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SHOW BUSINESS - COMEDIANS - 2

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS WELL-LOVED LONG-RUNNING ACT:
Storyline: The genial healer finds laughter to be the ultimate medicine, as he addresses his previous shortcomings by making his reverse self the brunt of his jokes, giving him the last laugh in an extended career of unabated success to compensate for his earlier inability to gauge the temper of his times.

dJack Benny (Benny Kubelsky) (1894-1974) - American comedian. Outer: Parents were Polish Orthodox Jewish immigrants. Raised in Waukegan, Illinois, where his father owned a saloon and later a dry goods store. Forced to take violin lessons at 6 in hopes that he would become a classical violinist. Timid as a boy. At 15, he played in a pit orchestra in Waukegan, and 2 years later entered vaudeville. Offered a job as an accompanist to the young Marx Bros., but his parents made him turn it down. Enlisted in the Navy during WW I and discovered his talent for comedy with wisecracks between playing, while entertaining troops. After returning to civilian life, he resumed his career in vaudeville, first using the stage name Ben K. Benny, although comic Ben Bernie complained. Married salesgirl Mary Livingstone in his early 30s, and she became an integral part of his subsequent career, one adopted daughter. Made his first film appearance 2 years later, but proved far more popular in the medium of radio, first getting his own show in 1932. Hit his peak in the mid-1930s, and his long-running show lasted until the mid-1950s, with a continuing cast of supporting players, who were never shy about teasing him. His wife eventually retired in 1957. Able to continue long-running gags, with a stable of talented writers and performers, so that the show was still funny in reruns decades later. Most of his routines evolved by accident, rather than by being planned, creating an ongoing self-deprecating, vain, selfish and stingy character frozen at the age of 39. In actuality, he was the total opposite of his show business facade. Master of the long pause, which he used to excellent comic effect. Made most of his films in the late 1930s and WW II era, with one notable classic, To Be or Not To Be. Appeared on Broadway in his 30s, but it, too, failed to take full advantage of his unique humor. Able to make the transition into TV, and various incarnations of his show ran for another 15 years, from 1950 to 1965. Spent over 30 years as a regular visitor into American homes, and always found himself welcome there. Never stopped working, doing concerts, and keeping remarkably youthful throughout his long life. Died of pancreatic cancer. Inner: Generous, modest, uncomplicated, and well-loved by one and all. Knew how to say things funny, rather than say funny things. Adversity-free lifetime of mocking his polarities, while proving he learned his lessons well from his previous go-round as an innocent set adrift in a corrupt and disheartening world. dJohn Brougham (1810-1880) - Irish/American comedian. Outer: Parents were Irish and French. Grew up in Dublin, studied at Trinity College and Porter Street Hospital, but his ambitions to be a doctor were cut short by family adversity. Went to London and drifted into the theater world when he was 20. Joined Mme. Vestris’s (Gilda Radner) company, following her to Covent Garden, where he served his apprenticeship. Married Emma Williams, an English actress of considerable beauty, but the 2 soon separated and divorced. His 2nd wife, Annette Hawley, was the daughter of a Naval officer and also an actress who died when he was 60. By 30, he was manager of the London Lyceum and wrote several plays for its repertory. Began his transatlantic career in “His Last Legs,” in 1842, and was chiefly connected with the American stage afterwards. Joined William Burton’s (Steve Martin) company as a comic actor and playwright. Opened his own Lyceum Theater at 40, but the public thought the building was unsafe, and it closed. A prolific playwright and compulsive punster, he joined the Wallack Company and continued in the same capacities for them. In 1860, he returned to England for 5 years, avoiding the American Civil War, then came back at its end and never left. His last venue was Brougham’s Theater, which was taken away from him by robber baron Jim Fisk (Bob Hope), and he never managed again. After becoming impoverished, a testimonial benefit was given for him, and he lived off the proceeds the rest of his life. Wrote 75 dramatic pieces in a 50 year career on the stage. Inner: Broadly comic, with a genial ease to his acting. His witty curtain speeches became great favorites. Popular socially, charming, ready wit. Childlike in business matters, causing him to suffer greatly for it later in life. Eye-opening lifetime of tempering his natural good grace with adversity in both life’s beginnings and endings, showing him that his natural trust and good nature were not the way of the rest of the world, which may have made for his comic character the next time around, in which he remedied his shortcomings.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS LONG-SUFFERING CLOWN:
Storyline: The stone-faced masochist tries to integrate his unique comic genius with his own disconnected interior, and wins respect, but not love for his efforts, while doing continual brutal battle with an outer world that emphasizes both the slap and the stick as its weapons against his achieving any kind of healing inner balance.

dBuster Keaton (Joseph Francis Keaton) (1895-1966) - American comedian. Outer: Parents were acrobatic comedians and medicine show performers. Literally born backstage in a tent, while his parents were on tour. Given his nickname by magician Harry Houdini (Tony Curtis), who saw him fall unharmed down a flight of stairs at the age of 6 months, performing a perfect ‘buster.’ At 2, he caught his right hand in a clothes ringer, and lost the first joint of his index finger. Joined his family act at the age of 3, as ‘The Human Mop,’ allowing his often drunk father to sweep the stage with him. By the time he was 6, he was their mainstay, and the trio entered vaudeville. His progenitor taught him never to react to the sadistic pummelings that he received on the stage, which always brought extra laughs. An accomplished acrobat, he developed an immobile expression, earning him the sobriquet of ‘the Great Stone Face.’ The family act finally broke up when he was in his early 20s, because of his father’s heavy drinking and inability to maintain the precision needed for their routines. Chose to enter films as a supporting player, and began his career in comedy shorts directed by Fatty Arbuckle (John Belushi) in NYC. 5’6”. Served in the infantry in the waning days of WW I and then resumed his film career. Made his first feature as a star in his mid-20s, under the renamed Buster Keaton Studio, which soon became Buster Keaton Productions. In 1921, he married the sister-in-law of his producer, Natalie Talmadge (Jennifer Aniston), who co-starred in several of his features, although the marriage, happy at first, eventually disintegrated, when she refused to have sex with him after after they had 2 sons, for fear of more children, and they divorced when he was in his mid-30s. Established himself as America’s reigning comic genius during the 1920s with a series of memorable masterpieces, most notably The Navigator and The General, all putting his unique talent for minimalist expression on display. At his peak, he was earning $3500 a week, which he translated into a $300,000 Beverly Hills mansion. Despite huge audience approval, he never quite won their love, only their delighted respect, while exercising complete artistic control over his films. Never used a double, thanks to his extraordinary facility for taking punishment, without suffering its consequence, and rarely went with scripts, preferring to wing it. In the early 1920s, he switched from shorts to full-length features, showing his virtuousity as both director and performer. Gave up his own studio in the late 1920s to sign with MGM, but in the process lost artistic control over his films, and his career, as well as his marriage, waned. Filed for bankruptcy in 1934, and became an alcoholic. Although he continued working, his star had been permanently eclipsed, and he eventually entered a psychiatric institution, ultimately re-emerging to do bits and act as an uncredited gag writer and assistant director. Married again in 1935 to Mae Scrivin, divorced 2 years later, and made a final union in 1940 to Eleanor Norris, a 21 year old dancer and the daughter of a studio electrician, who worked with him in stage shows. In his mid-50s, he began appearing live at the Cirque Medrano in Paris, and soon resurrected his career, thanks in large part to British TV, capping himself off by performing with his earlier silent rival Charlie Chaplin in the latter’s Limelight. Began appearing on American TV shows and in commercials, as well as returning to the screen. The Buster Keaton Story, a weak biopic, appeared in his early 60s, which gave him financial security for the rest of his life, and he spent his final years busily working, before he ultimately succumbed to lung cancer, dying at home. Wrote his autobiography, “My Wonderful World of Slapstick” in 1960. Inner: Highly inventive, and a superb athlete, although unable to capture the hearts of his audiences, only their risibilities because of his unusual, distant sense of comedy, based less on persona than abstract visuals. Never used scripts and never had body doubles in his films. Painful lifetime of suffering for his unusual gifts, before finally receiving the true acclaim which his unique comic masochistic genius ultimately called for. dGeorge Fox (1825-1877) - American comedian and pantomimist. Outer: Father was a property man at the Tremont Street Theater in Boston, mother was an actress. 3 siblings also entered show business, including brother Charles Kemble Fox (Harold Lloyd), to whom he was especially close. Made his debut at the age of 5 in “The Hunter of the Alps,” in a benefit for actor Charles Kean (Charles Laughton). Had only brief schooling, then worked as an errand boy for a department store, while appearing in productions around Boston. At 21, he joined the Howard-Fox company in Provincetown, staying with them until 1850. Made his NYC debut at the National Theater in “A Pleasant Neighbor.” Did melodrama, burlesque and pantomime, serving his apprenticeship in all manner of presentation, while playing with his name, ultimately calling himself G.L. Fox. Married twice, to Caroline Gould, then Mattie Temple, who acted with him. Became a manager as well as an actor in his early 30s, and leased the Bowery Theater in NYC. Served briefly as a lieutenant in the union army at the beginning of the Civil War, seeing action at the Battle of Bull Run. In 1861, he returned to theatrical life and opened George L. Fox’s Olympic the following year, although financial difficulties forced him to return to the New Bowery Theater as a lessee. Sometimes played 4 or 5 roles in an evening, and was able to make pantomime into an American art form. Played Bottom in Shakespeare’s “Midsummer’s Night Dream,” but it was as a pantomimist that he enjoyed his greatest success. Teamed with his brother, Charles, who acted as his foil, and was also the more practical of the duo, for his greatest triumph, “Humpty Dumpty,” performing some 1268 times in the role, for which he is best remembered. Assumed management of Fox’s Broadway Theater, but eventually retired as a manager. Made his last performance in 1875, when he was devastated by the sudden death of his younger brother. Showed signs of dementia, and was put in an institution, although recovered. Suffered a paralytic stroke, and died at the home of his sister. Inner: Prince of pantomimists, helping to make it an American art form. Far more the creative artist than the practical businessman, leaving a rich legacy of his creations for 19th century America. Humpty dumpty lifetime of using his unique creative genius to create a new American art form, but his innate unintegrated interior, the source of his distinctive art, eventually undid him.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS SIBLING REVELER:
Storyline: The bumbling everyman learns his lessons well from his crypto-brother in lives past, to become part of the mainstay comic trinity of silent Hollywood through his athletic antics, while proving himself equally adept at managing his own affairs, unlike his sad-faced sibling.

dHarold Lloyd (1893-1971) - American comic actor. Outer: Father was an unsuccessful photographer who eventually became a poolhall proprietor when the family moved to San Diego. Did odd jobs around local theaters, and worked his way into small roles with touring and stock companies. Made his film debut at 19 with the Edison company as an extra. 5’10”. The following year he appeared as an extra in a couple of Keystone comedies, before being hired by Universal, where he befriended Hal Roach, also a bit player. When Roach, after inheriting $3000, formed his own company, he hired him to play a character named Willie Work in a series of one-reel comedies, which proved unsuccessful. Moved back to Mack Sennett’s (Quentin Tarantino) Keystone, but the two did not get along, and he returned to the newly reorganized Roach company, and together they created a new character, Lonesome Luke, a tramp who was patterned after Charlie Chaplin. Despite being popular with the public in some 100 shorts, which he directed himself, neither he nor Roach saw any further potential in their creation. Began experimenting, with Roach’s help, with a clean-cut average-looking young man wearing a pair of over-sized horn rimmed glasses, which would become his ultimate trademark, after he introduced them in Grandma’s Boy in 1922. Became, along with Chaplin and Buster Keaton, a premier comedian of the silent screen, creating zany ‘thrill’ situations for his overly optimistic character, which made him the highest paid comedian in Hollywood during the 1920s, with the ability to finance his own films. During the filming of Haunted Spooks, a property bomb exploded in his hand, causing him to lose his right thumb and forefinger and leaving his right hand semi-paralyzed. Subsequently hid it with a glove. An excellent athlete, he was able to overcome his handicap to perform some spectacular stunts, the most famous of which, from Safety Last, was his dangling from a clock hand on a skyscraper above a busy street. Sometimes used doubles, but usually performed his own stunts. Gradually expanded to full length feature films, and invested his money well, building ‘Green Acres,’ a 44 room estate. At 30, he married the leading lady of several of his films, Mildred Davis, 3 children. His eldest daughter became an actress, while his wife gave up her screen career to raise their family, even though he was constantly unfaithful to her. Parted on good terms with Roach the same year and began producing his own films. Owned his later films outright and reaped a small fortune from them in re-release. Less effective during the sound era, and gradually eased out of filmwork, making his final one in 1947. Given a special Oscar in 1952, and a decade later issued scenes from his old movies in a film called Harold Lloyd’s World of Comedy, and then produced a sequel the following year. Wrote his autobiography, An American Comedy, in 1971. Died of cancer 2 years after his wife passed, and bequeathed his Beverly Hills mansion as a motion picture museum. Inner: Happy, good-natured, but a perfectionist in his work. A mason, like his father. Far more of an actor doing comedy than a comedian. Used to hold live previews and charted laughs on a graph. Serious student of comedy, tendency towards reclusiveness, and highly superstitious. Safety first lifetime of parlaying his practical and comic skills into creating a unique film character, from which he was able to derive a long and prosperous life, despite a lingering sense of self-destruction. Charles Kemble Fox (1833-1875) - American comic actor. Outer: Father was a property man at the Tremont Street Theater in Boston, mother was an actress. 3 siblings also entered show business, including older brother George L. Fox (Buster Keaton), to whom he was especially close. Made his debut at the age of 6 in “Carpenter of Rouen,” and then acted occasionally at his father’s theater, and also traveled with the family on New England tours, moving with them ultimately to Rhode Island. Spent 4 years, beginning in 1846, with the Howard-Fox troupe. Married 3 times, the first to Kate Denim, a well-known actress, while his 2nd wife, Mary Hewkins, became a drama critic. His third marriage was to a widow named Dulaney. In 1852, he appeared in a farce which followed the enormously popular “Uncle Tom’s Cabin,” at each of its presentations. Other successes ensued and in 1869, he formed his own traveling arrangement with a partner and toured the West, although his brand of fare was unsuccessful there. In his early 40s, he toured with his brother’s Fox Pantomime Troupe, and became identified with its “Humpty Dumpty” fantasies. Gave his last performance in 1874 in “Humpty Dumpty at Home.” Good actor and great pantomimist, closely associated with his more famous brother, serving as a good foil for him. Also far more practical and less the artist than George Fox, although his creativity helped make pantomime an American art. Died from typhoid fever that he contracted while touring Tennessee. His brother George was devastated by his premature death. Inner: Practical, down-to-earth, with an excellent sense of inventiveness. Apprentice lifetime of learning from and playing off of his brother’s superior skills, before returning to embark on a life as a single act that would rival and surpass him in popularity, if not quite artistic merit.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS INSECURE ICON:
Storyline: The wounded lion is never quite able to integrate his clowning, cartoonish stage nature with his serious, worrisome off-stage persona, and winds up cowering from life’s many vicissitudes despite his well-received public presence.

dBert Lahr (Irving Lahrman) (1895-1967) - American comedian. Outer: Parents were German Jewish immigrants, father was an upholsterer. Quit school at 15 and worked as an office boy in a jewelry house. Although his parents objected, he attended variety theaters, and sang in blackface on the street. In 1910, he joined a child vaudeville act, and then toured minor vaudeville circuits, so that by his late teens he was already a vaudeville veteran. 5’9“. At 20, he became a burlesque comic, with a German-accented Dutch character, and was known as ‘the boy wonder of Burlesque.’ Served as a seaman, 2nd class in the Navy during WW I, then returned to the Keith and Orpheum circuits, enjoying notable success and earning $350 a week. In 1929, he married an exotic Spanish dancer, Mercedes Delpino, and formed an act with her, as Lahr and Mercedes, one child from union. His wife was committed to a sanitarium shortly afterwards, and the marriage was eventually annulled. Told risque jokes, adopting a tough exterior, but with a putty face and soft heart behind it. Played Broadway, and had a rivalry with wide-mouthed comic, Joe E. Brown. Made his film debut in his mid-30s, and finally scored his most memorable role in his early 40s, as the cowardly lion in The Wizard of Oz. A high energy performer, he worked best on the stage, with a trademark echo of panic to go along with his mugging and noisemaking. Was disturbed, however, that he was seen as a cartoon, despite his cartoonish stage image. In 1940, he married a former showgirl, 2 children, including writer and critic John Lahr. Won high plaudits for portraying Estragon in Samuel Beckett’s “Waiting for Godot,” although admitted to never understanding the role. Later won a Tony award in his late 60s, for “Foxy,” a retelling of Moliere’s “Volpone.” At career’s end, he immortalized himself in a series of potato chip commercials daring him in various guises to eat just one. Died of cancer while shooting his final movie, The Night They Raided Minsky’s. His last spoken word was, ‘hurt.’ His son John wrote his biography after his death, Notes on a Cowardly Lion. Inner: Despite easy-going facade, serious, hypochondriac and a worrywart. Insecure and depressive when not performing, extremely driven, indefatigable worker, saving the best part of himself for his performances, and leaving those close to him at home with the worst. Thorn in his paw lifetime of compulsively entertaining while trying to learn to receive love from his audience, as a balm for his own basically wounded nature. John Gilbert (1810-1889) - American comedian. Outer: Worked for his uncle’s drygoods store as a boy, and developed a strong interest in the theater, attending it regularly. Auditioned and won a part, making his debut at 18, before being offered a permanent position with the Tremont Theater Company. Stayed for a year, and then got a better offer from a New Orleans company. Played in New Orleans and other Mississippi River towns for the next 5 years, before returning to his original company, and remaining with them until the theater closed, as an actor-manager. Began doing elderly men while still young, which became his speciality. In his mid-20s, he married Maria Deth Campbell, who died 3 decades later, no children from the union. In 1847, he went to Europe to study, played in London, and learned from both the Paris and London stages. Best known for his role as Sir Anthony Adverse. Played in the Northeast, eventually joining the Wallack Company in his early 50s, and remaining with them until the year before he died. Remarried Sarah Gavett the year following his first wife’s death, and the last year of his professional life, was with the Joseph Jefferson III’s (Jimmy Stewart) Company. Inner: Offstage formal and humorless, although the hardness to his acting edge softened over the years. Old man at heart, finding his singular release while performing. Unintegrated lifetime of being one person on stage and quite another one off it, and never quite figuring out how to make the twain meet.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS WELL-LOVED CENTENARIAN:
Storyline: The geriatric jokester combines a gift for longevity with a well-honed comic sensibility to become a national icon through a deft combination of the two.

dGeorge Burns (Nathan Birnbaum) (1896-1996) - American comedian, writer and producer. Outer: Parents were orthodox Eastern European Jews. Father was a helper in a kosher butcher shop, and also an assistant cantor. 9th of 12 children. His progenitor died in 1904, and he helped his family out by selling newspapers. Formed the Peewee Quartet with 3 other kids, and sang on the street for spare change. Never interested in schooling, dropped out in the 4th grade. Entered vaudeville at 13 for one performance, then formed a partnership with another boy and did dancing and fancy roller skating. At 16, he began smoking cigars to look like an actor, and was still smoking them 84 years later. Took advantage of a booking agent looking for a monologuist named George Burns, announcing that was he, and got both his name and a job, but was pulled off-stage after one lame joke. Taught ballroom dancing to immigrants at 17, and worked under a number of names. In his teens, he married Hannah Siegel, a vaudeville partner, otherwise her parents wouldn’t let her on the road, and later divorced. Content with telling stale jokes and being second rate, until he teamed up with Gracie Allen (Amy Poehler) in 1922, when she came backstage to meet him. The duo formed a partnership, where she was initially a foil to his lame joke-telling. Kept asking her to marry him, and she finally relented in 1926, after being affianced to another. Wrote most of their material discovered he was far better served as a straight man to her zany comedic talents. An adopted son from the union became an actor, they also had an adopted daughter. Only strayed once during their entire marriage and was wracked with guilt by it. The twosome became a popular act, both in the U.S. and England, and they did their first film together in his early 30s, working in that medium throughout the 1930s, essentially reprising their act over and over. Established a radio show in 1932 which lasted 18 seasons, and then switched over to TV, where they enjoyed equal popularity, with his cigar-puffing monologues and her nonsensical patter. Because of heart problems, Allen retired in 1958, and though both owned a multi-million dollar entertainment corporation, he still had a desire to work. His first solo TV show bombed, but he rediscovered himself as a humorist, and went on to a second career as a solo act. Allen died from heart troubles when he was in his late 60s, after 38 years of marriage, and he made sure fresh flowers were put on her crypt every day, while he visited it once a month, as he turned to work as a solace, feeling totally lost initially without her. Through the death of longtime friend Jack Benny, he got his first movie role in 3 1/2 decades, The Sunshine Boys, which was a big hit. Continued his movie work, as well as TV and club dates, playing the role of the aged scamp, while following a daily routine of working in the morning, hanging out with fellow aging comics in the afternoon, and enjoying a drink in the evening. Co-wrote a tribute to his wife, “Gracie: A Love Story,” in 1988. Had wanted to celebrate his centenary at the London Palladium, but was too sick to perform. Died of heart failure, a month and a half after reaching 100. Wrote a goodly number of books in later life as well. Inner: Great love of performing, genuinely funny, warm-hearted, sentimental man, who laid his initial success at the feet of his equally charming wife, although later proved he had the impish wit to stand alone. Merry Methuselah lifetime of becoming a national institution, after the nation’s initial resistance to his subtle wit, allowing him ultimately to enjoy the love and affection of one and all. dGeorge Holland (1791-1870) - English/American comedian. Outer: Father was an English dancing master. A poor student and a prankster, he was taken out of school by his sire and made to work in a silk and ribbon warehouse, before being apprenticed to a printer at 19 for two years. Became a lace salesman in Dublin, but felt an ineluctable draw towards the stage, and wound up enjoying a half-century career at his true calling, after returning to England. Began performing and enjoyed 7 successful years on the English stage as a comic actor, after an inauspicious beginning, before emigrating to America in 1827, where he made his debut at the Bowery Theater in his mid-30s. Achieved immense popularity over the next 16 years, with a particular affinity for Southern theater. Became treasurer of a theater in New Orleans from his mid-40s to his early 50s. After it burnt down, he returned to NYC, where he became a permanent fixture at Wallack’s Theater for 12 years. His 2nd wife was Catherine De Luce, the daughter of an orchestra leader, 3 sons and a daughter from the union. His 2nd son, Edmund, became a well-received actor. Worked until the near end of his life, when his powers, but not his popularity, began to wane, and he ultimately wound up in poverty. Inner: Merry, droll, well-loved. Collector of jokes, innocent farceur and broad player. Long lifetime, once again, of bringing great pleasure to a mass audience, while benevolently basking in the limelight for an extended and well-received career, before repeating the process to even greater effect the next time around.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS ELFIN ENTERTAINER:
Storyline: The fey merrymaker helps inaugurate entertainment institutions from integrated Yiddish theater to small screen variety shows, while playing second banana to offshoots of the same funny bunch, in her ongoing desire to use entertainment as her raison d’etre.

dImogene Coca (Imogene Fernandez de Coca) (1908-2001) - American comedienne and dancer. Outer: Of Hispanic and Irish descent. Her father, Jose Fernandez de Coca was a violinist and vaudeville band leader, as well as a conductor in a small opera house, while her mother, Sadie Brady, was a dancer and magician’s assistant. Both parents encouraged her to be a performer. Took lessons in piano, dance and voice as a child, making her debut in a school play as an evil germ. By her early teens, she was on stage as a vaudeville trooper dancing and doing acrobatic routines. Moved to NYC as a teen to become a chorine, making her debut on Broadway in “When You Smile.” For most of the next three decades, she worked as a dancer in musical revues and nightclubs, as well as resorts, gradually adding comedy to her routines, while working with many of the big names of the day. Had her first critical success with “New Faces of 1934,” where her comedic skills first came to the fore. 5’3”, elfin, with a perrenial pageboy haircut. Married arranger Robert Burton in 1935, and became a nightclub headliner under his musical tutelage. Came to national prominence via the small screen, when she was hooked up with comedian Sid Caesar, first on the “Admiral Broadway Revue,” in the summer of 1949, and then on the long-lasting, “Your Show of Shows,” playing her subtlety and diminutive physicality off his often oafish characterizations. Won an Emmy after the first year for her efforts, and the show ran from 1950 to 1954, after which she briefly had her own eponymous show for one season. Made sporadic appearances on sitcoms afterwards, as well as starring in two single season affairs in the 1960s, “Grindl” and “It’s about Time.” Five years after her first husband’s death in 1955, she married actor King Donovan, who performed with her, and the union lasted until his death in 1987. No children from either union. Only appeared sporadically in films, finding the small screen her most effective venue, although she gradually faded from TV view as well, making one last hurrah in 1991 with Caesar in “Together Again,” reprising some of their old classic sketches. In 1973, she was severely injured in a car accident, losing the sight in her right eye, when the rearview mirror hit it, as well splitting her leg open, breaking her cheekbone and fracturing her ankle, in a symbolic reminder of the pain in looking backward. Eventually went into seclusion, and died of natural causes after suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. Inner: Extremely shy and gentle, viewing comedy in terms of subtlety, rather than sledgehammer effects, with a great desire to get her characters right, in order to draw laughs from them. Applause-filled lifetime of allowing show business to completely define her existence from beginning to end, allowing her to transform her innate shyness into a bundle of exuberant energy dedicated to making people laugh and momentarily forget their troubles. dSophia Karp (Sara Segal) (1861-1904) - Romanian-American actress and singer. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Became a seamstress. When she was 16, the first Yiddish theater troupe came through her hometown, led by Abraham Goldfaden, and featuring Israel Grodner (Mel Brooks), as well as another male actor. Joined them in an appearance, playing a granddaughter, breaking their all-male precedent, even in female roles, although her mother objected to her unseemly desire to appear on the stage. Bowed to the latter’s concern, but so wanted to perform, that she married the third member of the troupe, Sokher Goldstein, while glamorizing her first name to Sophia. Went on to prove herself in a variety of roles, and the Yiddish theater would define the rest of her life, as she followed it to Bucharest and then Russia. When her husband died of TB, she married another actor, Max Karp, and took on his last name as her final nom de theatre. As Sophia Karp, she won fame as a prima donna, and continued on with the same company after it was banned from Russia by imperial decree in 1883, touring Germany, and going back to her native Romania, before eventually emigrating to the U.S. Along with two others, she helped found the Grand Theater in NYC, the first all-purpose Yiddish theater. Came down with pneumonia, and died shortly afterwards. Inner: Driven and highly ambitious. Footlit lifetime of allowing her profound desire to perform dictate all the currents of her life, in her ongoing remodeling of herself into an all-around entertainer, no matter the popular tastes of whatever era in which she finds herself.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS BELOVED RUBBER-FACED CLOWN:
Storyline: The depressed jester tries to deal with love and loss in order to address the unhappiness buried deep in his heart, and winds up the archetypal funnyman, who can no longer laugh at himself.

dRed Skelton (Richard Skelton) (1913-1997) - American comedian. Outer: Mother scrubbed floors to support family. His father was an alcoholic clown who died 2 months before he was born. Youngest of 4 sons. Went to work when he was 7, selling newspapers and singing on the street. Hired at 10 to fall off the stage by a snake oil salesman, and got his first taste of show business. Later became a black/faced singer and occasional joke/teller. Ended school in the 7th grade and joined a stock company as a dramatic actor, but the audience only laughed at him. Although he was quickly fired, he began working in a minstrel show and then on a showboat, before joining his father’s old circus, ultimately becoming a center/ring attraction. Entered burlesque at 17 as a 3rd banana, and married Edna Stilwell, an usherette a year later, when she was 16. 5’6”. After burlesque became more off-color, he switched to being an m.c. for dance marathons, a craze of the 1930s, while his wife began supplying him with gag material, writing most of his scripts. Did a few two-reel comedies after failing a screen test, but his big break came when he began working a nightclub in Montreal and fielding insults, making him a popular club comic in Canada, while developing some of the routines that would make him famous. Made his Broadway debut in his mid-20s, using slapstick to win over his audiences, and he was invited onto radio, and then to do a spot at the FDR White House, which became an annual event. Made his screen debut shortly afterwards in Having a Wonderful Time, and proved a popular movie comedian. Served as an entertainer during WW II, although suffered a breakdown from doing 15 shows a day and was discharged after the end of the war. Continually plagued by health problems, including a complete resection of his stomach in 1960. Despite a close working relationship with his wife, the duo divorced during the war, and both remarried. Wed Georgia Davis in 1945, 2 children from the 2nd union, but a son died of leukemia when he was 9, causing him considerable heartbreak. Returned to the radio, although real superstardom came when he entered the new medium of TV in 1951. Spent 20 years on the small screen with his own TV show and unique cast of comic characters, Clem Kadiddlehopper, the Mean Widdle Kid, Freddie the Freeloader and a host of others. His career spanned six decades and covered all entertainment forms from burlesque through TV. Became a painter in later years of clown faces, doing more than a 1,000 of them and earning $2.5 million a year from lithographs. His son’s death turned him into a depressive, and a great sadness came to sit behind his rubber face. His 2nd marriage faltered and, after his wife accidentally wounded herself with a pistol in a probable suicide attempt, it skidded to a halt. The pair divorced 2 years after he retired from TV in 1971, and 3 years later on the 18th anniversary of their son’s death, she killed herself. Remarried Lothian Toland, the daughter of cinematographer Gregg Toland in 1973. Won many awards in his latter years, and eventually succumbed to pneumonia after several months’ illness. Inner: Deep sense of loss his entire life, from his father to his son. Simple, well-beloved, but held a hidden bitterness at life’s vicissitudes. Prototype of the clown who keeps everyone laughing in order to keep himself from crying. Rubber-faced lifetime of bringing sadness and grief to his clown’s life in order to bring more depth and resonance to his characterizations and his own comic persona. dBarney Williams (Bernard Flaherty) (1823-1876) - Irish/American actor. Outer: Father emigrated with his family to NYC, became a grocer, then a boardinghouse keeper. His son assumed the name Williams for the stage and debuted at the age of 13. Had trouble gaining recognition, joined a circus troupe, did blackface, and finally found his niche doing Irish roles. Married a widow who was the sister of comedienne Malvina Florence (Martha Raye) and sister-in-law of William Florence (Sammy Davis, Jr.) and a popular singer and actress in her own right, when he was in his mid-20s. The duo always appeared together as costars and were successful as such. Toured the U.S., then stayed abroad for 4 years. Briefly became a manager, but much preferred being on stage. Employed his rich Irish brogue to full advantage, and was known as “Irish Barney.” Died leaving a small fortune. Inner: Twinkling blue eyes, infectious good humor, happy-go-lucky. Extremely broad player, preferring to entertain rather than enlighten. Relative adversity-free lifetime of working in tandem with a talented mate in order to fully realize his potential for both adulation and reward, without the inner struggles and losses that marked his next life in this series.

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PATHWAY OF THE COMIC AS CATCH-PHRASER:
Storyline: The lovable loser knows his way around a self-deprecating joke, thanks to an ongoing ability to win mass love and approval from everyone but himself.

dRodney Dangerfield (Jacob Cohen) (1921-2004) - American comic. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Father performed in vaudeville under the name Phil Roy, and was often absent, while his mother was largely uncaring. His parents separated when he was young, and the family was always in financial straits. Had an unhappy childhood, where he was tormented by anti-Semitism, while desperately wanting to be accepted, but always feeling he wasn’t good enough for the respect of his peers, a state he would famously mine in his career tag line, “I don’t get no respect.” 5’10 1/2”. Delivered groceries, and began writing jokes in his mid-teens, as a means of compensation for his unhappiness. Drove a laundry truck after high school, then decided to follow his father into show business, calling himself Jack Roy. Began as a singing waiter, but after a decade on the road, he felt he was going nowhere and quit the business and became an aluminum siding salesman in the 1950s. Married Joyce Indig in 1949, two children from the union, before the duo divorced in 1961, then remarried in 1963, only to split for good in 1970. Decided to give show business another shot, after writing material for other comedians, and a club owner came up with the name Rodney Dangerfield. Took his bug-eyed, tie-tugging routine and struck a chord as a self-deprecating loser, desperate for respect, and began appearing on TV, enjoying a huge success, while even making the sullen-panned master of Sunday nights, Ed Sullivan, laugh. Always made himself accessible to fans, and gave young writers a shot with him, as his career blossomed, with high profile TV appearances and Las Vegas club dates, allowing him to buy his own club in NYC in 1969, Dangerfield’s, in order to be near his children. Turned to films in 1971 with a small part in The Projectionist, and found himself a favorite of the younger set, after appearances on “Saturday Night Live.” Able to parlay his new-found mass acceptance into a huge hit with Caddyshack in 1980, while also winning a Grammy that year for best comedy album. In 1986, he enjoyed his biggest hit with Back to School. Despite his success, he retained his bitterness, and turned to new management, who spruced his image but mismanaged contract negotiations and pointed him in the direction of a roasted one-man show on Broadway. Started getting bad publicity after his eye was injured in a steam room incident in Las Vegas in 1988, and in the subsequent suing and countersuing, he was accused of drug and alcohol abuse. In 1993, he married a Mormon, Joan Child, 20 years his junior. Always attuned to the mass audience, he became the first entertainer with his own Website in 1995. Admitted to a lifelong struggle with depression two years later, and suffered a heart attack on his 80th birthday, followed by brain surgery in 2003 and further heart surgery in 2004, from which he never recovered. Published his autobiography the same year, entitled, It Ain‘t Easy Being Me. Inner: Good-natured, loyal, empathetic and extremely sensitive to the pain of others. It Ain’t Easy Being Me lifetime of turning the dross of depression and disappointment into the gold of audience approval and appeal, despite an ongoing internal struggle of learning to appreciate who he was. dJoe Welch (Joe Wolinski) (c1869-1918) - American comic. Outer: Of Jewish descent. His family emigrated to America, and he went on the vaudeville stage as a comedian of a classic Yiddish bent, whose shtik was largely based on his being a put-upon loser. Best known for his catch-phrase of, “Maybe you tink I am a happy man?” Wrote comic plays starring himself, and despite a successful career, he went bankrupt in 1908. Subsequently had to battle in court over the rights to his works. Appeared in two films at career’s end, including his hit play, The Peddler. During its filming, he suffered a breakdown, and meandered off the set in full make-up, only to be found wandering later in the streets. His wife, whom he had married the year before, had him declared incompetent, in order to get the insurance money needed to help him recover. Ended his life demented and virtually immobilized. Inner: Unhappy man lifetime of acting out the divided spirit at his heart, both on stage and real life, despite a genuine ability to win mass love and approval.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS THE SELF-PROCLAIMED GREAT ONE :
Storyline: The broad-humored, broad-bodied brooder pulls himself up from dire emotional and financial poverty to become a national comedic icon, but never quite draws together the various characters inhabiting him into a satisfactory cohesion of his own angry, egotistical and entertaining persona.

dJackie Gleason (Herbert John Gleason) (1916-1987) - American comedian. Outer: his mother worked long hours as a subway token clerk to support her 2 sons, after his father, who was a poorly paid insurance clerk, left home when he was 8. Grew up in squalor and poverty. His sickly brother died at 14, while the family barely had enough to eat. His mother was intensely religious, and was constantly prophesizing the end of the world, while periodically falling into fits of prayer. Dropped out of high school and began earning money hustling pool. Won a talent contest as a teen, and decided to enter show business as a way of earning money, when his mother became too sick to work. She died when he was 16, while he was standing vigil at the side of her bed. Desperate for money, he took on stunt work in high-speed exhibitions at a local carnival. Married Genevieve Halford at 20, separated in 1954, and divorced 35 years later, 2 daughters from the union.Worked in roadhouses, carnivals and vaudeville. Saw he had a gift for comedy, and became “Jumping Jack Gleason,” as an angry nightclub comic. Heavy drinker, smoker and eater, as well as brawler. Often insulted his audiences, and occasionally getting into fights with them. When he tried Broadway and films,he found only failure initially. 5’11 1/2”, ballooned to 285 lbs as compensation for a starved childhood, while continuing his nightclub career as an angry voice for the working stiff. Tried TV in his early 30s, and finally found his medium as a sketch comedian. After so-so success on “The Life of Riley,” he hosted “The Cavalcade of Stars” in the early 1950s, then got his own show in his mid-30s, and found himself one of the stars of early TV, inking a 3 year pact for $11 million once he had established himself. Also arranged, composed and conducted his own music. Disliked his writers but recognized them as a necessary evil. Created a host of memorable characters for the 3 incarnations of his show (1952-1955, 1956-1959, 1961-1970) including the hapless ‘Poor Soul,’ Charlie Bratton the Loudmouth, Joe the Bartender, and Reggie Van Gleason III, as well as the trademark phrases, ‘How sweet it is!’ and ‘Away we go,’ but his most enduring invention was Ralph Kramden, the self-involved bus driver, which he spun off into its own series, “The Honeymooners,” along with fellow Gleason alumni, Art Carney, who played his obtuse sewer-worker pal, Ed Norton, and Audrey Meadows, as his long-suffering wife, Alice. Despite shooting only 39 episodes, they have remained a staple of TV re-runs. Returned to Broadway in triumph in his early 40s, winning a Tony award for “Take Me Along,” then etched his most memorable screen character 2 years later, playing pool shark Minnesota Fats, in The Hustler. His later film/work found him mostly in far less inspiring vehicles, save for his turn as Tom Hanks’s father in Nothing in Common. By his 50s, he began working less and enjoying himself more, indulging in his passion for golf, and acting out his self-declaration as being ‘The Great One.’ Also had a longtme fascination with the paranormal, amassing a huge library on the subect while designing one of his homes in upstate NY like a UFO. Married Beverly McKittrick in his mid-50s, divorced 3 years later, and his final marriage was in his late 50s to Marilyn Taylor. His later TV shows were all repetitions of his earlier successes, with little effort put into them. During the 1980s, he made an attempt at capping his career with a renewed effort at stardom in film, but longtime excesses did him in, and he died of cancer. Last words were allegedly "I always knew what I was doing." Inner: Tormented, angry, melancholic, driven and fearful, part playboy, part gourmand, part egomaniac, part loudmouth and part poor soul. Unintegrated lifetime of a dread-filled entrance, before allowing many personalities to inhabit his large, multi-talented body, without being able ultimately to find peace with any of them. dEdward ‘Ned’ Harrigan (1845-1911) - American comedian. Outer: Father was a Canadian captain and ship-builder, mother taught son African-American songs, stories and dances. Left home after disagreeing with his sire over the latter’s 2nd marriage. Went to San Francisco and sang with Lotta Crabtree (Grace Slick), and also worked as an impersonator, doing various ethnic comic turns. Formed a partnership with a fellow comic, and found he worked better as part of a team. Married Annie Braham (Jayne Meadows), the daughter of his collaborative composer David Braham (Steve Allen) in his mid-20s, who worked closely with him throughout his career. 6 children from the union, with two, William and Nedda taking to the stage. Came back East via the midwest and formed a 2nd partnership with Tony Hart (Art Carney) in Chicago in his late 20s, and began to produce popular sketches in variety shows. With Hart, he created ‘The Mulligan Guard,’ which satirized Irish immigrant quasi-military organizations, and later expanded it into a playlet, before spawning a whole series of popular farces around the concept. Proved extremely popular in NYC, and wrote a bunch of well-received songs of the period. Most of their sketches were broad and dialect-laden, doing Irish, African-American, Jewish and Italian stereotypes. The duo created their own Theatre Comique on lower Broadway, but the theater burned down when he was 40, and the partners argued and split up several months later. Neither enjoyed the success they had as a tandem, although he built a theater named for himself in 1890, Harrigan’s Park Theater, and produced his last hit show there. Went into retirement by the end of the decade, as his brand of musical farce went out of fashion. Died of heart disease, and at the time, felt he had been totally forgotten by the public. Wrote 39 plays in all, acting the lead in all of them. Inner: Studied his audiences carefully, and tried to write about real people to give them something to which they could relate, while keeping his humor unsubtly populist. Populist touch lifetime of touching on his own commonality in order to bring broad entertainment to the masses, and succeeding handsomely at it until the times passed him by, while leaving an enduring show business legacy in his wake.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS WELL-LOVED NEUROTIC:
Storyline: The funny phobic manages to channel his fears and insecurities into a long, successful career, after earlier being undone by saidsame, while working with the same partner under similarly potential unnerving circumstances.

dArt Carney (1918-2003) - American comedian. Outer: Father was a newspaperman and publicist. Youngest of 6 sons, one brother became a producer, another a TV director. Shy in school, then noticed he drew attention to himself when he started mimicking his teachers, for which he got left back a year. Entertained at school dances and with civic organizations by tap-dancing and doing imitations. Worked in a jewelry store, but his older brother was a talent agent and helped him get bookings with bands as a novelty singer and comedian. 5’11”, 170 lbs. Married Jean Myers, his high school heartthrob, in his early 20s, divorced 25 years later, 3 children. Had an alcohol problem, as he began doing radio work, imitating voices of world leaders on a news program, before being drafted into the army in 1944, where he was hit by an exploding shell landing on Normandy’s Omaha beach, which cost him 9 months in a hospital and one leg slightly shorter than the other. Returned to radio, playing second banana to established comedians, before entering TV, first with comic Morey Amsterdam, and then, in 1950, with Jackie Gleason, where he created the character of Ed Norton, sewer worker extraordinaire, in the classic sketch series ‘The Honeymooners’ for which he won 5 Emmys. The duo were looked at as a Brooklyn version of the Laurel & Hardy tradition. Eventually felt overshadowed by Gleason and left to create a career of his own. Made his Broadway debut in 1957 in “The Rope Dancers,” playing an ineffectual alcoholic, and also did more TV work throughout the 1950s. Starred in 9 TV specials in 1960, and then was the original neat-freak Felix Unger in the Broadway version of “The Odd Couple.” Eventually had to leave the show because the character was too close to his own. Various neuroses and self-doubts led him back to alcohol, and he eventually had to clean out in a sanitarium, after suffering a mental breakdown. Returned to the Gleason show, where he expanded his characterizations, ultimately winning 6 Emmys, with 5 coming from his work with Gleason. Married again in 1966 to Barbara Isaac, before divorcing a decade later, and in 1977, remarried his first wife. Won an Oscar in 1974 for playing a displaced 70 year old in Harry and Tonto, and like fine wine, continued to give distinctive serio-comic performances into old age in a 5 decade career that will probably be best-remembered for the inimitable Ed Norton. Died of unspecified causes. Inner: Extremely self-critical, tending to see the bad rather than the good in his performances. Often got haircuts after his shows as a way of cleansing himself. Compulsively neat and neurotic, as well as a hypochondriac. Mild-mannered, extremely considerate, but also given to brooding and worrying, and keeping his anger well-shielded. Healing lifetime of amazing longevity in the entertainment business, while trying to integrate his fearful, perfectionist nature in the highly insecure realm of winning public approval and applause. dTony Hart (Anthony J. Cannon) (1855-1891) - American comedian. Outer: Began performing at an early age. Sang and danced in saloons and toured with circuses before joining a female minstrel show. Became known for his female impersonations of wenches. Formed a partnership with Edward Harrigan (Jackie Gleason) in Chicago when he was 16, and began to produce popular sketches in variety shows. Created ‘The Mulligan Guard,’ which satirized Irish immigrant quasi-military organizations, and later expanded it into a playlet, before taking the conceit and creating a whole series of popular farces with Harrigan. Proved extremely popular in NYC, and spawned a bunch of popular songs of the period. Most of their sketches were broad and dialect-laden, doing Irish, African-American, Jewish and Italian stereotypes. Created their own Theatre Comique on lower Broadway, but the theater burned down when he was 40, and the duo argued and split up several months later to go their own way. Neither enjoyed success as an individual performer, and he slipped into his own dementia, dying in an insane asylum. Inner: Neurotic, insecure, and ultimately the victim of his own fears. Insecure lifetime of taking to the stage despite his ongoing fears and neuroses, only to ultimately fall victim to his overweening unsurety of self.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS SUNNY HONEYMOONER:
Storyline: The operatic athlete shows her true grit by rising from several crashes and falls in a determined effort to prove her self-worth against any unsettling experience thrown at her.

dAudrey Meadows (Audrey Cotter) (1924-1996) - American actress. Outer: Father was an Episcopal missionary. Grew up in Wuchang, China, with her missionary parents, although the family was forced to leave after a Communist uprising when she was 3. Younger sister of actress Jayne Meadows, also had 2 brothers, both of whom became lawyers. Traveled the world for 2 years, before finally settling in the US, where she arrived knowing more Chinese than English. Small and shy, she fell through a skylight, severely damaging a leg. Learned to hold in her emotions as a response to teasing from other children. Timid and withdrawn as a child because of her badly scarred leg, but also athletic. Trained in opera, she had a recital at Carnegie Hall at 16, then sang in nightclubs, and during WW II, worked for the USO, suffering 2 plane crashes while touring the South Pacific. Also contracted malaria and was sick for 2 years. 5’6”, 125 lbs. Got a role in a touring company, before playing on Broadway in “Top Banana.” Began working in early TV, once singing opera while standing on her head. Worked briefly as a singing duo with her sister, although their careers diverged. Initially rejected by Jackie Gleason as too good-looking to play his harried wife in his ‘Honeymooner’ sketches, she had photos taken of her, sans make-up in a messy kitchen and won the coveted role as Alice Kramden, the forever put-upon wife of his Ralph Kramden, playing off her vocal abilities, with a flat, nasal voice. The sketches became classics and the defining point of her career. Married in 1956 to Randolph Rouse, the CEO of Continental Airlines, divorced two years later, and in 1961, married Robert Six, who predeceased her by a decade. Later appeared in several films and did more sitcom work, although is best remembered for her work with Gleason. Died of lung cancer. Inner: Extremely determined nature, using her various traumas to strengthen her own sense of resolve. Operatic lifetime of several falls and crashes, only to get up again to prove herself to herself as a warrior who refuses to go down and stay down. Ann Yeamans (Ann Griffiths) (1835-1912) - English/American actress and comedienne. Outer: Parents were British actors, who emigrated to Australia when she was a child. Joined a circus in her teens as an equestrienne, and traveled all over the Far East, including China, Java, Japan and the Philippines as a bareback rider. Married a fellow performer and American clown named Yeamans who was also a member of the troupe. Together they toured Asia, then emigrated to San Francisco, 3 daughters from the union, all of whom became actresses, including Jennie Yeamans, the best known of the trio, who predeceased her mother by 6 years. Left a widow shortly after her arrival in the U.S. With absolutely no contacts, she, nevertheless, made her way cross country to NYC, where she became a comedic character actress. In 1877, she joined Harrigan & Hart (Jackie Gleason and Art Carney) as their comic female foil, Cordelia Mulligan, in the various sketches they did, when they set up their own company. Spent the next 3 decades in their employ, assaying Harrigan’s wife and Hart’s mother. Wore a red wig and employed a broad brogue, while playing her garrulousness off Harrigan’s comic reactions. Probably close friends with Harrigan’s wife, Annie (Jayne Meadows). Following Harrigan’s retirement, she continued as a popular actress on Broadway, appearing in musicals as well as plays, almost to the end of her life. Inner: Good athlete, highly independent, adventurous and resourceful. Second banana lifetime of comic partnership with longtime duo, while once again using the Far East as a springboard to weather numerous vicissitudes, before ultimately emerging triumphant from her travails.

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PATHWAY OF THE COMEDIAN AS SELF-DESTRUCTIVE SATIRIST:
Storyline: The prolific parodist ultimately finds himself on the wrong end of his own self-parodying version of a burn-out, but manages to resurrect and reclaim his earlier gifts through his ongoing ability to recognize the truth in the absurdity of the everyday human condition.

dSid Caesar (1922-2014) - American comedian. Outer: Father was a Polish-born Jewish emigre who owned a diner, the St. Clair Lunch, over which his family lived. Mother was Russian-born, youngest of 3 sons. Had a lower middle-class upbringing, and was moody, shy and quiet as a child, eventually lifting weights to compensate for an ongoing sense of inadequacy. Used to hear a variety of accents from the various construction worker customers at the diner and learned how to imitate them. At 14, he joined a band, where he played saxophone, then studied that instrument and the clarinet in evening classes he audited at the Juillard School of Music, before playing with various big bands. Married Florence Levy in 1943, 2 daughters and a son from the union. Formed a band while in the Coast Guard during WW II, and in between numbers did jokes, imitations and double-talk, which led to his appearance as a comedian in the service show, “Tars and Spars,” before playing in the movie of the same name in 1946, after his discharge. 6’2”, well-built. Made his comedy debut at the Copacabana nightclub in NYC in 1947 and was a hit in a Broadway revue. Began appearing on TV as the co-star of “Your Show of Shows,” a 90 minutes live broadcast from 1950-1954 in which he did original sketch comedy every week along with his partner, Imogene Coca, playing off his ability with dialects, pantomime and sharp satire, while using the everyday as his subject matter. Worked with a variety of writers, including Mel Brooks, Woody Allen and Neil Simon, who would go on to noted careers of their own. Created his own characters and worked on virtually every line of every script, although the pressures of producing original parodies and satires every week took a considerable toll on him, and he began drinking heavily, a bottle of scotch a day, as well as popping pills, and punching walls, feeling he was not worth the acclaim he received. Once dangled Brooks half-out an 18 story window, when he said he wanted to go out, while eating himself up inside to produce the wealth of comic material that the incessant appetite of TV demanded. Won 2 Emmy Awards for the original and its follow-up, “Caesar’s Hour,” which ran from 1954-1957 although his drinking never abated. Did some filmwork and one more TV run, “The Sid Caesar Show,” although it never captured his unique gift. By the end of the 1970s, he began to confront his alcoholism and weight problems after 20 years of depression and denial and several months of not being able to leave the house. Through discipline, he eventually conquered his self-destructive draws. His later career saw him reprising himself as a master of his own art form via TV and performance shows, while allowing a whole new generation access to his peculiar comic prowess. Wrote his autobiography “Where Have I Been” in 1982, and his memoirs “Caesar’s Hours,” in 2003, while becoming addicted to healthful living, although he would have respiratory problems. Lost his wife in 2010 and died at home after a year's illness. Inner: Angry, sharp-eyed satirist, with the ability to physically and verbally project the cultural absurdity of his fellow denizens. Shy, honest, and modest. Ultimately one of the first victims of the never-ending appetite of TV for its performers, but had the ability for resurrection. Curative lifetime of coming to grips with his own dark view of humanity, and heal himself of the many wounds incurred by his unsparing perceptions of human foibles, most particularly his own. Siegmund Mogulesko (Zelig Mogulesko) (1858-1914) - Bessarabian/American comedian, singer and composer. Outer: Mother was the daughter of a famous judge, and was so learned, she sat with the local rabbi, consulting alongside him on all the town’s problems. His father was a shopkeeper, who died when he was 9. His mother had passed on the previous year, so, on the death of his sire, he was taken as an apprentice singer to South Russia, garnering such a reputation, he was spirited away the following annum to Bucharest, where he ultimately studied at the Bucharest Conservatory, before joining the Yiddish theater in his mid-teens. Quickly became a legend in Romania’s Jewish world as the apotheosis of singing, dancing and comedy. Small and vital. After his voice changed, he worked for two years knitting, before returning as a synagogue’s choral director. Despite his fame, he lived a hand-to-mouth existence with a touring troupe, while his reputation continually grew, and he became its dominant player, often inserting his own shtik in otherwise dramatic works. Married with two sons and a daughter. Continued his legendary career in eastern Europe, dominating the Romanian theater scene with his partner Moishe Finkel, while also working in the company of Israel Grodner (Mel Brooks), and ultimately taking it over, before bringing them to London in the wake of extreme anti-Jewish sentiment, and in 1886, he emigrated to NYC, although his initial foray was disastrous, until a winning turn in Philadelphia several months later cemented his career in the New World. Went on to become one of the great stars of America’s Yiddish theater, often playing several roles at a time. Never allowed his success to make him anything other than an old-fashioned small-town European Jew. in 1906, he made a triumphant tour of Romania, reviving the dormant theater there. Towards the end of his career, his voice began failing him, and he briefly took up drumming, before making a comeback, only to be tortured by his illness, often weeping in the wings, despite wild applause for him out front. Took to his bed immediately after his final performance, and died soon afterwards. Greatly mourned, with thousands of people showing up for his funeral. Inner: Trusting, modest and supportive. Able to impress both indiscriminate audiences and severe critics alike. A living personification of the vitality of Jewish theatrical culture. Sweet and simple lifetime of expressing his pure gift to entertain, before returning in far more complex form to do battle with the demons within which propel his ongoing comic spirit.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS MASTER ILLUSIONIST:
Storyline: The dualistic host serves as America’s congenial late night impresario, while keeping his off-camera character completely hidden from view, for fear of revealing the uncivil reality hiding behind the affable facade.

Johnny Carson (1925-2005) - American comedian and talk-show host. Outer: Mother was an extrovert with a flair for the theatrical, but was incapable of praising her son, causing a lifelong sense of insecurity that would make him a completely dualistic character, and more and more recessive as he grew older. Father was a manager for Iowa and Nebraska Light and Power. The middle of three children, with an older sister and a younger brother who became a TV director, including the “Tonight” show among his credits, for a while. When he was 8, the family moved to Nebraska where he grew up. An enthusiastic amateur magician from the age of 12, he mastered a variety of card tricks, and had the fantasy he would win worldwide acclaim as the Great Carsoni. Made his professional debut as such at 14, earning $3 from the local Rotary Club. Memorized the radio routines of comedian Jack Benny and repeated them for school chums, which turned him towards comedy instead. Wrote a humor column for his high school newspaper, and also worked as a theater usher. Joined the Navy after graduating, and served from 1943-1946, with some time in the Pacific as an ensign toward WW II’s end. Went to the Univ. of Nebraska afterwards, where he was active in school theater. Worked part/time for a local radio station and appeared in an early experimental TV broadcast, which went virtually unseen. Married Jody Wolcott in 1949 in an unfaithful union on both their parts, that produced three sons before ending in divorce in 1963. After getting his bachelor’s degree in logic in 3 years, he joined WOW in Omaha, where he proved a trickster, gaining him employ in Los Angeles in 1951 as a staff announcer for a TV station. Created a Sunday afternoon sketch show called “Carson’s Cellar,” which attracted such high profile comedians as Red Skelton, Jack Benny and Groucho Marx, despite its low audience profile. Hired by Skelton as a writer, and in classic show business manner, subbed for him one day in 1954, which led to his own show, although it never found itself, and was canceled. Moved to NYC, and appeared as a guest on a number of programs, including the “Tonight” show. Wound up emceeing a game show, “Who Do You Trust?” which had Ed McMahon as an announcer. Eventually took over the “Tonight” show from host Jack Paar on October 1, 1962, with McMahon as his “Heeeeere’s Johnny” sidekick, and for the next 30 years, he ruled late night TV, with an audience of anywhere from 10 to 15 million at the height of his run. In late 1969, 58 million tuned in to view the wedding of the freakish falsetto singer Tiny Tim with a teenage fan he had dubbed Miss Vicki. The duo later divorced in 1977. In 1963, he married Joanne Copeland, whom he divorced in 1972, for nearly half a million dollars and $100,000 a year alimony for life. Moved his show from NYC to Los Angeles in 1972, and in doing so, also shifted TV’s base from the east to the west coast, and its format from live to taped shows to accommodate a nation-wide audience, more interested in convenience than spontaneity. His opening monologue, which always ended in a pantomimed golf swing, became an institution in itself, while his selection of guests virtually made careers for many of them, particularly those young comedians who were given his blessing by sitting on the couch next to him following their routines. Wielded enormous power, making millions for both himself and his network, NBC. Although apolitical, his routines and jokes could also prove extreme costly to anyone caught in his witty crosshairs. Also had a host of characters he would do, including Carnac the Magnificent, a seer, which would be an unconscious throwback to his previous go-round in this series. In 1972, he married former model Joanna Holland, another similar-named mate, who wound up costing him $20 million and property, in his ever escalating alimony, when they divorced in 1985. In 1979, he won an unprecedented $5 million a year contract from NBC after threatening to quit over accusations he took too much time off, in a display of personal power that saw him gain full ownership over the show, while forcing the network to cut it from 90 minutes to an hour. The move opened another later night, and highly profitable, slot for the next generation of talk hosts. Contracted his final marriage in 1987 to Alexis Maas, who was two and a half decades his junior, and managed to remain his spouse for the rest of his life, in the single non-volatile union of his four. When someone crossed him, they were permanently crossed off his list, such as Joan Rivers, one of his most frequent guest hosts, who dared to mount a talkshow opposite him. Hosted several Oscar shows, and occasionally played Vegas, otherwise he limited himself to his own venue, which became “The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson.” Refused to visit his son in a mental hospital, after the latter was committed for severe emotional problems for a period of 4 1/2 months. Subsequently lost him when he died in an auto accident in 1991. Eventually retired on May 22, 1992, handing over the reins of his show to comedian Jay Leno. Only appeared on TV once afterwards, largely disappearing from public view. Won 6 Emmys for his efforts and was inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame in 1987. Abandoned many of his closest friends at the end, although always had warm regards for McMahon. Suffered a severe heart attack at his home in 1999, and eventually died from the effects of emphysema. Inner: Sad, depressed, preoccupied and intensely private. Despised parties and rarely talked to guests once the show was over. Completely shunned any kind of public display when he was off-screen. Once said his epitaph should read, “I’ll be right back.” Excellent sense of comic timing and editing, and highly charitable, although not with his personal presence. Amateur astronomer as well. Janus lifetime of providing much entertainment over an incredibly long period of time, without garnering much personal joy for himself, in a magical self-disappearing act which was probably his greatest illusion of all. Harry Kellar (Heinrich Keller) (1849-1922) - American stage magician. Outer: Parents were German immigrants. Used to play ‘chicken’ with oncoming trains, evincing a thirst for dangerous adventure from an early age. At 11, in a chemical experiment gone awry, he accidentally blew a hole in the floor of his hometown drugstore, where he was apprenticing. Jumped on a freight train to avoid parental discipline, and embarked on a life of unending travel and adventure afterwards. Did odd jobs, before being taken in by a minister who offered to adopt him if he studied for the ministry. A stage show by the “Fakir of Ava,” however, showed him his true calling, and he began studying magic via books. Despite his kindly environs, he left home again and pursued the Fakir, becoming his assistant. Thin, and later in life, sported a large mustache. Launched his own career at 16, in a disastrous performance, but fared better two years later, which committed him to his chosen pathway. His itinerant life, however, was continuously dicey, forcing him to constantly dodge creditors and borrow equipment. At 20, he began working for a pair of brothers who were stage mediums, serving as their assistant and business manager, which taught him the basics of the economic side of his trade. In 1873, he struck out on his own, with an assistant. Successfully combined stage séances with his old bag of tricks, and toured Canada, Mexico and South America. Shipwrecked off England in 1875, and destitute, he lost his assistant, but reformed a new troupe he dubbed “The Royal Illusionists,” after a London pair of prestidigitators, and for the next 30 years, he toured the world, playing before royalty and commoners alike. Although far less dexterous than his contemporaries, his showmanship was extraordinary. An excellent storyteller, as well as a skilled mechanic, his act depended on his unique and carefully plotted lavish presentation. In 1887, he married an Australian, Eve Medley, and added her to his show as a mentalist. Constantly on the lookout for new illusions, his best known trick was the levitation of the Princess Karnac. Like other illusionists of his ilk, he used the stage to debunk the popular spiritualists of the 19th century, exposing their trickery. After living in Yonkers, NY, he eventually settled on a large estate in Los Angeles, although his wife passed on a couple of years after moving there. Close friend of illusionist and escape artist Harry Houdini (Tony Curtis). Began losing his sight in 1904 and retired in 1907. A decade later, exactly a year to the day before the Armistice was signed ending WW I, he was induced to perform one final time for the families of the men who had died when a German U-boat sank the troop transport ship Antilles. In his final audience valedictory, the crowd of 6000 sang “Auld Lang Syne,” as he was carried off the stage. Had one ghostwritten autobiography penned for him, filled with feats, but curiously lacking in any kind of revelatory intimate information about him. Inner: Highly adept illusionist, eventually winning the title of America’s premier magician. Little really known about his inner workings, since he preferred to keep his private life separate from his stage career, which consumed most of his time. Hidden lifetime of playing his ongoing disappearing self trick, preferring to keep his darker side away from the bright spotlight of fame and fortune.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS CLEVER BUMPKIN:
Storyline: The consummate country boy makes sure he will be far more than a face in the crowd by expanding his various entertainment skills, although the larger public continues to buttonhole him because of his highly noticeable regional characteristics.

dAndy Griffith (1926-2012) - American actor and comedian. Outer: Father was a foreman in a chair factory, with a good sense of humor. An only child, he was raised a Methodist in extremely modest circumstances. Grew up on hillbilly music, and first wanted to be an opera singer, then a Moravian preacher. Swept his high school classroom for music lessons. 6’, 175 lbs. Enrolled at the Univ. of North Carolina as a pre-divinity student, then switched to drama and music after joining the Carolina Players at school. Married Barbara Edwards, a student actress in 1949, 2 adopted children from the union, a daughter and a son, with the latter dying from alcoholism in 1996. Taught with his wife for 3 years, directing high school choral groups, while she supervised music for the local church, before going on the Rotary circuit with his country preacher act. Played Sir Walter Raleigh (William O. Douglas) in the pageant ‘Lost Colony,’ for 3 years after having been associated with it the previous 4 seasons, while polishing his good old boy standup and singing act. Toured Carolina with his wife in a station wagon, doing clubs, conventions and clambakes. Made a popular recording on a Carolina clergyman’s take on football, ‘What it was, was football.’ Had difficulty, however, in transposing his act to NY tastes and returned to Carolina, where he borrowed $1000 and organized his own troupe. Recorded his routines, which landed him on the Ed Sullivan show, giving him his first big break, and he parlayed it into the title TV role of “No Time For Sergeants.” Made a triumphant Broadway debut in his late 20s by reprising his TV turn, and later repeated it on the screen after making his strong Hollywood debut as a populist phenomenon in the drama, A Face in the Crowd in 1957. Despite promising beginnings, he had difficulty in getting his career off-the-ground, and turned to TV, where he found the role of a lifetime in homespun sheriff Andy Taylor of Mayberry, which was based on his own home town, on “The Andy Griffith Show.” Involved himself with both production and scripts, while playing off of Don Knotts, wisely serving as straight man to the latter’s bumbling, wide-eyed antics. The show was shot like a film rather than in front of a TV audience, and ran for 8 seasons during the 1960s as the most watched broadcast in America, before he decided to end it, while it was still popular. His character was so etched in the public mind, however, that he had great difficulty in moving on from it. After divorcing his wife in 1972, the following annum, he married Solica Cassuto, who was 30 years his junior, only to divorce 8 years later. Settled in a waterfront house on a multi-acred estate on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, collecting old cars. His third marriage was to sometime actress Cindi Knight in 1983. Did drama on TV, and then found another vehicle for himself in 1986 as an Atlanta defense attorney in the popular series “Matlock,” where he played a crafty country lawyer. Did battle for 7 years during the 1980s with Guillain-Barre syndrome, a chronic nerve inflammation, which limited his performing ability and briefly paralyzed his legs. His later years, saw him suffering from gout and arthritis as well as G-B syndrome, aging him considerably, while keeping him in constant pain. Appeared in a series of TV commercials advocating for the Obama Health Care Reform Bill in 2010, only to receive so many death threats, the spots were withdrawn. Ultimately died at home of a brain aneurysm. Inner: Homespun, folksy, friendly, but considerably more driven and sophisticated than his public characters. Always played to his strengths, giving a naturalness to his characterizations, while involving himself in all aspects of his productions. Extremely well-liked, with strong Christian sensibilities. Considered his original TV show the highpoint of his acting life. Good ole boy lifetime of extended his reach as an actor and producer, while ultimately dealing with a series of disabilities that would put his deep faith to the test. dStuart Robson (Henry Robson Stuart) (1836-1903) - American actor and comedian. Outer: Father was a lawyer. His family moved to Baltimore when he was 12, and he did some home acting with the Booth family. Worked as a page in the capitol, until he went on stage at 16 in “Uncle Tom As It Is,” a counterplay to an extremely popular work of the time. Did theater continually over the next 5 decades, playing over 700 characters. Spent 10 years with stock companies in the east and midwest, and also played with touring companies on the western circuit. In his early 20s, he married Margaret Johnson, the daughter of a Baltimore minister, 2 children. Became a comedian with Laura Keene’s (Mary Pickford) theater in NYC, then joined Mrs. John Drew’s (Lucille Ball) company in Philadelphia. As a comic actor, he depended on an odd voice and quaint personality which rarely varied. Despite his popularity, he was a largely a one-note performer. Began a productive 12 year collaboration with William Crane (Jim Nabors) allowing the two to do star tours, beginning in 1877. The duo did mostly trivial pieces together, although they had some classic plays in their repertory as well. Both enjoyed an amicable separation at the end of the partnership, thinking they could do better on their own. His wife passed on in his mid-50s, and he married one of the his troupers, Mary Dougherty, the following year. Had several pieces written specifically for him towards his career end. Died of heart disease in the middle of one of his starring tours. Inner: Great love of performing, lesser need to perfect his craft or stretch his abilities. Kept a scrapbook detailing the peccadilloes of erring clergymen as an antidote to their continually fulminating on the pulpit against theater people. One trick pony lifetime of focusing on his strengths and enjoying a modest, if not particularly challenging, success in doing so.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS SINGING BUMPKIN:
Storyline: The warbling rube sticks to his homespun roots in forging a successful, albeit, repetitive series of careers for himself, through his simple desire to entertain and remain as unaffected as possible around the celebrityhood created in that complex ambition’s wake.

dJim Nabors (1932) - American comedian and singer. Outer: Father was a policeman, mother played piano by ear. 2 older sisters. Raised a Roman Catholic. Had asthma as a child, which often kept him from school, and he experimented with his voice during recovery periods. 6’2”, 175 lbs. Attended the Univ. of Alabama, and sang in a glee club, getting a B.A. in business administration. Became a typist for the U.N., then had an unsuccessful audition for the Broadway play, “No Time For Sergeants,” which made Andy Griffith a star. His asthma worsened in NYC, and he returned home to Alabama and worked as an assistant film editor at a TV station in Chatanooga. Moved to LA for health reasons 3 years later, and became a film cutter at NBC, while working evenings entertaining at a Santa Monica cabaret, the Horn, where he did operatic arias and monologues. Appeared on the Steve Allen show, although it folded a month after he quit his job at NBC. Discovered in a nightclub where he was working as a singer by Andy Griffith, who put him on his popular show as a gas station mechanic in its third season in 1964, although he had never acted before. Despite some misgivings by the show’s producer at his excessive mannerisms and speech, he proved a popular figure, and won his own spin-off show, “Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C.” Played a simple, child-like do-gooder with his trademark, ‘Gahhhh-leeee,’ and it became one of TV’s most popular sitcoms during the latter half of the 1960s, which he followed up with another 2 seasons of “The Jim Nabors Hour,” a variety show. Also did a Saturday morning children’s TV show in the mid-1970s. Although he appeared in a couple of films in the early 80s, his character did not continue to enchant audiences as such, and he went back to his original career as a singer, issuing several dozen overly syrupy albums with his imitable baritone. Also appeared in several films. Underwent a successful liver transplant in 1994. Continues to tour as a singer and concert-giver, doing some of his old Gomer Pyle bits, while raising macadamia nuts and flowers in Hawaii. Largely closeted, he married his longtime partner, Stan Cadwallader in 2013. Inner: Simple, sincere, with a genuine desire to please and entertain. Close to his family, believer in simple virtues. Raised a Methodist, although later converted to Catholicism. Unadorned lifetime of exaggerating his homespun qualities to enjoyable acclaim, while staying his simple, down-to-Earth self. dWilliam Crane (1845-1928) - American comedian and singer. Outer: Father was a locksmith. Performed his first theatricals in a barn loft at the age of 6 or 7. At 16, he made his stage debut in “Black-Eyed Susan.” Worked in a furniture store after school but was unhappy and began rehearsing with an amateur company. At 18, he became an apprentice with the Holman Opera and Dramatic Troupe, although initially received no salary. Spent 7 years with them, had a good bass voice and sang light opera, as well as doing straight plays. After subbing for a comedian, he found comedy much more his métier, working very broadly. Worked for another opera company for 4 years, and then joined a stock company in his late 20s. Married Ella Myers in 1870. In 1877, he connected with comedian Stuart Robson (Andy Griffith) and the duo had a successful partnership for 12 years. The greatest triumph for both was in “The Henrietta.” The duo then separated on friendly terms in 1889, having run their course together. Specialized in homely, uncouth American types, as gruff but kindly characters. His greatest triumph was in “David Harum,” a role he repeated over 3 seasons between 1900 and 1903. Spent his last years in California, and appeared in at least 2 films. Also contributed a number of essays on the theater to journals of the time. Inner: Simple, thoughtful, down-to-Earth. Homespun lifetime of creating a foundation of singing and playing country characters, which he would continue to explore in his next go-round as well, preferring to do what he does best, rather than push himself into new arenas.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS COMIC SURVIVOR:
Storyline: The adversity-facing amazon deals with life’s unfair hand with a little angelic help, lots of drive and ambition and a delightful talent to entertain, allowing her to transcend her early limitations and stand up and be herself both onstage and off.

dCarol Burnett (1933) - American comedienne/actress. Outer: Father was a movie theater manager, mother was a publicity writer and receptionist. Only child. Her parents were both alcoholics and divorced when she was 6 years old, after continual separations. After a traumatic upbringing, she was raised in California by her fun-loving maternal grandmother, who ran through 6 husbands, and was enamored of the movies as much as her charge. Had a sister born out-of-wedlock in 1944, whom she also helped to raise. Lived on welfare, but managed to see upwards of 7 or 8 movies a week, working as an usherette to pay for her habit. 5’7”, 115 lbs., gangly, unattractive teenager. After editing her high school paper, she went to UCLA, with an unknown benefactor paying for her education, although she never found out who it was. Majored in theater, and she and another student, Don Saroyan, were each given $1000 by a businessman at a party to go to NYC. The duo did so and she married him in her early 20s, but divorced 7 years later, one daughter from the union. Began appearing in TV comedies, then developed a nightclub act, doing singing parodies. Played off-Broadway in “Once Upon A Mattress,” which made it to Broadway, and then became a regular on “The Gary Moore Show,” eventually winning an Emmy in 1962. Won a 2nd award for a special the following year, although followed that up with a disastrous variety series. Married Joe Hamilton, a producer in 1963, and together they put together a variety show that could exploit her unique talents at slapstick, singing, clowning and acting. 3 daughters, with her eldest, Carrie Hamilton, becoming an actress. “The Carol Burnett Show” was a huge success for a decade, relying on character and visual humor rather than gags. Won additional Emmys in 1972, 1974 and 1975, as she focused more on domestic sketches, and was ultimately elected to TV Hall of Fame for her efforts. Stood up for herself in public, successfully suing The National Enquirer over lies it had printed about her. Began doing serious movies as well as comedies, and wrote her autobiography, “One More Time,” while living by herself in a New York hotel. Divorced her husband in 1984, blaming the break-up in part on her daughter Carrie’s substance abuse problems, which both went public with in 1979, before becoming fundraisers for the clinic where she was treated. She and her daughter reconciled and starred together in a movie, then the latter added one more heartbreak by succumbing to cancer in 2002. Peripatetic, moved a dozens times in her 50s and 60s. Married a third time in 2001 to Brian Miller, a musician/contractor. With her daughter, she penned a play “Hollywood Arms,” based on her 1986 memoir, "One More Time," which opened to less-than-flattering reviews on Broadway following the former’s demise. Continues, however, as an enduring icon of persistence, consistency and survival. Penned an anecdotal biography, “This Time Together: Laughter and Reflection,” in 2010. Won the prestigious Mark Twain Award for Humor in 2013, then the SAG Lifetime Achievement Award 3 years later. Inner: Sees herself as a survivor, able to turn around her ragged upbringing into fuel for a successful adult life, through ambition, a mysterious angel, and the capacity for growth and change. Bootstraps lifetime of coming in under extremely shakey circumstances, with the drive to transcend her insecure upbringing and fashion a publicly well-loved life out of it. dMaggie Cline (1857-1934) - American comic singer. Outer: Parents were Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. One of 6 children. Father was a shoe factory foreman. At 12, she also began working in a shoe factory, but ran away at 17 to appear in a show called “March of the Amazons,” at a Boston theater. Took to both the stage and the road, making her grand debut in Cincinnati. By 23, she was a well-known figure of the vaudeville circuits, singing comic songs. Except for one appearance on the legitimate stage in her late 30s, she never left vaudeville, feeling most comfortable with her own entertaining persona as the best vehicle for her talents. Red-haired, tall and strongly built, a singing Amazon who used the entire stage for her songs and her sweeping exaggerated gestures. Became known as the ‘Brunnhilde of the Bowery,’ following an accepted tradition of the singer who shouted down the orchestra. Frequently pantomimed grotesque elements of songs, as a boisterous performer with a temper, who often feuded with rivals. Married a cafe owner in her early 30s, and led a quiet life off-stage, saving her excess energy for performance. Retired at 60, had a nervous breakdown at 77, and was cared for by a sister before dying of a cerebral hemorrhage. Inner: Divided character, domestic off-stage, boisterous upon it. Double-edged lifetime of honing her comedic skills for an unsophisticated audience, while trying to integrate her dual sense of self through performance, only to ultimately lose it when she no longer had the stage as her emotional outlet.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS SERIAL ONE-HIT WONDER:
Storyline: The basket-case balladeer is hauled off after his brief moment in the show business firmaments and returns to unconsciously make fun of his debilitation, before disappearing once again into a far less pressurized sphere, per his desire to exchange stardom for sanity.
Jerry Samuels(1938) - American singer, producer, songwriter. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Wrote a couple of hit singles for Johnny Ray and Sammy Davis, Jr., as well as material for himself. While working as a recording engineer, he had his singular moment in the sun in 1966, as Napoleon XIVth, with a novelty hit that rose high in the charts, “They’re Coming to Take Me Away, Ha-haaa.” The tune was inspired by the loss of his dog, and was a compilation of creative looping and sound mixes. Released an album of the same name, with similar thematics, although the public soon tired of the novelty, and his larger career was soon over, despite his ultimately achieving cult status of a sort for his singular contribution to 1960s culture. Some confusion over who he really was came about through a substitute performing in his name in order to promote the record, which was symbolic of the whole spirit behind it. Continued writing songs, but quickly slid off the pop radar as a local, rather than national talent. Sold marijuana roach clips for a while to head shops, then worked in piano bars in the Philadelphia area for several decades. Ultimately wound up becoming a booker, focusing on entertainment for retirement homes, while also entertaining at nursing and senior facilities. Inner: Deliberately avoided a major career through his subconscious fears of his inability to handle it, per his last go-round in this series. No one’s coming to take me away lifetime of intentionally avoiding the spotlight, after showing that he still could find his place in it, without feeling compelled to be destroyed by it. kEd Gallagher (1873-1929) - American comic performer. Outer: Of Irish descent. Had a relatively low-key career in vaudeville, before teaming up in 1912 with Al Shean (Weird Al Yankovic), to form the comedy team Gallagher and Shean, when he was in his late 30s, and his partner was in his 40s. The pair didn’t particularly care for one another and broke up in 1914. At the insistence of Shean’s sister Minnie, the mother of the Marx Brothers, they reteamed in 1920, and a year later, scored a resounding success with what would become a vaudeville classic, “Absolutely Mr. Gallagher, Positively Mr. Shean.” Performed it in the 1922 “Ziegfeld Follies,” with an endless series of verses, that would be punctuated by the back-and-forth catchphrase. Dressed in a pith helmet to Shean’s fez because of an Egyptian craze at the time, following the discovery of King Tut’s tomb. Supposedly never sang the song twice the same way. Made an early sound film in 1925. Despite their success, his drinking never sat well with Shean, and eventually the pair went their separate ways after five years together. Stress, alcohol and an extremely strained third marriage eventually led to a nervous breakdown, and being hauled off to a sanitarium, where he expired. Inner: Somewhat unstable, with a difficulty handling his success and a predisposition towards alcohol. They’re coming to take me away lifetime of enjoying a huge success as a culmination of an otherwise nondescript career, while evincing a totally inability to handle it, leading to an ignominious conclusion, that he would parody in his next go-round, while deliberately keeping his celebrityhood in far tighter check.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS MUSICAL LAMPOONER:
Storyline: The placid parodist expands his good-natured satiric sensibilities into the realm of musical videos, while always making sure that those he gently spoofs, are in on the joke.

kWeird Al Yankovic (Alfred Yankovic) (1959) - American singer, parodist, musician, actor and producer. Outer: Of Serbian descent on his sire’s side, and Italian and English descent on his mother’s. Born ten years into his parents marriage, as their only child. Grew up in a suburb of Los Angeles, and followed his father’s dictum, to do whatever makes you happy. After a door-to-door instrument salesman suggested it, he took up the accordion, because his parents were fans of unrelated polka king Frankie Yankovic. A huge fan of TV, as well as musical parodists like Spike Jones (Jack Black), he also is the possessor of an unusually limber body, giving him the odd illusion of being virtually boneless in the way he can bend himself. Took accordion lessons from the age of 7, before teaching himself how to transliterate r’n’r on the instrument. Radio rock DJ Dr. Demento opened him up to the possibilities of combining comedy and music, and his show also introduced the impressionable teenager to a host of performers who did just that. Younger than his classmates at school, because of an early start and a skipped grade, he wound up valedictorian of his high school, while eschewing both sports and female company, as an archetypal, albeit extremely popular, nerd. Sent a self-made tape to Dr. Demento, which received airplay, and also began performing at local coffeehouses, as an in-your-face accordionist. 6’ and bespectacled, with long curly hair and a mustache early in his career. Went to Cal Poly San Luis Obispo as an architecture major, while also working as a DJ at the school’s radio station. Earned his sobriquet of “Weird Al,” while there, and wore it proudly for his subsequent professional career. Had his first genuine exposure with a takeoff on the pop tune, “My Sarona,” with “My Bologna,” which he recorded in a school bathroom for the echo chamber effects. Won a recording contract from it at the end of the 1970s, after briefly forming his own label, Placebo Records. Soon realized that his future lay in his parodies, and by the early 1980s, he was part of Dr. Demento’s touring stage show, before forming a full band, and promptly being booed offstage after its first performance as an opening act. After his first top-40 hit, in 1983, he recorded his debut album. Found fresh fare afterwards in various hits by various artists, which he went on to parody with shot-for-shot videos. In 1985, he released a mockumentary autohagiography, The Compleat Al, which was accompanied by a book of the same name, and at decade’s end he starred in and co-wrote UHF, which satirized the TV industry, although it initially failed to find its audience, before achieving cult classic status. Also appeared in all three Naked Gun epics, having been a longtime fan of their creators. Continued along the same vein through the next decade, including a short run TV show in 1997, before altering his look in 1998, shaving off his mustache, growing out his hair, and trading in his specs for lasik surgery. Married Suzanne Krajewski in 2001, one daughter from the union. Both his parents died of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in their home from a closed fireplace flue in 2004, although he went on stage that night, after hearing about it, as a means of releasing his grief. Able to maintain his popularity over an extended period, through a fidelity to the original music in all his parodies, and a blithe good-spirited sense of humor that never belittles, but rather only slightly alters the lyrics for sheer comedic effect. Includes polkas on all his albums, and always gets permission from the recording artists before taking on one of their songs. For the most part, they take great delight in his takeoffs on them.Finally had a number one album in 2014 with his 14th satire-fest “Mandatory Fun” courtesy of a host of all-star help, while adding a 5th Grammy to his collection. Announced a “Mandatory Tour," afterward, with all U.S. citizens required to attend at least one of his concerts or face steep fines and/or possible jail. Inner: Vegan, well-liked and clean-living, with the desire to enhance his subjects through his own eccentric sense of homage. Lampooner lifetime of finding a unique niche for himself in his ongoing career stage center, and riding it once again for an enjoyable limelighted life dedicated to making people happy. kAl Shean (Alfred Schonberg) (1868 -1929) - American comedian and character actor. Outer: Of German/Jewish descent. Parents were beergarden performers. Father was a ventriloquist and magician. Mother was a harpist. One of four children, two boys and two girls, with all of them initially taking to the stage, although he would be the only one to make it a lifelong career. The family emigrated to the U.S. in 1876, and he grew up in the immigrant enclave of NY’s Lower East Side. Had minimal schooling, and worked as an usher and pants presser. His sister Minnie (Joan Rivers) married Sam Marx (Danny Bonaduce), a union which produced the comic Marx brothers, whose careers he initially helped, while playing the role of benevolent uncle to them. Minnie would also serve as his sometime business manager. 5’6” and apple-cheeked, with very expressive brown eyes. At 16, he renamed himself and organized a comedy quartet, which toured burlesque houses and museums. Married in 1891, one son from the union. His initial act lasted fourteen years, before he went the partner route. Teamed up with Ed Gallagher (Jerry Samuels) in 1912, only to come into conflict with him, and split up two years later. Reconnected in 1920, through Minnie’s efforts, and over the next five years, they became one of the best known tandems on the vaudeville circuit, as well as Broadway, as Gallagher & Shean. Gained show business immortality after introducing their signature song, whose melody he wrote, “Mister Gallagher and Mr. Shean,” during the 1922 “Ziegfeld Follies.” The chorus of “Absolutely, Mr. Gallagher,” followed by “Positively, Mr. Shean,” would counterpoint whatever punchline preceded it. The routine would inspire a host of parodies, although Gallagher’s alcoholism and nervous disposition eventually doomed the pair, and led to the latter being institutionalized. After they broke up, he took on other partners, and then continued his career as a character actor in films, with one last hurrah for the act in a motion picture reprise of the Ziegfeld Follies in 1941. The abrasive nature of their partnership would also inspire Neil Simon to write The Sunshine Boys, about an imagined reunion between the two, much later on. Died of a heart condition. Inner: Well-liked, generous and upbeat. Positively Mr. Shean lifetime of virtually being born to perform, and achieving everlasting fame through a singular routine, as part of the only sour partnership of his otherwise sweetly-spiced life.

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PATHWAY OF THE COMIC AS ENTREPRENEURIAL ENTERTAINER:
Storyline: The sly self-deprecator shows she has the licks for longevity, thanks to a wicked wit, an obsession with looks, and an innate sense of saleswomanship, allowing her to remain a comic force well into doyenneship.

Joan Rivers (Joan Molinsky) (1933-2014) - American comic, writer, tv hostess and entrepreneur. Outer: Parents were Russian Jewish immigrants. Father was a doctor with a good sense of humor, and she felt her first real power by making grown-ups laugh. Younger of two daughters; her sister became an attorney. Grew up in Brooklyn, then Westchester County, and after listening to her parent's constant squabbling over money all the time, she became obsessed with saidsame. Went to an ethical cultural school followed by Adelphi Academy in NYC, where she took part in dramatics, then had a small part in Mr. Universe in 1951. 5’2”, slim. Went to Connecticut College for two years, before graduating Barnard in 1954 as a Phi Beta Kappa, with a B.A. in English and anthropology. Became a fashion coordinator for the Bond clothing stores, and though successful, she felt unfulfilled. Briefly married for six months to James Sanger, a retail clothier during this period, before having the union annulled. Quit her job to her parents’ great displeasure, to pursue her dream of performing. Wanted to be an actress, but found herself going nowhere until a secretary suggested while she was making her casting rounds to try stand-up comedy, changing her name after an agent named Tony Rivers told her to do so. Began working in Greenwich Village discovery clubs without pay, while doing secretarial work. Moved up to striptease bars, second-rate Catskill resorts and cheap clubs along the Eastern Seaboard, and made it to Broadway in the “Talent 60” and “Talent 61” revues. Joined the 2nd City Troupe, toured with the USO, and then became part of a contrived trio doing topical songs and dialogues. Finally found a long-term engagement at the Duplex in Greenwich Village in 1964, which got her a manager, who angled her onto TV, as a regular gag writer and performer on “Candid Camera.” Had an eye lift the following year, in the first of a host of plastic surgery procedures. After some minor film appearances, she finally made it to Johnny Carson’s “The Tonight Show,” a pinnacle for stand-up comedians, in 1965. Quickly won over a large fan base for her quick wit and self-deprecating humor. Shortly afterwards, she married British TV producer Edgar Rosenberg, one daughter, Melissa, from the union, who would become a TV personality herself. Continued doing guest appearances on both variety and talk shows in the 1970s, and in 1978, directed and wrote Rabbit Test, about a man who gets pregnant, although it failed to find an audience. During the decade she also went from an opening act to headliner in Las Vegas. Eventually became a permanent guest on “The Tonight Show,” while also showing a Midas touch to everything she did, concerts, books, Las Vegas appearances, hit comedy albums and a jewelry company. Quite materialistic, she also had a Bel Air mansion, and a handsome income from all her endeavors. Realizing she would never become Carson’s replacement, she launched her own talk-show on the new Fox network in 1986, and immediately went on Carson’s permanent enemy list, as a competitor. The latter never forgave her, and following the cancellation of her own show after only seven months, at the same time her Broadway show ended, she began a downward emotional spiral. Her husband committed suicide during the week of the Harmonic Convergence in 1987 with an overdose of Valium. At the time it happened, she was having liposuction, and had to be told by her daughter. The two subsequently became estranged for a year, with the latter blaming her for his depressed demise. Tried to assuage her own pain with direct jokes about his death, all the while continuing her obsession with remaking her outer self with plastic surgery, while fighting depression, becoming bulimic, and thinking about suicide herself. Through counseling and the support of family and friends, she eventually straightened herself out. Launched another talk-show, this time in the daytime in 1989, which lasted 5 years, and won her an Emmy in 1990, and then in 1997, she began a radio talk-show, which lasted until 2003. Served as a host for the TV Guide channel, and also did red carpet pre-award show specials along with her daughter, before finally being replaced in 2007. A continual presence on The Shopping Channel and QVC with her jewelry line, she remained a volatile, opinionated interviewee on both sides of the Atlantic, causing occasional infotainment headlines with her uninhibited use of language. Still actively performing into her early 80s, with venues and projects galore, including an autobiographical show, “Joan Rivers: A Work in Progress by a Life in Progress.” Won the first season of “Celebrity Apprentice,” in 2009, despite an extreme reluctance to go on the show until her daughter was included, while remaining a ubiquitous presence on the tube as catty hostess of “Fashion Police,” and “How’d You Get So Rich,” as well as costarring with her daughter on “Mother Knows Best,” just in case her fans were wondering if she were still alive, and not an animatron in increasingly more exaggerated facial masks, thanks to over 700 surgical procedures. Moved to California to be closer to Melissa and added to her TV c.v. with a reality show in 2012, “Joan & Melissa: Joan Knows Best,” charting her move to California to be closer to her daughter. In a publicity move the same year, she chained herself to a shopping cart at Costco after they banned her latest book because of some racy jokes on its cover, before being asked politely to leave, which she did. Fanatically pro-Israel, wishing the worst to the Palestinians, during the Gaza conflict in 2014. Stopped breathing after throat surgery for her vocal chords shortly after her incendiary remarks and went into an induced coma. Was in the process at the time of promoting her latest book, "Diary Of A Mad Diva.” Put on life support, while continuing to get hair and make-up treatments, despite her completely comatose state. Taken off life support several days later, and died of brain damage due to lack of oxygen, surrounded by family and friends. Given a loving send-off by the entertainment community, and hada net worth of $150 million at the end. Inner: Uninhibited worshiper at the altar of power and wealth, with an obsessive emphasis on surfaces. Great desire to be desired, as both a performer and a person. Brash on the outside, surprisingly shy on the inside. Can We Talk lifetime of using herself as her own best material, while successfully pursuing her ongoing material ambitions and obsession with the surgeon’s knife, as a buffer against the vagaries of fate, and the harsh hand of time, even up to and through her sudden end. Minnie Marx (Miene Schonberg) (1865-1929) - German/American matriarch and business manager. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Father was a ventriloquist and magician who worked in German biergardens, and her mother was a harpist. Fifth of 9 children, and younger sister of comedian Al Shean (Weird Al Yankovic). All of her siblings were involved in the family act, which took them all over the country, although only her brother Al would subsequently make a career or it. When she was still a little girl, her family started serially emigrating to America, and she came in the final wave in 1879. Americanized her name to Minnie, and settled on NY’s Lower East Side, into a teeming immigrant enclave of Russian and mittel European Jews. In 1885, she married Sam Marx (Danny Bonaduce), an immigrant from Alsace and a dancing teacher, although they would soon move their official wedding date back a year in order to adopt her sister’s illegitimate daughter. Easily the dominant figure of the family, she dictated its subsequent show business course, while her husband became a tailor. Their first son died prematurely, and five more would follow, Leonard, Adolph, Julius, Milton, and Herbert, with the first three achieving show business immortality as Chico, Harpo and Groucho Marx, and the latter two as secondary figures in the family, Gummo, who became a manager, and Zeppo. Served as a manager for her brother Al’s career, eventually insisting he hook up with Ed Gallagher (Al Samuel), in what would prove one of vaudeville’s best known acts in the 1920s, Gallagher & Shean. Shepherded her own sons towards the stage, as well, and in 1909, moved the family to Chicago in order to be near the vaudeville houses there, which she felt would be less competitive than the East Coast venues. Began calling herself Minnie Palmer following the move, which was also the name of an established performer, and the subsequent confusion gained good press for her sons. Joined Groucho’s act, along with one of her sisters for a while, although her main interest was promoting them, which she aggressively did, becoming the only female producer in Chicago, fashioning her sons and her brother’s shows, as well as other acts. Had a particularly facility, thanks to her innate humor, for winning over both press agents and reporters, so that she was able to successfully mother hen them through their early career. When the U.S. entered WW I in 1917, she bought a farm in Illinois in order to exempt her sons from the draft, since farmers were not called up, although Gummo joined up anyway, which ended his active show business career, and her youngest, and least talented scion, Zeppo, joined the act. Eventually shepherded her sons back to the bright lights of Broadway, and in fine show business tradition broke her leg (a symbol of good luck) on the opening night of their first Great White Way show, “I’ll Say She Is,” in 1924. Saw them make their initial forays into film later in the decade, and just prior to the stock market crash of 1929, suffered a seizure following a family dinner, and died the following morning at the home of her son Zeppo, with her blood brood gathered around her. Inner: Aggressive, entrepreneurial and a born promoter. Matriarchal lifetime of shepherding a legendary crew to stardom, before assaying the same comedy venue herself as a singleton with a similar solid feel for the vagaries of the material world.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS NEEDY CELEBRITY:
Storyline: The churlish former child star takes a long time to grow up, thanks to an abused childhood and a bellicose nature, as well as an addiction to the limelight, and a desire to continually air himself out in public in order to truly see his gifts and failings.

Danny Bonaduce (Dante Daniel Bonaduce) (1959) - American actor, TV personality and DJ. Outer: Of Italian descent. Father was a TV writer and producer, with a number of highly successful sitcoms to his credit. Mother was also a TV writer, who eventually became a nightclub singer. One sister, as well, who followed the family pathway into TV writing. His parents would ultimately divorce in 1972. Joined the Screen Actor’s Guild at 4, and began his career doing TV commercials and working on some of his sire’s shows. Grew up in a largely dysfunctional household, claiming both sexual and emotional abuse from his progenitor, who he felt resented him from the moment he was born. At 10, he achieved fame as Danny Partridge, a member of the idealized “Partridge Family,” a well-received sitcom, which ran from 1970 to 1974 and notably featured a lack of a father figure, in its detailing of a widowed mother of 5 musically-inclined kids who form a band. The adult figures on the show, most particularly Shirley Jones, served as surrogate parents to him, when he periodically fled to her home to escape his own unhappy environs. Did more TV and occasional filmwork afterwards, but after his early brush with fame, fell prey to both drugs and a complete lack of purpose, so that his teens and early twenties were a period of out-of-control behavior, which led to his living out of his car for a while, while also becoming addicted to crack cocaine, before finally being rescued by his mother, with whom he subsequently lived again until he straightened himself out. 5’6”, 150 lbs., red-haired and muscular, thanks to steroid abuse. Made a few film appearances to little effect, and in 1985, married a Japanese real estate agent, divorced three years later. Finally rescued himself from himself in his late 20s, by becoming a radio personality, while also taking on the rigors of the martial arts, winning black belts in several disciplines. Busted a couple of times for cocaine possession, and also charged with assault on a transvestite streetwalker in 1991, while going through rehab several times. Married a second time in 1990 to singer Gretchen Hilmer, one daughter, Isabella, who became a child actress and a son from the union, which would ultimately end in separation in 2007, despite his wife’s strong healing presence in his life. Hooked up with a school teacher nearly a quarter century his junior afterwards, and she would become his manager. Gradually built up a reputation as a DJ, finally winning syndication out of Los Angeles, while also remaining in the public eye as a ubiquitous presence on TV, via purposefully provocative statements and actions in guest appearances on his part, thanks to a great need to always be on, to the point of flashing his undersized self, and then taking great umbrage on having his manhood questioned. Has also appeared in several celebrity boxing matches for charity, and also penned a well-written autobiography, “Random Acts of Badness: My Story” in 2001, detailing his recovery from drug addiction. Inner: Bellicose, confrontative and desperate to be a celebrity. Hey, dig me lifetime of taking his modest talents to entertain as far as he can, after an ungrounded upbringing, and a strong urge to self-destruct because of it. Sam Marx (Simon Marrix) (1861-1933) - Alsatian/American paterfamilias. Outer: At the age of 17, he emigrated to the U.S. from Alsace, and came to live in NYC’s Lower East Side. Mother worked in a lace factory. Became a dance instructor, then turned to tailoring as a profession, although his skills in that field were modest, at best. Nevertheless, he became noted as a fancy dresser, and someone who put a great deal of stock in appearances. Met Minnie Schonberg (Joan Rivers) in 1882, and the duo married three years later, although they would soon backdate their marriage by a year, in order to accommodate his wife’s illegitimate niece, so as to give her an official set of parents. Their oldest son subsequently died in infancy, and he was followed by five more sons, Leonard, Adolph, Julius, Milton, and Herbert, with the first three becoming the core of the Marx brothers, Chico, Harpo and Groucho. Their fourth son, Gummo, eventually opted out of the act, while the fifth, Zeppo, served as a secondary figure to his brothers’ genius for comic antics. With no performing ambitions himself, he allowed his wife to literally run the show, and was subsequently happy to be supported by his increasingly more successful family. Moved to Chicago via his wife’s strategic push for building a reputation for the boys in a less competitive surroundings, and then moved to farm in Illinois, in order to allow his sons to avoid the WW I draft by posing as farmers, one of the exempt occupations at the time. The family returned to NY and the Marx Brothers became stars on Broadway, and also began their highly successfully motion picture career. After his wife’s death in 1929, he moved out with the family to Southern California, where he died several years later of a kidney ailment. Inner: Dapper, good-humored, and a good cook, and very much willing to take a backseat to his far more aggressive wife and far more talented progeny. Paterfamilias lifetime of playing a minor support role to a high energy crew, in preparation for his own future stab at limelighted notoriety.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS CHARACTER COMIC:
Storyline: The populist philosopher switches sexes and expands her capacity for mass healing through laughter and a perceptive belief in the innate existence of intelligent life in the universe of audiences and entertainers.

dLily Tomlin (Mary Jean Tomlin) (1939) - American comedian. Outer: Family migrated from Appalachia during the Depression. Her father became a toolmaker in a brass factory, while Her mother had a quick wit, and she eventually used a variation on her first name. Grew up in a workingclass environment, showing a mischievous sense of humor from early age. Hung out with her sire, who took her to bars, bookie joints and the track, where she got her complementary education. Began working at 14 as a shopgirl, often skipping school and hanging out with a girl gang who called themselves ‘The Scarlet Angels,’ although she was able to finish her studies. 5’7”, slender. Went to Wayne State Univ. as a pre-med student, but a role in a college variety show, as Mrs. Earbore, the tasteful lady, changed her direction towards healing through entertaining rather than a medical practice. Dropped out, began performing in local cabarets, and then headed for New York in her mid-20s, but wound up a waitress, instead. Appeared in a revue, “Below the Belt,” and did some TV and commercials before becoming a regular on the final incarnation of “The Garry Moore Show.” When it ended, she returned to cabaret and club work before finally being brought to the nation’s full attention at the age of 30 via “Laugh In,” an extremely popular TV jokefest of the time. Began developing highly memorable characters, including Ernestine the Telephone Operator, and Edith Ann, a little girl with a fierce view of the world, and became one of the show’s mainstays. In her early 30s, she began working with writer Jane Wagner, and the two became housemates and close collaborators. Left the show in 1972, and did her own TV specials as well as a one-woman show which she wrote with Wagner, called “Appearing Nitely,” that won her a Tony, and revived the genre for later actresses. Added a 2nd Tony as well as a host of Emmys for her award shelf. Her acute characterizations depended more on her perceptions than one-liners, as her sharp wit cut through to their essences. Made her film debut in her mid-30s with Nashville, and though she has created a couple of memorable characters on screen, it has proven to be a less effective medium for her than the stage. Wrote a second one-woman show with Wagner, “The Search For Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe,” which she toured with extensively in her late 40s, winning a Tony for it in 1986. Reprised it on film, before reprising it again in her early 60s. Won the prestigious Mark Twain Award for Humor in 2003. Highly active politically, with a focus on feminism and nonviolence, while maintaining a low-key domestic life when not performing. After 42 years together, she finally married Wagner in 2014. The following year, she re-teamed with Jane Fonda in the Netflix comedy series, “Grace and Frankie” playing a pair of longtime rivals whose husbands dump them and want to marry each other. While the writing is broad, the thematics of older women dealing with their physical diminishment, their self-perceived superfluity and their sexuality remains quite relevant to its target audience. Inner: Clever, acutely perceptive, committed to raising consciousness through comic truths. A healer, interested in uplifting her audience, as well as exploring her own independent and unique voice in the wilderness of mass entertainment. Good medicine lifetime of using her special sense of character and perception to create a long-lived career as a noteworthy observer of the American scene. dCharles ‘Chic’ Sale (1885-1936) - American comedian. Outer: Used to entertain his home towners by studying them and then imitating them, in performances at his local town hall. Went into vaudeville afterwards with his coterie of rural characterizations, and began his Broadway career in 1902 with “King Highball,” before going on to appear in several musicals. Created a cracker-barrel character, which he used to limn the foibles of his times. Began his cinematic career in 1923, with A New School Teacher, although only made a few films, finding the stage a far better venue for his brand of comedy. In 1929, he wrote “The Specialist,” about a rural carpenter who built outhouses, which would make his name synonymous ever after with outdoor facilities, much to his displeasure. Died of pneumonia. Inner: Unchic lifetime of getting into just one character, and seeing all the possibilities that self-transformation through role-playing entailed.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS ONGOING ETERNAL CHILD:
Storyline: The pratfall artist learns how to rise from his various spills, after much practice on all levels at that singular skill, in order to try to reach a full sense of maturity, despite clinging to the lingering child that is his ongoing self.

dChevy Chase (Cornelius Crane Chase) (1943) - American comedian. Outer: From a long line of painters on his father’s side. Father was an editor at various publishing houses, as well as a writer, with a silly comedic strain, always lifting his leg whenever he passed a fire hydrant. His son would later use several of his shtiks, including making rude faces behind people’s backs. His mother was a pianist and a member of a wealthy plumbing-supply family, her adoptive father was worth over $100 million, allowing the family to be in the “Social Register.” Younger of 2 brothers, with several half-siblings later on. Given his nickname by his grandmother. His parents separated when he was 4, his father remarried an heiress, and his mother remarried a psychiatrist. Went to several private schools, but was kicked out of all of them, until finally finding one with which he resonated. Put a Volkswagen in the headmaster’s office, but still graduated as class valedictorian. Kicked out of Haverford College,then graduated, after many years, from Bard, and escaped the draft by impersonating a deranged homophile. 6’4”. With some friends, he created “Channel One,” an underground video melange. Married in his mid-20s to Jacqueline Carlin, whom he had met while touring with a rock band, Chameleon Church, divorced 4 years later. Wrote for Mad magazine, did some stage and TV sketch work, before heading for Hollywood. Offered a job as a writer on “Saturday Night Live,” and became one of its initial cast members, doing pratfall imitations of President Gerald Ford, and establishing himself as a handsome buffoon, although arrogant, obnoxious and competitive behind the scenes. Parlayed his one season into a highly successful movie career, always playing variations of himself in a variety of guises, most successfully in the ‘Fletch’ series, as a bumbling, disguise-prone detective, and the National Lampoon ‘Vacation’ series as an equally inept family man, Clark Griswold. Made more than a half billion dollars with his efforts, then began drinking and became addicted to painkillers, as his choice of vehicles proved less and less astute. Married Jaynie Luke, a production coordinator, in his late 30s, 3 daughters from the union. Went to the Betty Ford clinic to dry out from drugs, in an ironic pratfall of his own. Failed at a TV talk show in his late 40s, as his larger career hit a standstill. A liberal Democrat, he shocked his fellow like-minded cohorts with an expletive undeleted tirade against Pres. George Bush at an awards dinner in late 2004, following the latter’s second term win. Eventually returned to TV in 2009 in a sitcom, “Community,” as the voice of experience among a group of collegial community collegers, before quitting the series in its fourth season, to the mutual relief of all.. Inner: Childlike, superior, insecure, but genuinely funny. Lampooning lifetime of incarnating handsome, hale and wealthy, only to suffer a career of pratfalls and rebounds, and hopefully, some maturity, after creating 2 successive go-rounds based on the slapstick child still lingering within him. dLarry Semon (1889-1928) - American comedian, writer & director. Outer: Father was a professional magician/comedian named Zero the Great, who was also a cartoonist. Mother was a stage comedienne. Born while his sire’s traveling show was in Mississippi. Raised in Savannah, Georgia. On his deathbed, his sire asked that he take up cartooning, which he did, becoming a cartoonist for the New York Sun. Also wrote film scripts for Vitagraph comedies, and having fulfilled his promise, switched professions to his more natural mode of expression. 5’7”, 135 lbs. Unprepossessing-looking with wide eyes, jutting ears, a long white face and a puckish little mouth, he was a natural silent screen comedian, and soon began making his own shorts, both as a star and as a writer for Vitagraph. Created high quality comedies through the late teens and early 20’s, working very carefully to produce his visual gags. Tremendously popular in Europe, where he was known by a different name in each country. Married his 2 favorite leading ladies in succession, Lucille Carlisle, whom he divorced in 1923 and Dorothy Dwan, whom he wed 2 years later. A perfectionist in his work, he would often throw away film if it wasn’t to his liking. One of the most popular of the early screen comedians, he combined frenetic movement with slapstick, chases and pratfalls while relying heavily on sight gags. Unable to go beyond his initial efforts, which relied on his childlike character and his odd looks and walk, the public soon tired of him. Left Vitagraph, for whom he had been working, over money disputes, particularly his lavish spending. Turned briefly to vaudeville, then became heavily in debt over one last ambitious project which never came to fruition. Declared bankruptcy and suffered a nervous breakdown, dying of pneumonia several months later, a half million dollars in debt. Inner: Childlike quintessential clown with little monetary sense. Also driven perfectionist and constant worrier. Uncompleted lifetime of incarnating in a clown’s body, with a child’s comic sensibilities, and unable to bring either into full maturity.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS LITTLE BIG MAN:
Storyline: The cross-eyed cross-over clown trades in his exotic physicality for an exotic ethnicity in order to mine further comic gold from his uniqueness, while getting past the sadness of his previous go-round, that lay at the heart of his comic soul.

dCheech Marin (Richard Marin) (1946) - American comedian. Outer: Of Mexican-American descent. Father was a police officer on the LAPD. Graduated California State Univ., where he majored in English, then went to Canada to avoid the draft during the Vietnam era. 5’6”, stocky. Met up with future partner Tommy Chong in his Vancouver topless nightclub, and the duo began doing comedy sketches between the nude dance numbers. Although their early material was derivative, they concocted an act of 2 stoned-out marijuana-imbibers that became extremely popular with the subterranean set, and equally hated by critics and parents alike for their glorification of the drug culture and its zoned-out inhabitants. Created several classic routines, including ‘Dave’s Not Here,’ and a parody of Catholic high school. Although resistant at first to parodying Chicanos, he eventually succumbed, fashioning a small, excitable Latino for himself to play off of Chong’s laid-back Anglo and the pair went on to do several successful albums and films, beginning with Up in Smoke, which he made in his early 30s. Collaborated on all the scripts for their films, which grew thinner and more repetitive, until the duo broke up 6 years later to pursue their separate careers. Married Ricky Mae Morley, in 1975, one daughter from the union, later divorced, then wed Patti Heid, a painter, in 1986, son and daughter from the union. In 1987, he directed himself in Born in East L.A., and has since expanded his talents into dramatic characterizations, while continuing to do comic turns, although he deliberately separated himself from his previous stoner stance. Appeared on the sitcom “Golden Palace” in the early 1990s, and the detective series, “Nash Bridges,” in the late 1990s, while also supporting other Latino talents in their efforts to bridge mainstream entertainment. In addition to his continued TV work, he has also developed the finest Chicano art collection in the countr.y Inner: Good-humored, generous, highly supportive of others. Mildly subversive lifetime of dealing with ethnicity, rather than physicality, in stretching his abilities, while acting as a bridge between various subcultures and mainstream America. dBen Turpin (Bernard Turpin) (1874-1940) - American comedian. Outer: Father was a candy-maker. Retained a slight French accent from his early New Orleans upbringing. Learned acrobatics from the stevedores on the docks, proving to be an entertaining kid and a neighborhood character. Met with an accident as a boy that affected his eyes, and failed to have them taken care of, resulting ultimately in a decidedly cross-eyed appearance. Raised largely in NYC, but left home early, and for several years lived as a hobo. Began his career on the stage as a burlesque comedian, but had to retire because of problems with his eyesight. Went to Europe to have his condition treated, and was able to return to show business. Took voice lessons, and tried opera, but failed, and returned to comedy as a circus clown and vaudevillian. Created a character named ‘Happy Hooligan,’ and, working with a partner, played it for several years. 5’4”, 135”. His short stature and trademark crossed-eyes made him a natural comic. Entered films at their very beginning, joining Essanay in his early 30s, when it first started operating in Chicago. Married Carrie LeMieux that same year. Both he and his wife were devoted Catholics, and she chose to see him as a great actor. His wife later lost her hearing in an auto accident, no children. For his first 2 years, he attracted little attention and returned to burlesque. Moved to Los Angeles to work as a prop man, assistant, and then came back to Essanay at 40, and finally achieved some modest success the following year when he was cast as a foil for Charlie Chaplin, although the two comics did not get along. Left the following year for a new company, for which he was top banana, but his career still remained largely unnoticed. The following year, he finally gained recognition when he joined the Mack Sennett (Quentin Tarantino) troupe, which gave his comedic skills free reign and he became a popular star, parodying the top romantic leads of the time with his decidedly unimpressive physical presence and comic face. Insured his eyes with Lloyd’s of London at the height of his fame in case they ever uncrossed. His heyday was during the silent era of the late teens and early 1920s. When his wife suffered a series of strokes, the last of paralyzing intensity, in the mid-1920s, his heart for comedy left him. Married Babette Dietz, a secretary, soon after her death. Invested well in real estate, so that when sound came along, he did not have to depend upon film for a living, although he made a few appearances during the 1930s. Died of heart disease. Inner: Born clown, with the requisite sadness to impel him to perform. Unoriginal, but knew how to get the most out of his performances. Born-to-perform lifetime of playing off of his unique physicality, while suffering the sadness of a clown’s life through his wife’s misfortunes, ultimately losing his heart to sorrow, despite his overt successes.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS CATCH-PHRASE ARTIST:
Storyline: The salutary stand-up learns from his limitations from lives past, and returns in more crystalized form to give completion to the old-line comic he had always wanted to be, using paternal loss as a needed prod towards full maturity.

dBilly Crystal (1947) - American comedian. Outer: Paternal grandfather was a Yiddish actor. Father was a music producer, mother performed in Temple shows, and an uncle founded Commodore Records. Youngest of 3 sons. Given the opportunity to meet some of the musical celebrities of his era as a child, as well as dressing up in costumes and performing for the family with his brothers. Had an argument with his father at 15, then was devastated when he died of a heart attack right afterwards. The trauma forced him into sudden maturity. 5’7”, and a good athlete, on his high school baseball and wrestling teams. Attended Marshall Univ. and also the NYU Film School, where he had a class with director Martin Scorsese. Married Janice Goldfinger, a dancer, in his early 20s, both daughters, Jennifer and Lindsay, became actresses. Also worked the college circuit as part of Three’s Company, an improv troupe. Got some acting roles, and scored as TV’s first sympathetically gay character on the nighttime soap opera take-off, “Soap.” Did talk shows, then followed them with a comedy-variety show, before landing a spot for a season on “Saturday Night Live,” where his penchant for catch-characters and catch-phrases caught the mass audience’s attention, with “You look mahvelous,” and “Don’t get me started,” among others. Success led to starring roles in films, including light romantic leads. Began hosting the Academy Rewards in his early 40s, and easily adapted to the role as a slightly irreverent, completely non-threatening host. Also one of the anointed trinity, along with Robin Williams and Whoopi Goldberg, to head ‘Comic Relief,’ a yearly televised charity affair for the homeless. Created an old line comic named Buddy Young, Jr. in unconscious reflection of his past self, giving him filmic life in his directorial debut in 1992, Mr. Saturday Night. Continues his popularity into middle-age, as a purveyor of the gentler humor of times past, in an age when many comics are scraping the bottom of their shoes for appropriate material. In 2004, he launched his first one man show on Broadway, “700 Sundays,” which won a Special Theatrical Event Tony, and which he would later reprise on the West Coast. Got to live a boyhood fantasy by leading off for the Yankees in an exhibition game, only to strike out, a day before his 60th birthday. The same annum, he won the prestigious Mark Twain Award for Humor. After an eight year absence, he hosted the 2012 Oscars for a 9th time to generally mixed reviews, as well as the confused query from the younger Twitterati, “Who’s Billy Crystal?” As an answer, he felt compelled to return to network TV in the spring of 2015 with “The Comedians,” playing a version of himself as an older partner of a young comic, Josh Gad, working on a new sketch series, in an adaptation of a Swedish TV show. The effort received initial mixed reviews, working in some areas and not in others, although was canceled after a single season. Inner: Good mimic, good mime. Sentimental, cloyingly charming, a deliberate throwback. Overly energetic, getting by on a couple of hours sleep a night, lifelong sport’s fan, and a familiar figure at games. Crystallized lifetime of being given direct avenue to performance, so as to continue his foreshortened earlier existence in this series and bring it to much more satisfactory conclusion. dJoe Penner (Pinter Josef Szinesz) (1905-1941) - Hungarian/American comedian. Outer: His family came to America from Budapest when he was 9. Father worked in an automobile factory in Detroit. Began as a teenager in burlesque and vaudeville, achieving comic stardom in his early 20s on the road in “Greenwich Village Follies.” Married Edna Mae Vogt, no children from the union. Became a huge vaudeville success, earning over $13,000 a week at his peak. Began appearing on radio, and was a host of “The Baker’s Broadcast,” by his late 20s. Became one of the first to have a regular radio series braodcast from Los Angeles, Introduced a number of catch-phrases that caught on, such as a whiney, “Don’t ever dooooo that,” and “You naaaasty man,” while interjecting his trademark, “Do you want to buy a duck?” into many of his routines. An annoying laugh, coupled with a cartoonish, nasally voice and cornball humor marked his comedy, which was unsophisticated in the extreme. By his early 30s, his popularity began to wane, and he tried musical films, and singing novelty songs, to little effect, for his nondescript nature translated even worse into that medium. By his late 30s, the downturn in his career made him anxiety-ridden. Was preparing for a Broadway come-back, when he died of a heart attack in his sleep. Inner: Child-like, and popular with kids. Abbreviated and stunted lifetime of giving nascent nasal voice to a limited comic character, which he was able to expand considerably through learning from both his success and failures in a life limited by both.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS JUT-JAWED M.C. FOR THE MASSES:
Storyline: The genial gabber parlays a talent for feel-good humor to serve as one of America’s favorite on-air hosts, while accruing to his own ongoing collection of moving vehicles through his parallel talent for handsome compensation for his skills.

dJay Leno (James Leno) (1950) - American comedian & talk/show host. Outer: Father was an insurance salesman of Italian descent who loved to talk, and was also a Golden Gloves fighter. Mother was of Scottish descent. 2nd son, the family moved to Massachusetts when he was 9. Class clown in school, always playing for laughs, with a singular ambition to be a comedian. 5’10”, large-faced and noticeably thick-chinned. Began doing stand-up comedy at 19, working strip joints in Boston, and then other local venues, before graduating Emerson College in Boston. Did stand-up around the country, honing his act, which ripped apart consumer culture and was sharp-pointed and fiery. Married Mavis Nicholson in 1980, no children, largely wedded to his career, while his wife became a women’s rights activist. Did "The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson” at 27, then made frequent talk-show appearances, eventually becoming Carson’s guest host, purposefully blandifying his shtik to become a far more muted comedian. Picked to fill his slot when the master retired in 1992, after some maneuvering, although ran into initial tough competition from David Letterman on rival network CBS, by trying to imitate Carson rather than go with what worked for him. His hard-driving female producer also alienated guests. Serially lost his mother, father and brother in his first three years, but during that time predominated, to become, like his predecessor, a late night fixture. Despite mass exposure through the show, he continued to give live Sunday night performances in a local Southern California club, while devoting his week nights to pouring over jokes with a fellow jokesmith for the following day’s taped performance. Also does 100 dates a year of high-paying, private appearances for corporate America, squeezing them into his never-ending schedule. His ability to maintain consistent monologues would be a key to his ongoing success. Announced he would retire in 2009 after 17 years at the helm, with Conan O’Brien as his replacement, and was immediately courted by all the networks for any future considerations he might have in continuing to teleperform. Ultimately decided to stay with NBC in a 10 P.M. daily timeslot, beginning in the fall of 2009. Broke precedent by having a sitting president, Barack Obama, appear on a late nite talk show for the first time, and later called it the greatest day of his life. The show, however, failed to score in the ratings and in early 2010 he returned to his old time slot, bumping an angry O’Brien off NBC, and winding up with even lower ratings after he did so. Eventually had to take a pay cut in 2012, in order to save the jobs of some of his staff, as Jimmy Kimmel entered his time slot to do comedic battle with him and Letterman for audience share. Saw his contract terminated soon after, with the network’s desire to attract a younger audience, in replacing him with Jimmy Fallon. Let his bosses know in no uncertain terms his displeasure with them during his final run, before bidding a tearful farewell in early 2014, to focus on cars, comedy clubs, and other TV work. Had an embarrassing unfunny return to the “Tonight Show” months later, which more than underlined the reasons why he was replaced. Came back to cable TV with “Jay Leno’s Garage” in the fall of 2015, telling car tales, which proved a huge hit, and far more suited to his audience-appealing skills. Inner: Eager-to-please, generous, easy-going, but also driven, ambitious, and competitive, despite a self-proclaimed fascination with failure. Emotionally guarded, and seen as a sell-out by his earlier fans for his pandering to the largest audience possible. Longtime love of classic vehicles and motorcycles, owning some 80 of each, after originally working as a Rolls-Royce mechanic. Has never made a comedy album or done a comedy special, preferring live audiences, and traveling around to entertain them. Exhausting and exhaust-filled lifetime of taking his talents to the pure level of performance, where earlier they had been divided into business and electronic hosting, in order to explore himself far more as a winning, well-loved personality, without revealing an iota of his interior. Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw) (1818-1885) - American humorist. Outer: Father was former congressman, as well as a political manager for Sen. Henry Clay (Hubert Humphrey). Went to school in Mass. and spent one year at Hamilton College. Headed West in 1834, with the idea of becoming an explorer, and wound up wandering for a decade, while working as a coal operater, among other occupations. In 1845, he married Zilpha Bradford, 2 children from the union. Tried farming, and was also a steamboat captain for a while, although his first four decades were spent in a good deal of indolence and misadventures. Settled in Poughkeepsie, where he became an auctioneer and steamboat dealer, before finally finding his true métier as a journalist in 1860. As was the custom among humorists of the time, he adopted a pseudonym, Josh Billings, and wrote in a folksy slang, replete with misspellings and colorful language, dispensing wit and homespun wisdom to a hugely appreciative audience. Compiled a good number of his columns into books, and also toured and lectured, proving as popular on the lecture circuit as he was on the printed paper, taking second place only to the immortal Mark Twain (Kurt Vonnegut), in the hearts of 19th century Americans. Moved to NYC as his base, during his lecturing career, and wrote a regular column for the NY Weekly his last two decades. Died of apoplexy while traveling in California. Inner: Sly wit, with a taste for adventure, and in no great rush to truly find his strengths and explore and exploit them. Slow track lifetime of not really discovering his true gifts until his fourth decade, and then enjoying them the rest of the way through, doing what he loves best, entertaining people and basking in their appreciative applause.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER WHO IS BEYOND PERFORMANCE:
Storyline: The manic man-child tries to go beyond humor in his comedy, and winds up going beyond everyone, including himself, in his inability to integrate his vision with his physical and emotional actualities.

dAndy Kaufman (1949-1984) - American comedian. Outer: Father was in costume jewelry, mother was a former model. Eldest of 3. Began staring vacantly off into space at the arrival of a younger brother, and his parents took him to a psychiatrist. A lonely child, he spent much of his time in fantasy, reading wrestling magazines and collecting Elvis Presley memorabilia, while putting on TV shows in his basement bedroom, symbol of his underground sense of self. Felt an audience was watching him through a camera in his wall. Had a lifelong love of relating to children, and began performing for others his age at 8 or 9. Conceived most of his comic acts when he was a youngster. Taken to the school psychologist for his extreme passivity, which included allowing himself to be beaten up without defending himself. Fathered a child as a teenager, which was given up for adoption. Got into drugs, and finally turned to transcendental meditation in 1968 as a way of centering himself. 6’. Attended Graham Jr. College in Boston, where he studied radio and TV, and was in student productions as well as hosting a children’s show on the campus TV station. Began performing as a stand-up comic, with the same childlike act, but acted far more like a performance artist, often challenging and provoking audiences. Created a smarmy Las Vegas lounge singer, Tony Clifton, who loved to get audiences to hate him, and eventually Clifton became a persona unto himself. Although a vegetarian, he would get into the Clifton character and eat red meat, then purge himself by eating cheesecloth. Appeared in sketches that exploded into fistfights, leaving his audiences totally confused as to the reality or irreality of his act. Appeared on “Saturday Night Live,” in 1975, the first year of the show, but was voted off of it, which devastated him. His 2nd stint on “Fridays,” resulted in the same audience consternation. Moved to Hollywood, and in 1978, began appearing as a regular on the sitcom “Taxi,” in which he played off a character he had created, Foreign Man, as Latka Gravis, an immigrant mechanic, who also taxed audiences, although he felt strait-jacketed by the part.. Disliked celebrity, and worked as a busboy at a local deli to keep his childlike sense about himself. Eventually stopped coming to rehearsal, which vexed the cast, and insisted Clifton make appearances on the show, although he was so obnoxious as the latter, he was never allowed to appear as such, and after 5 years parted ways with the sit-com. Obsessed with wrestling, he would often grapple with co-eds as a means of seduction, as part of his act, offering $500 if they pinned him, which they never did. After a 1979 comedy concert at Carnegie Hall, he invited the entire audience, some 2800 strong, for a midnight snack, providing buses to take them to the NY School of Printing, where he served up cookies and milk to all of them. Continually innovative, going beyond humor to sheer provocation, such as sitting and watching his laundry go round in a portable drier on stage, or going to sleep while the audience tried to jeer him awake. Provoked pro wrestler Jerry Lawlor, who sent him to the hospital with neck and back injuries, then ironically, during the biopic of his life, Man on the Moon, Jim Carrey did the same to Lawlor, who also injured the 2nd comic’s neck in a repeat performance. Favorite of late-night talk show hosts, who enjoyed his unconventionality. One of the few comics who went out of his way not to get laughs. Was refused admittance to a Transcendental Meditation conference because of his wrestling connection, which killed him inside. Very health conscious, but died of lung cancer, although many thought initially it was just another of his strange bits. Inner: Continually masking himself to hide the real person underneath. Totally unintegrated character, but willing to risk disapproval and negative reaction to get at the heart of his compulsive need to confront and perform. Interested, above all else, to real reactions to his act. Man on the moon lifetime of deliberately challenging and provoking in order to take his audience beyond humor and into the realm of their own real emotional reactions, while more than willing to sacrifice himself to purge his dark sensibilities. dPaul McCullough (1884-1936) - American comedian. Outer: Mother was the second wife of his father. Two older half-sisters, and 5th of 7 from the second brood, with the oldest dying as an infant. Met future partner Bobby Clark (Bobcat Goldthwait) as a teenager, when both took classes in acrobatics at the YMCA together. Teamed up with him when he was in his early 20s, and began their joint career as tumblers with the Ringling Brothers circus. Initially called the Jazzbo Brothers and later Sunshine and Roses. Bulky and bearlike. Develped a very physical act, relying on visual gags and acrobatics, in which he excelled. The duo eventually entered vaudeville under their own names as Clark and McCullough, combining fast-paced patter and slapstick. They went on to headline on Broadway through the 1920s, doing their old vaudeville routines. Married a 15 year old, when he was in his 40s. Switched to film in the 1930s, making numerous two-reelers for RKO, although the longer they stayed together, the more Clark dominated the act, pushing his partner further and further into the background, thanks to a natural passivity. Fell into deep depression and had to enter a sanitarium in his late 40s. Went into a barbershop for a shave after his release, and when it was over, he grabbed a razor and slashed his throat and wrists, dying in a hospital 2 days later. Inner: Passive and punishment prone. Masochistic lifetime of allowing himself to be dominated by his longtime partner to the point where he felt an overwhelming need to literally purge himself of his darkness within, after finding no other recourse than letting his interior flow freely and unimpeded in a purgative gush that cost him his life.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS COMIC PROVOCATEUR:
Storyline: The unpartnered performance artist unconsciously apes his past life cohort’s antics, although eventually settles for a relatively more conventional career in lieu of the latter’s ongoing, early final act.

dBobcat Goldthwait (1962) - American comedian. Outer: Mother worked in a department store, father was a sheet metal worker. Did some stand-up in his midteens, then became a punk rock bassist with a Syracuse, N.Y., band, the Dead Ducks, but his between song commentary and audience-baiting, coupled with his distinct lack of musical talent, soon led him to go back to direct stand-up comedy. 5’7”. Extremely inventive, he continued hectoring his public with put-ons of pathos and screaming geared equally to antagonize as it was to amuse. The perceptive observations mixed into his act are usually centered round uncomfortable societal truths. Made his movie debut in his mid-20s in the ‘Police Academy’ comedies, but found them limiting, and eventually got canned from the repetitive slapstick series. Married Ann Luly in 1986, divorced a dozen years later, 2 children from the union. Burned a sofa on the “Tonight Show,” on TV in 1994, which brought him considerable attention, although he remains a peripheral comic figure, effective in small, quivery characterizations, and just as likely to offend as to illuminate. Eventually lost 50 pounds and mellowed out somewhat, doing lots of voiceovers, and directing rock videos, as well as getting his own program on cable, “The Bobcat’s Big Ass Show.” Began directing “Jimmy Kimmel Live” in 2004 to good effect, and the following year announced his retirement from standup, in order to pursue directing and acting. Inner: Angry, unconventional, provocative. Performance artist lifetime of trying to parallel his pastlife’s partner in trying to go beyond ordinary comedy in order to find the truth in his odd art. dBobby Clark (Bert Edwin Clark) (1888-1960) - American comedian. Outer: Grandfather was a sexton. His father was a dour railroad conductor who died when he was 6. One brother. Had a fascination with costumes after watching his grandfather in his Masonic get-up. Took classes in acrobatics at the local YMCA, and, when he was 17, teamed with friend, Paul McCullough (Andy Kaufman), who also studied there. The duo worked as tumblers for the Ringling Bros. Circus under the name the Jazzbo Brothers and then Sunshine and Roses. Developed a slapstick act, depending on bawdy sight gags with little chatter. By the time they took on their own names in burlesque, they had developed an oral counterpart to their physical comedy. With painted eyeglasses, a seedy jacket, a cigar, and a ready, leering, sarcastic wit, he became a trademarked stage figure. Married a French-Swiss actress, Lucette Gignat, in 1923. During the 1920s, the team headlined on Broadway, playing broad farcical sketches, and in his late 30s, the 2 started making popular two-reelers for RKO. As they matured, he took over more and more of the stage, singing and clowning while his partner hung in the background. Eventually McCullough retreated into depression and killed himself. Although deeply shaken, he appeared several months later on Broadway and became a sketch-oriented comedian, pursuing a successful solo career, most of it on Broadway. His last performance was as the devil in the road company of “Damn Yankees” when he was in his mid-60s. Died of a heart attack at home. Inner: Angry, inventive, a performance artist within a traditional context. Frugal, avid reader, and a collector of canes and flutes. Able to quote Shakespeare verbatim, and harbored a wish to play Cyrano de Bergerac in a musical. Performer’s performer lifetime of partnership with an equally over-the-edge compatriot, without slipping into his own madness in the process, allowing his cohort, instead, to do so for him.

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PATHWAY OF THE PERFORMER AS CYNICAL EVERYMAN:
Storyline: The perennial class clown combines a strong filial sense of family with a mordant sense of humor to make himself a stand-out comic personality, before acting on the desire to stretch himself into an actor of more than passing note.

dBill Murray (William James Murray) (1950) - American comedian, actor and writer. Outer: Father was a lumber salesman and executive, with a dry sense of humor. Mother was a mailroom clerk. Boisterous middle-class, Irish Roman Catholic family. 5th of 9, 3 other brothers became actors, one sister became a nun and developed a woman one show as St. Catherine of Sienna, with which she has toured the world. Grew up in a rowdy house with competition among the children to make their father laugh. 6’1”. His sire died of complications from diabetes when he was 17. Worked in a pizza parlor and as a caddy to support the family, which gave him a ferocious sense of class inequities. Attended parochial schools where he was a good athlete and class clown, while appearing in school plays, and sang lead in a school band called the Dutch Masters, then dropped out of Jesuit-run Regis College in Denver, where he was a pre-med student, only to be arrested for possession of marijuana at the Chicago airport. Did odd jobs, including baking pizzas, before following his older brother Brian into the improvisational group, Second City, where he would occasionally rough up the audience when he felt they were dissing the troupe. In his mid-20s, he joined future fellow “Saturday Night Live” regulars on “The National Lampoon Radio Hour,” and later the NY cabaret revue based on it. 2 years after “Saturday Night Live” began, he joined the cast in 1977 to replace the departing Chevy Chase, and quickly established himself as a cynical comic force, and the show’s center for the next 4 seasons, as 2 of its stars, John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd, began eyeing the movies more and more. Had a brief affair with co-star Gilda Radner. Began appearing regularly in movies in his late 20s, in mostly comic roles geared towards unsophisticated audiences. His one serious stab at drama, which he co-scripted, a remake of The Razor’s Edge, revealed his limitations as an actor, and he took 4 years off afterwards. Married Margaret Kelly, a high school friend and talent coordinator in 1981, 2 sons from the union, unhappily divorced 13 years later. Found his acting chops in the metaphorical Groundhog Day, which would prove his transition from comic to deeper performer. Put-down artist on TV talk shows, diehard Chicago Cub fan, and minority owner of the Brockton Rox, a minor league team noted for its zany promotions, although he was once criticized by a departing studio head for not giving enough back to the film community. Married Jennifer Butler, a costume designer in 1997, 4 sons from the 2nd union. Able to retain his popularity into middle-age, as a sardonic comic hero, before exploring the more actorly part of himself, to good effect, including Lost in Translation, which won him an Oscar nomination in 2004, and established him as a genuine actor of depth. Tagged in Sweden for drunk driving in a golf cart, in a comic underlining of his status as a worldclass funnyman, onscreen or off. After a decade of marriage, sued for divorce, amidst accusations galore of untoward behavior on his part, including the three ‘a’s’ of celebrity break-ups, adultery, addiction and abuse. Won a suppot Emmy in 2015 for "Olive Kitteredge." The following annum he was awarded the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, and then saw his beloved Chicago Cubs finally win a world series after a century plus championship drought. Inner: Insouciant, macho, abrasive. Sad-eyed, sharp-mouthed and extremely sardonic, with a strong antipathy towards the movie industry. Homebody and dedicated father, and fairly reclusive for a star. Great need to be in control, often difficult and abrasive on sets, but also has the ability to generate genuine audience love and affection towards him. Sardonic class clown lifetime of finding appropriate vehicles to channel his mordant wit and the depth of personality behind it, in order to be well-liked for who he really is, warts’n’all. dWillie Howard (William Levkowitz) (1887-1949) - American comedian. Outer: Father was a cantor. Brother Eugene served as a straight man for his funnier sibling for many decades. Grew up in Brooklyn after the family emigrated from Germany, and both sons did their first singing in a synagogue. As a constant prankster, he was expelled from school. At 14, he became a song plugger, and developed into a good vocal mimic. Joined two others as The Messenger Boys Trio, before adding comedy to their act by imitating other popular singers of the day. Eugene eventually replaced one of the trio, and after the other member left the act, the duo toured vaudeville in his early 20s as The Messenger Boy and the Thespian. Black, unruly hair, sad, expressive eyes, woebegone expression, walking clown. In his mid-20s, he made his Broadway debut with his brother, doing cornball humor and making funny faces to compensate for their lame shtik, while playing off of his sibling’s feigned pomposity. The duo eventually developed many routines which proved to be classics, often using Jewish dialects. His brother eventually retired in 1940, and Al Kelly became his straight man. Well-loved by both audiences and fellow performers alike as a little man who could not quite deal with the world’s complexities, but was able to make comic hay out of them. After Eugene retired in 1940, he never had another Broadway hit. Died of a liver ailment. Inner: Clown incarnate, with the same strong brotherly attachment he would have in his next go-round as well. Fraternal lifetime of playing off of his natural sad-eyed clown sensibilities, as well as his strong family sense.

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