own sensuality than state, and a practitioner of safe sex, due to unwanted illegitimate heirs. Didn’t really take the helm of state until 1744, with the death of his last minister, Andre Fleury (James Monroe), and by then he was too indolent to give decisive leadership. Became the last French king to lead his troops in battle in 1745 during the War of the Austrian Succession. Had an extremely active love life, including mistress Jeanne Pompadour (Raisa Gorbachev), who provided him with an endless flow of young women, since she, herself, was frigid, and the duo had a 19 year relationship until she died. Replaced by Mme. Jeanne du Barry (Xaviera Hollander), a commoner, who nevertheless held sway over him until his death. His government steadily declined into factions of competitive courtiers and ministers interested solely in their own standing. Reverses in finances, military affairs, and aristocratic morals, as well as his own insecure authority fed into the revolutionary overthrow of his successor. Personified the decaying weakness of the French crown and its inability to meet the social, spiritual and financial needs of the nation. Known as “the well-beloved,” at the beginning of his reign, but despised by the end of it. Died of smallpox. Inner: Handsome, shy, sexy, pleasure-loving and introspective. Insecure, isolated and disconnected. Pathologically morbid, constantly needed cheering up. Part of his ongoing pathway of trying to create a full-bodied, full-spirited leadership, which he has yet to actualize in his ongoing incarnations, as a reformer who cannot steer clear of his own inadequacies. Rule-resistant lifetime of giving play to the physical and sensual while in power, in contrast with his next incarnation which focused on the spiritual. Robert II (972-1031) - King of France. Known as “the Pious.” Outer: Of the Capetian line. Only son of Hugh Capet (Steven Spielberg), who assured his dynastic succession by having him crowned soon after his own coronation in 987. Educated at the episcopal school in Reims, and at 16, married Rozala, a widow of the count of Flanders 15 years his senior that his father had arranged. The pair were incompatible, and the marriage was repudiated 4 years later, although he did not return her territorial dowry. Tall, handsome and regal. Succeeded to the throne in his mid-20s, and the same year, he married an older widow of the count of Blois, Bertha (Raisa Gorbachev), who already had 5 children. Although he and she were a far closer match, once again, the union had to be repudiated two years later, after he had been excommunicated for being too closely related to his wife. His 3rd marriage, in 1003, was to Constance (Cher) the daughter of the count of Provence, and it proved fertile, 6 children from union, including his successor Henri I (Sonny Bono), although she encouraged her sons to rebel against their father, while fomenting trouble between family members. His sobriquet “the pious,” came from public works rather than a deep sense of spirituality. A firm and just ruler, but he had a largely unspectacular reign. Initiated monastic reforms, while going after vacated fiefs to increase the crown’s holdings. Died from unknown causes. Inner: Built on his father’s dynastic ambitions. Unlucky in love, with difficulties with all 3 wives, particularly his third, who was a virago, in his ongoing desire to integrate himself with his female elements. Reined in lifetime of wedding the cross and the throne to his advantage while building through reform, and helping to establish the basis for the French crown, showing himself to be more effective as a total autocrat, with no need to implement change, an ongoing struggle of his.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICAL HELPMATE AS STYLISH SUPPORT:
Storyline: The growing partner-in-power learns from each of her go-rounds as first mate on the ship-of-state, giving cultural and intellectual ballast to her unsteady captain, as part of her own ongoing education in the exigencies of paired rule.

Raisa Gorbachev (Raisa Titorenko) (1934-1999) - Russian political helpmate. Outer: Daughter of a railway worker, who was an ethnic Ukranian and may have been an earlier associate of V. Lenin. Oldest of 3. Her family was poor and moved often. Met her future husband, Mikhail Gorbachev, when both were students at the prestigious Moscow State Univ., and earned her doctorate with a thesis on peasant customs and attitudes. The couple married in 1953, one daughter, also may have had a 2nd daughter, although she was never publicly acknowledged, since she may have been impaired. Taught at the university level as a Marxist-Leninist professor, until her first daughter’s birth. Resumed her studies in the 1960s, and earned an advanced degree from V.I. Lenin Pedagogical Inst. in 1967. Served as a strong support for her husband’s career, and readily assumed her duties as First Lady of the Soviets, when her spouse was named party secretary in 1985. Cultivated a far more public persona than her predecessors, showing a sense of style and sophistication heretofore lacking in the virtually invisible mates of soviet heads of state, while enjoying the limelight. Suffered through the coup in 1991 that ultimately toppled her husband, fearing for her life along with his for several tense days during a right-wing aborted takeover. Developed a stress stutter, and probably had a minor stroke from the experience. Followed her husband into retirement when he fell from power, and opposed his run for the presidency in 1996, although campaigned with him. Spent her last years out of the public eye, save for a few appearances connected with the Gorbachev Foundation. Died of leukemia. Inner: Intelligent, stylish, outgoing. Charming, witty, well-read with a lively curiosity and strong Marxist beliefs. Support lifetime of heartfelt marriage to a figure she complemented as the brief power duo of their time, while learning ever more about the tenuousness of power gained and kept. Jeanne de Pompadour (Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, marquise de Pompadour) (1721-1764) - French noblewoman. Outer: Mother was the daughter of a meat supplier to the war ministry, father was a black marketeer who had to flee the country when she was 4 after a scandal. Lived with her mother and sister in the house of a family friend. Encouraged by the former in her social ambitions, and was nicknamed Reinette or ‘little queen,’ and told by a fortuneteller at 9 she was destined for the king’s bed. Well-educated and designed for that future role, she grew up to be a cultured, witty and intelligent woman. Taught that the path to a man’s heart was through his stomach, and became an excellent cook. In 1741, she married Charles-Gullaume d’Etoiles, the nephew of the man in whose house she was raised, one daughter from union. Her lively mind made her a prominent member of Parisian society and she maintained a lively salon. Became Louis XV’s (Mikhail Gorbachev) mistress in 1744, the first ever from the bourgeoisie, and legally separated from her husband, becoming the Marquise de Pompadour. Sexually frigid, so she procured a steady string of young women for the king in order to maintain favor with him, while providing him with intellectual, romantic and social companionship, and, at the same time, maintaining friendly relations with the queen. Kept him continually stimulated, mounted theatrical productions, with herself in a starring roles, although her efforts ultimately exhausted her, causing migraines and respiratory ailments. Exerted strong influence on him, both politically and culturally, although politics were not her forte, leading to several disastrous military defeats. Also had an effect on the artistic and cultural life of the kingdom, planning building developments with her brother, while patronizing craftsmen and giving support to the royal porcelain factory. Friend of the Encyclopediasts, although she could not get her husband to share in her enthusiasms. Sank into melancholy at her failures and died of a chest infection or lung cancer. Noted for the prophetic comment to the king, “After us, the deluge.” Inner: Attractive, clever, ambitious, intelligent, but ultimately cold. Calculated lifetime of exerting considerable power by being intimate with its royal source, while using her keen intelligence, rather than her sexuality to affect her ends, unlike most other royal mistress/mattresses, only to fail to adjust to the inevitability of her waning power. Bertha (c964-c1010) - French queen. Outer: Daughter of the king of Transjurana-Burgundy, mother was the daughter of Louis IV (Henry Miller). Married to Odo, the count of Blois, 5 children from the union. After she was widowed by her husband, she became the 2nd wife of Robert II (Mikhail Gorbachev), of the Capetian line of French kings in 996, although he was excommunicated for the match because they were too closely related. Despite a mutual attraction, he was forced to have the marriage repudiated 2 years later in order to get back in good graces with the Church. Their only child died at birth, and she disappeared into the shadows of his’n’herstory afterwards. Inner: Lively, attractive. Victim lifetime of being a pawn in the larger schema of royal connections, and forced to deal with the issues of power and love denied.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS UNREPENTANT REFORMER:
Storyline: The unsteady citizen-king swaggers in and staggers out of office in his ongoing personification of an institution in deep trouble, as he mixes a taste for trying to alter the state of the state, with an equal affinity for the altered state of alcohol, and a propensity to let the latter ultimately dominate.

Boris Yeltsin (1931-2007) - Russian president. Outer: From a poor peasant Siberian family, father was a laborer. The day he was baptized, a drunken priest dropped him in the holy water and forgot to fish him out. Oldest of 6. His sire was sent to a labor camp when he was 3, for complaining about his job on a construction site. The family slept next to their goat to stay warm in a one room hut in winter, and when their horse died, they hitched themselves to its wagon, looking for a brighter future. Had a lifelong struggle against authority because of his upbringing. Stole some grenades as a youngster and blew off his left thumb and forefinger while trying to dismantle one. 6’, broad-shouldered. Spent a year doing various construction jobs, often pulling 2 shifts a day, before accepting the post of construction foreman. Married Naina Girina in his mid-20s, 2 daughters from the union. Educated at the Ural Polytechnic Institute, he became a civil engineer, and had a notable career as an engineer and manager before joining the Communist Party in 1961, waiting until its purges were over, then linking his life with party work. Fashioned himself into a workaholic alcoholic and proved a good administrator as a provincial party boss. Got a direct eye-view of the workings of the systems he oversaw, when he was tapped in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev to head the Moscow party organization. Became a junior member of the Politburo, criticized his mentor, as well as his fellow members for their perks, and was stripped of his party position in 1987 after publicly demanding the entire party be restructured. His health broke, but he accepted a job as deputy minister of construction and began his comeback. Remained in disgrace until he gave another blistering attack on the party’s inefficiency on television, insuring his landslide election as a deputy. Always knew how to play to the crowd, in both his ascent, and return to power. Made a drunken, wobbly tour of the United States in 1989, cementing his reputation as an unpredictable alcoholic. Realized afterwards he was no longer a communist, then won election in 1990 as chairman of the Russian Republic’s Supreme Soviet on a surge of populism. His heroic photo-op stand atop a tank against a right-wing takeover in 1991, insured his election as the first Russian president, but his autocratic ways of old emerged the longer he was in power, as his health declined and he came to personify the weakened state of the dismantled former Soviet Union. Periods of triumph, over the failed coup in 1991 and over his own Parliament in a bloody shootout in 1993, were followed by inaction and withdrawal. Sold off the country’s resources to a handful of corrupt insiders, and plunged the economy into runaway inflation, in an extraordinary display of national self-destruction. Launched a brutal war against runaway republic Chechnya, but also managed to democratize his reconstituted nation, and give birth to a market economy of sorts. Began drinking in binges, while falling into depressions, staring at the wall of his office, sometimes immobilized for days. Withdrew into a small circle of advisers known as the Family, with his younger daughter, Tatyana Dyachenko, his main gatekeeper. Despite his growing unpopularity, he won reelection in 1996 through TV ads and the support of Russia’s new oligarchs, after earlier having decided to provoke a crisis to cancel the elections. Presided over a continual state of chaos, arbitrarily firing ministers as the economy fell apart, passing in and out of hospitals, and towards the end, just trying to hold on so as to make for a peaceful elective transferal of power in the year 2000, while becoming the most hated man in Russia in the process. Resigned his position just before New Year’s Eve of the new millennium and named his prime minister, Vladimir Putin, his successor. Watched as his appointee won election on his own the following spring, and retired to deal with his personal problems in relative quiet, as well as complete the third installment of his autobiography. In 2005, he fell and broke his leg. Died of heart problems two years later. Inner: Bearish, boorish, heavy drinker, often a social embarrassment to himself. Shrewd, impulsive, forthright and highly emotional. Absolutist trying to work through a nominal democratic milieu, but having great difficulty with issues of control and opposition. Well-lubricated lifetime of getting in touch with his inner peasant, only to fall victim to past patterns of resisting the very reforms he instituted. Georgi Lvov (Georgy Evgenyevich Knyaz Lvov) (1861-1925) - Russian statesman. Outer: Of aristocratic birth, from a family descended from princes of Yaroslav. Soon after his birth, his family moved from Germany. Got a law degree from the Univ. of Moscow, and worked in the civil service until 1893, at which point he resigned to enter politics. Became a member of the Tula, a local governmental council, and during the Russo-Japanese War helped organize relief work. In the wake of social unrest in 1905, he joined the newly formed Kadet, a liberal constitutional party, and was elected to the first Duma, or Russian Parliament, as a liberal monarchist. Remained within the traditional government as a reformer, trying to readapt Russia to more set European ways. Served as a spokesman for the rural landed gentry at the Romanov court, and spent the coin of his career chiefly representing rural interests. During WW I he headed several unions which provided relief for the sick and wounded, as well procured supplies for the army. Although he ran into much opposition for overstepping bureaucratic boundaries, he proved effective, gaining the support of liberal elements in both the government and the military. When the tsar finally fell in 1917, during the February Revolution, he became the first head of the provisional government, gaining the approval of Nicholas I (Lex Barker), in the process. Felt he had to do so, otherwise Russia would suffer defeat at the hands of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian empire. Served in the dual role of minister of the interior, but his largely liberal government was no match for the radical Bolsheviks, as well as the demands of the populace-at-large, whose appetite for power had been whetted by the rhetoric of the latter group. Forced to resign the government in July of that year, after a disorderly demonstration demonstrated its displeasure with his moderate reformist ways, and he was succeeded by Alexander Kerensky, who had been steadily overshadowing him. Arrested in October of that year, he managed to escape, and lived out the rest of his life in exile in Paris. After WW I, he headed a delegation of Russian parliamentary exiles at the Paris Peace Conference. Wrote his autobiography at life’s end. Inner: Reformist and traditionalist at heart. Transition lifetime of throwing his lot in with the liberal democrats at a time when the radicals ultimately prevailed, as a means of integrating himself into Mother Russia’s crazy government quilt, for a far more colorful go-round the next time around in this series. Louis-Philippe (1773-1850) - King of France. Outer: His great-great-grandfather, Philippe II, duc d’Orleans, was an earlier manifestation of himself. Oldest of five children of a Bourbon prince, Louis Philippe II (Daniel Pearl) who was the richest man in France. Mother was a great-granddaughter of Philippe II, duc d’Orelans, as well, making him a double descendent of his earlier self. The former was a notorious debauchee, while his sire was an equally devil-may-care libertine, squandering much of the family’s enormous wealth. His father was also extremely sympathetic to the aims of the French Revolution, taking on the name Philippe Égalité, while harboring fantasies of replacing the king as a constitutional monarch. After voting for the death of Louis XVI (Lex Barker), he ultimately fell victim to the guillotine in 1794, as a result of his son’s going over to the Austrians. Joined the Army of the North as a colonel, when France went to war with Austria and was eventually commissioned a lieutenant-general, showing his battlefield mettle. However, he defected to the Austrians, along with Gen. Charles Dumouriez (Hermann Goering) in 1794, after being revolted by the excesses of the revolution. Soon found himself both penniless and trusted by no one. Took refuge in Switzerland and taught French and math in a Catholic school under an assumed name, before being dismissed for impregnating the cook, and causing subsequent chaos in the school’s kitchen. Inherited his father’s title at his sire’s execution, and picked up some funds in London, before departing with his trusted servant, Baudoin for Lapland and the North Cape, where he fathered another child with the sister-in-law of his missionary host. Lived in exile the U.S. for 3 years, with his two younger brothers, and was largely unimpressed by its inhabitants, before returning to England in 1800. After failing to rally opposition to Napoleon, he reconciled his House of Orleans with the Bourbon family and the exiled titular king of France, Louis XVIII (Luc Besson). In 1809, he married Marie Amalie Therese, the daughter of the king of Naples, 6 sons and 4 daughters, including sculptress Marie-Christine (Sofia Coppola). Returned to France at the first restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, gaining possession of part of his estates, then fled to England again on Napoleon’s brief 100 day return to power. Returned for good in 1815, and lead the liberal opposition to the reactionary reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X (Roland Emmerich). In 1830, after a popular revolt, he claimed the throne, finally gaining his long-awaited opportunity to rule under the name of Louis-Philippe, citizen king. Opted for the middle path between the reactionary right and the republican left, as well as the Bonapartists, but had to undergo so many rebellions and attempts on his life that he reverted to the repressive measures of old, silencing his enemies and driving them underground. Although he strengthened France’s position abroad, he pleased no one at home, and, following the insurrection and street demonstrations of a host of different elements, he abdicated in 1848, the victim of his own inabilities to steer a clear course in a state that demanded a completely new kind of rule and greater sensitivity to its backbone workers. Fled Paris with his wife under the name of Smith and lived out the rest of his life in England, where he died. Inner: Subject of a famous caricature towards the end of his reign which shows him turning into a pear, which may also be a life summation. Liberal in theory, but an autocrat at heart, unable to transform himself into anything other than a royal pear. Clogged lifetime of trying to personify a reformed state, only to fall victim to his limitations in making the necessary internal changes to match his rapidly altering times. Philippe II, duc d’Orleans (1674-1723) - French regent. Outer: Prince of the Blood. Son of Philippe I, duc d’Orleans (Gianni Versace), mother was the daughter of the Elector Palatine. Father was a literal gay blade, passing on a sense of libertinism and scandalous behavior to his son, who eagerly picked up the mantle, showing a lifelong affinity for alcohol and licentious behavior. Served with the French army against the English and Dutch, but was excluded from high command by the king, Louis XIV (Charles de Gaulle) because of a jealousy towards the family. In 1692, he married Francoise-Marie de Bourbon, the king’s favorite legitimate daughter, who was his first cousin, then purposefully ignored her in recompense for the royal slight. 8 children from union, including his successor, Louis, duc d’Orleans (Vladimir Putin), and daughter Charlotte Aglae (Unity Mitford).. Succeeded to his father’s title in 1701, at which time his wanton, drunken behavior had made him a notorious figure at court. A professed atheist, he made it a point to hold orgies on high holy days. Also showed a creative side, acting in plays by Moliere (Charlie Chaplin), and doing a little composing, painting and engraving. Also collected art. Given commands from the time he inherited his title in both Spain and Italy, then was handed the regency in 1715 for the 5 year old Louis XV (Mikhail Gorbachev). Had Louis XIV’s will annulled by Parlement in order to concentrate power in his hands, then inaugurated an experimental form of government, la polysynodie, in order to restore political authority to the high nobility, although it proved far too unwieldy and he dissolved it several years later and went back to a system that favored secretaries of state. Made a treaty with France’s traditional enemy, England, in order to insure that the king of Spain, Felipe V (Desi Arnaz) would not succeed to the throne, before going to war with Spain, with England as an ally, which insured his own succession. In dealing with the financial burden of his predecessor’s costly wars, he entrusted reform to the unscrupulous Scot, John Law (Joseph Kennedy, Sr.), who created such a disaster, that his domestic agenda was ruined. His regency ended when the young king came of age in 1723, at which time he served as first minister, but died a few months later. The city of New Orleans was named after him. Inner: Licentious, lascivious alcoholic, although not without a sense of royal power and prerogative. Often vacillating and inconsistent, thanks to an innate rebellious nature. Wine-laced lifetime of giving play to his loose, uninhibited interior, while leaving internal affairs of state considerably worse for his poor judgment and illusory need to be seen as a reformer and rescuer, an ongoing theme of his. Louis I de Bourbon, 1st prince de Condé (1530-1569) - French general. Outer: Hunchbacked youngest son of a Bourbon French duke of royal blood. Raised as a French Protestant Huguenot, and in 1552, married a Huguenot, Eléanor de Roucy de Roye. 8 children from the union. After his first wife died in 1564, he married again the following year to Francoise d’Orleans, adding 3 more sons to his brood. . Served under Henri II (Robert Downey, Jr.), although showed no particular martial skills. On Henri’s death in 1559, he became the leader of the Huguenot forces during France’s bloody period of the War of Religions, although he was far too licentious to provide moral leadership. Forced to flee from the court on the failure of a Huguenot conspiracy in 1560, then on presenting himself to Francois II (Roald Dahl), he was sentenced to death, but the king’s early demise saved him, since he was needed to counterbalance the influence of the powerful Guise family. Defeated and captured after a march on Paris, he tried to reconcile the Huguenot position with the government. After his first wife died, he married again in 1565. Disappointed at his failure to be given the rank of lieutenant general, he left the court again in 1567 and led an unsuccessful attack on Paris, where he was defeated, although he completed a skillful withdrawal. After more maneuvering he was finally killed in battle when the ongoing war between Huguenots and crown resumed again later that year. Inner: Licentious but strong sense of military duty. Dealing from weakness of going against the superior forces of crown and his own thwarted ambitions. Perhaps because of his deformity, self-interest superseded national interest. Against-the-odds lifetime of showing persistence, if nothing else, while doing battle with a deformed body, a healthy libido and the religious duality that divided France.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS FINALLY SPROUTED ROYAL SEED:
Storyline: The perennial pretender finally gets his shot at rule, taking over a shakey state from his equally shakey father figure, to see if he has the steadfastness of purpose to meet this challenge, and face his own limitations while playing a totally spotlit political role.

Vladimir Putin (Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin) (1952) - Russian president. Outer: Paternal grandfather had served as a cook for both Lenin and Stalin. Both his parents were decorated war veterans. Father was a factory foreman, while his mother was a devout Orthodox Christian with little education. Only surviving son. Shared a communal apartment with 2 other families in a fifth floor walk-up teeming with rats. A poor student and self-described “hooligan,” who was often roughed up, his parents enrolled him in martial arts courses, and he became pugnacious and aggressive. By 16, he was a top-ranked sanbo expert, a combination of wrestling and judo. Showed himself to be quick, hard-working and popular at an elite school, and originally wanted to be a chemist. Extremely goal oriented, he went to Leningrad State Univ., and majored in law and studied German. 5’6”, 182 lbs. with penetrating blues eyes. Became school judo champion in 1974, then graduated with honors the following year. Eagerly accepted recruitment into the KGB, a lifelong dream of his, and was schooled in espionage in Moscow, then returned to his native Leningrad for the next decade. Married in 1983, to Ludmilla Shkrebneva, a specialist in English and French, 8 years his junior, 2 daughters from the union. Sent to East Germany in 1985, where he assumed the identity of Mr. Adamov, the director of a German-Soviet friendship society, and lived in Dresden. Saw the Berlin Wall collapse and returned to newly renamed St. Petersburg with a bronze medal for his efforts. Never tainted by a hint of corruption or dishonesty, nor did he ever resign from the Communist Party. Became deputy mayor for one of his former teachers in 1991, making the law his speciality. An exacting workaholic taskmaster, he preferred the particulars of his job to its ceremonies. Failed in his bid to turn St. Petersburg into a financial center, but also took on too large a job. Managed his mentor’s losing mayorlty bid in 1996 and resigned, but got a Kremlin job, and rose meteorically, thanks to his loyalty to the Yeltsin clan. Made head of the FSB in 1998, one of the KGB’s successor agencies, and the following summer became prime minister. In what may have been a covert deal around not prosecuting him for corruption, he was handed the presidency by Boris Yeltsin just before the millennium, despite never having run for office, and immediately escalated Russia’s violent presence in the rebel republic of Chechnya, which won him great popularity, and allowed him to sail to victory in the March election the following year. Arrested a TV magnate who made fun of him via puppetry, and centralized his control, while setting up the apparatus of a police state, in a harkening back to Stalinist days. Able, however, to retain his power and popularity, despite an ongoing unpopular war in Chechnya, as Russian society slowly adapted itself to the exigencies of being a second-rate power with a market economy. More and more the autocrat the longer he remained in power, while overseeing an increasingly corrupt system as Russia continued to look backwards in trying to deal with its place in the 21st century world. Recognized that state control over energy resources was the country’s pathway to becoming a world player again, and renationalized many of the companies that had been privatized under Yeltsin. Easily won re-election in 2004, with over 70% of the vote, as the personification of the controlling state, after dismissing his vice-president and entire cabinet just beforehand. Suffered a severe blow later in the year when nearly 350 hostages, mostly women and children, were killed by Chechen terrorists in the seizure of a school. Admitted to weakness afterwards, and vowed to be pre-emptive in the global war on terror, without taking blame for his oppressive policies in Chechnya. Thanks to an oil and natural gas boom, he was able to expand Russia’s economy, turning it into a corporate state, while upgrading its military and gathering more and more power and iconize himself, as the only force able to protect the country and hold it together. Went on to replace his prime minister and set off “the father of all bombs,” in preparation to continue his strongarm rule without constitutional backing. By year’s end, his party, United Russia, won handily, thanks to the aggressive suppression of all opposition voices, setting him up for total control of the country, no matter what position he holds. Anointed his former aide, Dmitri Medvedev as his successor, who handily won election in 2008, and garnered Time magazine’s ‘Man of the Year’ honors. At the same time he was rumored to have divorced his wife, and taken up with 24 year old Alina Kabaeva, a decorated champion gymnast, model and waitress turned MP. The duo would produce a son in 2009 and a daughter in 2012, and she would subsequently disappear from the view of the press, per his usual modus operandi, after he was rubber-stamped as Russia’s prime minister, and its unofficial ongoing head of state. With an eye on controlling export energy conduits from the Caspian basin, he orchestrated a Russian show of martial might during the summer of 2008 by crushing a movement by Georgia to retake its breakaway province of South Ossetia, inflicting heavy damage on both areas, as part of his larger geopolitical goals. Later that year, he saw his economic bubble burst, through the worldwide financial crisis, putting Russia in the same straits as everyone else. Announced in 2011, he and Medvedev would be switching positions, and he would run for prime minister, to complement his party’s 2/3 control of Parliament, and take full advantage of Russia’s cult of personality leadership, that guarantees its heads of state decade-long runs of power. In subsequent parliamentary elections towards year’s end, however, his party took a beating, garnering less than half the vote, as it lost nearly 100 seats, while demonstrations and accusations of voter fraud also weakened his position, Despite all, he won another six year term in 2012 amidst accusations of massive voter fraud, as a reflection of Russia’s fears that things could even be worse without him at the corrupt helm of state. Tearfully accepted his victory, with his base now the poor and rural, still hypnotized by the ancient cult of personality that has long ruled the country. Disassociated himself from the party he founded, United Russia, prior to retaking office, handing its unpopular reins over to Medvedev in an attempt to present himself as a newly minted leader untarnished by his past. Immediately pursued an aggressive policy towards the West, making Syria a potential world war launching pad between democracies and autocracies, as a means of asserting his unpopular authority over his own country and its largely passive electorate. In 2013 he announced the amicable ending of his thirty year marriage, with both he and his wife blaming the split on his highly public career. Deliberately tweaked the U.S. by granting temporary political asylum to NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden, a man without a country. and has continued to play political chess with America over Russian interests in Syria, brokering a position of power in that country’s chemical weapon controversy, by offering a possible diplomatic resolution to their confiscation, in his ongoing desire to be a world player. Ran the 2014 Winter Olympics in fine homophobic fashion as a testament to his personal power, then sent troops into the Crimean peninsula and the Ukraine in a nose-thumbing show of strength. Crimea voted to return to the Russian orbit, while his aggressive moves in eastern Ukraine provoked much hand-wringing in the West. Made a 10 year gas and oil deal with China, defraying further potential western fall-out over his aggressive actions, while continuing to act as the world’s foremost power player, despite tut-tutting galore by those made nervous by his moves, which increased his popularity at home. Imposed sanctions on Europe with Russian produce, in what would look more and more like the opening stages of a full-scale conflict between the U.S.A. and his sovereign state. In preparation, he negotiated over 100 billion in deals with China around energy, weapons, space and science, while threatening its internet if the country goes to war. In early 2015, one of his primary critics, Boris Nemtsov was gunned down on the streets of Moscow, just prior to publishing a damaging report linking Russia to the eastern Ukraine uprising. Blamed by many for orchestrating the hit, while announcing he personally would take charge of its investigation, as tens of thousands came out to mourn the tragic death. Subsequently killed several birds with one well-placed stone, by blaming the assassination on a pair of Chechens, who confessed under obvious torture. In addition to the enormous power he wields, he is also reputed to be the richest man in the world, with a fortune estimate at some $70 billion, and continues to maintain extremely high approval ratings as a nationalist protector of the motherland. In his ongoing squelching all dissent, he signed a law giving prosecutors the power to declare foreign and international organizations "undesirable" and shut them down. In a further control move, he imposed an entry ban on 89 European politicians and military leaders, that worsened the country’s standoff with the west over the Ukraine conflict. Despite being shut out of the 2015 G-7 economic conference, he has managed to help coordinate considerable banking and business interests that preclude American dollars, thanks to a variety of partnerships on his part with the globalists who have little interest in U.S. hegemony, as the U.S. and NATO have brought tanks and artillery right up to the Russian borders in anticipation of a needless direct confrontation with him. Subsequently began seeking individual energy deals with European states one by one in order to weaken European unity and expand its own influence, while waxing nostalgic on the Stalinist era, when all dissent was suppressed and Russian nationalism reigned supreme. Spoke at the UN in the fall of 2015, then was coldly received by Pres. Obama, as he reiterated his desire to keep Bashar al-Assad in office as a means of solving the Syrian Civil War, contra American policy. Sent 150,000 Russian troops into Syria afterwards, reportedly killing some 40% of ISIS, while remaining a premier player on the world scene, seemingly everywhere at once with his deal-making and martial chess moves, geared towards challenging western military hegemony even if it means WW III. Later agreed with Obama on replacing Bashar al-Assad as dictator of Syria within a time frame of six to eighteen months, while joining the anti-Daesh coalition with France, and threatening Turkey with economic reprisals for shooting down a Russian plane over its airspace. The latter move may also have been secretly U.S. inspired in the constant cat-and-mouse game of twixt the superpowers in learning technical secrets of each other’s weaponry and machinery. Manipulated Russia back into European graces as a major combatant against terrorism, while also maintaining control over Arctic waters via ice-breakers and submarines in order to extract its untapped natural resources. In the spring of 2016, he began withdrawing troops from Syria claiming the country had achieved its goals there, but also because the Russian economy is floundering due to low oil prices. Sacked every commander in his Baltic fleet in a purge when they refused to confront Western ships, while playing with the Trump nomination for American president, via hackers into U.S. date bases, seeing him easily manipulated. Has steadily become more and more aggressive in Syria, backed by Iranian ground troops, slaughtering and .butchering civilians while seemingly pushing for direct military confrontation with the West and the distinct possibility of WW III. Despite prove positive he interfered in the 2016 US presidential election to help get Donald Trump elected, he didn’t react at all to sanctions levied against Russia and the expulsion of diplomats by the exiting Obama administration, preferring to wait until the new administration is sworn into office in January, seeing in Trump, an easily malleable figure, towards his own global aims, which are to set himself up as a counterfoil to the decadence of the ever-weakening west and as a champion of nationalism, traditionalism and patriotic fervor. Hit with a number of anti-corruption protests across the country and reacted predictably by jailing hundreds of protesters and cracking down on any and all dissent to his rule. Al Qaeda turned its bombing focus on Russia for its putative role in the Syrian proxy civil war, by an attack on the subway system of St. Petersburg. Called America’s subsequent naval missile strike on a Syrian air base a breach of international law thanks to his support of the dictator al-Assad, ramping up tensions in the region to a mega-war level. Also continually making deals with other countries, including North Korea, in order to ingratiate Russia with their needs, while expanding northern Siberia gold mining in order to have backing to challenge the US dollar’s economic supremacy. Admitted that Russian hackers may have influenced 2016 US election, but said they operated separately from the government. Also stated that the hacking may have been done by the CIA to incriminate Russia to purposefully cloud the entire issue. Met with Donald Trump for the first time at the G-20 summit, with a host of mixed messages emerging twixt the two world leaders, including subsequent sanctions placed on Russia, and much military strutting by their armies and navies, signaling a potential collision course between them. Has maintained control over sea lanes in the Arctic, while shrinking the US mission in Russia in response to sanctions imposed on the country, in an ongoing dance of power between the two countries that could lead to WW III over Syria or North Korea. Inner: Control freak, highly ambitious, driven and focused, with a strong sense of order, as well as a revanchist wish to reunite the old Soviet states under him. Passionate desire to see Russia rise phoenix=like on his shoulders. Far more pragmatic than political, and more than willing to allow corruption grease the wheels of progress. Center-stage lifetime lifetime of playing a pivotal role in the planet’s passage into its 3rd millennium, after many a go-round of confusion and recalcitrance around rule. Andrey Zhdanov (1896-1948) - Soviet politician. Outer: From a humble background. Joined the Bolshevik Party in his late teens, and steadily rose through party ranks, becoming party leader in Leningrad, the renamed St. Petersburg, following the assassination of Sergei Kirov in 1934. Short, with a high forehead, pointed nose and a sickly red face. A close associate of dictator Josef Stalin, he closely copied him as a mentor, and the latter eventually harbored fantasies that he would be his successor, thanks to his unquestioned loyalty. In 1939, he was made a full member of the ruling Politburo, where he was viewed as an intellectual, with a smattering of knowledge in a host of fields. During the Finnish-Russian War of 1939 and 1940, and WW II, he was put in charge of the defense of Leningrad, which held out against an almost 3 year seige by the Nazis. Also helped incorporate Estonia into the Soviet union of puppet states in 1940. During the war, he formulated an extreme anti-Western cultural policy known by his name, which made all art and literature servants of the Soviet state, while purging any decadent sense of foreign influence. In 1947, he founded the propaganda bureau, the Communist Information Bureau, or Cominform, towards that end, which served as thought police against any intellectual activity that did not laud the supreme nationalism of the state. Despite serving as a hardline symbol for the West of the absolute intolerance of the Stalin regime, he was more interested in continuing to curry favor with the dictator, than any true belief in what he was doing. A heavy drinker, while Stalin, who was no slouch in that department, tried to curb him with fruit water, but he wound up dying prematurely of a heart condition. May also have been the victim of Stalin’s machinations, thanks to his inability to bring Finland under communist control. After his death, his own party apparatus in Leningrad was purged, keeping it a second city to Moscow’s primacy. Following his demise, Stalin’s beloved daughter Svetlana married his son Yuri, although the union was dissolved a year later, following the birth of a daughter. Stalin would later blame his death on a Jewish doctor’s plot, claiming he had been poisoned by the latter. Inner: Cynical, efficient apparatchik, with an inside track to power, despoiled only by his own bad health habits. His out-of-control behavior probably inspired him to be super-disciplined the next time around, just as his embrace of revolutionary realities from a lower class perspective, countermanded his previous go-round’s highborn stance. Lockstep lifetime of using Stalin as a model to bring out the hard-heart and ubermasculinity within him, as a necessary self-perceived step in making him a future leader, once he had reined in the excesses learnt this go-round. Henri d’Artois Duke of Bordeaux and Count of Chambord (1820-1883) - French pretender to the throne. Outer: From the Royal House of Bourbon. Posthumous son of Charles, duc de Berry (Macauley Culkin), who was assassinated prior to his birth. His mother was conspirator Caroline de Berry (Meg Ryan). Grandson of French king Charles X (Charles Pathe) and distant cousin of his successor, Louis-Philippe (Boris Yeltsin). Forced to flee France when the latter seized the throne in 1830, after being declared Henri V, he came to Austria, where he grew up completely alienated from recent French his/story, holding an undying hatred for the French Revolution, as well as the constitutional monarchy. in 1846, he married Maria Theresia, an Austrian archduchess, no children from the union. Inactive during the upheavals of his cousin’s reign, the interim 2nd Republic and the early reign of Napoleon III (Darryl F. Zanuck), but was stirred into action by the latter’s anti-papal stance, and revived his claims to the throne. After Napoleon III’s fall in 1870, he proclaimed his intent to unite France under the House of Bourbon, and seemed to be a possible candidate for the restored throne. His intransigence against being an inheritor of the traditions of the Revolution, as expressed in several publications, however, alienated even the Royalist factions of the new government. A motion to restore the Bourbon monarchy was defeated in 1874 by an overwhelming margin, and the republic was restored the following year by one vote. Lived out the rest of his life in exile, dying in Austria and was buried in the Bourbon crypt in Nova Gorica, Slovenia. Inner: Conservative in extremis, holding to unpalatable self-defeating views, from which he refused to compromise, even though it meant his relegation to the side-bins of his/story. Intransigent lifetime of refusing to bend to the tenor of the times, and throwing away an opportunity to become a reverse role player in French his/story. Louis, duc d’Orleans (1703-1752) - French noble. Outer: Maternal grandson of Louis XIV (Charles de Gaulle) and his mistress Francoise de Montespan (Asia Argento). Only son of Philippe II, duc d’Orleans (Boris Yeltsin), who became regent of France when he was 12. Older brother of Charlotte Aglae (Unity Mitford). His mother was his father’s first cousin, whom the former purposefully ignored, compounding the incestuous union. At 16, he was made governor of Dauphine, then an infantry commander 2 years later, and finally chief of the council of state, thanks to being of the royal blood, and his father’s pre-eminent position. Took little real interest in politics, despite his elevated position. His father died in 1723, and in 1726, his wife, Marie Johanna, the princess of Bade, died, which thoroughly upended him, and he descended into inconsolable sorrow. In 1730, Cardinal Fleury (Eliot Spitzer) engineered his dismissal, and, he retired to the Abbey of Sainte-Genevieve, where he devoted the rest of his life to theological studies, and translating the Psalms and Pauline epistles into French. Unhinged by the end, and filled with paranoid suspicion, he was succeeded by his only surviving child, Louis-Philippe (Dmitri Medvedev). Inner: Pious, charitable and cultured. Far more into the feminine than the masculine, as a predecessor life in his gradual switch back over to his male side in order to assume the mantle of rule that his/story always seems to bestow upon him. Grieving lifetime of princely birth, only to consume himself with a profound sense of loss, and dedicate his sorrow-filled heart to finding some sense of himself via his conventional devotion to his concept of God.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS BUSHY-BROWED SECURITY BLANKET:
Storyline: The trans-gendered empress maintains a stale nest of state, in which he and his minions can indulge in the illusion of stability for as long as he can maintain the illusion of rule, in his need to be in control without really affecting things.

Leonid Brezhnev (Leonid Ilych Brezhnev) (1906-1982) - Soviet ruler. Outer: Father worked at the local steel plant, and his family cast their lot with the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution. One of 3 children. Studied at a school subsidized by his sire’s plant while working at the local mill, beginning at the age of 15. An average student, he suffered many hardships. 5’10”, over 200 lbs. and beetle-browed. Graduated from a land and reclamation school, and became a land surveyor before joining the Komosol or Young Communist League. Made a Communist Party member in 1931, then studied at a metallurgical institute, and married the following year, to Victoria Denisova, a fellow metallurgy student, who had a middle-class Jewish background, 2 sons and a daughter from the union. After graduating in 1935, he worked as an engineer and as director of a technical school. Held various party posts, beginning in 1937 as a deputy mayor, and rose to the head of the political commissars of the Ukrainian front, where he was able to form many valuable friendships with military men in the Red Army during WW II, which would be the foundation for his subsequent rise. Returned to civilian life and continued adding to his resume in the post-war years, and became a protege of Nikita Khruschev in the Ukraine in 1954. Following Stalin’s death in 1953, and a shakeup of the Politburo, he failed to gain the confidence of his immediate successors, although once Khruschev had asserted himself, he steadily began gaining power through his vigorous implementation of policies in Kazakhstan, until he was made a full member of the Politburo in 1957. Rose to titular head of the Soviet State in 1960, then resigned that post 4 years later to become Khruschev’s assistant as 2nd secretary of the Central Committee, before becoming part of the group who ousted his mentor from power 3 months later, replacing him as general secretary of the Communist Party in 1964, a position he held the rest of his life. Added the title of premier in 1977, the singular man to hold both posts. Operated as part of a troika, with Prime Minister Aleksei Kosygin and President Nikolai Podgorny, who was eventually ousted the year he became premier. Roundly condemned for invading Czechoslovakia in 1968, he, nevertheless, was able to sign several arms treaties with the U.S., despite Russia’s antagonistic stances in Vietnam and elsewhere. Under him, the Soviet Union experienced nearly 2 decades of relative stability, but at a terrible cost of corruption and economic stagnation and inertia, sewing the seeds for its ultimate downfall. Never threatened for leadership because of his collegial and consensus style of leaving policies to others, while focusing on military matters and foreign policy, particularly détente with the West. Saw the country’s economy stagnate completely in his last years, and answered it through more stringent repression of any reminders that the U.S.S.R.’s standard of living was plummeting. Lived modestly, but enjoyed speeding through the streets of Moscow in a limousine, and his singular luxury was owning a fleet of foreign automobiles. Traveled extensively, had 5 summit meetings with the U.S., beginning the process of détente with his fellow superpower in the early 1970s. However, his relations with the West later deteriorated through his aggressive foreign policy in Afghanistan and Poland. A chain smoker, he suffered 2 heart attacks, and had a cigarette case with a timer on it to curb his smoking. Ill health marred he last several years in office, as his speech became more and more labored and his features more pale and bloated. On his death, he handed over an extremely shakey state to his successor, Yuri Andropov. Inner: Earthy figure of security and routine, maintaining a long-time status quo to give Russia an entirely new generation of leadership to undo the excesses of its past. Gregarious and talkative, with a love of good food and drink, as well as fast cars. His obsession with Afghanistan came from his previous go-round, of being on the other side of the Russo-Afghani connection. Enjoyed the limelight, but also realized the importance of having his principal colleagues seen as well. Completely intolerant of any and all expressions of dissent. National security blanket lifetime of exercising his instinct for power without the imagination to do anything with it other than maintain its illusions of stability. Shir ‘Ali Khan (1825-1879) - Emir of Afghanistan. Outer: 3rd son of the ruling emir of Afghanistan, who was the founder of their ruling dynasty, the Barakzai. Succeeded his father on the latter’s death in 1863, and then held office in his largely tribal state despite revolts, civil war and threats to his position from his brothers, before finally securing his throne. Maintained friendly relations with British, and then turned towards the Russians, in the struggle between the 2 over control in southern Asia. Driven from power by the British in the Second Afghan War in 1878, after the Russians advised him to make peace. Placed his son on the throne, and fled the country, dying en-route to exile. Inner: Figure of security shaken to the core by the insecurity of his inherited domains. Tilting-against-typhoons lifetime of continually trying to maintain rule under totally chaotic circumstances, falling prey finally to forces far outside his sphere of control, although they were the result of poor choices made around external powers he felt would best support him. Anna Ivanovna (1693-1740) - Russian empress. Outer: 4th daughter of Ivan V (Samuel Goldwyn), mother was a member of a Russian noble family noted for their intrigues. Sister of Yelizaveta (Helena Rubinstein), who would ultimately succeed her. In 1710, she married Frederick Wilhelm, the ruler of the Baltic duchy of Courland, who died almost immediately afterwards, leaving her a widow at 18 in an extremely impecunious state, in a drafty 13th century castle. Forced to beg for funds from the Supreme Privy Council, who saw her need, submissiveness and docility as excellent recommendation for her as a pliant ruler who would be under their sway. Offered the Russian throne on the death of her cousin, Peter II (Peter Revson) in 1730, under a variety of conditions, but reneged on them once in power. The night following her designation, the skies above Moscow filled with the lights of an aurora borealis, making the skies seem as if they were drenched in blood. Left the state in the hands of her untalented lover, and a small coterie of foreign advisers, while pursuing her own lavish tastes and crude amusements. Revived the secret police, and was also fond of crude practical jokes that demeaned those in power, playing on fears of ridicule as a form of control. Ordered 3 of her leading nobles to cackle like hens on greeting her from returning to Church. Occupied herself with absolute trivialities, particularly her courtiers’ private lives and their attire at court. Had a masculine voice, and a huge awkward figure, and was probably sterile. Became an extremely unpopular figure through excessive taxation to maintain wars, and an expensive court filled with German foreigners and vindictive favorites. Far more interested in their own advancement than affairs of state. Bi-sexual, with many lovers, showing little discrimination in her choices. Oversaw an extremely repressive regime, throwing a huge wedge between rich and poor, while shoring up the strength of the nobility through numerous concessions that disassociated them from service and made them a privileged class with little need to serve the state. Suffered from kidney stones and gout, and finally was undone by her kidneys, leaving no heir to the throne. Just before her death, she proclaimed her infant nephew, Ivan VI (Yuri Andropov), her heir. Inner: Rough manners, dull and coarse. Ill-tempered, vengeful, crude vulgarian. Loved hunting, hated dark colors, a figure who enjoyed the idea of power far more than the beneficial exercise of it. Gender-bending lifetime of male sensibilities in a female body, more interested in the luxuries of rule and the control of those around her than affairs of state.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS HARD-NOSED AUTOCRAT:
Storyline: The tightly-wound bureaucrat comes to embody his national charge, taking on its wounds and its weaknesses in order to try to counter them with his eagle-eyed will and willingness to work hard to rearrange political realities according to his vision of them.

Yuri Andropov (1914-1984) - Soviet ruler. Outer: Some question as to his background. May have been of Jewish descent, with his mother alternately believed to have been the daughter of a rich Jewish merchant, or a wealthy Moscow businessman. Father was a railroad worker, grew up in a railroad settlement. Both parents died when he was young, his sire when he was only 5, and he began his working life at 14. Became a telegraph operator, then a film projectionist and a boatman on the Volga, before going to a technical college and later Petrozavodsk Univ. Joined the Communist Party in 1939 after acting as an organizer for the Young Communist League (Komosol). Married Tatyana Fillipovna during WW II, son and daughter from the union. Joined the Communist Party in 1939 after acting as an organizer for the Young Communist League (Komosol). His leadership qualities came to the notice of his superiors, and he was made head of the Komosol in the newly created Karelo-Finnish Republic during WW II. Transferred to Moscow in 1951, he was assigned to the party’s Secretariat Staff. Appointed ambassador to Hungary in 1954, he played a major role in organizing the Soviet invasion of that country in 1956. Returned to Moscow and rose quickly in the Communist hierarchy, becoming the powerful head of the KGB in 1967. Extremely repressive, particularly towards political dissidents, his hard-nosed style was well in keeping with that organization’s ruthless reputation. Elected to the ruling Politburo, he positioned himself to succeed the ailing Leonid Brezhnev and resigned his KGB post in 1982. Chosen to succeed Brezhnev 2 days after the latter’s death. Had a reticent public style, and was equally terse in private. A hard taskmaster, he drove his subordinates to exhaustion, with demanding expectations of everyone beneath him. Quickly consolidated his power, while showing himself to be an equally tough head of state, demanding an end to Russia’s slovenly work habits, the habitual drunkenness of its workers and its all-around inefficiency. His tenure, however, was marred by ill health, and he disappeared from public view towards the end of his brief run, before dying of diabetes, kidney and heart disease, his job incomplete. Inner: Autocratic, controlling and reflective of a dying, intractable system. Closet poet, wrote elegiac verse on the brevity of life, and also put that sentiment into practice. In control lifetime of reinventing himself through his symbolic communication skills in his early life, to become his country’s ultimate policeman, only to quickly come to reflect its dying resistance to true change. Vyacheslav Plehve (1846-1904) - Russian statesman. Outer: From a provincial noble background. Studied jurisprudence at the Univ. of Moscow, and became an imperial bureaucrat, serving in the Ministry of Justice from 1867 to 1880, before moving over to the Ministry of the Interior, where he was director of the Dept. of Police for 4 years. Served the interests of the autocracy and the landed nobility as a tunnel-vision official interested in repressing or russifying all alien elements in the empire. Rose a decade later to imperial secretary, where he was, in effect, chief of staff of the State Council, while also serving as state secretary for Finland. In 1902, he became Minister of the Interior, where he felt he could stem the revolutionary tide by stern measures and meaningless conciliatory gestures, but when they proved ineffectual, he relied more heavily on police pressure, so that he became indelibly entwined in the public imagination as the personification of repression. Felt the Jews were the chief source of agitation and instituted a bloody pogrom against them in 1903, while his methods thoroughly alienated his colleagues, who viewed him as an impediment to any kind of peaceful reform. Admitted privately that some concessions were in order, but was unable to implement them, and continued his heavy-handed methods. Finally, one of his secret agents in the terrorist arm of the Socialist Revolutionaries ordered a former student to toss a bomb at him, and he was blown to bits on the streets of St. Petersburg. The public reacted joyously, while his own high officials breathed a sigh of relief, as his passing was mourned by no one save his family. Ultimately succeeded in the same office by Pyotr Stolypin (Mikhail Gorbachev). Inner: Highly repressive traditionalist. Blown apart lifetime of taking his autocratic sensibilities all the way up to the doorway of the initial phases of the Russian Revolution, only to have it slammed shut in his face, so as to allow him to reconstruct himself for the Russia to come. Aleksey Arakcheyev (1769-1834) - Russian statesman and general. Outer: Father was a landowner from the minor nobility. Studied at a military and engineering school for those of his class and was commissioned an artillery officer in 1787. Became a close adviser of the emperor Pavel I (Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi) when he came to the throne in 1796, and was given the task of reorganizing the army. Created a regime that was notorious for its brutality. Worshipful of Prussian ideals and regulations, but he was so despised as a drillmaster that he was dismissed 2 years later. Called from retirement in 1803 by Pavel’s son and successor, Alexander I (Mikhail Gorbachev), who made him Inspector-General of the Russian Artillery, in hopes he could weld Russia’s firepower into a force that could match Napoleon’s. Became minister of war in 1808, and personally forced reluctant Russian forces to cross the frozen Gulf of Finland, in a move that ultimately ceded Finland to Russia. Opposed to Alexander’s reforms and resigned, but returned as the head of the Council of State’s military department and became one of the tsar’s most trusted advisers during the Napoleonic conflict, and afterwards managed domestic matters, from 1815 onwards, enjoying almost unprecedented power. Had extraordinary authority, even carrying blank sheets of paper with Alexander’s signature on them so that he could dispatch or exile anyone at will. Well-hated and blamed for turning Alexander away from the country’s needs, he became the object of universal fear and loathing throughout the country during Alexander’s last decade, although he emancipated the serfs in the Baltic region, and developed a plan for their ultimate freedom, while also supervising a system of military-agricultural colonies which housed nearly a third of Russia’s standing army. When Alexander died, he retired from office, as one of the most despised figures of his time. Inner: Self-important, incapable of kindness or warmth in official matters, yet extremely loyal and efficient in whatever he did, despite a basic conservatism and autocratic temperament. Terminator lifetime of watching over Russia during a time of great troubles, and being universally despised for his heartless style, his ruthless actions and his robotic character. Ivan VI (1740-1764) - Russian tsar. Outer: Son of a German prince and niece of the empress Anna (Leonid Brezhnev). Named heir to the throne as a 2 month old and proclaimed emperor the following day, shortly before the empress died. The empress’s favorite Ernst Biron, who was well-hated, was made regent for him, although he was soon overthrown. Remained the nominal ruler of Russia where his mother was installed as regent. In 1741, however, Elizabeth (Helena Rubinstein), the daughter of Peter I (Yukio Mishima), organized a group that deposed Anna, her ruling German clique and Ivan. For the first 20 years of his life, he remained in solitary confinement in various prisons, which retarded both his mental and emotional development. When he was 24, a garrison officer tried to restore him to power in order to overthrow the recently crowned Catherine II (Indira Gandhi), and in the ensuing struggle, he was assassinated by his jailers on orders of Catherine. Inner: Pawn of the fates. Limited lifetime of experiencing the literal imprisonment of absolute power, denying him any sort of life, perhaps as recompense of misuse of power in the past, while giving him the need to reassert himself in lives future as a central figure in the ongoing autocratic state of Russia.

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PATHWAY OF THE POLITICIAN AS ONGOING HEIR APPARENT:
Storyline: The competent crypto-royal follows his longtime hidden family member into the halls of power, as a capable functionary more than willing to compromise any larger need for control, in order to secure his plenipotentiary place in the annals of his times.

Dmitri Medvedev (1965) - Russian politician. Outer: Father was a professor of engineering at the Leningrad Institute of Technology. Mother was an instructor in European Languages at the Herzen Institute, and later became a museum guide. Only child. His parents were steeped in the cultural life of his city, and wanted him to be a scientist, although he was set on the law. Collected British rock as a youth, and has been an aficionado of pop music ever since. 5’4”. Worked in construction and as a street sweeper to get himself through school. Graduated from the Law Dept. of Leningrad State Univ. in 1987, and three years later received his PhD in private law from there. Later co-authored a textbook on civil law. During the 1990s, he worked as a docent for his alma mater, now renamed St. Petersburg State, and for the first half of the decade, was a legal expert for the St. Petersburg mayoral office, under Vladimir Putin, with whom he would have largely a father-son relationship. Married Svetlana Linnik in 1982, one son. At the same time, he also worked in private industry as a legal affairs director for a timber concern, as well as sat on the board of a paper mill. Brought by Putin to Moscow in 1999, he became one of his closest associates, heading his presidential campaign. Sat on the board of the state gas and oil concern, Gazprom, and in 2003 he became Putin’s chief of staff, while also being put in charge of spending some of the country’s excess oil profits. Two years later, he continued his climb by being made first deputy prime minister. Named at the end of 2007 as Putin’s successor, despite having no power base in the Kremlin other than his mentor, and never having run for any kind of office, and easily won election in 2008, promising to crack down on corruption. Appointed Putin his prime minister, setting up the dynamic of a two-headed state, and all sorts of inner conflicts, thanks to his implicit rejection of the latter’s huge bureaucracy, and the corrupt officials who have profited handsomely from the state’s excesses. His positions, however, would soon be belied by Putin’s aggressive actions in South Ossetia, relegating him to his true status as a puppet, with little real power of his own. Maintained an extremely aggressive stance against the West in his first state of the nation speech, while proposing to expand the presidency from a 4 to 6 year term, in a non-too-subtle invite for permanent power for his predecessor Putin. Later expressed optimism over the incoming Obama administration, before showing belligerence against perceived American aggression in the Middle East, central Asia and Europe, particularly in regard to the installation of defense systems in the latter. Attuned to 21st century technology with his ongoing video blog, showing himself open to NATO proposals and a potential nuclear arms treaty with the U.S., while at the same time conspiring with China to challenge the American dollar as undisputed world currency. After Putin announced he would run for the presidency in 2012 and switch positions with him, his party suffered an embarrassing defeat at the polls in late 2011, followed by social unrest, as a reflecton of how the younger generation viewed both his and Putin’s stewardship of Russia’s economic state into a steadily weakened position in the larger world power arena. The following year, the two switched roles, with Putin winning the presidency again, despite widespread accusations of voter fraud. Inner: Moderate, liberal pragmatist with leanings toward the West. Good grasp of economics, and a good loyal soldier as an underling. Linked lifetime of positioning himself for power by remaining in the shadow of his longtime father/cohort in order to effect a successful succession that would insure a shot at centerstage in world events, as a parallel peer to his mentor. Nikolai Voznesensky (1903?-1949) - Russian economist and politician. Outer: Became a protege and favorite of Andre Zhdanov (Vladimir Putin), and tied his career to him, allowing him a meteoric rise. Made Vice Premier in 1940, and was put in charge of industry during WW II. Afterwards, he wrote “The Economy of the USSR During WW II,” as a summation of his wartime duties, and won a Stalin Prize for his effort. Became the youngest member of the Politburo, in addition to his ongoing chairmanship of the State Planning Commission. His ideas after the war, however, did not sit well with his fellow central economic planners, since they did not conform to the strict tenets of Marxism, and when his mentor Zhdanov died in 1948, he quickly lost all his positions, including his deputy prime ministership, in a purge. The following year, in what was dubbed the Leningrad Affair, he was charged, on dictator Joseph Stalin’s orders, with treason, found guilty and sentenced to death in what was a predetermined show trial. Either shot, or died of exposure, when he was driven overnight twixt two prisons while lying half-naked and exposed in a van. Inner: Highly competent, but without any powerbase other than his longtime mentor. Bitter pill lifetime of learning the hard way about the Soviet system, and the power of paranoia that ran it, obviating his obvious skills and relegating him to the thankless role of being one more victim of the excesses of absolute tyranny. Philippe, Comte de Paris (Louis-Philippe Albert d’Orleans) (1838-1894) - French Prince Royal, journalist and his/storian. Outer: Grandson of the Louis Philippe (Boris Yeltsin), the last Bourbon king of France. His father was heir to the latter’s throne, but died in a carriage accident in 1842, making him the Prince Royal. When his grandfather was forced to abdicate six years later, an effort was made to enthrone him with his mother as regent, but it came to naught, and he fled with her to Britain. Wound up fighting for the Union forces in the American Civil War, along with his younger brother. Served with distinction, then wrote an invaluable his/story of the war. Returned home and married a cousin, Princess Marie Isabelle, whose father was his sire’s younger brother. Eight children from the union, with two sons dying in their first year. Following the fall of Napoleon III (Darryl F. Zanuck) in 1871, he withdrew his claims to the throne in favor of Henri Chambord (Vladimir Putin), which made him the latter’s presumed heir, since he was childless. When Chambord died in 1883, he was recognized as Philippe VII by those who wished to restore the monarchy, but once again, naught came of the claim. Remained in exile in Britain, where he died. Inner: Good communication skills, with a martial/memoirist sensibility of old. Sceptreless lifetime of paralleling his longtime crypto-family member, and like him, gaining the name but not the throne of his nation, as a relic of another time. Louis-Phillipe, duc d’Orleans (1725-1785) - French noble. Outer: Father was Louis, duc d’Orleans (Vladimir Putin). Mother died when he was one, and his sire was in perpetual mourning for her afterwards. Pursued the career of a soldier, serving in the War of the Austrian Succession with distinction in his early 20s. In 1743, he married Louise Henriette de Bourbon, his cousin and a member of the Bourbon-Conti family, son and daughter from the union, including Philip Egalité, who would fall to the guillotine during the French Revolution. On his sire’s death in 1752, he became duc de Chartres. Retired 5 years later, and spent the latter part of his life dabbling in the arts. His wife died two years later, and he secretly married writer Charlotte-Jeanne Béraud de la Haye de Riou in 1773. With her, he had two sons who became abbes, while maintaining a salon atmosphere in the chateau they shared, putting on theatrical performances of pieces his wife wrote. Enjoyed the company of literati and other cultured figures. Inner: Blueblooded lifetime of exploring both his martial and creative side as a secondary aristocratic figure of his times, interested in continuing to develop his skills in those two arenas.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS DEEP-POCKETED IMPERIALIST:
Storyline: The transcontinental control freak revisits the result of his earlier visionary manipulations and integrates it into a highly viable economic state by using western methods and eastern consciousness, as he continues to play with the role of self-created emperor down into modern times.

Lee Kuan Yew (1923-2015) - Singapore state-builder and autocrat. Outer: From a fourth generation middle-class Chinese family that had established itself in Singapore the previous century. His first language was English. Father was an inveterate gambler with a vile temper around losing, which impressed upon his son a desire to be strictly above-board in all his dealings. Nevertheless, he worked as a black-market trader during the WW II Japanese occupation, then proved to be a brilliant student, and won a scholarship to Raffles College- in Singapore, before finishing his education at Cambridge Univ. in law, where he won double first-class honors in 2 subjects and headed the honor’s list. Admitted to the English bar in 1950, and also proclaimed himself a Socialist, while marrying Kwa Geok Choo, a Malaysian classmate, a Malaysian classmate who became the first Asian woman to graduate with honors from Cambridge Univ. and ultimately co-founded her own law firm, 2 sons and a daughter from the union, including Lee Hsien Loong, who became a brigadier general and Singapore’s third ruler. Returned to Singapore, where he was appointed legal adviser to the Postal Union, and negotiated wage raises, before performing a similar function for other unions. Became active politically, ultimately assuming the role of secretary-general of his own party, the Peoples’ Action Party, while accepting Communist support. Learned Chinese, as well as Malay and Tamil and won a seat on the ruling council in 1955, representing the poorest Chinese in Singapore. Returned to London with a delegation to seek self-rule for the colony, which was denied, and upon his return unrest led to the arrest of several of his leading party members. Negotiations resumed in 1957, and when an agreement was reached on a measure of self-government, he won a by-election by a large margin, causing a power struggle within his own party. Ousted from his post in the late summer by the party’s left wing, he regained it in the early fall. The following year in London he renegotiated Singapore’s status as a self-governing state within the British Commonwealth, and elections were held in 1959 under the new constitution. Despite winning the vast majority of the seats, he refused to form a new government until Britain released the left-wing members of his party who had been imprisoned earlier. With their release, he formed a cabinet, and began his autocratic democratic rule of the colony, with an eye towards making it a highly controlled economically viable state. Suffered from extreme sleepless anxiety around the future of his state, until it was more than assured under his policies. When the left-wing broke away to form a new Socialist party, he took on his opponents in a national referendum and won handily. In 1963, he took Singapore into the newly-created federation of Malaysia, but the latter resisted his Chinese candidates for offices, exacerbating nationalistic tensions in Malaysia, which brought rioting to the streets of Singapore. Asked to leave the federation in 1965, he was reluctantly forced to secede, despite his desire to be part of a multi-racial federation, while privately fuming over Malaysia’s stance as the real rulers of his state. Singapore then became a sovereign state, and he was its first prime minister. Crushed the Communists in order to pursue a capitalist, pro-Western agenda which relied on foreign investment, while stifling all critics and emasculating the unions, for fear they would deter investment. Gradually phased out European officials and replaced them with Singaporese, using the Israeli model for his newly formed society. Championed economic independence, creating a highly viable, carefully controlled state, with an emphasis on trade and industry and conformity, and a de-emphasis on individual liberty vis-a-vis the welfare of the larger state. Controlled every aspect of his society from language to length of hair, and in so doing created a relatively corruption-free society. By the end of the 1970s, Singapore was second only to Japan in its per capita income, although the longer he remained in office, the more he felt impelled to control all aspects of his state, suppressing any and all dissent. In 1983, he began a “graduate mothers’ program” in which educated women were paid to have children in order to raise the level of the gene pool. Eventually became more trusting of the society he created, in which a solid middle-class had a strong investment in maintaining its stability. Stepped down in 1990 in favor of a hand-picked successor, and assumed the role of elder statesman, while keeping his hand at the tiller, and serving as an adviser to other Asian countries wishing to tap into the global economy. Wrote 2 volumes of autobiography, and lost his highly accomplished wife in 2010. Continued to pay himself $3.7 million a year, while he and his family remained the highest paid politicians in the world. Died of pneumonia in a hospital, then lay in state for 4 days, before receiving a grand funeral attended by world dignitaries, as befitting a major 20th century player. Inner: Frank, shrewd, highly self-controlled, with a fierce temper and few pleasures beyond politics. Blunt, thoughtful and extremely articulate, as well as efficient, pragmatic and incorrupt. Strong proponent of social Darwinism. No one ever dared investigate his or his family’s vast holdings, in the perfect kleptocracy he created. Paternalistic lifetime of returning to a state he had helped found as a European in order to integrate Asian and European ways within it, while continuing to act out his own inner sense of the unshakeable imperialist, but this time, without an empire behind him. Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) - English imperialist. Outer: Fifth son of a vicar. Educated locally, then because of failing health, he went to South Africa in 1870 to join his eldest brother, who was a cotton-grower in Natal. When diamonds were discovered in the Orange Free State the following year, he moved there and worked with his brother on a claim, before returning to matriculate at Oriel College, Oxford in 1873, and coming back there periodically until finally graduating in 1881. During this period, he, along with his partners, increased their holdings in the Kimberley diamond fields and gained a large interest in the De Beers mines there. Traveled to neighboring regions by himself and began the process of working with Dutch settlers to federate South Africa under British rule. In 1880, he helped establish the De Beers Mining Company and was also elected to the Cape Legislature, retaining his seat for life, working the entire time to maintain wide powers of local self-government, while extending British settlement and influence. Unmarried, he was probably was bisexual, and enjoyed the company of prostitutes. Helped secure a great part of Bechuanaland for the Cape Government, and when it was formally annexed, he was made deputy commissioner in 1884. Negotiated the withdrawal of Boer claims there, and then after the British South Africa Company was incorporated by royal charter to administer territory north of Bechuanaland, he had that territory named Rhodesia, after him, since he had been the guiding spirit behind its creation. Became chairman and ruler of the De Beers Consolidated mines, after outmaneuvering a rival, Barney Barnato (Armand Hammer), then added newly discovered goldfields to his expanding empire, forming another corporation to exploit them. Actively involved in the organization of Rhodesia, he directed a war against local tribes, greatly extending the company’s territories, and from 1890 to 1896, he was also prime minister of the Cape, during which time he carried through reforms and sought to unite English and Dutch interests. In 1895, he secretly encouraged an armed insurrection against the rival Transvaal government, although its failure brought censure from the English Parliament, and he was forced to resign his position as prime minister, and for a time his directorship of the Chartered Company, although he resumed it in 1898, spending the time left to him in developing Rhodesia, while greatly extended railway and telegraph communication. Forced to deal with a scheming adventurous, Princess Raziwill, who forged letters in his name, and caused him added scandal, before finally being jailed on charges of fraud, after his death. On the outbreak of the the South African War, he moved to Kimberley, where he was besieged. Returned to Europe and then came back to South Africa, where he died of heart disease. In his will, he endowed 170 scholarships to Oxford for students from the colonies, the U.S. and Germany, who would henceforth be known as Rhodes scholars, and would ultimately enhance his posthumous reputation. Inner: Imperialist to the core, with a strong sense of the superiority of the white race. Forceful, hardworking, with a great love of learning. Excellent organizational skills, and an elephantine ego, large enough to have a whole country named after him. Viewed native black Africans as thoroughly uncivilized, although some would ultimately benefit from the largesse of his scholarship program. Gained the reputation as a woman-hater, because of his lifelong single status. Bejeweled lifetime of realizing his longheld imperialist ambitions, while leaving a rich educational legacy that would more than compensate for his limited worldview of English racial and economic supremacy. Thomas Raffles (1781-1826) - English colonial governor. Outer: Father was a hard-up ship’s master. Born at sea, aboard a merchant ship captained by his sire. The latter’s early death forced him to quit school, much to his disappointment, since he loved learning, and spent the rest of his life self-educating himself, becoming, ultimately, one of the best-informed men of his time. At 14, he entered the service of the British East India Company’s East India House in London, where he proved himself to be an industrious and able clerk. Dark, good-looking. In 1805, he was sent east to Penang in Malaysia, an undesirable post, where disease carried off many officials, to be assistant to the governor’s chief secretary. The same year, he married Olivia Devenish, a Company widow who was 10 years his senior. Studied Asian languages and customs, and within 2 years was chief secretary, a meteoric jump, which won him few friends. Sent further down the coast to Malacca, which he felt the company should retain, and went to India, where he formed a close friendship with the governor-general there, who had his eye on Java as an addition to the company’s coffers. Became his chief adviser, and his virtual deputy, as the latter sponsored an invasion of Java to deliver it from the French, which was done with virtually no resistance after they landed in Batavia. 25 days later, Java was claimed by the British East India Company, despite a reluctance by its homeland directors, who did not want sovereignty over the place, only trade. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Java, he remained there 4 and 1/2 years, acquiring an immense scientific, his/storical and philological knowledge of the East Indian islands. Completed the conquest of Java, and set up its administration, reforming many of the Dutch methods, while claiming all of the Dutch East Indies, and living like a great sultan, as his enemies multiplied. His beloved wife died in 1814, a bitter blow to him, and he lay near death for several weeks in reaction, before recovering. When the Dutch were restored in 1815, he was dismissed from his position on charges of corruption and mismanagement, and returned home, defeated and ill to work on restoring his reputation. In 1817, he remarried while limning the informative History of Java, 5 children from union. Knighted the same year, and made a fellow of the prestigious Royal Society. Returned to the East Indies 2 years later, and through dint of his forcefulness, won approval for the acquisition of the island of Singapore in 1819. Although he did not live there, he helped lay out the community, and gave it a foundation, despite extreme resistance to the move back home, while continuing with his Sumatra post. Fought to abolish slavery there, and freed the Company’s slaves, but 4 of his 5 children serially died, and he was victim of excruciating headaches and fever. Returned to England in 1824, after losing all his papers, as well as his immense zoological and botanical collections in a fire. The court of directors refused to give him a pension, claiming instead that he owed them money, despite his being viewed as a celebrity and a noted Orientalist. Spent his last 2 years in retirement, founding the Zoological Society, of which he was first president, before dying of a brain tumor, where his wife found him at the foot of their country home stairway. Inner: Clever, hard-working and insatiably ambitious with an extremely forceful personality. Boundless physical energy. Alternately viewed as a schemer and opportunist and a humanitarian. Rags-to-riches lifetime of depending upon a bureaucracy for his station, despite his visionary ability to exploit native wealth, which he would try to do in this next go-round in this series, with far more direct control over his overweening imperial ambitions. Jan Coen (1587-1629) - Dutch financial empire builder. Outer: Raised as a strict Calvinist, whose principles he would later transmute into business. Trained as a merchant with a Flemish company in Rome, then set sail at 20 for Indonesia, working for the Dutch East India Company. On the trip, the leader and 50 men were killed during negotiations with the chiefs of the Banda Islands, but he returned to Holland with an important report on trade possibilities in Southeast Asia. Made chief merchant and again went overseas in 1612. Married, although he spent most of his life overseas in pursuit of his dreams of a trading empire. The following year he was made head of the company’s post in Java and soon afterwards became director general of the company’s trade in Asia. Helped the Dutch gain control of the area’s spice trade, through his strict enforcement of contracts and his country’s military back-up. Secured a clove and nutmeg monopoly, and was made governor general in 1617. After doing battle with the English and the native forces, he founded what would become Batavia. After the Dutch and English came to an agreement, he extended his own trading reach to preclude his adversaries, then headed an all-Dutch fleet to the Banda Islands in 1621, and slaughtered and enslaved the natives there, drawing a reprimand from his company, as well as shocking the contemporary trading world. Tried to establish a vast Dutch trading empire in Southeast Asia, by establishing a chain of fortified posts in the Indonesian archipelago. Sent an expedition to the coast of China, although underestimated his enemies, but wound up establishing a Dutch settlement on Formosa, giving base for trade with Japan and China. Wanted Batavia to become an eastern Amsterdam, and tried vainly to turn it into a Dutch settlement. Eventually died of dysentery on one of many visits to the tropics, this time accompanied by his wife, during one of many sieges of the city he had founded. Through his efforts, the Dutch were able to maintain a viable presence in Indonesia for the next 4 centuries. Inner: Extremely skillful negotiator and information-gatherer, albeit ruthless, with dreams of a vast maritime empire stretching from Japan to India. Tote-sheet-in-hand lifetime of realizing part of a self-created dream through his energetic and ambitious administration, while showing a ruthlessness and an attention to detail that would inform all of the later lives in this series. Ivan I (1304?-1340) - Russian grand prince of Moscow and Vladimir. Outer: Son of Daniel (Louis Botha), who was prince of Moscow. Succeeded his brother Yuri (Armand Hammer) as prince in 1325 and then to his father’s title 3 years later. Married Helena, 8 children from the union, including two successors, Simeon (Bantu Holomisa) and Ivan II (Alan Paton). Later married a second time to Alexandra, which produced one more daughter. Helped the Khan of the Golden Horde, the overlord of all the Russian princes, against his chief rival, and was ultimately chosen in 1331 to replace him, while also being given his office for his family as well, and never passed out of it. Remained cordial to the Khan, and because of his thrift and financial shrewdness with his collective revenues, became known as ‘the Moneybag.’ Used purchase power rather than martial might to expand his realm, buying territories instead of conquering them, thereby enlarging his Moscow base, while increasing its influence over neighboring principalities by attracting settlers and equipping them for agriculture. Formed a close alliance with the metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church, and gave him shelter so that he transferred his seat to Moscow, thereby making Moscow the spiritual, as well as economic center of the Russian territories. Did considerable building, with a focus on new churches. Succeeded by his oldest son, Simeon. Inner: Financial adept, with a gift for acquisition, as well as a surety of what he had to do to make Muscovy the heart and pocketbook of his surrounding area. Calm and sober-minded. Firm, and cruel and courteous when needed be. Thrifty Moneybag lifetime of employing his shrewd business and territorial sense in creating a base for the future rulers of Russia, in preparation for his own run as imperialist supreme over the next half millennium.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS ONGOING NAVIGATOR OVER ROUGH SEAS:
Storyline: The Afrikaaner turned pure African rises to lead his ongoing homeland once again, only to fall into the same patterns as before, by focusing on external ties, rather than domestic issues, and winding up outmaneuvering himself, despite his gift for rule.
Thabo Mbeki (Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki) (1942) - South African politician. Outer: Both parents were teachers and activists. Father was a member of both the ANC (the African National Congress) and the Communist Party. Later had strained relations with his progenitors, despite his achievements. Literally born into the struggle against apartheid, he joined the ANC at 14 and was a student activist who was expelled, only to ultimately get an economics degree from the Univ. of London as an external student. Had a son during this period who was later killed while trying to leave South Africa to reunite with him. Forced to go underground afterwards when the ANC was banned, while continuing to organize. Elected Secretary of the African Students Association, only to be forced to leave Africa for his own safety. Spent most of the next 28 years in exile, working for antiapartheid from abroad. Received his M.A. in economics from the Univ. of Sussex, while working in the ANC’s London office. Got military training in the Soviet Union, and lived in various African states, with Lusaka, Zambia, the ANC’s African headquarters, as his base. In 1974, he married Zanele Diamini in England, and the following year became a member of the National Executive Committee on the ANC. His brother was murdered in 1982 for political activity, while he continued in the struggle, steadily rising in importance in the party. Finally returned to South Africa at the release of Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990. Became a deputy president of South Africa in 1994, and deputy-president in 1996. Succeeded Mandela as ANC president in 1997, before becoming South Africa’s president in 1999, winning a second term in 2004. Had mixed results, with good economic growth, the rise of a black middle class, and a centralization of power, although his government was tarnished by corruption and nepotism, and did little for the country’s underclass. Able to attract considerable foreign finance to South Africa, and also was a chief architect for NEPAD, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, an economic development program of the African Union. Far more of a capitalist than a social democrat in his handling of economic issues, using first world models of individual initiative, while promoting centralized policies over grassroots efforts. Had continental aspirations and dreams of an African renaissance, proving effective in dealing with the complex issues of other African countries, while economically tying South Africa to Brazil, China, India and Russia’s fortunes. Curiously fell into the same trap as his earlier Botha go-round, in focusing on foreign policy, rather than domestic issues. Failed as well to build on Mandela’s integrative efforts at nation-building, holding onto his old racial prejudices. An active promoter of his own ideas, through written newspaper columns, while feeling the news media did not reflect the true needs of the populace-at-large. Lost a bid for a third term as ANC president to Jacob Zuma in 2007, while the latter part of his rule would generate much criticism. Stained his reputation by supporting Robert Mugabe’s stranglehold on neighboring Zimbabwe, refusing to interfere with his gross misuse of power, and also denied the true dynamic of HIV/AIDS, leaving his country prey to its devastating effects. His policies also fed into an energy crisis, while crimes against women rose, despite his blaming the statistic on old racial prejudices against black men. Xenophobic attacks on immigrant Zimbabweans in 2008 also brought heavy criticism for his ongoing refusal to deal with the consequences of his support for Mugabe. Announced his resignation in 2008, after interfering with the Jacob Zuma corruption trial. Although the ruling was overturned, the resignation stood, and his active rule was over,, although his voice was far from stilled. Inner: First name would be an anagram of his last name his last go-round in this series. Strong believer in Africans solving African problems, as well as global apartheid, where rich nations and their power elite exploit the vast poverty of everyone else. Deliberate controversialist as a paternalistic leader, interested in no less than raising Africa to the level of every other continent on the planet. Power broker lifetime of seeing his homeland from the opposite racial side while focusing as much on continental problems as South African ones in his ongoing lessons of rule from both a colonial and nativist perspective. Louis Botha (1862-1919) - South African soldier and statesman. Outer: Grew up on a pioneer settler farm, and received little formal education, save for a German mission school, but took part in the formation of the New Republic, around Vryheid and settled there, marrying the granddaughter of an Irish patriot. When the New Republic became part of the larger South African Republic, he immediately began to collect posts, before being elected to the parlaiment of Transvaal in 1898, showing himself to be a moderate, and abstained from the vote for war with Britain. As soon as it began, however, he showed his aptitude in the face of flying bullets, and swiftly rose to second in command, leading several successful sieges, and taking over when the commanding general was unhorsed and died. After 1900, he waged guerrilla warfare, after being defeated in the largest battle of the Boer War, between Dutch and French settlers against the British, for another two years, until the resistance had lost heart, because of the overwhelming force of the latter. A signer of the subsequent peace treaty, he plunged back into politics, forming a new party dedicated to unifying British and largely racist Boer factions in a dominion of South Africa. Became premier in 1901, and was aided closely by Jan Smuts (Bantu Holomisa), who shared a similar dream. In 1910, he was elected the first Prime Minister of the new Union of South Africa, and held that post until his death. Continued to sit in the center in his politics, protecting the integrity of the state from archvoices to the right and German claims, giving the go-ahead on an invasion of German Southwest Africa, which he personally and successfully led. After WW I, he was a signer of the Versailles Treaty, although he objected to the harsh reparations placed on his former enemy nation. Returned to South Africa and died soon afterwards, with the country bitterly divided about its past. Inner: Good strategist and able tactician, with relatively liberal views and the facility for dealing with people. Steady as she goes lifetime of steering a middle course through great upheaval, and making his will largely manifest. William Bentinck (Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck) (1774-1839) - English governor/general. Outer: Father Second son of the 3rd Duke of Portland, privileged upbringing in a liberal Whig household. At 17, he received a commission in the Coldstream Guards, and rose swiftly in rank, to lieutenant colonel, while being viewed as promising. Attached to the high command staff, he saw action in several campaigns around century’s turn, and was chosen in 1803 to be governor of Madras, a surprise selection because of his youth, for he was still under 30. Married the same year, no issue from union. Although proving himself competent to the job, a serious miscalculation about disallowing beards and turbans by the native troops led to a mutiny in 1806, and much spilt blood in its suppression. Blamed for the incident, he was recalled, and spent the next two decades broodingly awaiting his chance to avenge his good name there. Assigned to Spain, and then as commander of British troops in Sicily, where he helped unseat the Bourbon king, and instituted a liberal Sicilian constitution with a legislative house modeled on the British Parliament, much to the surprise of the government. After announcing he was going to invade Italy and try the same there, he was recalled once again by a red-faced government, whose intentions did not remotely march his. In 1819, he turned down a reappointment as governor of Madras, for his eye was now on the big prize, governor/general of India, and he would settle for nothing less. Offered the position of governor-general of Bengal in 1827, and he was well-prepared for it. Turned around the nation’s debt, reformed the judicial as well as the colony’s administrative offices, opening far more of them to the native population. Made English the lingua franca of higher eduction and justice, and helped adopt the colleges more along western lines. In 1833, he was made the first governor/general of India. Abolished suttee, or the immolation of widows with their deceased husbands, and did away with other violent practices, without too much opposition, despite the longheld religious beliefs around these acts. Also ended flogging in the Indian army, even though it still existed in its British counterpart. Ended his run in 1835, and returned to England, satisfied over a job well done. Became a liberal MP from Scotland, two years later. Inner: Initially tactless and impetuous, he eventually learned how to translate his wishes into actualities. Two chances lifetime of learning from his mistakes, and being given a second chance to implement his liberal colonial view, which he liberally and pragmatically carried out to his own satisfactory success. Anthony van Diemen (1593-1645) - Dutch colonial governor. Outer: Dutch Calvinist upbringing. After failing as a businessman in Amsterdam, he joined the Dutch East India Company, and in 1618, was sent to Batavia, or modern-day Java, where he worked closely with the governor general there, Jan Coen (Lee Kuan Yew), becoming involved in his martial expeditions and fight for control there. Able to withstand the rigors of the tropics, when many of his contemporaries could not, he ultimately rose to governor general in 1636. Signed a treaty, strengthening the company’s position in the Spice Islands, allowing him the freedom of his true field of expertise, waging war. Consolidated the Dutch’s empire in the region by overseeing a successful invasion of Ceylon, and the capturing of other European colonial strongholds, while making advantageous treaties with native ruling princes. Completed the work of Coen in constructing Batavia according to the former’s designs, and introduced a legal code. Also sponsored exploring exhibitions, proving himself highly competent in his carrying out of the wishes of his superiors, and largely at one with his duties. Inner: Strong sense of purpose, vigorous implementer of orders given him. Dutiful lifetime of brisk achievement, within the constrained framework of Calvinism and imperialism, while operating as the manifester of the wishes of others. Daniel (1261-1303) - Russian prince. Outer: Youngest son of Alexander Nevsky (Georgi Zhukov). At the death of his father, the old man’s governor ruled Moscow, until he came of age in his early 20s. His several brothers did battle with one another over their inheritance, and he alternately switched his support. In 1293, when the Tatars that one of them brought to Moscow, ruined the city, he shifted to his other princely siblings, and headed the struggle against the first. Married Maria, 6 children from the union, including his successors, Yuri (Armand Hammer) and Ivan I (Lee Kuan Yew). Built on his father’s family holdings, and created the ducal line that would rule Moscow for over 250 years. Erected monasteries, and took monastic vows at the end, while living under the strictest monastic rule. Eventually succeeded by his sons, who were able to build on the 600 square miles he left them, and make the former small walled city into a powerhouse to come. Inner: Dynasty-building lifetime of creating the foundation for the Tsars of Russia to ultimately emerge, in a go-round dedicated to aggressiveness and penance, in his ongoing need to find a balancing middle within himself.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS SELF-GOVERNING GOVERNOR:
The royal reformer returns in indigenous form to a land he had earlier known as a colonial interloper, and proves himself an activist rebel, in his desire to give an alternative voice against the monopolist forces from his usual viewpoint as both soldier and statesman.
Bantu Holomisa (Bantubonke Holomisa) (1955) - South African politician. Outer: Father was a royal chieftain with 5 wives, as well as a member of the National Assembly and the Transkei Parliament. Educated at Jongilizwe College in Tsolo, before joining the civil service for a half year. Enlisted in the Transkei Defence Force in 1976, earning his commission in 1978. In 1981, he married Tunyelwa Dube, the daughter of a minister, one son and two daughters from the union. An active sportsman, he held several managerial positions, including manager of the Tembu Royals Football club, as well as national secretary of the Transkei Rugby board. Steadily rose in rank, ultimately becoming chief of staff in 1985, as well as a brigadier general. Successfully overthrew the Transkei prime minister, Stella Sigcau, in a coup d’etat and became head of the military government of that Eastern Cape area from 1987 to 1994. That same year he was elected to the African National Congress National Executive Committee, obtaining the highest number of votes of anyone. After testifying before the Truth and Reconciliation Committee in 1996, about the corruption of his Transkei predecessors and ANC collaboration, however, he was expelled from the ANC, and smeared as a manipulative liar. In response, he co-founded the United Democratic Movement or UDM, the following year, and through dint of his ocnsiderable will against the ANC’s intimidating tactics, was elected to the South African parliament at century’s end. Very much interested in giving South Africa an alternative to the ANC, using those who were born after apartheid, the “born frees,” as his base. Remains a work-in-progress as a voice for young South Africa, willing to confront the recently-established establishment. Inner: Hard-nosed and more than willing to standup for his beliefs. Rebel lifetime of following his usual sword and statesman course, as a vigorous voice for 21st Africa, from an indigenous and royal perspective unwilling to bend to forces far more powerful than he. Jan Christian Smuts (1870-1950) - South African soldier and statesman. Outer: Of Dutch descent. Grew up on a farm, which gave him a great love of the land. Also brought up by strict Dutch Calvinists, which imposed a tightness of character on him, but a strong work ethic. Unable to read or write until 12, when he went off to school. Nevertheless, he earned Greek grammar by heart in less than a week, then passed all his exams at the head of the lists. At 16, he entered Victoria College, where he was an honor student in science and the arts. Met his future wife there as well, who would become a close lifelong companion. Won a scholarship to Christ College, Cambridge, and emigrated to England, where he proved to be an incandescent law student, while displaying enough dazzle to merit all sorts of honors, with a brilliant career in the legal profession awaiting him. He, however, had a hungry and restless intelligence, which read widely, and saw far more challenge and opportunity for him in going back to his roots. After passing the bar, he returned to Capetown in 1895, to practice law, and became active in politics, initially as a supporter of Cecil Rhodes (Lee Kuan Yew). An ugly incident shifted his allegiance to Paul Kruger and the Afrikaaners, and he moved to Johannesburg, where he married Ilse Krieg in 1897, before being called to the capital to be state attorney. 6 children from the union. When the Transvaal government fell in 1900, he became a fulltime guerrilla general in the Boer War between the Afrikaaner Dutch settlers and British mining interests. Successfully led raids, and proved popular with his men, while effectively diverting the British war effort, although in a losing cause. Firmly believed in a united South Africa, and along with fellow general, Louis Botha (Thabo Mbeki), worked towards that end. Returned to England in 1905, where he found his intellect stimulated, as well as his liberal views upheld, reinforcing his desire for a united state. When Botha became Prime Minister in 1907, he joined his cabinet, and ultimately served as the principal drafter of the constitution of the newly minted Union of South Africa, in 1910, as both men realized their dream. Continued to serve as a successful general against revolts and German interests, expanding into the latter’s territory, while being deeply involved in governmental policy. Saw only trouble in granting black Africans civilized status, preferring to keep the races apart, despite seeing the conflict between the races a potential dooming effect on “white civilization.” In 1917, he returned to England for an Imperial war conference, and wound up a cabinet minister and privy councilor, later signing WW I’s concluding Treaty of Versailles, despite reservations about excessive reparations against Germany. Became South African Prime Minister in 1919 on Botha’s death, but his party lost power 5 years later and he retired. Disliked by the nationalist Afrikaaners, for his desire to independently retain Commonwealth links, but when extremist elements threatened, he re-entered politics a decade later. Saw the dangers that Hitler posed in Europe by 1936. Served as a deputy prime minister, and, after a party dispute about isolation or joining the war effort, became Prime Minister in 1939, on the eve of WW II, and immediately declared war on Germany. Directed much of the South African war effort during the long fray, and was promoted to British Field Marshal in 1941. Helped draft the U.N. charter after the war. His party was defeated in 1948, so that he only narrowly retained a seat in Parliament. Accepted a chancellorship at Cambridge, and then returned home to die two years later. Inner: Cold, restrained and aloof to most, save intimates. Impatient, subtle, hardworking, and intellectual. Never popular, but always respected, and the only South African leader honored outside his country. Adaptable, far-sighted and effective, but also inflexible in his sense of duty, and unwilling to see native Africans as equal to their European interlopers. Felt liberated as a youth, by the writings of American poet Walt Whitman (Allen Ginsburg), although never got past his own natural reserve. Liberal internationally and conservative at home. Pen and sword-in-hand lifetime of proving himself in the larger martial and political world, while remaining at a reserve from virtually everyone else, in an ongoing desire to slowly open himself up, so as to be a truly integrated and inspiring leader. Gilbert Minto (Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st earl of Minto) (Gilbert Elliot) (1751-1814) - English colonial governor-general. Outer: Father of the same name (Alan Paton), was a statesman, philosopher and poet. One of 6 children. Educated with a private tutor, and then at a military school. Attended school in Paris, and, along with his brother in Paris, studied under the supervision of David Hume (Reinhold Niebuhr). On his return to England, he attended lectures in Edinburgh on the law, science and philosophy, then entered Christ Church, Oxford, where he was more interested in sports and a rousing social life than his studies. Nevertheless, he proved himself a good student when he applied himself, and passed the bar in 1774. Entered Parliament 2 years later as an independent Whig, although twice failed to become speaker. Married Anna Marie Aymand in 1777, 3 sons and 3 daughters from the union, including George Eliot, an admiral. In 1794, he was appointed governor of Corsica for 2 years, where he effectively ended the career of rebel nationalist Pasquali Paoli (Antonio Banderas). In 1797, he added the names of Murray-Kynynmond, and was created Baron Minto. Turned the century as envoy-extraordinaire to Vienna. Elected a member of the Royal Society in 1803, and served in several other capacities before being made governor general of India in 1807. As viceroy, he proved to be efficient and effective, through treaties and negotiations, and a firm hand on the wheel. Saw the importance of recognizing the religious views of the natives, although was falsely accused by some back home of suppressing Christian evangelism to that effect. In 1810, he turned his attention to annexing former French and Dutch possessions, including the Dutch East Indies islands of the Spice Islands and Java, personally visiting the latter, after having secured it. Made a viscount the year before his death, for his well-appreciated services to the empire. Died after a long illness. Inner: Forceful and diplomatic, the very model of a colonial administrator. Very effective speaker. Jolly good show lifetime of playing all aspects of the colonial master, and winning the approbation of his peers for doing so, allowing him to rise to the next level, as the master of a colonial state turned independent nation. Cornelius de Houtman (c1540-1599) - Dutch trader. Outer: Sent along with his brother Frederick (Alan Paton) to Lisbon in 1592 as commercial representatives of a consortium of 9 Dutch merchants in order to find viable sea routes to the spice-rich East Indies. Tried to steal classified navigational charts there, only to be caught smuggling them out of the country, and was imprisoned along with Frederick for several months. Released in 1595, they returned to Amsterdam and he was given the command of 4 merchant ships of the Verre Company, which had sponsored their earlier trip. Reached the Dutch East Indies the following year, and established trading relations with the rulers of Java, Sumatra and Bali, and returned home that year with a rich cargo of spices. Took a second trip in 1598, where they established trade with Madagascar. On a third trip in 1599 to Sumatra, he was killed in a battle against the Sultan of Aceh. Inner: High adventure lifetime of dealing with information-gathering, before being prematurely undone around the resistant aggressiveness which that activity often initiates. Simeon (1316-1353) - Russian grand prince. Outer: Oldest son of Ivan I (Lee Kuan Yew). Older brother of Ivan II (Alan Paton). Succeeded his father in 1340, and quickly earned the sobriquet, ‘the Proud,’ proving himself an aggressive upholder of his sire’s desire to unite all the Russian principalities under his house. Felt Russia was only strong when all the princes obeyed one central authority, and he came to be known as ‘father,’ rather than ‘elder brother’ in his relations with them. His first wife, Anastasia, the sister of the Prince of Vitebsk, died in 1345, and he married a princess, Eupraxia of Smolensk, only to divorce her shortly afterwards, which ran against precedent. His third marriage to Maria of Tver, was not blessed by the church, but he ignored it, while their four sons died in infancy. Journeyed 5 times to the Tartar khan to keep his position solidified and married his sister to the prince of Tver. Campaigned and maneuvered to increase his hegemony, all during his rule, and took monastic vows and the name Sozont shortly before he expired. Inner: Energetic and brutal. Strong sense of purpose, vigorous and dedicated to upholding the honor of his house. Tradition-bound lifetime of upholding his father’s will, and then having his run foreshortened, in his ongoing education around becoming a paternalistic figure of note on the world’s political stage.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS CRYPTO-DYNASTIC VOICE:
Storyline: The pained poet serves as the voice of consciousness for a larger hidden warrior family, finding his power in the pen, rather than the sword, like the others, and proving their equal, if not superior, in touching the world’s imagination.

Alan Paton (1903-1988) - South African writer. Outer: Oldest child of a Scottish Christadelphian shorthand writer to the Supreme Court. Mother was a teacher of English descent. Neither of his parents were highly educated, and his sire used to beat his sons often, which seared into him a sense of the bullying presence of the white minority in South Africa. Found literature an excellent escape from his oppressive home life, and was deeply imbued with the Bible and his parents’ Christian faith as well. Educated at Maritzburg College and Natal Univ. College, before becoming a high school teacher, where he met his first wife, Dorrie Francis Lusted, who was married at the time. After her husband died, he and she were married in 1928 in an extremely close union. After almost dying of salmonella poisoning in 1935, he became principal of a reformatory for delinquent African boys, until retiring in 1948 to write full time. In 1946, he took a trip to Sweden to examine prison conditions, and began the work for which he would become world renowned, “Cry, the Beloved Country,” which was published two years later. The book awoke the world to South Africa’s harsh segregationist policies, while he offered a Christian overview as solution to them. In 1953, he resigned membership from a liberal club, after a quarter-century affiliation with it, when it refused to admit those of non-European persuasions. Served as the president of the newly-formed Liberal Party, the same year, which he helped found, until it was dissolved in 1968, for its mixed membership. Had his passport confiscated all during the 1960s, because of his active opposition to the government, as he remained a liberal Christian voice in a divided wilderness. Added to his reputation with further books exploring a variety of avenues, including dealing with the death of his wife in 1967, and religious reflections, biographies and short stories. In 1969, he married his secretary, Anne Hopkins. Died at home, after many years of retirement. Inner: Witty, insightful and angry. Impassioned lifetime of finding his true metier in the printed word, becoming a world figure for his opposition to the oppressive policies of his government, after many a go-round of acting in the shadow of much stronger familial figures. Gilbert Elliot, 3rd Baronet of Minto (1722-1777) - English statesman, philosopher and poet. Outer: Father and grandfather were both Scottish judges of the same name. Had a privileged upbringing, and studied at the Univs. of Edinburgh and Leiden, showing himself to be a disciplined classical scholar, before being called to the Scottish bar in 1742. Didn’t particularly care for legal work, and in his spare time, he began writing both songs and pastoral ditties, and is best remembered for “Amynta.” In 1746, he married Agnes Dalrymple, 4 daughters and 2 sons from the union, including Gilbert Elliot (Bantu Holomisa), who became governor-general of India. Became an MP in 1753, was re-elected, and wound up exchanging districts, serving Roxburghshire from 1765 to his death. The following year, he succeeded his father to the family baronetcy. Became an Admiralty lord in 1756, and acted as treasurer of the Navy in 1770, while involving himself in the issues of his times, including a harangue on the threatened liberties of the house during the London riots of 1771. Supported George III’s (Jeffrey Archer) policies towards the American colonies, and was viewed by the king as a special confidant. Although a friend of philosopher David Hume (Reinhold Niebuhr), he refused to cooperate on his “Dialogues of Natural Religion,” because of a dislike of skeptical philosophy. Died while traveling. Inner: Cerebral, philosophical and passionate about his likes and dislikes. Good oratorical powers, and very much involved in the intellectual life of the day. Engaged lifetime of further exploring the power of the written word from a pure poetic standpoint, while embroiling himself in the issues of his times, from the standpoint of a tradition-rich judicial household. Frederick de Houtman (1571-1627) - Dutch trader and lexicographer. Outer: Much younger brother of Cornelius de Houtman (Bantu Holomisa). Sent with his sibling to Lisbon in 1792 by a consortium of 9 Dutch merchants, to see what they could learn about sea routes to the East Indies, only to wind up in jail for several months, after trying to steal classified sailing route charts there, and then smuggle them out of the country. After their release, they returned to Amsterdam, and the same consortium, now a company, appointed Cornelius commander of a fleet of four ships in order to establish trade with the spice-rich East Indies. Accompanied him on the first voyage in 1595, and they made successful contact with the rulers of several Indonesian islands, and returned packed to the hulls with spices. A second voyage added Madagascar to the loop, but on their third voyage, Cornelius was killed by the forces of the Sultan of Acheh. While imprisoned by the latter, he studied the Mala language, and after his release he returned to Amsterdam, and wrote the first Dutch/Malay dictionary. Returned in 1607 to serve as governor of the one of the islands for 6 years. Explored the seas around western Australia, discovering islands and an eponymous shoal, and ended his career as governor of the Spice Islands. Inner: Information-gathering lifetime of finding more of his own metier within the movements of his larger family, giving him more productive avenues to explore in later loose groupings with his fellow dynasts. Ivan II (1326-1359) - Russian grand prince. Known as ‘Ivan the Red’ and ‘Ivan the Meek.’ Outer: 2nd son of Ivan I (Lee Kuan Yew). Younger brother of Simeon (Bantu Holomisa). In 1341, he wed Fedosia Dmitrievna, daughter of a prince, although she died within the year. In 1345, he married Alexandra Ivanovna Velyaminova, the daughter of the mayor of Moscow, with whom he had two sons and two daughters. Succeeded his brother in 1353. Granted the patent to his principality of Vladimir and Moscow by the Khan of the Golden Horde despite a vigorous rival claimant. Also was given justice over the other princes by the Khan, through his abilities at worming his way into the favor of power. The other neighboring principalities refused to acknowledge him, and he was forced to fight them during the first year of his reign. Continued the policy of his brother and father in trying to unite the Russian lands under one principality, with the backing of the Khan. Dominated by his advisers, which gained him his nickname of “Meek,” although he was able to hand a thriving entity to his heirs. Took monastic vows at life’s end and was succeeded by his son, Dmitri Donskoy (Sun Myung Moon). Inner: Hidden lifetime of exerting rule over fierce domains, as part of a warrior dynastic family, without having the same domineering skills at his behest.

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PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS SHARK-INFESTED PIRATE:
Storyline: The corrupt collector puts all his marbles in the material realm, so that the only thing that counts are things, as he spends his time counting his conquests and dreaming of ever more.

Armand Hammer (1898-1990) - American entrepreneur and art collector. Outer: Of Russian/Jewish heritage, with immediate ancestors who had made and lost a fortune in shipbuilding. Father was an immigrant Ukranian doctor, and an old Bolshevik, who became one of the founders of the American Communist Party in 1919, so that the family would wind up under surveillance for a good deal of the rest of the century by various intelligence agencies. One of three brothers, and named after the hammer and sickle of the Communist movement. Along with one of them, he took over his father’s small faltering pharmaceutical business and turned it around while still in college, after his sire declared bankruptcy in 1906. 5’5”. Received a B.A. from Columbia Univ., but in 1919, he botched an abortion in his father’s office on the wife of a Russian diplomat, and she died of the complications. The old man took the fall for him, going to prison in his stead on a manslaughter rap, while serving the minimum of 3 1/2 years. The trauma would send him off on a life of deceit built upon deceit, including denying his own heritage. Became family head, and continued his medical studies at Columbia Univ., receiving his medical degree in 1921. Bought a surplus U.S. army field hospital to bolster his credentials, and then traveled to Russia at age 21 on a medical mission to help typhus victims. Wound up a personal friend of the Soviet founder, Lenin, conducting business deals for that state, thanks to a gift for bribes and bargains, and a genius for corrupting everyone around him. His brother joined him in 1922, and using his art expertise, helped him furnish their mansion with art treasures, so that it turned into a palatial gathering place, worthy of an old Russian noble. When Lenin died in 1924, and Stalin took over, he found his way into the new brutal ‘in’ crowd, and continued making money for himself and the USSR. Married Olga Vadina, a Russian baronness in 1927, later divorced in 1943, one son from the union. Remained in Russia til 1930, making a fortune off of the Communists, and returned to America a rich man, dripping with jewels and paintings. Said, “money is my my first, last and only love.” It was later revealed he served as a conduit for coin which financed Communist espionage operations in the U.S. Opened an art gallery, and when Prohibition ended, ran a cooperage, with unshaped staves supplied by Russia, to make barrels for the suddenly resurrected beer industry. Always saw what was needed and went for it. Married again to Angela Zevely, later divorced in 1954, while the son from their union eventually came up on manslaughter charges, after shooting an army buddy in a jealous pique, but he got the case dismissed, just as he had escaped prosecution on his own earlier. Married for a third time in 1956 to Frances Barrett Tolman, while also maintaining several mistresses. Continually exploited world level contacts, and in his late 50s, got into the oil business to go over the roof financially. Became head of Occidental Petroleum, and wormed his way ever deeper into the stuffy Los Angeles cultural and philanthropic scene. Postured as an art connoisseur, and financed en eponymous museum with his collection, although it would later be revealed that much manipulation went on to authenticate copies as originals. Had puff biographies written of him, and was treated like royalty in Los Angeles. Made himself out to be an architect of world peace, while cultivating photo op friendships with the powers-that-were, as a global gad-about, intent on making his memory as large as the planet itself. Pled guilty in 1976 to making an illegal contribution to Richard Nixon’s 1972 campaign, and was fined. Wrote his auto-hagiography, “Hammer,” in 1987. Died of cancer. Inner: Egomaniacal manipulator with a taste for power, profit and fame, and little else. Isolated, unlikable, corrupting and bleak. Liar-liar-pants-on-fire lifetime of expressing sheer greedy will at all social costs, while giving nothing of himself, and asking everything in return. Barney Barnato (Barnett Isaacs) (1852-1897) - English financier. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Father was a cockney shopkeeper in the Whitechapel slum of London. With his brother, he worked as vaudeville comedians under the name of the Barnato Brothers, then followed his sibling to South Africa in 1873, to seek his fortune in the diamond fields, arriving virtually penniless. Adopting their show biz pseudonym, they opened a diamond brokerage firm the following year. Began speculating in claims, and hit it large, so that by 1880, the Barnato Diamond Mine Company was one of the leading players, and in direct competition with Cecil Rhodes (Lee Kuan Yew), and the De Beers Mining Co. for mastery over the area’s diamond industry. Both bought up all the shares available, while manipulating each other with a brace of moves and countermoves. Rhodes won the contest by offering him a number of deals he couldn’t refuse, and his company was submerged into the larger one in 1888, with himself as one of four life governors. Got a membership to the Cape Assembly and Parliament in the deal, from 1889 to 1897, as well as to the exclusive club of his betters. Began speculating the following year, but he had run his body’s course, and in poor health, he made a suicide leap from a ship heading towards England. Inner: Gaudy personality, enjoyed being the center of attention. Probably always conscious of the poverty behind his need to flaunt himself. Overboard lifetime of going for the gold, only to be beaten out by a longtime master, and ultimately seeing no way out, save for straight down. Warren Hastings (1732-1818) - British governor-general of India. Outer: Although his noble family was long settled where he was born, it was impoverished by the time of his arrival. Lost his mother at birth, while his father, who was a clergyman, fled any responsibility to him, and hied himself to the West Indies, where he died in obscurity. Raised by an uncle who provided him with a good education. Developed literary and scholarly tastes at Westminster, and became a clerk of the the British East India Company, through the auspices of another relative. Slightly built. Arrived in Calcutta in 1750, and like some of his fellow clarks, engaged in private trading, proving himself adept at business. Put in charge of a silk and cotton weaving factory in Kasimbazar, and by 1756, he had become a member of the local governing body of the Company. Captured by the young nawab of Bengal in an attack on Calcutta, but was released and served as an intermediary for prisoners still held in the city’s notorious Black Hole. In 1757, he wed a captain’s widow, only to soon lose her, as well as their two children. Subsequently joined Robert Clive’s (Ayman Al-Zawahiri) relief forces, which retook Calcutta. In 1758, he was appointed to deal with the nawab by Clive, and three years later, enjoyed a promotion to the Calcutta council under Clive’s successor, although he found the corruption overwhelming, and returned to England with a modest fortune in hand. Went through it, however, in a scant four years, forcing him to rejoin the Company, which gave him an appointment to the Madras council. On the ship back, he began a romance with Marian Imhoff, the young wife of an older baron, whom he would eventually marry. In 1772, he was made governor of Bengal, and moved the central government to Calcutta, before being appointed governor-general of India in 1774, a position he held for the next 11 years. Had to deal with the fall of the Mughal Empire, and was also drawn into the wars of the neighboring state of Maratha, which disrupted company trade, and sent him on dubious pathways to raise funds he needed. Found himself constantly confronted during his tenure with resistance to his desire to reform his colonial hold, although ploughed ahead on all levels. Used military might to re-establish British supremacy, while suppressing any and all threats to his autocratic rule. Able to effect change and reform in almost all areas under his jurisdiction from trade to the judiciary to education, while suppressing banditry and uprisings. In 1780, he fought a duel with Philip Francis, one of his subordinates, in which he injured his opponent. The latter returned to England, aflame with revenge, and was one of the main proponents of his subsequent impeachment trial. With the passage of the India Act of 1784, and a new constitution, he felt his work was complete and returned to England the following annum, only to find himself charged with high crimes and misdemeanors. Impeached by Parliament in 1786, in a 7 year trial that would pit Whig against Tory and exhaust his considerable fortune, despite acquiring an estate near his birthplace. In the end, he was found not guilty, and the East India Company granted him an annuity. Finally married Baroness Imhoff, who was in her forties at the time. Tried to gain a peerage, and a parliamentary reversal of the impeachment, but was unable to do so. By 1813, he appeared before Parliament again, and was treated with the greatest respect. Made a privy councilor the following annum, before expiring 4 years later. Inner: Temperate and reserved, as well as high-handed, and a stickler for control, although seemingly motivated by a sense of patriotism. Scapegoat lifetime of paying for his sins of both the past and future, after comporting himself in relatively scrupulous manner, in a display of his gifts for organization, without his usual grandiose need for overwhelming acquisition. Thomas Pitt (1653-1726) - British merchant and colonial governor. Outer: 2nd son of a rector. Went to sea early on and subsequently engaged in East Indian trade on his own, as an interloper without the authorization of the East India Company, who had a legal monopoly there. In 1674, he settled at Balasore, and did continual battle with the Company’s need for absolute conformity to its trade rules, escaping an order for his arrest through a trip to Persia, before being dragged before the Madras council in 1670. Although promising to comply with their practices, he did no such thing, and continued trafficking in a variety of goods. In 1669, he married Jane Innis, a descendent on her maternal side from the earls of Moray, 3 sons and two daughters from the union, with his eldest son siring the noted parliamentarian, William Pitt (Al Sharpton). Escaped prosecution after returning to England in 1681, then came back to Balasore the following year, and openly and defiantly continued with his trading, although on his subsequent return to England, he got caught up in litigation which forced him to remain there. In the interim, he bought land which translated into a huge pair of manors, and got him a seat in the House of Commons. Continued his interloping ways, and the Company, giving up on stopping him, decided to make him a member, seeing his skills far outweighing his intransigent refusal to bend to its will. In 1698, he became President of Madras, holding that post until 1709. Defended English settlements from attack, and proved quite resourceful in handling his duties, so that his governorship was known as the “Golden Age of Madras.” In 1701, he bought a 410 carat uncut diamond, that may have been the eye of a Hindu idol, and it gave him the name by which posterity would remember him, ‘Diamond’ Pitt. His prize would eventually be sold to France’s royal house for £135,000, and find itself one of the country’s crown jewels, before going on permanent display at the Louvre Museum. Returned to England in 1710, continued to hold his seat in Parliament and enlarged his holdings, dying an extremely wealthy man. Inner: Businessman through and through. Coolheaded in crises, and always knew exactly how to deal with problems. Renegade lifetime of outsmarting the establishment, to become part of it, as a well-rewarded pirate of the first rank, who ultimately did it his way, via a diamond-like hardness of character and will. Yuri (?-1325) - Russian prince. Outer: Older son of Daniel (Thabo Mbeki), prince of Moscow, and the founder of the family’s ducal line there. Withstood a competitive drive of his uncle for the permit to rule, which the Golden Horde khan gave to Russian princes. Married the khan’s sister, Konchaka, widened his principality, and did continual battle with competiting elements. In 1318, his wife and brother were taken captive by his uncle, but she died in captivity, after being poisoned by the latter. Complained to the khan about unfair play, and the former took his uncle captive and martyred him, getting rid of his primary rival, for the mere price of a wife. Despised by one and all, he was ultimately murdered by a rival prince from his uncle’s house, and the kingdom went to his younger brother, Ivan II (Alan Paton). Inner: Firm, vigorous and cruel. Embattled lifetime of bold actions and harsh repercussions, while trying to maintain illusions and realities with a power greater than his own, a continual theme of his.

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