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WRITERS - BRITISH, AMERICAN AND FRENCH POETS

PATHWAY OF THE POET AS SPIRITUAL SELF-EXAMINER:
Storyline: The heartfelt divine struts his stuff in both the secular and sacred spheres, while searching for himself in each.

W. H. Auden (Wystan Hugh Auden) (1907-1973) - English poet. Outer: Son of a physician/professor and a nurse who maintained an upper middle-class scientific household with a deep Anglo-Catholic religiosity. Well-educated, he originally wished to be a biologist. By the time he matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, he knew he had the poet about him. Charismatic and learned, he intellectually influenced those around him, including several poetic voices of his generation. Close friend of poet Stephen Spender. After a year in Germany, he became a schoolmaster for five years in England, while viewing his poetry as therapeutic self-expression. Briefly embraced fascism, then switched to strong left-wing convictions, working in close association with fellow homophile, and longtime friend, Christopher Isherwood, on several plays. Had one short-lived heterophile affair, otherwise openly and thoroughly identified with his own sex. In 1935, he married Erika Mann, the daughter of writer Thomas Mann to give her a British passport, while dismissing her famous father as a boring German scribe. Served in the Spanish Civil War as an ambulance driver, then became disillusioned with politics, and returned to the Christianity of his childhood for his intellectual and spiritual stimulus. A prolific writer on both the inner and outer modern and mythological spheres, he had a penchant for everyday imagery and a sharp wit, combining worlds within worlds in his writings. Went to China with Isherwood; before both decided to settle in the U.S.A. prior to WW II. After the war, he spent most of the year in New York City, and summered in Europe. Increasingly conservative in middle age, as punctuality and good manners became more important to him, while loneliness rose as his prime fear. A heavy smoker, with a raspy voice, his skin was eventually thickened and creased by disease, ultimately giving him a lizard look. Heaped with honors, including a poetry Pulitzer in 1948 for The Age of Anxiety. Published some 400 poems during his lifetime, including several which were book length. Had a lifelong relationship, albeit largely asexual, with promiscuous poet/librettist and wit Chester Kallman, who inflicted a great deal of pain on him and ultimately drank himself to death, 15 months following the poet’s demise. The duo had collaborated on numerous opera projects. Well-respected, he wound up one of the eminent artistic voices of his time. His last years found him largely repetitive in conversation, having already had his say. At life’s near end, he wintered at Oxford, where he was made an honorary fellow, and ultimately chose to go to Vienna to die, where he passed on to his own good night from heart failure. Inner: Highly intellectual, with a great curiosity about the inner and outer life of his world. Witty, serious, filled with integrity and sharp humored. Shy, whenever he was unsure of his presence, dogmatic and overbearing, albeit comic, when he was. Hard-drinker, with a longtime addiction to Benzedrine. Meticulous, intent on self-perceived truths. Skeptical believer, yearned for the unattainable. Highly social, unabashedly homo-erotic. Initially high-toned, eventually more earthy, but never accepted too-easy truths. Lizard king lifetime of once again exploring himself through his gifts for articulation, and his deep abiding love for Christianity, albeit from the vantagepoint of the secular world. Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889) - English poet and priest. Outer: Son of a former British consul general and marine insurance expert, who was also a poet. Eldest of nine, his family was Anglican. Wrote from an early age onward, winning recognition, and was given a grant to study at Balliol College, Oxford. Originally wanted to be a poet/artist, before he felt it would put him in emotional spaces he did not wish to pursue. To his family’s consternation, he converted to Catholicism in 1866, under the auspices of the Oxford Movement, and established himself as a brilliant student. Left Oxford to become a priest, entered a Jesuit order, and burned his early writings at the age of 23, vowing to write no more. Disturbed by his affinity for American poet Walt Whitman (Allen GInsberg), as well as his own well-suppressed homo-erotic urges, he ultimately decided that religious pursuits would quell any hint of his own priapic beast within. Studied theology in Wales in 1874, learned Welsh, and was encouraged to put quill to paper again, although his first major work was rejected. Thereafter he wrote only for friends, limning what he called ‘inscape,’ the inner landscape of reality. Loved word coinage and composites, while proving himself an extremely unique harmonizer of language. Ordained, he served as a missionary and parish priest, teaching at several Jesuit institutions in London, Oxford and Glascow, while showing himself inordinately sensitive to the energy of each. Appointed professor of Greek Literature in 1884, in Dublin, but was unhappy in Ireland, where he lived in extreme privation and his health suffered. A highly original versifier, with a talent for musical composition as well. Resisted all efforts by friends to publish and died of typhoid fever, with his last words reputedly, “I am so happy.” None of his works ever saw large audience during his lifetime, although they later served as an inspiration for his Auden go-round. Inner: High integrity, with deeply spiritual, astute critical sensibilities. Strong-willed, generous, with a powerful intellect, and a profound sensitivity to the material and spiritual realms. Abnegating lifetime of retreating into himself for the purpose of self-discovery, via both pen and mind without the worldly distractions of fame and fortune. Richard Crashaw (c1613-1649) - English poet. Outer: Only son of a Church of England minister, who was violently anti-Papist, but also did not want to be labeled a Puritan. His mother died when he was an infant, and his loving stepmother passed when he was 7 or 8. Brought up in a zealous, educated household, where his father died when he was 14. Matriculated at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and studied languages, while showing himself to be an ascetic recluse in college. Held a fellowship there, and was ordained, taking active part in the college’s church-life. Exhibited a witty flair in his religious writings, with an original imagistic style. Attracted to Roman Catholicism during the English Civil Wars, he became a convert in the mid-1640s, and was forced to resign his position. Went to France, where he converted, and lived in devout poverty. Discovered by friend Abraham Crowley (Stephen Spender), when the latter went there with an entourage of the exiled English queen. She sent him to Rome with a recommendation to the pope, but he wound up with a mere household position, and continued his impoverished existence. Made a canon just before his early death. May have been poisoned or died of a fatal fever on his journey. Largely devotional, rather than intellectual in his work. Inner: Unself-critical, loved music, and had a gift for friendship, despite his hermetic tendencies. Rapturously religious, with a fascination between the temporal and the eternal. Anti-materialist lifetime of principled religious rebellion, with a gift for shining poetic exposition, but without his usual ability to make his way in the world with it, because of a fascination with martyrdom and suffering as a means to deepen his spirituality. Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) - French poet. Outer: Younger son of a French noble family. Father was a soldier who had served with distinction, and an aesthete. Entered the service of the royal family as a page, spending two years in Scotland. On returning, an illness contracted on a diplomatic mission rendered him partially deaf, curtailing an active political career. Took minor orders and his interest turned to literature and scholarship when he was in his late teens. Studied Greek and Latin poetry, and formed a group with his friends, called La Pleiade, after a septet of Greek poets from antiquity. Among the group was Joachim du Bellay (Stephen Spender) and Remy Belleau (Christopher Isherwood). Had a strong reverence for classical forms and subjects, although also wrote of his own experience and contemporary events. Bitterly critiqued enemies, and let his thoughts flow on a wide range of subjects. In the French religious wars, he adopted extreme royalist and Catholic positions. Unattached, he tended to objectify women. Enjoyed royal favor under Charles IX (Sanjay Gandhi), as court poet, and was given an annual stipend and two priories. After the death of the king in 1574, he went into studious semi-retirement, although he continued his prolific output until his death, and was not afraid to criticize the new monarch. Suffered ill-health, gout and invalidism at the end of a productive life, where he enjoyed honor and respect as a prince of poets and master of the light ode and sonnet. His reputation would later suffer, and was not revived again until century 19 Inner: Erudite, witty, passionate, opinionated and arrogant. Largely pagan in spirit. An exemplar of clarity, precision and elegance in his works. Honored lifetime of trying to reconcile spirit and matter while serving as a bridge between antiquity and Renaissance France, with his perceptions somewhat curtailed by strong beliefs, and a deaf unwillingness to listen to any voice but his own. Saint Paulinus of Nola (Meropius Pontius Anicius Paulinus) (353-431) - Gallic bishop and poet. Outer: From a Christian senatorial family, enjoyed a privileged upbringing. Became the favorite student of the poet and rhetorician Ausonius (Stephen Spender), who was deeply hurt when he later rejected a life of literature for his Christian faith. Became a Roman senator, then a consul and finally a governor of Campania, before returning to Aquitaine in France and marrying. Converted to Christianity by St. Ambrose in 390, and shocked the Senate by becoming a priest the same year. After the death of his only child in 392, he sold all his possessions, renounced the outer world, and with his wife came to Nola, Italy to live a life of ascetic, nonworldly retirement, and dedicate themselves to charity. Ausonius pleaded via letters for him to reconsider, which he refused to do. Consecrated as bishop of Nola in 409. One of the most important Christian poets of his time, he corresponded with his eminent lettered contemporaries, and showed wit, charm and a mastery of language in his works, echoing the earlier Roman masters of Latin in his surviving oeuvre. Inner: Deeply spiritual, and yet with a distinct talent for worldly affairs. Saintly lifetime of entering full blast into the political life of his times via birth, before discovering his true calling and then turning worldly loss into more meditative pursuits, while evincing his usual mastery over language and poetical insight.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS PROFESSORIAL POLYMATH:
Storyline: The self-possessed gadfly poses as professor, polymath and poet in his attempt at autobiographical self-discovery, while playing at the great man to the acclaim of some of his contemporaries, but far from all of them.

Stephen Spender (1909-1995) - English poet and critic. Outer: Half-German, and one/quarter Jewish from his maternal side of the family, while his paternal grandmother was a Victorian novelist. Father was a well-known political journalist of a Radical Liberal bent. Mother was from a wealthy family and a semi-invalid who was well-educated, wrote verse and was given to hysterics. Had an older brother Michael, who became an explorer and scientist, an older sister, and a younger brother, Humphrey, who went on to a distinguished career as a photojournalist. Suffered an unhappy childhood, feeling overshadowed by his older brother, while his sire felt the same about his own sibling, a far more successful political journalist. Decided to become a poet at 8, was bullied at school, and sent home under the interdict of being “unteachably backward.” Saved from a second boarding-school, and more hectoring, when his mother died following routine surgery when he was 12. Fared better at day school, where he published his first poems in the school’s literary magazine. Lost his father in 1926, and had his first same-sex experience afterwards in Switzerland. Educated at University College, Oxford, where he became a friend of, and was influenced by, W.H. Auden. Acted affected and effeminate, with fantasies of being a famous poet. Initially unsure of his own sexual orientation, with considerable confusion about himself as well, save for his literary abilities, which were well-received. Failed his final exams and left Oxford without degree and traveled to Germany, which opened his literary horizons as well as his burgeoning preference for his own three-legged kind. Spent the early 1930s between Germany and England, actively embracing socialism, and embarking on several same-sex affairs, while exploring friendships with a host of culturati, including the Bloomsbury group and Christopher Isherwood. Flirted with his heterosexuality, then in 1937, he married Inez Pearn, who later eloped with a poet, whom she ultimately married. Dallied for a time with communism, although the violence of the Spanish Civil War soon put an end to it. Achieved considerable acclaim during the 1930s for his poetry, if not his critical writing, and settled into sexual respectability in 1941 by marrying Natasha Litvin, a pianist a decade his junior. The long-lasting union produced a son and daughter, while he lived in the same rented house for nearly fifty years. A member of the National Fire Service during WW II, he then worked for UNESCO as a literary counselor. Taught at Sarah Lawrence afterwards, and then lectured across the United States, all the while publishing poetry and prose. Traveled widely as a cultural ambassador of sorts, and served as coeditor of “Encounter” in the 1950s and 1960s, which was underwritten by the CIA, although he vigorously claimed not to have known it at the time, and resigned when it became public knowledge. His socialism gave way to liberalism, and he wrote extensively on a broad range of subjects, in a highly active life, with autobiography as the linchpin for all his works. Eventually became a professor of English at University College, London in the 1970s, and ultimately, professor emeritus. Knighted in 1983 and retired to enjoy his venerable status as honored man of letters. Died at home of a heart ailment. Inner: Self-critical, compassionate, humanistic, self-obsessed, highly ambitious. Self proclaimed holy fool, with a great desire for attention. Liked by all who knew him well, although the subject of much satire and carping by those who didn’t. Well-stroked lifetime of exploring and discovering himself through action, reflection and exposition, as well as the embrace of various social and political stances, in a go-round deliberately geared for a good round of mass applause, despite the superficial tinge that lay over a lot of it. Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) - English poet, educator and literary critic. Outer: Eldest son, and second of nine surviving children of Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby school, and the most influential educator of the mid-Victorian period. Born with a crooked leg, had to wear braces, and was called “crabby” for his scuttling moves. Wound up bearing internal scars all his life from it. His zealous and cultured father stimulated his social action, while his mother inspired his creativity, and remained a constant correspondent of his until her death in 1873. Attended his father’s Rugby as well as Balliol College, Oxford, winning a scholarship there and graduating with honors, while playing the role of the dandified fop, although he won the Newdigate prize for poetry with his ode “Cromwell.” Tall, with an equal facility for listening as talking. Always held Oxford in high esteem, despite his propensities for pleasure over studies. Became a private secretary for a cabinet official, through his mother, who worried her son was a slacker, despite his poetic gift. Enjoyed the social life of London, and used his copious free time to produce the bulk of his poetry. A devoted Francophile, he maintained a close connection with French cultural life, and was a huge fan of French actress Rachel (Edith Piaf). Told in 1847 he had the same heart disease that felled his father in 1842, he probably saw himself as a continuation of him, down to using the initial ‘A’ as he did, in his first two books of poetry. Took a position as inspector of schools in order to marry Frances Lucy Wightman, the daughter of a Tory judge who objected to him for pecuniary reasons. Both office and marriage took place in 1851, and he held the former for the next 35 years. Four sons and two daughters from the union, with three sons dying young. Sacrificed his poetic sensibilities for propriety and duty, allowing his gift to wither, as his critical facility overwhelmed his creative output, so that he had penned all his best verse by the time he was 30. “Empedocles on Etna,” would be his most accomplished work and a look at his own struggles between being an artist and a man of the mundane world, through the metaphor of a self-immolating Greek philosopher. Although he continued to compose poetry, it had none of the lyric resonance of his earlier work, and by 1869, his life as a poet had effectively ended. Traveled continually throughout England because of his job, as well as on the continent, finding much of what he did sheer drudgery. Wrote in his spare time, eventually turning to astute social criticism, and becoming a Victorian sage in the process, with his desire to uplift English intellectual public life, which he felt was completely lacking in comparison with the French model, which did not sit well with many of his peers. Felt understanding the past was the key to present, and saw England as three cultural and religious classes, Barbarians, Philistines and Populace, with the education of the second as key to the enlightenment of the country. Elected to the Oxford chair of poetry in 1857, holding the position for a decade, the first unordained figure to do so, and the first to deliver his lectures in English, rather than Latin, although he was far more effective in person than from the lectern. Nevertheless, he was continually asked to make speeches and scriven during his last decade, as a highly public figure whose word carried considerable weight. Spent his final intellectual coin on Christendom and the Bible, looking at both through the eyes of a literary critic, rather than a theologian. Died suddenly of heart failure, while awaiting his daughter’s arrival from America. Inner: Liberal, upbeat, witty and warm with a keen eye for social, cultural and religious patterns, and a great love of controversy. Felt the Anglican Church had great cultural cachet, and viewed Christianity more in literary than conventional religious terms. Always had an eye for beauty, as well as a taste for champagne and elegant outfits, but was self-censoriously monogamous. Scuttling lifetime dedicated to the integration of the social, the spiritual and the mental, while destroying the poet within in order for the keen critic behind it to ultmately prevail. Joachim du Bellay (c1522-1560) - French poet. Outer: Born into a noble family, father was a seigneur. Both parents died when he was young. A cousin was a prominent cardinal. Raised by an older brother, who allowed him to run wild and neglect his education. Studied law at Poitiers and literature in Paris, where he met Pierre Ronsard (W.H. Auden) at an inn, and joined his La Pleiade group. Like him, he was plagued with deafness, as well as ill health, although unlike him, he was more the Latinist than the Hellenist. Became a leading poetic light, writing the group’s manifesto of revolution, an influential Renaissance work of literary criticism. Also proved himself to be master of the sonnet, initially in the mode of Petrarch (T.S. Eliot), although later freeing himself to display his own voice. Joined his cousin on a diplomatic mission to the Vatican in 1553, although felt himself homesick and lonely during his four years there. Despite strong religious convictions, Rome disillusioned him, and his interests turned to cultural antiquities. Returned to Paris for his last three years, but did not renew his friendship with Ronsard. Lost the patronage of his cousin because of the sentiments expressed in his Roman works. Managed to win a pension from the king, but died in his mid-30s. Inner: Austere esthete, with a love of country and literature, and a desire to elevate both to the level of art. Deaf-eared lifetime of listening to his inner self, while integrating his esthetics much more with his spirituality. Abraham Cowley (1618-1667) - English poet. Outer: 7th and posthumous son of a wealthy London merchant. Extremely precocious, he composed an epic romance at the age of 10, after first being inspired by Edmund Spenser’s (William Butler Yeats) Faerie Queene. His mother wangled his admission to Westminster School as a king’s scholar, and he began publishing in his mid-teens. Matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became a minor fellow in 1640, and two years later, earned his M.A. there. Wrote elaborate poetry that found favor at the time, although his ornateness of verse has had limited readership since then. Also penned several comedies which were acted at the college. In 1643, he, along with several others, lost his position through pro-royalist sympathies. Left school, and went to Oxford, where he lived at St. John’s College, and wrote several satires, including “The Puritan and the Papist,” as well as an unfinished epic celebrating early royalist victories. By mid-decade he had fled to France with the royal court as a secretary during the English Civil War, and discovered his collegiate friend Richard Crashaw (W.H. Auden), living in exiled poverty there. Later wrote an elegant elegy on his early death. Never married, although supposedly was once in love, but far too timid to pursue the object of his fantasies. Returned to England in 1654, and was arrested as a Royalist spy the following year. Subsequently imprisoned, where he worked on gathering some of his verse for publication, before he was released on bail. Spent the last years of the Puritan protectorate studying medicine and botany at Oxford. Returned to France in 1659, although was coolly received by the Royalist party there, then hastened back to London. At the Restoration he was given the grant of a manor, though was not in favor, and retired to pursue horticultural interests, while also trying to design a school dedicated to scientifically educating young men. Wrote sobersided essays on politics and philosophy, although was largely a surface thinker engaged in the issues of the day, with no lasting import to his thought. Caught a chill while overseeing his laborers in the field, and died two weeks later. Received an extremely lavish funeral, the largest ever given a man of letters up until his time. His subsequent reputation would be high in some circles, and flat in others, as a man largely of his own time. Inner: Contemplative, conservative and traditional, with a wide range of interests. Polymath lifetime of reflection and alienation from political processes, while continuing to develop his powers of exposition. Decimus Magnus Ausonius (c320-c395) - Gallic poet, teacher and rhetorician. Outer: Father was a successful doctor. Became a distinguished teacher of grammar and rhetoric in the schools of Burdigala in southern France, where he taught for 30 years. His esteem was so high that the Roman emperor, Valentinian I (Richard Burton), hired him as a tutor for his son, Gratian (Peter O’Toole), then gave him the prefecture of Africa, Italy and Gaul, before making him a consul in 379. Able to secure posts for numerous relatives through his influential positions. Returned to his estates after the murder of Gratian in 383. Despite being a nominal Christian, he wrote in the pagan tradition, although his poetry was largely unmemorable, even though it became a forerunner of the Christian literary tradition. An active letter writer, he cultivated friendships with many of the eminent men of his day. His singular and most profound disappointment was the loss of his favorite pupil, Paulinus of Nola (W. H. Auden), to the ascetic Christian life, after that noteworthy writer lost his only child. Wrote many letters trying to dissuade him of his decision, but was unable to do so. In addition to his autobiography, he limned provincial Gallic life, and wrote many epigrams. Inner: Sentimental, devoted literateur, whose spirituality was secondary to his sense of aesthetics. Professorial lifetime of continued involvement with longtime partner in literature, as well as actively attempting to serve in his long-standing mode as teacher of the beauties of language well-wrought.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS SELF-CELEBRATOR:
Storyline: : The self-proclaimed camera alternates as spiritualist, prude, trickster and sensualist in his ongoing autobiographical process of limning himself for his perceived public.

Christopher Isherwood (Christopher William Bradshaw-Isherwood) (1904-1986) - English poet and playwright. Outer: From an English gentry background. Father was a lt. colonel in the British army, as well as an amateur actor and musician, who was killed in WW I when son was 10, which had a lasting impact on him. Mother was conventional and Victorian. Encouraged in his literary pursuits by his upper middle-class parents, he was educated at private schools, and went to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, on a his/story scholarship. After answering the questions in his exams in blank verse and limericks, he was politely asked to leave. Thought about becoming a doctor, but by 24, he had written his first novel and knew self-expression would be his lifework. Labored at various jobs in London, including private tutoring. Went to Berlin at 29, with poet W.H. Auden, a lifelong friend from early schooldays and explored the demi-mondaine world there. Subsisted on an extremely modest salary, teaching English in Berlin for three years, and also had a three year affair with a working-class German youth trying to avoid the draft. The city provided the grist for his most popular works, including Goodby to Berlin,”a book of 6 short stories, which inspired the play, “I Am a Camera,” and the musical, “Cabaret.” As a barefaced homophile, most of his works would be semi-autobiographical. Left in 1933, and spent the next few years traveling in Europe and writing in England. Collaborated on several travel book and plays with Auden during the 1930s. At the start of WW II in Europe, he settled in Southern California with Auden. During the war, he helped refugees via Pennsylvania Quakers. Embraced Vedantism, a Hindu sect, which accepted homoerotics as a valid pathway, and lived for two years as a monk, despite pursuing a promiscuous lifestyle throughout. Worked as a scriptwriter in Hollywood on contract with MGM, and edited a Vedantic periodical. Highly gregarious, he served as a central figure of the expatriate English, as well as homophile, community in L.A., finding the city and filmdom highly conducive to his social sensibilities, and his desire for reinvention. His reputation as a writer, however, suffered over the next 20 years. Despite being accused of sentimentality and religious mysticism, he later rehabilitated his literary self. Most of his novels have been based on his diaries. his last works were all autobiographical, written to be read as novels. At 50, he met an 18 year old college student, Don Bachardy, and the two became inseparable for the last 33 years of his life, collaborating on motion picture and TV scripts. Suffered a dual reputation as a gifted writer who eventually settled on being merely an entertaining one. Became obsessed with his own aging process, doing everything to avoid it, and eventually died of cancer. Inner: Clever, witty, irreverent. Also petty, selfish and egotistical. Largely apolitical, with his singular interest in people, particularly himself, which he limned in various guises in many of his works. Genuinely spiritual, although distrusted goodness in and of itself. Mirror, mirror, on the wall lifetime of exploring his narcissistic self through the written word and active interrelationships, and finding his sense of God in his own self-worship. Coventry Patmore (Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore) (1823-1896) - English poet. Outer: Mother was severe, and dominated his childhood, while his cloistered upbringing made him priggish. Father was an editor and author, who was improvident and not particularly admirable. Studied chemistry, and thought about a church career. Educated privately, with no formal schooling, and no thought as to what he would do later in life. In fine slacker manner, he went to France to improve his French. In his early 20s, his father lost money in railroad speculations and fled to the continent, leaving his surprised son to hack out his own living. Published his first volume of poetry in his early 20s, and became an assistant in the printed book department of the British Museum. Financially secure by his mid-20s, he married Emily Andrews, the daughter of a Congregationalist minister. Three sons, three daughters from union, before his wife died in his late 30s. Had mystical leanings, and became intimate friends with Alfred Lord Tennyson (Robert Graves) and Gerard Manley Hopkins (W.H. Auden). Contributed to the Pre-Raphaelite’s organ, The Germ, and also published a series of poems entitled The Angel in the House, meant to celebrate married love. Converted to Roman Catholicism in his early 40s, and married Marianne Byles, a wealthy woman around the same time, then retired. His second wife died in his late 50s, as did a son and daughter. Married a third time shortly afterwards to to Harriet Robson, his children’s governess. Transferred his sense of mystical eroticism to religious eroticism in his works, while his critical essays lauded his own work, and failed to fully appreciate the labors of others. Died of angina pectoris. His writing was somewhat flat, but executed with impassioned joy. Inner: Prudish, mystical, but firmly grounded in his pursuits. Popular image was of an insipid figure, but actually haughty, combative and plainspoken. Dual character, imperious, but also sensitive, tender and good-humored. Repressed lifetime of trying to integrate his dual character from a spiritual, writerly perspective, while holding back on his more sensual nature. Francis Quarles (1592-1664) - English poet. Outer: Father was a gentleman, holding titles of Clerk of the Green Cloth and Purveyor of the Navy. Received a B.A. from Christ’s College, Cambridge, then studied law at Lincoln’s Inn. Joined an earl’s train to attend the marriage of princess Elizabeth, (Princess Margaret) to the elector of the palatinate, Frederick V (Oscar La Fontaine). Returned to London, published a paraphrase of the Book of Jonah, then turned to the Bible for other similar works. Married, 18 children from union, half of whom survived, including one impecunious poet who died in the London plague of 1665. Became secretary to Archbishop Ussher, and retired several years later to Essex, where he penned his most enduring work, Emblems. In 1639, he was appointed chronologer to the City of London, and wrote prose manuals of piety. Defended king Charles I (George VI) at the time of the English Civil War and had his manuscripts destroyed by Parliamentary soldiers. Felt the dual pulls of Puritanism and Royalism during the Civil Wars, and chose the latter, while keeping his larger views to himself. Charged in a petition with unjust aspersions, although he cleared himself, but the strain eventually did him in. Refused a Roman Catholic doctor on his deathbed. Spent much time in prayer and study. Died a pauper, leaving his family in dire straits. Continually popular for a century after his death, and linked loosely with the Metaphysical poets. Inner: Conservative, traditional, with strong religious sensibilities. Sincere, simple and direct at times, abstruse at others. Loving father and husband, sometimes passionate in his writings. Restrained lifetime of dealing with his dualities by dipping deeply into the pious, while largely ignoring the material. Remy Belleau (1528-1577) - French poet. Outer: Nothing known about his family, although he probably came from modest means. His precocious talents were recognized by an abbot, and he was sent to Paris for further humanistic studies where he became involved in new poetic movement. Proclaimed the “seventh star” of the constellation of Pleaidan poets by their leader Pierre Ronsard (W.H. Auden). Acted, distinguished himself as a Hellenic translator, and wrote pantheistic lyrical verse that celebrated a musical cosmic order. Eager for a noble title, he served in the cavalry of a marquis on a Naples expedition in his late 20s. Returned to Paris and became tutor to the son of the marquis, enjoying his employ at the Chateau de Guise, for both its social and studious opportunities. Continued to serve his former pupil as adviser and steward, while being appointed secretary to the King’s Chambers. Often went to Paris, where he was held in high regard by the intelligentsia and artistic worlds. Enjoyed protection by the king through two reigns, and continued writing in the occult animistic mode he had earlier established. Died suddenly on a trip to Paris, and was borne on the shoulders of his poet-friends to the convent where he had wished to lie for eternity. Inner: Highly intelligent, erudite, with a great love for the ancient Greek world and its gods and animal spirits. Active lifetime of being a lesser member of a longtime grouping of intimate friends, with whom he would continue to develop intellectually, sexually, emotionally and aesthetically, as his own unique and ultimately self-aggrandizing soul.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS GLOOMY CYNIC:
Storyline: The pessimistic poetaster continues to look at life through a glass darkly, bearing the burden of his sour sensibilities intact down through the centuries without a glimmer of optimism to assuage them.

Philip Larkin (1922-1985) - English poet. Outer: Only son of a city official in Coventry, who was a bookish autocrat with a contempt for women and an admiration for Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. His whiney mother grated on his nerves, although both parents supported his esthetic development, his father in particular fostering a fascination with American jazz. Taken by the latter twice to Germany, which he hated, although took full advantage of his sire’s rich classic and modern library. Shy, with a pronounced stammer as an adolescent, while later describing his childhood as a ”forgotten boredom.” Exempted from military service during WW II because of weak eyes, he became a rebellious student at St. John’s College, Oxford, affecting a flamboyant manner, a biting wit and celebrating his own intelligence. Tall, strongly built with an imposing physical presence. Prematurely bald, he became increasingly deaf as he aged. Became friends with writer Kingsley Amis there, sharing similar cynical tastes, and the connection would lead to a long epistolary relationship, which inevitably ended with their mutual self-contempt. Took his degree and wound up in the provinces as a librarian, after failing to gain other employ in the civil service. Wrote several forgettable novels while continuing to work as a librarian in various places, before ultimately settling as such in Hull in 1955, and turning it into one of the best university libraries in Britain. His true metier was writing highly critical verse, using the small detail rather than the large statement to portray his vision of the meanness of contemporary life, while his deft expression of anger earned him a high reputation. A careful worker, going over and over his poems until he was satisfied with them. Experienced a brief homophile relationship at Oxford, otherwise had 3 longterm connections, each one agonized in its own way. Lived with one woman, Monica Jones, on and off for nearly 40 years, and she wound up destroying his diaries after his death. Had a romantic and then sexual connection with one of his assistants, and finally linked with his longtime secretary. Never married, considering relationships far too confining. Stopped writing poetry in 1977 at the death of his aged mother, save for an occasional verse. His last years were weighted with alcohol and growing deafness. Had his esophagus removed, and died of cancer of the throat. Became a celebrator of death in his verse, as well as a voice of low opinion rendered into high art. His posthumous reputation suffered with the publication of his racist and pornography strewn letters in 1992. Inner: Gloomy, grumpy, curmudgeonly, cynical, skeptical. Subtle and deadly wit, claimed, “Deprivation is for me what daffodils were for Wordsworth.” Totally self-absorbed, largely reactionary, and completely unintegrated around the feminine. Misogynist, misanthropist, racist and a pornophile. An amateur photographer, he often recorded himself with his stop-action camera. Lugubrious lifetime of dealing with faithlessness and disconnection, while retreating ever inward into a barbed-wire landscape with little to redeem it, save for the melancholy artistic expression it inspired. Philip Edward Thomas (1878-1917) - Welsh poet. Outer: Eldest of six sons of a staff clerk for railways and tramways at the Board of Trade. Showed an early passion for nature and literature, while his father wanted him to be a civil servant like himself. Acquiesced to his wishes in preparation for the civil service exam, although continued with his real desire to be a writer, and began publishing essays, which were compiled in his first book, “The Woodland Life,” in 1896. Tall and spare. In 1899, he married Helen Noble, the daughter of the critic who first encouraged his writings, while she was pregnant with their their first and only son. Won a scholarship to Lincoln College in Oxford, and graduated with a degree in his/story. As his family expanded with two more daughters, he supported them as a reviewer for periodicals, although barely made enough doing so, that he had no time to give to his own creative efforts. Instead, he penned popular travel books, critical studies and biographies, transcribing 25 of them, in what was largely hackwork for him, although several of the bios were noteworthy. Moved often and took his singular delight in the rural countryside, although the pressures brought on by trying to support himself by the pen made him both melancholic and introspective, while his physical and psychological health suffered, as did his marriage and family life. American poet Robert Frost became a neighbor at the start of WW I, which inspired him, and he began writing poetry six months before entering the army, choosing to enlist instead of moving to New England at Frost’s urging. Served as an instructor with the Artists’ Rifles, where one of his troops was poet Wilder Wen (Warren Oven). Began training as an Officer Cadet with an artillery company and was commissioned in November of 1916. Volunteered for combat duty in France, and on the first day of the battle at Suras he was killed by a shell blast. His first book of poems was published just beforehand, as his military service inspired a great rush of poetry from him, all of an autobiographical nature, painting an innocent in a variety of landscapes, both deadly and delightful. Inner: Sensitive and shy, drily ironic and guarded. Melancholic, with an intense sense of nature, which was a singular inspiration for him. Moody lifetime of allowing his brooding personality to run its pensive course over a disappearing world, before being swallowed alive by the martial industrialism of the 20th century. Arthur Clough (1819-1861) - English poet. Outer: Father was a Liverpool cotton merchant of Welsh extract, while his mother was the daughter of a Yorkshire banker. One of three brothers. His sister, Anne became an important figure in women’s education. Returned to England with his older brother after his parents emigrated to America, and was educated at Rugby, where he excelled at all he tried, including sports, despite a frail constitution, while becoming part of headmaster Thomas Arnold’s familial circle. Began writing verse and publishing it in the school magazine, although there was nothing unique in his early scrivenings. Won a scholarship to Balliol College, Oxford, where he was far less successful academically, although he became friends with fellow poet Matthew Arnold (Stephen Spender), son of the latter, who later commemorated his passing in a poem. His writings in college matured, although were still heavily influenced by others, and not yet a product of his own voice. Became a fellow and tutor at Oriel College, and originally wanting to be a clergyman, although he was deeply conflicted between the conservative Oxford Movement of the time, and liberal religious tradition, which undermined his larger faith. His religious doubts ultimately caused him to resign in his late 20s in order to visit the continent, while he became less interested in religion and more concerned with political matters, although his interest in the underclasses marked him as a radical. Visited Rome during the upheaval of the 1848 continental revolutions, using them as fodder for what would prove to be his most popular work, “Amours de voyage,” an epistolary novel in five cantos, written in hexameters. Later that year, he became head of University Hall in London, a non-secretarian institute connected to University College, although his religious conflicts came to the fore again there. Held a professorship at the latter school in English language and literature in 1850 and 1851, which gave him the opportunity to compose a host of lectures on poets. Went to America in search of a suitable academic position, but could only find tutoring work, despite being warmly welcomed by the Boston literary community. Returned to England and married Blanche Smith, a cousin of famed nurse, Florence Nightingale, in 1854. At least four children from the union, with one daughter, Blanche becoming a college principal. His wife was never part of his larger intellectual life, and he ultimately became an examiner in the Education Office, while working with Florence Nightingale to help reform military hospitals. Forced to resign his post in his early 40s because of failing health. Spent his last few years traveling in a weakened condition, while turning his adventures into stories and verse. outlived most of his birth family and died of malaria contracted while traipsing in Italy, after which, he was buried in a Protestant cemetery in Florence. Had a host of poems published posthumously, while his subsequent reputation has been up-and-down, depending on the tastes of the various generations who followed him. Inner: Gloomy, skeptical, cynical, an individual of many questions and few answers, although able to view his conundrum with some humor. Acutely aware of the intellectual and social ferment of his times. Skeptical lifetime of dealing with faith and death in a failed body, and trying to reconcile the two through poetic expression and a glimmer of good cheer, while using his works as an autobiographical examination of his own acute sensibilities. Edward Young (1683-1765)- English poet and clergyman. Outer: Son of a country clergyman, who became Dean of Salisbury. Of his three sisters, only one made it past infancy. Educated at Winchester College, and then on the death of the warden with whom he was lodging, at Corpus Christi College, after a short stint at New College, where he was a commoner at both. Nominated to a law fellowship at All Souls, he ultimately graduated in 1719 with a doctorate in civil laws, while establishing himself as a minor figure in London literary circles, replete with a friendship with lacerating satirist Jonathan Swift (James Joyce). Managed to survive into his forties on his literary output, with numerous disappointments in other realms, while also self-publishing many of his his poems, which were of both a political and religious nature. Wrote several bombastic tragedies, took holy orders and in 1725, became chaplain-in-ordinary to the princess of Wales, which led to a similar role with George II (Chris Patten) in 1728, the same year he was privately ordained. Disappointed with a lack of worldly success in his writings, despite expanding his oeuvre to include verse satire, he became a country rector 2 years later, and held that position for the rest of his life. In 1731, he secretly married Elizabeth Lee, the widowed daughter of an earl, and granddaughter of Charles II (Peter O’Toole), who brought two daughters and a son to the marriage. Together, they had another son. A decade late he suffered the serial deaths of his consumptive wife, his stepdaughter and her husband in rapid succession, and wrote the blank verse Night Thoughts in response. His graveyard musings were widely read in Europe at the time, making him a special voice of sentimental loss in the popular mind. Resuscitated a play he had earlier withdrawn, then paid the balance when it failed to generate enough money to cover it, and continued with his dark musings and observations. Made clerk of the closet to the princess dowager by George III (Jeffrey Archer) in 1761. His health deteriorated in his last years, while debt continued to plague him, as did his ne’er-do-well son. A grim spinster took care of him in old age, and he died after a brief illness on Good Friday. Had all his private papers burned prior to his demise, while his son soon dissipated his modest inheritance. Inner: Pensive, gloomy, and death-obsessed with a fertile imagination, and a willingness to experiment in his works. Never smiled after his wife’s demise. Brooding lifetime of dealing with the serial deaths of loved ones, and delving into his own grim darkness for the spiritual and literary sustenance to survive them.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS IMPIOUS PORNOGRAPHER:
Storyline: The priapic scamp raises himself to Olympian heights through his persistent sense of sensual celebration.

Victor Hugo (Victor-Marie Hugo) (1802-1885) - French poet, playwright and politician. Outer: Third son of a high-spirited mother, who was from a family of lawyers. The former reluctantly married a major of humble origins, who later became an army general, but she embarked upon an affair with another general, who was her son’s godfather, soon after the union. His sire was a ruthless republican and constantly traveling, creating an unsettled home life, with much time abroad, and Paris as his base, while his mother exerted a strong influence on her exuberant son. The latter hid her lover from the regime for a year and a half before his arrest, and he, in turn, imbued the lad with a lifelong love of liberty and concern for the oppressed, before being executed in 1812 for plotting against Napoleon. Spottily educated, he studied law, received a good education, and decided to become a writer. Founded a review, then lived in poverty before receiving a royal pension and marrying Adele Foucher, a childhood friend and daughter of an officer, at 20, 4 children from union, although a very inconstant husband. His unstable brother Eugene had been in love with his wife, and went insane on their wedding day. Claimed to have consummated their union 8 times on his wedding night, which did not amuse his virgin wife. Drawn into a group of romantics, he soon became a sovereign of the French romantic literary scene, with his own court of literary attendants and poetry, drama and political critiques as part of his highly prolific output. His masterworks included The Hunchback of Notre Dame, published in 1831, and Les Miserables, published in 1862, which was begun after his daughter drowned, and finished while he was in exile. which was begun after his daughter drowned, and finished while he was in exile. Formed a romantic liaison with actress Juliette Drouet (Rita Hayworth), which lasted most of the rest of his life, and his wife accepted it, living in affectionate celibacy with him, although their union suffered the intrusion of the homely critic Charles Sainte-Beuve, as a means of revenge on his spouse’s part. Always a fancier of ripe female flesh, he had numerous affairs, and a close connection to the royal court. Elected to the French Academy in 1841,he was raised to the peerage, and elected to the National Assembly, where he gave lofty liberal speeches. When the Empire was restored in 1851, he fled for his life into exile which lasted almost two decades, most of it voluntary, on the islands off of Britain. The period would prove to be most stimulating of his life, as he poetically and politically reworked his ongoing thematic struggle between good and evil. Returned to Paris at the fall of the Empire in 1870, but was beset by personal tragedy: the death of three more children and his wife. Again went into exile for supporting revolutionary activity, and was elected senator on his return. Acknowledged dean of French letters, he was priapically active into old age, consummating dozens of casual affairs, with women continually desiring to experience his unusual sense of eros. An accomplished artist, as well, he produced scores of stained and splotched free-association images, in a further exploration of his unconscious. Suffered a cerebral congestion, and when he died, was given a national funeral, which half a million people attended. Inner: Had the motto of Ego Hugo, which pretty much summed him up. Humanitarian, mystical, and superficial, with a monumental sense of himself. Vain, individualistic, passionate. A hero to many, including himself, while celebrating his own sense of commonality. Hugo ego lifetime of integrating a desire for notoriety and fame with his spiritual, erotic and poetic sensibilities, and largely pulling it off. Henry Miller (1891-1980) - American writer. Outer: Of German Catholic descent. Son of a tailor. Had a strict mother, and passive father, giving him a childhood of polarities. His progenitor was a heavy drinker, his mother was stern and demanding, while his only sibling was mentally retarded. An earnest reader, he was initially shy with women, but built himself up physically. Briefly attended CCNY, did menial work, joined his father’s tailor shop, then went to work for five years for Western Union, before ultimately realizing he was his own message, and should become a writer. Married at 16 to Beatrice Wickens, his piano teacher, but the union was unhappy, duo divorced after 6 years, one daughter. In 1924, he married June Smith, a Romanian, whom he met in a dance-hall, then lived in bohemian Greenwich Village, which he chronicled, while running a speakeasy, doing menial labor, and occasionally begging. His early manuscripts shocked friends and went unpublished. Emigrated to Paris in 1930 and finally found his literary voice through first person narration, recreating himself as a semi-fictional satyr, although he spent a long time before becoming financially successful from his quasi-autobiographical novels, Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, among them. Both were later banned in the United States for their uninhibited sexual content, which game him an underground reputation as the bad boy of his time of American letters. Took a job as a proofreader for the Paris edition of the Chicago Tribune, and eked out a precarious living. Divorced in 1934, he married Janina Lepska, a 20 year old artist a decade later, and divorced in 1952, 2 children from union. His fourth union was to Eve McClure, an alcoholic artist, and it lasted from 1952 to 1962. Made his fifth and final unhappy match to Hoki Tokuda, a much younger Japanese cabaret singer in 1967, which ended as the other unions had, in separation 2 years later, and divorce in 1977. Continually practiced total detachment, which sabotaged all his marriages, as he refused to give of himself to anyone. Extremely prolific, he loved to tweak American sensibilities. After more travels, he moved back to the U.S. in 1940, and settled on the Big Sur in California, where he inspired a whole generation of younger writers, and wrote another self-defining trilogy, Sexus, Nexus and Plexus, which largely summed him up as well. His works were eventually cleared by the U.S. Supreme Court, allowing him to enjoy both fame and notoriety into old age, which he spent living in the Los Angeles area. Also a painter and pianist. Died peacefully in his sleep of cardiovascular failure. Inner: Uninhibited sensualist with a wry, playful humor and a nose for notoriety. Bohemian to the bone, with a strong sense of mischievous outrageousness. Nose-thumbing and self-celebrating lifetime of tackling the Puritan prudery of America from both afar and anear, although obscured the distinction between fiction and autobiography, recording rather than transforming through his works, while remaining at a remove from those closest to him. Giacomo Casanova (Giovanni Giacomo Casanova de Seingalt) (1725-1798) - Italian writer and adventurer. Outer: Both of his parents were actors, with his father a cousin of Mozart’s librettist Lorenzo da Ponte, and his mother a noted beauty. Two brothers became well known painters. Eldest of 6, who may have been begot by others than his progenitor. Felt his real progenitor was the owner of the theater in which his parents worked. Suffered from nosebleeds as a child, and wasn’t thought to be long for this world. His father died when he was 8, while his mother continued her stage career until her death forty years later, determined to raise her children by herself. Had a disorganized childhood, with a precocious talent for mathematics and the occult arts, which he evinced at boarding school, courtesy of his suspected sire. Displayed dissolute behavior from early age on, as well, and went on to lead a life of exuberant excess. Claimed to have lost his sexual innocence at 11 to his teacher’s younger sister, and at 16 lost his official virginity to a pair of sisters. Received a law degree from the Univ. of Padua the same year. 5’9”, with very dark skin and long hair. Took minor orders, while receiving a hedonistic education from an old senator, then was forced to leave Venice because of his sexual escapades. Bought a commission as an officer for the Republic of Venice, but soon abandoned that potential career as well, after trips to Constantinople and Corfu. Saved a Venetian nobleman’s life at 21, only to find himself persona non grata in that city several years later, after more mischief. Became a violinist, traveled widely throughout Europe, joined a Masonic Order, and developed an archetypal reputation with his many adventures of the flesh, as amatory explorer extraordinaire. Made Bishop of Martorano, went on diplomatic missions, won the protection of a senator, but after seducing several members of his family, hied himself into northern Italian exile. Journeyed to Paris in 1749, became involved in the Italian Theater there, wrote for the stage, and frequented literary circles. Accused of being a magician, he was sentenced to 5 years in prison in Venice in his early 30s, but made a spectacular escape, which he later chronicled. Wound up in Paris again, where he introduced the state lottery, and made a fortune off of it. Bought an estate, and cultivated rich and elderly women, while pretending to be an alchemist and Rosicrucian to get him into higher circles. Grew ever richer from his endeavors, and bought a silk-making concern, but his constant affairs with female works depleted his treasury. After more adventures, and falling into debt, he fled creditors in 1759, only to be arrested again for debt. Fled to Switzerland, with the idea of renouncing the temporal world and becoming a Catholic monk. Instead, under the assumed name of Chevalier de Seingalt, he traveled widely on the continent as well as England, augmenting his amours, adventures and scandals. Allowed to return to Venice in 1774 after a near two decade exile, and served the inquisitors of the state as a spy, only to be expelled again in 1783, after penning a satire on the city’s nobility. In 1785, he concluded his colorful career by becoming a librarian for a Bohemian count, where he penned the memoirs that would immortalize him. Roundly disliked by peers and servants alike at his final home, in a coda of anti-sociality that symbolically summed up his existence. Wrote continually throughout his life in a variety of modes, with his posthumous autobiography as his standout piece. Fulminated against the French Revolution from afar during his last days and his dying words were, “Bear witness that I have lived as a philosopher and die as a Christian.” Inner: His name has become synonymous with the amorous arts, despite his love ‘em and leave ‘em attitude. Both a user, and someone who allowed himself to be used, with his life as interpretable as it was chaotic. Eschewed orgies and dealt with sexually transmitted diseases through a strict diet of nitrate waters Seemed to hold women in high regard and as more than seduction-objects, although he had a fairly well-protected heart. Strong believer in the Almighty. Devil-may-care, irresponsibly irrepressible, a walking school for scandal. Permanently tumescent lifetime of letting his id run free on the European continent, with much braggadocio and little sense of moral or social restriction. Francois VI, duc de La Rochefoucald (1613-1680) - French writer and epigrammatist. Outer: Son of a French count, he received a gentleman’s education. Married Andree de Vivonne, in his mid-teens, 8 children from the long union, as well as several illegitimate progeny. Led a violently, adventurous life filled with intrigues and amours galore with prominent women, although he preferred sheer action for its own sake, rather than a moral leadership role. Fought in the French army, and his father was elevated to a dukedom, but the loyalty of his family to the infant Louis XIV (Charles de Gaulle) was questioned, and he was deprived of his position. Imprisoned briefly by Cardinal Richelieu for conspiracy, and then was forced into exile from 1639 to 1642. Restored to the governorship of Poitou, but the rebellions of nobles during the Fronde caused the crown to burn down his chateau, when he joined the former in 1648. Briefly imprisoned and exiled for his intrigues, while gaining an unsavory reputation for illicit affairs. Wounded several times in battle around the throat and face, and almost blinded, he had to retire from active combat as his health failed in his late 40s. Suffered financial difficulties through lawsuits, although his friendships with women of power eventually won him back royal favor. After 1665, he was allowed to return to Paris, where he enjoyed eggheaded company in the city’s chief salons. Became adept at writing epigrams or brief pithy sayings which had a wide influence, ultimately publishing them as Maximes. Also quilled his memoirs. Suffered from gout for many years, which ultimately made him impotent in 1669. Spent most of his last 15 years living in Paris with novelist Marie de La Fayette, as the two collaborated on each other’s works. Inner: Self-preservationist, violent with men, seductive with women, although gentle at heart with absolutely no gift for intrigue. Pessimistic, viewed self-interest as a primary motivating factor, while thumbing his nose at virtue. Scabbard and codpiece lifetime of learning to express himself in the most concise manner possible, while enjoying the phallic adventures of the sword, pen and penis, until all wilted. Pietro Aretino (1492-1556) - Italian poet and dramatist. Outer: Son of a shoemaker, but pretended to be a bastard offspring of voluptuous birth of an artist’s model and nobleman, taking his name from his native city. His real name remains unknown. Had an impoverished upbringing with little schooling, and was a total creation of himself. Ran away from home, after insulting the local clergy with a sonnet on indulgences, and became a bookbinder’s apprentice for six years, then worked as a servant in the home of a rich art collector, where he got his true education. Briefly became a Capuchin monk, then returned to Rome and made his name with lampoons and lewd sonnets, causing his expulsion in 1524, despite the support of the pope, Leo X (Brett Ratner), who looked at him as a court jester of sorts. Stabbed several times by disgruntled targets of his rapier wit, which permanently crippled his right hand, forcing him to write with a pen held twixt his thumb and last two fingers. Loved satirizing the powerful, also wrote dramas. With little real talent, he managed to make himself notorious by either writing sonnets for patrons or scandalizing them by publishing their libelous secrets, an effective blackmail scheme that supported him in grand manner, making him in a sense, an early version of the gossip columnist. Settled in a large house overlooking the Grand Canal in Venice, despite arriving in his mid-30s penniless, and lived there in high style for the rest of his life, maintaining a virtual harem, and enjoying much honor and adulation. Entwined with the high culterati of the city, he played the role of the first real western pornographer. His plays and Dialogues, along with his letters, were also filled with pungent humor and sharp observations, giving strong hint of the accomplished writer to come. Died suddenly of apoplexy, although legend has it, he passed in a fit of laughter. Inner: Called himself “flagello dei principe,” the scourge of princes, as well as the “censor of the proud world.” Uninhibited, and unafraid of repercussions, a product once again of self-invention and self-celebration. Outgoing, trenchantly observant and ebullient. Libertine lifetime of complete free expression, while enjoying both praise and condemnation for his free-wheeling sense of exposition, a trait he would repeat life after life in this series. Guilhem IX, Duke of Aquitaine (Guilhem VII, Count of Poitou) (1071-1126) - French poet and ruler. Outer: Member of an important French dynasty. Inherited rule at age 17 and spent most of his life warring against his neighbors and the Saracens to protect his territories, which were larger than the king, under whom he served. Did not participate in the First Crusade, but seized the territories in Toulouse of his brother-in-law who did. Finally gave them back at the direct request of pope. In his early 30s, he gathered an expeditionary force of 300,000 men and set out for the Middle East on a later crusade, but his army was dispersed and the remnants were defeated by the Saracens. Barely escaped with his life, fleeing to Antioch and then Jerusalem. Attacked Toulouse again a dozen years later and managed to hold onto his gains for several years. Kept a convent where he set up his numerous mistresses, and was excommunicated several times for attacks on church properties. Married and his son succeeded him on his death. Granddaughter was Eleanor of Aquitaine (Sara Delano Roosevelt), a noted patroness of troubadours. Known as the first troubadour, because of his courtly love poetry. Some works were sensually lascivious, while others conformed more to chivalric ideals. His reputation rests on his work having survived because of his position of power, rather than its own inherent strength. Inner: Generous, profligate, and quarrelsome with a brilliant intellect. Known as a blasphemer and adulterer. Sword-waving lifetime of actualizing his longheld sense of power, while pursuing women, action and his muse, his trinity of earthly delights. Louis IV (921-954) - French king. Known as Louis d’Outremer (Louis from Overseas). Outer: Son of Charles III (Lex Barker). Mother was the daughter of the Anglo-Saxon king Edward the Elder (John F. Kennedy). Taken as a toddler to England by his mother when his father was imprisoned in 923, he stayed at the English court until his mid-teens, when he was called back to France and crowned king in 936 by the archbishop of Reims, who became his chief supporter against the powerful magnate Hugh the Great (Louis B. Mayer). Proved himself quite independent, much to Hugh’s displeasure, moving to Laon to avoid the latter’s influence. Defended the city from Hugh’s attack in 940, but, because he had interfered in Lorraine earlier against the German king, Otto I’s (Mohandas Gandhi) interests, the latter sent reinforcements to the rebels. Despite being defeated, he made peace with Otto in 942, then reconciled with Hugh the following year after the latter’s chief supporter died. Married Otto’s sister Gergerge, two sons and daughter from union, including his successor, Lothair I (William Burroughs). Intervened in Norman politics and was captured and handed over to Hugh who imprisoned him for a year. Allied himself on his release with Otto and retook Reims in 946, before regaining control of Laon 3 years later. After Hugh was excommunicated by French and German synods a well as the Pope, he made peace with him, which lasted until his death 3 years later. Inner: Tenacious and politically astute. Stranger in a strange land lifetime of making his goals manifest through the sheer dint of his will.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS MARTYRED ICON OF THE ARTS:
Storyline: The doomed belle keeps jarring herself into suicidal states, while evincing a personality destined for self-destruction no matter the circumstances of her lives.

Sylvia Plath (1932-1963) - American poet. Outer: Father emigrated from Germany at 16, and became an American biology professor, specializing in the study of bees, while her mother, a second generation Austrian-American, originally taught English and German. One younger brother. Her progenitor died suddenly of diabetes after a long illness and a leg amputation when she was 8, which affected her deeply, causing her to utter, “I’ll never speak to God again.” Her mother supported the family by teaching medical secretaries at Boston Univ., and the two had a contentious relationship, with the added blame for her father’s death, placed on her to further her guilt and discomfort around it. 5’9”, with dyed blonde hair Hyper-emotional and intensely driven to succeed as a writer, she won several literary contests, and entered Smith College on scholarship, where she excelled academically. As a junior, she won a guest editorship at Mademoiselle magazine, but suffered a mental breakdown and took an overdose of her mother’s sleeping pills. Recovered after shock treatment and a hospital stay, and was awarded a Fulbright scholarship in 1955. Attended Newnham College, Cambridge Univ., on it, where she had a tempestuous romance with poet Ted Hughes, whom she initially viewed as her ‘savior.’ Drew blood by biting his cheek at her first passionate meeting with him. The duo were married in London in 1956, 2 children from union, daughter Frieda Hughes became a poet, while her son Nick, a depressive biologist would hang himself nearly 50 years after his mother’s suicide. Felt she and her husband were “giants” in bed, in an extremely intertwined relationship on all levels, where both fed into the eros and artistry of each other. Continued putting her overwrought feelings to paper in both poetry and prose and had some short stories published. Took her degree and returned to Boston in 1957, as an instructor in English at Smith College, while her husband taught at the Univ. of Mass. Fell back into a depression cycle and returned to therapy, while continuing to write, and befriending fellow poetic self-consumer Anne Sexton. Went back to London at the end of 1960, and had her first book of poems come out to interested reviews. After a miscarriage, she and her husband moved to a manor house, as TH’s reputation began to rise. Given to jealous rage in her competition with him, once destroying all of his works-in-progess in a bonfire. Alternate entries in her diaries showed both elation and despondency with her mate, as well as a desire to try to spin the dross of her life into golden language. Wrote little poetry after the birth of a 2nd child, producing one novel, the autobiographical Bell Jar, which was published the year of her death under the pseudonym “Victoria Lucas,” and a radio play. Worked for years on her drafts, then burned hundreds of pages of a work in progress. Asked for a divorce from TH, after the discovery of an affair. Wrote intensely of her crisis and desolation, then returned to London to live in a freezing flat with her children. After being ill and anxious for 3 months, she took sleeping pills, stuck her head in the oven and killed herself, after penning a note for the babysitter, and leaving out milk and biscuits for her sleeping children, following sealing up their bedroom door to protect them. Little known during her lifetime, she became an icon of the highly articulate, oppressed female artist afterwards, primarily through the posthumously published collection of poems, Ariel. Won a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for her “Collected Poems,” in 1981, and a third of her journals, which were heavily censored by her husband, appeared the following year. Her uncensored diaries finally came to published light in 2000, although 2 key volumes were destroyed by TH for fear over their children ever reading them. Inner: Extremely neurotic, driven, competitive and compulsive. Outwardly exuberant, inwardly very troubled, competitive, enraged, father-obsessed and unbalanced. Ferociously conventional, and a perfectionist, looking for approbation from the world. Hypersexual when manic, jealous and prone to sulking when not. Used writing as a thread to hold the stitch-work of her inner and outer life together. Held a romantic view of death, and was probably destined to undo herself, no matter the circumstances, as TH later posited. Ecstatically agonized lifetime of operating on hyper-charged emotions as a stimulus to her creativity, with an inexorable draw towards self-destruction as a result of her unintegrated, attention-craving personality. Charlotte Mew (1870-1928) - English poet. Outer: Father was an architect who died when she was a child. Mother was the daughter and granddaughter of architects. Second of 4 to survive infancy, although two of her siblings had to be confined in mental institutions. Had a servant, Elizabeth Goodman, who stirred her imagination, but did not value her creative efforts. Educated at a London girl’s school and in Paris; and fell deeply and hopelessly in love, which was not returned, while enduring the debilitating romance of poverty and illness. Her precarious finances were further stunted by her father’s death in 1898, while her unhappy life was entangled with her mother, two sisters and a brother, all of whom died before she did. Wrote grim stories, and lyrical essays, while limning her frigidity and fears in a volume of poems published in 1916, “The Farmer’s Bride,” which would be her best known work. Several poets procured a Civil List pension for her when she was in her mid-50s so that she wouldn’t starve. Became desperately ill five years later, and was taken to a nursing home where she killed herself by drinking disinfectant, following the death of her mother and a sister. The friendship of the poet Thomas Hardy (Ted Hughes), was the singular positive thing in her sad life. Wanted her manuscripts burned. Her staccato, unevenly rhymed verse, was mostly memorable for its intensity of emotion, and its preoccupation with the negative aspects of life. Inner: Reserved, secretive, rigidly self-critical. Acted like a visitor from another world, with an ongoing obsession about death. Knew she was tainted, which precluded having children, or leading a conventional life. Morbid lifetime of exploring suffering as a basis for aesthetic communication, before symbolically trying to cleanse herself through suicide. George Wither (1588-1667) - English poet. Outer: Father was a farmer, brother became a mayor. Educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, but left disgruntled sans degree. Probably did some military duty in Ireland, where he showed a strong sympathy for the Protestant settlers there. Close friend of poet William Browne (Ted Hughes), with whom he initially collaborated. Published some innocuous satires, but was Imprisoned for them in his mid-20s. While incarcerated, he wrote five pastorals, among which is his best-known verse. Imprisoned again in his early 30s for a self-eulogizing work, became a Puritan, and afterwards his poetry took on a religious tone. Proved to be a philanderer but settled down after his marriage to Elizabeth Emerson, around the age of 40. 6 children from the union, with two surviving him. During the English Civil War, he raised a troop of horses for Parliament, and was captain and commander of Farnham Castle. Eventually rose to major, although failed in gaining a Parliamentary seat. Imprisoned again for over a year in his late 50s, and his papers were seized, although he turned his misfortunes into motivation for writing. Bore great resentment over his loyalty and criticism of Parliamentary tyranny. Kept quiet during the Commonwealth, seeing its leaders operating under the will of God. Endlessly petitioned Parliament, and wound up doing several more years in prison in his 70s for opinions expressed in an unpublished manuscript. Thought 1666 would be the return of the Christ, instead London burned. Died the following year. Inner: Saw the role of poet as public servant and himself as a savior or prophet to nation. Paranoid and delusional in his religious ardor. His name came to be synonymous with hastily written and sloppy poetics. Withering lifetime of periodic martyrdom for his beliefs and arts, while once again exploring suffering and imprisonment as a means of inspiring poetic expression.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS OBSERVANT BUT UNINTEGRATED HEART:
Storyline: The mournful nature-lover is forced to eat crow over his longtime cohort’s spectacular departures, while he continues to draw sustenance from the green world around him.

Ted Hughes (Edward Hughes) (1930-1998) - English poet. Outer: Father was a carpenter who later turned news agent, and was only one of 17 survivors of his regiment at Gallipoli in WW I. Grew up in the English countryside, which later inspired much of his stark nature verse, and the lyrical sense of England it evoked. 6’6”, handsome, with probing eyes. Served for two years in the Royal Air Force, then was educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge where he met fellow poet Sylvia Plath. After a stormy relationship, during which time he worked as a zoo attendant among other jobs, the two married when he was in his mid-20s, with two children from union, including Frieda Hughes, who became a poet. Recognized a death-urge in his wife, but also felt bound to her on all levels, from the erotic to the inspirational. Went to New England with SP for two years, teaching at the U. of Mass. while she taught at Smith, and also typed and brokered his poetry. Returned to London, where his reputation began to inflate thanks to his first prize-winning volume, The Hawk in the Rain, and he was soon surrounded by adoring women. Took full advantage of his rising fame while neglecting his domestic roles. Plath discovered one of his affairs, and asked for a divorce. The two separated and SP killed herself in 1963, as an archetypal victim of romantic abuse. The thrice-married woman he left her for, Assia Wevill, also committed suicide along with her daughter in 1969 in the same manner, sticking her head in the oven. Nevertheless, raised his two children by Plath, with the sense that their mother was a continuing presence in their lives, as well as his own, although published nothing for 3 years after her demise. Married in 1970 to Carol Orchard, a far more stable, commonsensical partner. After spending several years chewing on his interior, he began to churn out increasingly darker and more Gothic verse, losing his sense of lyricism, while his wife’s reputation soared as sensitive martyr of the arts, and his suffered as her destroyer, with vengeance-whetted poetasters shouting out “Murderer!” at his readings. His surname was also repeatedly chipped off her gravestone. The resultant battles, both legal and literary, between their relative reputations subsequently became how he would be perceived by the public, rather than as a prolific poet of far more than passing talent. Worked in concert with photographers and illustrators, wrote children’s books and eventually became England’s poet laureate in 1984, carrying out his duties with dignity. Explored mythic and elemental themes in his poetry, creating a world dominated by nature and animals. His singular self-reflective creation was the animal Crow, a witness, demon, victim and surviver, just like himself. In 1998, after a 35 year silence, he published a book of 88 poems called “Birthday Letters,” in which he stated SP was destined to kill herself because of her sense of father-loss, and that he was helpless to stop her, once more looking at nature in fated manner, and failing to understand the element of choice that lies behind all human existence. Spent his last months working on a translation of Jean Racine’s (Ingmar Bergman) tragic Phedre. Accepted the Order of Merit, 13 days before his death from cancer. Inner: Serious, brooding, sensual, sexual, highly spiritual and introspective. Polite, standoffish, moody and difficult, with a dislike for both work and personal hygiene. Self-contained and easy-going, continually externalizing his feelings in his work, while constantly plumbing himself for his own potential self-assessed greatness as a writer. Cawing lifetime of searching for instinctuality, and as always, realizing his spirituality through nature, rather than human intimacy. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) - English writer. Outer: From Dorset stock on both sides. His mother, Jemima, was a book-hungry servant, who encouraged in her son, an early appreciation of literature. His father was a stonemason who gave him a love for music, and the two had been hurriedly married. His parents thought him dead at birth, then didn’t think he would live long, so his mother became his teacher. Wasn’t sent to school until he was 8, although he could read before he could talk. Equally interested in culture and the traditions of rural England. Educated in a private school, but could not afford further schooling, and so was apprenticed to a local church architect, while studying Latin and Greek on his own. Slender and short. Worked as an architect’s assistant in London until ill health drove him back to Dorset, where he continued in that line until his near mid-30s, while writing poetry. Gradually abandoned architecture for fiction and became an extremely popular novelist, although he felt it prevented him from continuing with his poetry. In his mid-30s, he married Emma Gifford, a vicar’s sister-in-law after achieving financial success as a novelist, limning the rural life around him. Close albeit childless relationship, while she served as his muse, although harbored jealous feelings over his success, and often referred to his works as “our books,” which annoyed him. Became rich following the publication of Tess of the D’urbervilles in 1891. After a quarter of a century fiction-writing career, and undue moral criticism about his final novel, Jude the Obscure, he reverted back to poetry, feeling fiction no longer expressed his abstract thought processes. His later works include a verse drama on the Napoleonic era. After his first wife died, he married in his mid-70s to Florence Dugdale, a writer of children’s books some four decades his junior who had insinuated herself into his household. Lived in Max Gate, a house after his own design. Took some interest in the career of suicidal poet Charlotte Mew (Sylvia Plath), heartening her greatly, but was unable to stop her ineluctable draw towards self-annihilation. Died of a cold and old age. After his death, his ashes were interred in Westminster, but his heart was buried separately on his beloved land in his first wife’s grave. A writer of substance and profundity, and the voice of a small world slowly moving into the 20th century. Inner: Kindly and highly withdrawn, he saw himself in ghostlike terms. Great believer in fate. Understood that economic forces were slowly eroding the power of nature. Passionate and melancholic in his writings, while his emotions largely went into his work. Observant, dour, sensitive and thoughtful. Social, but at a remove. Peasant at heart, troubled with the innovative changes of modernity. Hardy, but not hearty, lifetime of living according to his design and yet still unable to pull his heart in with the rest of his persona, a continuing theme of his, which was underlined by his separate bodily burials. George Crabbe (1752-1832) - English poet and doctor. Outer: Eldest of 6 children of a collector of salt-duties. Father was intemperate and had a violent temper, with both high and low tastes, while his mother was sickly. Bookish at an early age, and largely self-educated. Worked in a warehouse, which he hated, then was apprenticed to a doctor, before becoming one in his early 20s. During his apprenticeship, he met his future wife, Sarah Elmy, waiting a decade for financial stability before wedding her in his early 30s. Lost five of his children, and his wife eventually sunk into nervous depression. Went to London in 1780, was befriended by Edmund Burke (William Buckley), who encouraged him to publish. Took orders and became curate of Aldeburgh, as well as duke’s chaplain for a three year period. Published his first poetry in 1783 and then nothing of value until nearly a quarter of a century later. Had great difficulty in establishing himself. Took opium to relieve his health. Later works showed an adeptness at character-drawing and compelling narrative. At 60, he was appointed vicar of Trowbridge, at which time, he brought out the last series of stories published during his lifetime. Realistic teller of tales, who included the good, the sad, the ugly, and the grimly humorous in his story spinning. Became a friend of poet Walter Scott (Jack Kerouac), despite their opposing poetic natures and sensibilities. His old age was uneventful. Inner: Highly observant realist, with his emotions put into his writing rather than into his life. Great interest in the natural world, enthusiastic gardener. Detached lifetime of trying to integrate his capacity for distant discerning observation with his own distance of character. William Browne (1591?-1645?) - English poet. Outer: Father wasprobably a descendant of a knightly family. Educated at Exeter College, Oxford, but left without taking a degree. Began publishing poetry, including The Shepherd’s Pipe, which he co-authored with close friend, George Wither (Sylvia Plath). Worked in the mode of Edmund Spenser (William Butler Yeats). Best known for Britannia’s Pastorals. Returned to Exeter college as a tutor in his mid-30s, and later was made a master of arts. Married in his late 30s, after pursuing his wife for 13 years, two sons from union, both named Robert and both died in infancy. Rumored to have had several wives. Much of his life remains obscured, probably into the politics of the day, although not noticeably active in any movements. Exhibited a genuine love of nature in his works, which influenced several well-known poets afterwards. Inner: Character largely hidden. Unrevealing lifetime of exploring nature as his primary source of inspiration, a continuing theme of his in this series, as he has allowed his own nature to darken through his longtime association with a far more complex compatriot, mate, martyr and friend.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS GRAVE STUDENT OF MYTH:
Storyline: The serious scholar enhances his own mythology and continually makes himself into a living institution in the process.

Robert Graves (1895-1985) - English writer and mythologist. Outer: From a bourgeois background. Grandfather was an Irish bishop, father worked as an inspector of schools and had a minor literary, linguistic talent. Mother was from a distinguished German academic family, but died when he was young. Stepmother was a puritanical German. Flirted with male-love as a teenager in private schools, where he also began writing poetry. 6’3”. Served as a British officer in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers at the western front during WW I, rediscovering his heterosexuality. Severely wounded in the trenches, when a shell went off near him, piercing his lung and causing an equal amount of inner turmoil. Reported dead after the war. Educated at St. John’s College, Oxford, and though illness prevented him from a degree, he was a awarded a B.Litt. for a thesis he wrote. In his early 20s, he married Nancy Nicholson, a feminist artist, who developed a thyroid condition, 4 children from theunion. Despite their unhappy linkage, the two remained officially married for three decades. Because of poverty, in 1926, he briefly took an academic post in Cairo, bringing along American poet Laura Riding, who opened him up to his basic duality of sexuality and dread. The two were involved for over a decade, beginning as a menage a trois with his wife, although the latter part of the relationship was celibate. Riding would exerted a powerful influence on him, shocking his family and friends in his abject submission to her iron and capricious will. Published his grim war memoirs, and made his permanent home on the island of Majorca, where he held court. Wrote his/storical novels and began to explore myths, seeing that at the root of the Earthly divine was a goddess figure, which Riding probably inspired. Best known for The White Goddess, published in 1948. His inamorata eventually left him for a gentleman farmer, and he spent the rest of his life with the wife, Beryl Hodge, of a friend and collaborator, although he continually pursued young women as his muse, which she forbore, while also collaborating with him on several translations, and serving as his typist. In his mid-50s, he married BH, 4 children from second union, although he suffered the loss of a son during WW II, after convincing him to join his old regiment. Made professor of poetry at Oxford in 1961, and became an exquisite writer of sad love poems, while having affairs with young students and hangers-on. All of them tired of him before he tired of them, despite his wife’s willingness to share him, while she, in turn, remained friendly with many of his self-styled “muses.” Reached a venerated age, and slipped into senility, losing his short-term memory, and eventually lapsing into silence, dying a much beloved poetic figure. Inner: Troubled, grave, serious. Ambivalent and equivocating, constantly trying to integrate the two into clarity. Wrote everything in longhand, including several dozen letters a day. Voice of tradition, translating the ancient world of myth into modern sensibilities, with a meticulous devotion to poetry. Somber lifetime of experiencing the grave of the trenches, and the unamusing muse of a powerful poetic Goddess, while looking to myth to salve his sense of being among the undead. Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) - English poet. Outer: English poet. From a wealthy family. His father, who was given to drink and titanic rages, had been disinherited and forced to seek employment in the church, as a clergyman. Mother was the daughter of a vicar. Three brothers were mentally unbalanced from homelife at their mad rectory, and his wife eventually left him. Feared for his own sanity while growing up, as the 6th of 12 children. Tall, dark and handsome, he already had 50 poems published in his teens. Attended Trinity College, Cambridge, and won the Chancellor’s Gold Medal for poetry, but 2 years later, left school because of his father’s death, and became responsible for family financially. Anti-material in sentiment, although not in practice. In 1833, his best friend and chief support, Arthur Hallam, who had also been engaged to his sister, died of a stroke, and he mourned his loss greatly, writing ‘in memorium’ verses over him for the next 17 years. Penned little for 2 years afterwards, and did not publish again for another 7. Began exploring Arthurian legend in his works, and in 1845 was granted a Civil List pension of £200 a year for life. Married in his early 40s to Emily Sellwood, a woman he had known for 20 years and to whom he had earlier been engaged. His wife was obsessed with bringing out his rectitude rather than his family madness, and was bedridden for the last eighteen years of their marriage, although she outlived him. Achieved fame early, was made poet laureate in 1850, and became the pre-eminent Victorian poet of England, enjoying widespread acclaim and influence. Fascinated with myth, particularly Camelot and the legend of King Arthur, which culminated in his Idylls of the King in 1859. Acquired two mansions, lived in them like a lord, which he became in 1883 with the title of baron, and was viewed as a virtual god of the muses during his long lifetime. Semi-invalided from rheumatic gout, forcing him into being a recluse at the end. Died of heart failure. Inner: Gregarious, but graceless. Profoundly melancholic, hypersensitive. Longed for death all his life. Had rough manners and tastes, consumed vast amounts of foul tobacco, and knocked off two bottles of port at the table regularly. Neurotically sensitive to criticism. Uncomfortable lifetime of being obsessed with madness and death, while trying to find faith in a world that created both. Robert Herrick (1591-1674) - English poet. Outer: 7th child of a goldsmith, who killed himself by jumping through a window from the fourth floor of their house, when his son was one. Also lost his older brother within a few days of the tragedy. Part of the family’s property was confiscated, and he was placed under the guardianship of, and then apprenticed to, an uncle in the same trade from 1607 to 1613. After inheriting money from his sire’s estate, he promptly quit his apprenticeship, and enrolled at St. John’s College and then Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Wrote reams of poetry while there, as well as developed a taste for alcohol, before graduating with a bachelor degree, and then a master of arts degree. As an undergraduate, he joined “the Sons of Ben,” a group of Cavalier poets who revered the works of poet and playwright Ben Jonson (Norman Mailer). Despite studying law for a time and being ordained as a deacon in 1623, he preferred the literary to the clerical life. Frequented court and cultural society, but never married, while the women of his poems were pure figments. Served as a chaplain on a mission for the 2nd duke of Buckingham (Aldous Huxley), then lived in a priory in Devonshire for rest of his life, beginning in 1629, although he was deprived of the post because of Royalist sympathies for the 15 years just prior to, during, and after the Commonwealth, resuming his residence in 1662. Wrote gracefully simple verse of spring, youth and the inevitability of death, and revived a sense of ancient, classical lyricism, although his religious poetry was marked by a childish naiveté. Generally forgotten after his death. Inner: Irascible, but well-liked. Fastidious, deliberate, careful. Contemplative lifetime of looking to the past for sustenance during a present of much upheaval. Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) - Italian courtier and writer. Outer: From a noble Mantuan family. Received a humanist education, learning Latin and Greek, and spent almost his entire life in court. Learned the art of chivalry at the court of Ludovico Sforza (Michael Milken). Composed some minor verse, adhering to the conventions of the time. Traveled to both England and France for his master, receiving the Order of the Garter for him in the former. In 1507, he went into the employ of the duke of Urbino, where he met many of the leading humanist figures of the day. Engaged in martial activity, and was made count of Novilara by the pope for his efforts in the siege of Mirandola in 1511. Continued with his diplomatic work, serving as ambassador to the papal court from 1513 to 1515, before his patron was dispossessed of his duchy. Returned to work for his initial employer in Mantua, and was once again sent to Rome. In 1524, he was given a record-keeping position in the papal curia and in 1525 he was sent by the pope as papal nuncio to Charles V (Napoleon Bonaparte) of Spain, although 2 years later the latter’s imperial troops sacked Rome. The pope felt his ambassador was at fault and demanded an apology, although he later realized he was innocent. The following year, his life’s work, The Book of the Courtier, was published, in which he limned the ideal courtier based on his own experiences at the court of Urbino, then a European center of learning and aesthetics. Spent 20 years on the highly chivalric book, but the whole work did not appear until a year after his death. His last year was spent internalizing his failures in Spain, and he died full of sorrow, with a sense of profound failure at both the sack of Rome and the suspicions on him that it engendered. His work had a subsequent strong influence on French, Spanish and English literature & customs. Also a voluminous correspondent. Inner: Strong humanist, serious, intelligent, with a deep sense of chivalric ideal. Saw grace as the prime quality of a courtier, and though it was a gift of nature, he also felt it could be developed by instruction. Beauty, which was the result of grace in all things, was femaledom’s primary attribute to him. Courtly lifetime of limning an ideal on paper, while trying to translate it into pragmatics, only to ultimately feel himself a sorrowful failure, despite his many admirable traits. while creating a chivalric codebook for the ages. Manuel II Palaeologus (1350-1424) - Byzantine Basileus. Outer: Second son of Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus (Rajiv Gandhi) and Helena, the daughter of emperor John VI Cantacouzenus. While his older brother Andronicus IV (Robert Bly) was crowned co-emperor, he was made a governor of Thessalonica in 1369. After Andonicus’s failed attempt at a coup in 1373, he became heir and co-emperor with his father. Following another coup attempt by Andronicus and his son John VII (Matteo Garrone) in 1390, he took part in their defeat, with the help of the Venetians. In 1392, he married Helena, the beautiful and pious daughter of a Serbian magnate. At least eight sons and two daughters from the union, with two of the former, John VIII (Cecil Day Lewis) and Constantine XI (Daniel Day Lewis), becoming the last two emperors of Byzantium. Forced to serve as an honorary hostage to the Ottoman emperor, and then was made to participate in his campaign against the last Byzantine enclave in Anatolia. After learning of his sire’s death in 1391, he fled his situation and quickly reestablished his claim to the throne over his nephew John VII, who had made an earlier abortive attempt at seizing rule for himself. Enjoyed a full bore coronation, filled with pomp and circumstance, to serve as an uplifting tonic to his people, and was able to enjoy a relatively peaceful run in the beginning. The Ottoman sultan, Bayezid I, however, laid siege to the city from 1394 to 1402, and he was forced to trust its defense to John VII towards century’s end, while he went to the various courts of western Europe to seek help, finally eliciting both men and ships from the French. During his various stays, he sparked a revival in an interest in Greek culture, so that it was added to the general Renaissance ambiance of the period. Continually wished for a large crusade that would settle the conflict between Christian and Muslim once and for all. Took advantage of a defeat of the Ottomans by the great Mongol conqueror Tamurlane in 1402, as well as a succession struggle that followed, which saw John VII regain control over some lost Byzantine territory. Rewarded the latter with the governorship of Thessalonica on his return, while continuing to recover lost territory from the Ottomans. Lost his beloved brother Theodore in 1407 to illness, followed shortly after by the death of John VII, with neither leaving an heir, so that his progeny were now in an uncontested line for the throne. Bolstered some frontier defenses, but his meddling in Ottoman affairs, saw a renewed assault on Constantinople in 1422. By this time he had handed over most of the duties of state to his son and heir, John VIII Palaeologus (Cecil Day Lewis), while returning to Europe to continue to try to gain help against the Ottomans. Wound up at the court of the king of Hungary for several months, although it and its neighbors were involved in struggles of their own, with religious wars a key component. On his return home, he and his son were forced to sign a disadvantageous peace treaty with the Ottomans, forcing him to pay tribute out of a largely drained treasury. Left the throne to his son, and became a monk, taking on the name of Matthiew, and after his death, his wife became a nun, and ultimately a venerated saint for her good works, with her skull becoming a holy relic. Mourned more deeply than any of his predecessors on his passing. An active writer, he wrote poems, letters and treatises on theology and rhetoric, as well as an instruction book for rule geared towards young princes. Inner: Dignified, majestic, every inch an emperor on a physical level. Had boundless energy and a deep love for literature as well as theological discourse. Loved to write essays on Christian doctrine, although was always a man of action, with cerebrations taking second place to doing. Conscientious, with a strong sense of duty. Every inch an emperor lifetime of acting in accordance with his vision and beliefs, and, in the process, providing his empire with one final leader who matched its august personages of old, even in its moments of unstoppable precipitous decline.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS AS FROSTY SAVAGE TURNED SILKY PITBULL:
The former seething scrivener taps into a completely different culture to regain his larger social sense as a voice of the youth of his times, while going for the gold,
as a means of further celebrating his considerable sense of self.
Pitbull (Armando Perez) (1981) (1981) - American rapper, producer and entrepreneur. Outer: Of Cuban descent. Mother came to America from Cuba in the 1960s, as did his father, and both settled in Miami’s Little Havana neighborhood. One of 6 children with four sisters and a brother. His sire was a charismatic street hustler who would take his young son to local bars, where he recited Cuban poetry from a bar stool. His parents divorced when he was 4, and he was raised by his mother in a variety of homes. As a teen, he sold cocaine for a while, although never used it, having grown up around far too many drug-users and alcoholics to ever be attracted to it. Kicked out of the house at 16 by his mother, and lived for a time with a foster family in Georgia. Loved hip-hop music as a teen, and began honing a pop sound that reflected Miami’s dance clubs, while using the nom de rap of Pitbull, because he loved the dog’s tenacity in never letting go, once it hooked into someone. 5’7”. After receiving a diploma from high school, in its principal’s words, just to get rid of him, he began performing. His danceable beats eventually attracted the attention of high-end producers, and he began laying tracks on other people’s albums, while producing mixtapes. Signed to his first label after century’s turn, and in 2004, he released his debut album, M.I.A.M.I, which stood for Money is a Major Issue. Since then he has had regular releases every two years. Ultimately wound up with 6 children, with a variety of girlfriends as their mothers, while refusing to identify any of the latter. As to committed relationships, his catchphrase is “single, bilingual and ready to mingle.” In 2005, he teamed up with Diddy Combs to co-found Bad Boy Latino Records, which focused on Latin soul and pop, although his first mix release did not do particularly well. Two years later, he found a manager, Charles Chavez, who was very tuned into trends, and saw in him an entertainment commodity with limitless earning potential. The same annum, he ditched the conventional rapper look of corn-rows, baseball cap and over-sized street clothes, and began performing in custom-tailored suits and fine leather shoes, while shaving his head, although he would retain the rap de rigeur sunglasses. Has shown the ability to continually tap into a variety of musical trends, so as to remain fresh and relevant. A shrewd businessman as well, worth well over $50m before he reached the half-way point of his 30s. His early career saw him sell over 5 million albums, and some 60 million singles, as a force to be reckoned with the pop music world. He is a majority equity owner of Voli vodka, which he liberally consumes every day, and an advertising spokesman for a number of products, as well as his own fragrance, Jacavi Worldwide and Parlux Ltd. Inner: Great believer in hard work, and strongly self-involved. Shameless name-dropper of brand sponsors, while staying loyal to his middle-class fan base. Strong identification with Miami, using its area code, 305, as an earlier name for himself, as well as Mr. 305 Inc. for his label. Great desire to be a world figure in music, adopting the sobriquet “Mr. Worldwide,” as symbol of that mega-ambition. Has never visited Cuba, although remains a hero there for millions who have bought his bootleg CDs. Major turnaround lifetime of ditching his angry, tragedy-filled past via a literally and figuratively far more upbeat culture, while expanding himself in every arena, as a means of refocusing his powerfully egotistical nature into far more integrated arenas for himself, allowing him far greater control of his life than he ever had in the past. Robert Frost (1874-1963) - American poet. Outer: Mother was a Scottish-born schoolteacher, father had been an English school headmaster. The twosome were a mismatched pair, his mother, the well-named Belle Moodie, was an ethereal spiritualist, while his sire was a pistol-packing wastrel who kept a pair of bull’s testicles on his desk. Named after Robert E. Lee (George Marshall). The duo came out west so his sire could work as a newspaper reporter, but he became a heavy drinker, instead, and his mother left him, then was forced to return, although the former soon died of tuberculosis when his son was 11. His sister was later plagued by mental illness. the family came back East with him for the burial but were too poor to return to California. His mother then supported her children by teaching, and instilled in her poet son a sense of the practical and spiritual through her dogged efforts. Initially a reluctant, albeit brilliant student, he began writing in his teens. Sent to Dartmouth to study law by his grandparents, but he left after a semester, returning home to be a teacher, mill hand and reporter, while continuing to write poetry, with some small success. In his early 20s, he married Elinor White, his co-valedictorian from high school, after she had first rejected him. His wife submitted to him, but long resented him, six largely cursed children from the union, one died at birth, one in infancy, one committed suicide via shotgun, one was committed to an insane asylum and one died in childbirth. Entered Harvard, but left after two terms because of his health and, worrying about being tubercular, he did physical labor and became a poultryman. After an initial success, as well as producing some fine lyric verse, he had to return to teaching, then, after inheriting it, sold his family farm and took his family to England, before returning to the U.S. in his early 40s, when he was finally recognized after the publication of his first two books. Distrustful of technology, he remained a downbeat pastoralist. Became a professor at various institutions, Harvard, Dartmouth and Amherst, where he had earlier taught, and ultimately an icon, because of his craggy-faced longevity, winning a Congressional resolution honoring his 75th birthday, while also garnering honorary degrees from Oxford and Cambridge in his 80s. His wife died prior to WW II. Read the dedicatory poem at President John. F. Kennedy’s 1963 inauguration, although was unable to see what he had written, and recited one of his old verses from memory. Won a record four Pulitzer Prizes, in 1924, 1931, 1937 and 1943. Visited Russia as a special ambassador just prior to his death of a heart attack. Inner: Complex, angry, vain, vindictive, with a great need to have his self-worth affirmed. Pretentiously unpretentious. Preferred thinking of himself as a farmer, although he did not like the hard work. Extremely unpleasant, with a great desire for fame, suffered through early obscurity, then obsessively courted his audience afterwards. Manic-depressive, selfish and insensitive to the needs of those around him. Extremely egotistical, and pathologically competitive, seeing himself as the only poet who counted. Strong, stoical interest in nature as central to his spiritual sense. Warm with friends, but cold and craggy with others. His simple lyrics bespoke the complexity of feeling that lay at his crusty heart. Frosty lifetime of continuing on a quest to unite a reverential, poetical feel for nature with a personality that has little sympathy or respect for humanity. Walter Savage Landor (1775-1864) - English poet. Outer: From a family with a literary tradition. Eldest son of a wealthy doctor and his second wife. Both parents had inherited estates, while one brother, Robert, also became a writer. Because of a savage temper, he was expelled from both Rugby and Trinity College, Oxford, the latter for firing off a gun in his rooms. His family was embarrassed by his displays, causing extreme tensions twixt one and all. Began publishing his poems in 1795 and achieved recognition as a poet by his mid-20s. Quarreled violently with his father, and became lovers with a woman about to marry her cousin. Fought for the French as a volunteer against the Spanish, sold his inherited estate, and in his mid-30s, married Julie Thuillier, the 17-year old daughter of a poor Swiss banker, and moved to Wales, where his contentiousness resulted in quarrels with neighbors and financial difficulties, causing him to leave and reside abroad for two decades, mostly in Italy. Four children from the union. Asked to leave Como for writing an ‘insolent’ poem in Latin, and also threatened with expulsion from Florence. Returned to England after separating from his wife in his early 60s. Despite all his contentiousness, he continued his prolific writing, as well as his literary associations. At 83, he was convicted for libel and once again forced to leave the country, living in Florence the rest of his life, where he was cared for by the poetic Brownings, Robert (Robert Bly) and Elizabeth (Elizabeth Bishop), until the latter’s death. A talented lyrical poet, he based his works on Greek models, showing a restraint and dignity that were nowhere else evident in his life. Inner: Argumentative, alienated, asocialized, with a fiery will that he refused to suppress no matter the consequence. Contentious lifetime, once again, of trying and failing to integrate his rich aesthetic with a personality both savage and frosty. Richard Savage (c1697-1743) - English poet. Outer: Virtually nothing known of his first 17 years. Claimed to be the illegitimate son of a countess and the 4th earl of Rivers, who had produced two children, but both died young. Later blackmailed his putative mother. At 18, he was taken into custody for doggerel supporting the Jacobite cause, a treasonous offense. Began writing in his mid-teens, and saw both poetry and a play published by the time he was 20. Appeared on stage, but his provocative personality continually undid his efforts. In his late 20s, he was tried for the drunken murder of an actor. Condemned to death, but pardoned via the efforts of a noblewoman. Continued his career as a penman, writing both prose satires and poetry. Met Samuel Johnson (Winston Churchill) when he was near 40, who later wrote an insightful biography of him, which helped assure his fame, despite his limited gifts as a poet/playwright. Continually in debt, and constantly involved in quarrels, but his friends eventually helped him leave London, only to die of a fever in a debtor’s prison in Wales. Inner: Impostor, drunkard and mediocrity. Melancholic, quarrelsome, provocative, with little gift for dealing with money or people outside his aesthetic circles, who were the only ones who supported and accepted him. Savage lifetime, as always, of trying to reconcile his lofty poetic visions with a sour personality unable to countenance the demands of the everyday ordinary world.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS FRAIL-BODIED STRONGHEART:
Storyline: The valid invalid internalizes her wounds before transforming them into lyrical heartsongs, while continually dealing with familial conflicts and tragedies in an attempt to reach deep inside herself and transcend her ongoing physical limitations.

Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979) - Canadian/American poet. Outer: Father died when she was 8 months old. Lived with her mother, who suffered a nervous breakdown shortly afterwards and her maternal grandparents, whom she adored, in Nova Scotia. When she was 5, her mother disappeared into her own mind and was institutionalized, and she never saw her again. Brought up by her paternal grandparents in Worcester, Mass., in a loveless tension-filled household, then by a childless aunt in Boston. Suffered from a host of psychosomatic diseases because of her childhood traumas, including asthma, bronchitis, eczema and irregular spasms. After boarding school, she went to Vassar, where she proved a brilliant student and formed a close association with poet Marianne Moore, becoming her protege. During this time, a college boyfriend killed himself when she refused to marry him. Experienced a slow self-discovery sexually, before showing a clear preference for her own gender. A small inheritance allowed her to travel in Europe and North Africa for 3 years in the late 1930s. Afterwards she made her home in Key West, Florida for 5 years before living in Mexico in 1943. Published her first volume of verse in 1946. Intended to tour South America in 1951, but was brought down by a violent reaction to cashew fruit in Brazil. Recovered and decided to remain in Petropolis, Brazil, where she had fallen in love with a land-poor aristocrat, Lota de Macedo Soares, who was a self-trained architect and built her a studio on her estate. The duo were extreme opposites, with the latter a charismatic monomaniac, and the former invertedly self-critical, although she ultimately sabotaged the relationship through her infidelity. Nevertheless, their first decade together, would prove to be the happiest of her life. Eventually gained control over her drinking, and wrote her best remembered work afterwards. Won a Pulitzer Prize in 1956 for her second volume of verse, Poems: North & South - A Cold Spring. Devastated by her lover’s overdose suicide in 1967, she returned to the U.S. and settled in Boston, while teaching fulltime at Harvard, where she was poet-in-residence. Honored with awards the latter part of her life. Died of a stroke, and her reputation has soared ever since. Inner: Known as a “poet’s poet poet,” although published less than 100 poems during her lifetime. Modest, quiet, patient and extremely observant, taking pride in both traits. Perfectionist, who continually reworked her poetry before she felt it was ready for publication. Apolitical, with a far greater sense of clarity around her work than her life. Peripatetic lifetime of expanding her sexual and intellectual horizons, while focusing thoroughly on the feminine in her ongoing attempt at healing her apolitical body politic. Eliz. Barrett Browning (Elizabeth Barrett Browning) (1806-1861) - English poet. Outer: Father was the autocratic owner of several Jamaican plantations, which he had inherited. Eldest of 12 children. Very closely tied with family, she had a happy childhood. Educated at home, and corresponded with scholarly neighbors, showing a precocious talent for poetry, as well as languages, reading Homer in the original Greek. Privately published some early verse. Financial reverses caused the family to move to London in 1835. Suffered a spinal injury at 15 and gradually devolved into invalidism, spending much of her time lying on her back. The death of her beloved brother by drowning in 1840, coupled with her afflictions, made her into a recluse, despite the popularity of her works in literary circles. Lived in her room, and had a very codependent relationship with her possessive progenitor, who treated his children as if they were eternal Peter Pans. Began a secret romantic correspondence with Robert Browning (Robert Bly) in 1845, while fearing her father would interfere. The couple covertly married in 1846, despite her misgivings, and ran off to Florence, Italy, while her father never forgave her. One child from union, Robert ‘Pen’ Browning, a sculptor. Friends with many of the international culturati of her times. Developed a keen interest in occultism, as well as Italian politics, although her views on the world were far less insightful than her sense of lyrical exposition. Best remembered for her Sonnets from the Portuguese, a celebration of her marriage. Caught a chill and died in her husband’s arms. Inner: Highly sociable recluse, with a wide variety of interests and causes, including her own happiness. Sincere and passionate, if often misguided. Sympathetic, broad-minded and vividly intelligent. Validating lifetime of transcending an imposed eternal dependent childhood, and invalidism to find true romance both within and without. Vittoria Colonna (1490-1549) - Italian poet. Outer: Daughter of the powerful Renaissance Colonna family. Father was a constable. Betrothed as a child to a marquis, who was off fighting for most of their marriage, giving her a wide swath to create her own social life. Her husband was cruel and untrustworthy, and continually unfaithful. Refused to remarry on his battlefield death, and wrote laments and idealizations of him. A friend of Ludovico Ariosto (Ezra Pound), as well as many other poets of the day, including Jacopo Sannazaro (Robert Bly). A modestly talented writer, she composed many religious poems. Moved to Rome, where she had a long platonic relationship with Michelangelo (Henri Matisse). Went into retirement at 50 into a series of convents, before returning to Rome, eventually dying at her family’s Roman residence with Michelangelo at her bedside at the end. Inner: Intelligent, learned, highly spiritual and emotional, although more renowned for her mind than her writing abilities. Penned in lifetime of celebrating her own renaissance, while enjoying close contact with artistic genius, relative freedom of movement from social constraint, and the ongoing development of her communication skills. Keratsa-Maria of Bulgaria (1348-1390) - Bulgarian Byzantine empress. Outer: Father was the tsar of Bulgaria, mother had been a Jew, who converted to the Orthodox faith, and was her husband’s second wife. Second oldest of four daughters and two sons. When she was seven, she was betrothed to the future Byzantine emperor Andronicus IV (Robert Bly). One son and two daughters from the eventual union, including John VII Palaeologus (Matteo Garrone), who briefly reigned. In 1376, her husband deposed his father, and she became the Empress Consort, in what would prove a rule of three years, before outside forces reinstalled the rightful emperor. Rather than being punished, he was made co-emperor, while given another city to rule on the north shore of the Marmara. Following her husband’s death in 1385, she became a nun under the name of Mathissa. Inner: Support lifetime of directly experiencing court life and culture through her longtime partner, without leaving much of a personal imprint, in a largely anonymous go-round geared towards her ongoing experiential education, replete with meditative time at the end to review it.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS ARCHETYPAL ACTIVIST:
Storyline: The emancipated masculinist turns from lyricism to activism, becoming a scold and exemplar of the lost virtues of manhood, after earlier subsuming himself to serve as one/half of the 19th century’s favorite poetic duo.

Robert Bly (1926) - American poet. Outer: Of Norwegian descent. Father was a successful grain farmer, mother worked in a local courthouse. Older brother died in 1971 in an auto accident. Joined the Navy at the end of WW II, then studied pre-med at St. Olaf College in Minn., before switching to Harvard after a year, graduating magna cum laude in Eng. lit. Decided to become a poet after reading William Butler Yeats, and spent 6 months living in isolation in a cabin in Minnesota, getting in touch with his inner wild man. Moved to NYC and immersed himself in poetry, while working part time jobs, then received his M.A. from the Univ. of Iowa. 6’+, 220 lbs. Married short-story writer Carol McLean in 1955, 4 children from union. The couple lived on a Minnesota farm. Given a Fulbright Scholarship, he spent 1956-57 in Norway, learning the language of his ancestors. In 1958, he cofounded the magazine The Fifties, changing its name with the decades, which published his nature verse as well as the works of other young poets. His first collection of poetry was published in 1962. Politically active in the 1960s, he gave read-ins against the Vietnam War, and was awarded a National Book Award in 1968 for his 2nd volume of poetry. Denounced the war in his acceptance speech and donated 1/2 his prize money of $1000 to a draft resistance group. In the 1960s and 1970s, he led seminars for women on the ancient archetypal figure of the Great Mother, while continuing his outsider status from the poetry establishment by remaining in his home town. After his 1979 divorce, he went through a period of self-examination, and began looking at the role of contemporary men, whom he felt had been cut off from their roots by modern industrialized society. Married a Jungian therapist in 1980. Led a seminar on male myths in 1981, and began looking into the character of Iron John, a wild man of the forest who challenges and empowers a young prince. Asked men to separate themselves from their mothers and feminine culture and reconnect with their primordial fierceness and turbulence. Spawned drum-beating and wilderness sessions among white middle-class men in order to get them in touch with their own iron interiors, while catching all sorts of flak from feminists, as well as academicians, who criticized the cultural potpourri which poured from his pen. Encouraged younger males to search out older, wiser men in an attempt to recreate the bonding between the generations that the Age of Information & Industry had destroyed. Remains a controversial cultural figure, a beneficent father figure to some and a bete noir to others. Inner: Gruff and benign with a strong sense of his own maleness, as well as the power that myths hold in our culture. Iron John lifetime of reclaiming his own sense of masculinity through ritual, magic word and act out fantasy, while trying to serve as a bridge to a wild past not yet buried in the collective consciousness of modern humanity. Robert Browning (1812-1889) - English poet. Outer: Son of a bank clerk, who could not countenance overseeing slave-labor plantations on St. Kitts, and had returned to England. Given free rein over his father’s library of 6000 volumes, he was well-grounded in the classics through his sire’s administrating his early tutoring. Deeply attached to his mother, who taught him religion and music. Received only a partial formal education, dropping out of London Univ. after only 6 months. Apart from several trips abroad, he lived with his parents until his mid-30s, supported by his progenitor. Criticized for emotional excess in his first published work, and always tried to be objective afterwards, while regretting baring his soul in print. An unsuccessful stint as a verse drama playwright followed, before he started pumping out volumes of popular verse. Began to secretly court the invalided Elizabeth Barrett (Elizabeth Bishop), in 1845, ultimately marrying her the following year and sweeping her away to Florence, Italy, over her father’s tyrannical objections. The duo had one child, Robert ‘Pen’ Browning, a sculptor, and an extremely happy marriage, although his wife was far more productive than he. Used Italy as their base, while traveling on the continent and England, and collecting an assortment of well-known culturati friends. In 1861, his wife died in his arms after an illness, and he experienced great grief afterwards, although the tragedy unblocked him. Returned to England, where his only sister kept house for him. Produced his best work following his wife’s death, and was recognized as a primary literary figure of his time and a master of long dramatic verse. Best remembered for The Ring and the Book, a 12-fold look at an event from Italian his/story. Caught a cold, and died in Italy, the day his last book was published. Inner: Optimistic and cheerful. Enjoyed mixing grotesque subject matter with lyrical verse, and also employed broken rhythms and discordances along with conventional rhyme schemes. Domestic lifetime of extending childhood into near middle age, then enjoying an idealized love, before finding his deepest voice in its loss. Jacopo Sannazaro (145801530) - Italian poet. Outer: Father died when he was 5, left Naples with his mother and his brother. Returned later to become active in the Accademia there. Friend of Vittoria Colonna (Elizabeth Bishop). In his mid-40s, he became a member of the household of the duke of Calabria, going to war with him against the pope 3 years later. His verse was much admired by his patron and his patron’s brother, whom he followed into exile into France, remaining there for 3 years. Left a rich legacy of poems. His masterpiece was the Arcadia, a pastoral novel set in Greece whose mixture of sentiment, magic and mythology would affect the development of Renaissance literature. Inner: Quiet, melancholy, contemplative and an enthusiastic classicist. Lyrical lifetime of giving memorable voice to his literary interior through the conventions available to him, in a go-round lived largely to explore the possibilities of language and form. Andronicus IV Palaeologus (1348-1385) - Byzantine basileus. Outer: Father was John V Palaeologus (Rajiv Gandhi). Mother was Helena, the daughter of his sire’s co-emperor, John Cantacouzenas (Sanjay Gandhi). Oldest of four sons and five daughters. Gven an extensive education in the Latin language and literature, and in 1355, he was betrothed to Keratsa of Bulgaria (Elizabeth Bishop) the daughter of the country’s khan. Two daughters and a son from the union, including the future John VII Palaeologus (Luigi Pirandello). Earlier crowned as co-emperor, he staged a coup when his sire submitted as a vassal to Ottoman emperor Murad I (Mohandas Gandhi). Along with his lover, Savci Bey, the son of the latter, the two instituted rebellions against their fathers, which failed miserably. While Bey was blinded and then killed, he only had the sight in one eye taken from him, while his son John VII was partially blinded as well. Following being imprisoned, he was aided in an escape by the Genoese, and, after agreeing to return Gallipoli to the Ottomans, received help in taking Constantinople, upon which time, he confined his father and his brother Manuel in 1376. The following annum, he crowned his son John VII as co-emperor, although his political dealings with the Italian city-states put him at a disadvantage. In 1379, his father and brother escaped to Murad with the help of the Venetians, and he, in turn, was overthrown, while John and Manuel were rightfully restored to the throne. Fled to Galata, on the European side of Constantinople, and stayed there until 1381, when his father made him co-emperor again, despite his previous treacherous behavior. Given the city of Selymbria as well, so as to rule over the north shore of the Marmara, and remained there, predeceasing his progenitor, so that he never regained the throne. Inner: Power-hungry, disloyal, and totally into his own advancement, with little regard for anyone else. Cyclopean lifetime of looking at the world through the singular eye of self and acting accordingly, to his ultimate greater detriment.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS SELF-REVEALING SELF-OBSESSIVE:
Storyline: The longtime temptress tries again to see her way past her own draw towards sacrificial self-immolation, thanks to a deeply rooted archetypal drama in her distant past, that she/he has yet to get fully past.
Mary Lambert (1989) - American singer and songwriter. Outer: Fifth generation of Mary in her family, with the preceding Marys all singers and piano players. Grew up in a strict Pentecostal household, although her family was expelled from the Church, when she was 6, when her mother came out as a lesbian, and divorced her father, causing the family to be shunned in their small town. Repeatedly molested by her father as a child, giving her suicidal thoughts. Also suffered from bipolar disorder. One of two children, with a brother, to whom she is close. Taught herself how to play the piano and began writing songs as a young child, as a means of escape from her household. Despite her brutal upbringing, she retained her strong sense of spirituality, but, like her mother, felt a powerful attraction to her own gender, causing her to struggle mightily within as an evangelical Christian who ran counter to what they considered the priapic norm. Liked the passion of evangelism, but had so many internal conflicts, she started using drugs. Counterbalanced her urge towards self-destruction by employing poetry as further self-definition as she continually prayed and wept and asked forgiveness for who she was. Suffered a gang-rape at 17, and at the same time, came out, while also ultimately coming to the realization that true Christianity, as preached by the heart-master Jesus, does not preclude the love of people of the same gender. Full-fleshed, and strongly feminine, with her left arm heavily tattooed. Finally left the church for good in college, realizing that divinity resided within her, and not in a structured religion. Moved to Seattle in 2007 and got a Bachelor’s degree in Music in Composition from Cornish College of the Arts. Began her public life in poetic slam competitions, while supporting herself as a barista and bartender. Released her debut EP, “Letters Don’t Talk,” in 2012. Worked and toured with Macklemore and Ryan Lewis, while contributing to their gay rights single, “Same Love.” In 2013, she published a book of poetry entitled, “500 Tips for Fat Girls,” and at the same released her debut single, “She Keeps Me Warm,” both of which were well-received. Her first studio album, the highly confessional “Heart on My Sleeve,” came out in 2014. Serially monogamous, she plans on marrying girlfriend Michele Chamuel, a singer, songwriter and record producer. Inner: Finds writing a trance-like state in which she channels her higher self, and, in the same way, sees performing as an extremely elevating experience. Thoughtful, and partnership-geared, with a decided preference for displaying herself in totally feminine terms. Uses the many dramatic and traumatic experiences of her life for song fodder. Reclamation lifetime of finally coming to grips with her full complex self as an ongoing voice of her times, after many a go-round of being unable to get past her ineluctable draw towards self-destruction. Anne Sexton (1928-1974) - American poet. Outer: Father was a successful wool merchant, as well as an abusive alcoholic. Mother was cold and vain, with literary interests, giving her an unhappy childhood. A great-aunt, who was the singular member of her family that gave her affection, went mad and died in a nursing home. Attended a junior college, then eloped at 17 with a boyfriend, Alfred Sexton, from a conservative, affluent family who disapproved of the marriage. After her husband’s naval service, they settled in the Boston suburbs and had two daughters, while he entered the family business. Worked briefly as a model, thanks to her striking features. Refused to be domestic, and suffered a severe breakdown a few months after the birth of a second child. Made a suicide attempt and her children were sent to live with their grandparents. Saw a therapist who suggested she write, and, at age 28, she began etching confessional poetry that soon found an eager audience, allowing her to order her life through language rather than action. Within a decade she had won a Pulitzer Prize in 1967 for the aptly titled Live or Die. A desire for greater and greater audience, and a thirst for poetic power diminished her later work, which was also curtailed by an addiction to the tranquilizer Thorazine. Suffered frequent breakdowns and spent time in institutions, which gave her work an obsession with a will to live. Sexually abused her elder daughter, but also used her as close confidante. On mind-numbing tranquilizers the last decade of her life, as well as alcohol, pills and cigarettes. Increasingly unstable and unhappy despite her literary success. Divorced, wound up alone, and killed herself by carbon monoxide poisoning while wrapped in her mother’s old fur coat. Ultimately dissatisfied with much of what she had written. Inner: Ungrounded, unable to go anywhere alone. Hungry for fame, melodramatic, clever in business, passionate. Equally obsessed with self-revelation, sex and death. Heard voices and had a fantasy personality named Elizabeth. Served as a female archetype of the poet/martyr. Unhappy and unbent lifetime of switching sexes, in order to pursue a pathway of self-exploration at all costs, from the base of unsupportive males in her life. Alan Seeger (1888-1916) - American poet. Outer: Father was a successful businessman, raised in privilege. A handsome youth, and an Apollo figure, he was standoffish, despite his magnetic sense of attraction. Educated at Harvard, where he was a solitary soul who took great delight in books and courted beauty as an ideal, while remaining contemptuous of contemporary American values. Wrote poetry in college, adopting the posture of an intellectual aesthete. Had a passionate affection for France, went to Paris and was enthralled by the esthetic there. Enlisted in the French Foreign Legion at the start of WW I. Spent two years in active service, where he proved himself a good soldier, before being killed by machine/gun fire. Awarded a posthumous Croix de Guerre. Best known for the line, “I have a rendezvous with death,” a fitting epitaph for all his lives in this series. Inner: Dilettante, self-centered, extremely individualistic. Aloof, self-assured, afraid of intimacy. Apollonian lifetime of seeing himself at a remove from conventional society, and finding his true self only in the celebration of beauty and sudden death, an ongoing theme of his/hers. Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837) - Italian poet and scholar. Outer: From a wealthy, noble family. Father was the last Italian nobleman to wear a sword. Much of the time, a virtual prisoner of his parents, who kept him dependent on them for money. His mother was domineering, fanatically religious, and totally controlling, while his father was a weak figure, who mismanaged his inherited fortune and was inimical to the new ideas of the time, while convinced of his own infallibility. Oldest of several surviving children who looked to one another for the affection their parents couldn’t give them. His sire accumulated a handsome library of some 25,000 volumes, which dominated his childhood. Dressed in black like his sire, and was frail, while constant study caused him to contract a severe spinal disease, which left him with a deep melancholia all his life. Taught himself Greek and Hebrew, and quickly outstripped his tutors, showing a passion for philology. Lost himself in his books, and lived in his mind, while his deformed spine and hunchback made him a figure of mockery to the other children of Recanati. Much to his mother’s horror, he lost his religious faith, while pouring out his unhappiness in his splendid poems, which brought him to the attention of the writer Pietro Giordani, who visited and further inspired him. Suffered an eye disease to further compound his misery, losing his sight in one orb, and finally left his hometown in 1822 for Rome, after an earlier attempt at escape had been discovered and thwarted. Found some support for his prolific pen, although continued to suffer physically and emotionally, as a penniless, ill-clad, shy and sensitive alien, with a unique voice and body, although without the confidence to overcome his exterior ugliness with his interior beauty. Subsequently lived in several Italian cities, while pouring his heart out on paper, before finally settling in Naples. Among his numerous works, he wrote an apologia for suicide. Befriended by a Neapolitan youth who recognized his genius, shared his poverty and took care of him in his last years, offering him his singular solace of companionship, before he died of cholera, during an epidemic. His body was retrieved from a common grave by his friend, and given an appropriate tomb. Ranked as one of the handful of great modern Italian poets. Inner: Morbid, unhappy, deeply pessimistic, despite his gifts of scholarship and exposition. Deformed lifetime of dealing with an inadequate body and a soaring poetic sensibility to try to counteract it, in an effort to neutralize his earlier involvement in a celebrated separation of mind and body, in order to pursue the long pathway of bringing them back together again. Salome (fl. 1st cent BZ) - Judaean and Chalcian queen. Outer: Mother was Herodias (Diana Mitford), the consort of the Tetrarch of Galilee, the consort of Herod II, Tetrarch of Galilee, before marrying his half-brother, Herod Antipas (Menachim Begin), who inherited the same title. Raised in privilege and power, she grew into a lissome young woman, and as a teen, danced for her father on his birthday. He became so enthralled, he granted her any wish. Her mother suggested, “Bring me the head of John the Baptist (Martin Heidigger),” and that depraved recommendation was subsequently served up on a platter, immortalizing her as a seductress and vicious vixen in the New Testament. Her legend would be amplified to the extreme erotic in subsequent literature, although her story is bare-boned in the biblical commentary of the time. She would go on to marry royally twice, first her father’s half-brother, Philip (Yitzhak Rabin) to complete the incestuous cycle of her family, and then Aristobulus, king of Chalcis and Asia minor, making her queen twice over. Three children from the union. Numerous accounts exist of her death, with the most symbolic, being when she decided to join her parents in exile and fell into a frozen river when the ice broke beneath her, and she sank into the icy waters up to her neck, in a symbolic mirroring of the earlier beheading made at her behest. Inner: Intelligent, manipulative and highly ambitious for herself. Veiled lifetime of playing party to the spiritual severing of mind and body, in order to set her on a pathway of painful reintegration, by continually separating her parts and trying to bring them back together again through lyrical sensibility.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS WELL-LOVED VERSIFIER:
Storyline: The poet’s poet stays in the private world of women in order to give full voice to her considerable gifts as an offbeat celebrator of all things human.

Marianne Moore (1887-1972) - American poet. Outer: Mother was an extremely esthetic-oriented person, who instilled high standards in her children. Father was a failed engineer who had a nervous breakdown after being unable to come up with a smokeless furnace, causing him to retire to the home of his parents. Brought up by her mother in the home of her maternal grandfather, who was a Presbyterian minister. Younger of 2, her brother, to whom she was very close, became a naval chaplain. After her grandfather’s death, her family moved to Carlisle, Pennsylvania when she was 7. Graduated from Bryn Mawr College, then finished her education at the Carlisle Commercial School, where she taught a stenography course. In her late 20s, her first published poems began to appear. Moved with her mother to New Jersey in her late 20s, and then two years later, went with her to Greenwich Village in NYC, where she worked as a secretary. Taught in a private school, then worked as librarian for the New York Public Library during the first half of the 1920s, while solidifying her position in the literary life of NYC, gaining the attention and admiration of the leading names of the day, for her original sense of uneven metrical patterns. A homophile, who had some romantic friendships with men, and lived with her mother until the latter’s death in 1947. Edited The Dial for four years, making it a successful international journal. Later moved to Brooklyn, while her reputation continued to be enhanced by the further publication of her work. In later life, her closest relationships were all with women. Produced both verse and literary criticism, which was published on both sides of the Atlantic, and ultimately won several prestigious prizes, including a Pulitzer in 1952. Her work was marked by precise use of language, a strong moral tone, a perceptive view of nature, unique metrical form, and an original use of language. Eventually became a national institution unto herself, with her amiable eccentricities, and was viewed as a poet’s poet. Moved from her beloved Brooklyn to Manhattan in 1966, because of the rising crime rate, which caused a press controversy, while the latter part of her creative life saw her far more whimsical than original. Suffered a stroke in 1968. shortly after throwing out the first pitch to inaugurate the baseball season at Yankee Stadium. Had a series of strokes afterwards and eventually succumbed to their effects. Inner: Garrulous, witty, impish, and eccentric, wore a tri-cornered hat as a trademark. Mechanically adept, self-proclaimed ‘metropolitan hermit.’ Noted baseball fan with a particular affinity for the Brooklyn Dodgers. Fondness for small exotic creatures, and far more spiritual than physical, while deliberately unrevealing in all she wrote. More-is-more lifetime of concentrating entirely upon her expository gifts to become a well-known figure in the world of verse, while eschewing intimate relations with the opposite sex, as a result of having a totally ungrounded and absent father and past unpleasantries with the male animal. Sarah W. A. Apthorp (Sarah Wentworth Apthorp Morton) (1759-1846) - American poet. Outer: From a distinguished New England family, of Welsh descent on her father’s side. Father was a well-to-do Boston merchant, as was her mother’s father. 3rd of 10 children. Wrote from an early age, and had an unusually thorough education. In her early 20s, she married a Boston lawyer, who became politically prominent, 5 children from union. By 30, she began contributing to a local magazine, writing under the name of Constantia. Later used the pseudonym of Philenia. Her first extended verse narrative was Ouabi, a tale of Indigenous Americans as noble savages. Established her reputation as the foremost female American poet of her time with prolific verses in various periodicals, while making her home a literary center. Her husband had an affair with her sister, who later committed suicide. Thought to have written the first American novel, which followed the same plot-line, although a neighbor actually wrote the story. Remained with her husband despite the scandal, until his death in 1837. Suffered the loss of 2 children, including her favorite. Inner: Social and aristocratic, with an unusual beauty. Long lifetime of establishing herself as a poet of note, while weathering a domestic tragedy that probably turned her off male energy in her next go-round, and allowed her to explore her own sensibilities unfettered by masculine inconstancy. Sarah Nixon (1672-1765) - English poet. Outer: Father was a barrister. Had one brother who died as a teen. Spent most of her life living near Canterbury, in a largely unremarkable long-lived go-round that was mostly internal in its nature. A pastoral poet, she drew a great deal of pleasure out of her immediate countryside surroundings. Anonymously published one volume of poetry in 1740 entitled “Poems on Several Occasions.” Never married, and the only inkling she left of her interior, was a certain sense of bitterness at the lesser role women had to take in the society of her time. Inner: Quiet lifetime of contemplation as an observer, rather than a participant in her milieu, with many a year to reflect on the grandeur of nature and the powerlessness of her gender within its civilized confines.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS GRAND OLD MAN OF LETTERS:
Storyline: The triple-named troubadour proves to be a long-lived fellow with the capacity to attract much honor through his Pennmanship.

Robert Penn Warren (1905-1989) - American poet. Outer: Descended from William Penn (Thomas Jefferson). Both grandfathers had been Confederate soldiers. Mother was a school teacher, father was a banker and poetaster, close-knit family, although the latter was distant, and the former domineering. Initially more scientific than literary, but his focus changed in college. Wanted a naval career, but suffered an eye accident while hunting which ended that dream. Entered Vanderbilt at 16, initially wanting to be an engineer, and attempted suicide at 19, despite being recognized by his teachers as a natural poet. Graduated from Vanderbilt, joined several Southern poets, including Allen Tate, his former room/mate, in dubbing themselves the Fugitives, while working on a magazine of the same name. Burly and red-haired, with a fierce demeanor, but a soft voice. As a southern agrarian, he joined in writing the spirited defense of their position, I’ll Take My Stand. A Rhodes scholar at Oxford, after postgraduate work at UCLA and Yale. Helped found the Southern Review, taught at Yale for over 20 years, as well as numerous other institutions, and published reams of poetry and several novels. Married Emma Brescia in his mid-20s, and his wife became a mad alcoholic, divorced, then remarried in his mid-40s to Eleanor Clark, a writer, two children from second and far more stable, union. His “Understanding Poetry” and “Understanding,” were seminal works in the New Criticism around the WW II period, teaching readers to view works as autonomous within themselves, rather than products of specific times and reflective of the lives of the people who wrote them. Won several Pulitzer prizes, including one for a biography of politician Huey Long (Joschka Fischer), All the King’s Men, in 1947, and two more in 1958 and 1979 for his poetry. Initially a segregationist, but later recanted that view. Made the first poet laureate of the United States in 1986. His later verse was more autobiographical, lyrical and personal, earlier work was more metaphysical. Died of cancer. Inner: Warm, witty and wise. Good-hearted and gregarious, but also subject to melancholia and neurosis-driven ailments. Pen warranted lifetime of making himself a unique regional American voice for the world to read and hear in a deliberately designed life of letters that touched on madness and self-destruction but never came close to succumbing to it. Henry W. Longfellow (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) (1807-1882) - American poet, translator and teacher. Outer: Son of a distinguished country lawyer, judge and congressman. 2nd of 8 children. Enjoyed a childhood of privilege, attended private schools, read prolifically and had his first poem published at 13, and graduated from Bowdoin College, after entering at 14. Felt no draw towards a professional career, preferring to win his financial spurs via his pen. Fluent in languages, he was offered a professorship contingent on studying them abroad. Did so fro 3 years, and returned to Bowdoin to become professor and librarian there for 5 years, teaching European languages. Edited texts, did translations and wrote essays, but was bored and restless. Accepted a professorship at Harvard with the proviso he travel to Europe again, and wound up in Heidelberg, where he studied the Germanic languages. Married Mary Storer Potter, the daughter of a judge in his mid-20s, but she died after a miscarriage 4 years later. His second wife, Frances Appleton, who first rejected him, married him in 1843, but was tragically killed in a burning dress, which was ignited by candle wax. Tried to smother the flames, then suffered a deep melancholy afterwards. 6 children from the union. Returned to Harvard, and taught a modern language program for most of the next two decades, before leaving to concentrate fully on writing. Visited Europe for the last time in 1868, where he was guest of Britain’s Queen Victoria. First American to be honored by a bust in Westminster Abbey, for literally translating the New World into the Old. Also the first American to earn his living from writing verse. Received several honorary degrees, and his 70th birthday was a day of national celebration. Died of peritonitis, and dozens of memorials were erected to him throughout the country. Acknowledged as the most popular American poet of the 19th century, with a host of poems, including “Hiawatha” and “The Village Blacksmith,” entering the country’s popular poetical canon. Inner: Moralistic, patriotic, uncritical, and sentimental. Gentle and sweet, taking a pleasing narrative and lyrical talent to its limits. Carefully monitored his sales figures, and held himself to the highest literary standards of the time. Iconic lifetime of using the broadsword of his pen as a weapon of fame and fortune, while translating the loss of 2 wives into his own special brand of sentimental poetics. John Hall Stevenson (John Hall) (1718-1785) - English poet. Outer: From a modest-moneyed background. Became a friend of Laurence Sterne (Mark Twain), as a fellow student at Jesus College, Cambridge, who later gave him literary immortality as Eugenius in his novel Tristam Shandy. Married a lady of property, although it was not a particularly good union, owing to his difficulties with money, two sons from union. Adopted his wife’s surname in his mid-20s, adding it to his own. Inherited ‘Crazy Castle,’ from his aunt, formed a ‘club of demoniacks,’ and entertained there. Dedicated himself largely to keeping himself amused. Wrote adaptations of coarse French fabliaux and indifferent political verse. The end of his life saw him embittered by his premature marriage and a sense of having vegetated away his talents. Inner: Social, dilettantish. Enjoyed coarse jesting, high living. Frittered lifetime of developing his literary character under highly supportive circumstances, in preparation for becoming a literary personality, and finally a writer of note, but not before taking himself to task for what he truly wanted out of a creative life.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS UNTOGETHER VISIONARY BARD:
Storyline: The troubled troubadour finally stops himself from going over his own edge in pursuit of an outer beauty that he fails to find inside himself, via the modern rap realm and the personal demands of the harsher beat of its language.

Tyler Okonoma (Tyler Gregory Okonma) (1991) - American rap artist, video director and music producer. Known as “Tyler the Creator:” Outer: Mother was of mixed African-American and Euro-Canadian descent, while his father, who abandoned the family early on, was Nigerian. Never met the latter. Grew up with a sister, before hie mother added five more half-brothers to her brood. Had an ungrounded stressful childhood, and used his innate musical sense to help center himself. Forced to constantly switch schools, attending a dozen in a dozen years of high school, which always made him the new kid and fed into his shy, aloof insecurities. Taught himself the piano at 14, and became skilled on the instrument. Also a gifted athlete and skateboarder. Able to ultimately come out of his shell via music. 6’2” and slim. Self-produced his first mixtape in 2008, “Bastard” which found an audience for his foul-mouthed punk stance, violent fantasies and homophobic slurs and followed it up with his first album, “Goblin.”. In 2011, he co-founded the hip-hop collective “Odd Future Wolf Gang Kill Them All.” After more videos and releases, he signed a deal with XL Recordings the same year, and made his TV debut on the Jimmy Fallon show, with his OF partner Hodgy. More releases would follow through 2015, with guest appearances by notables such as Lil Wayne on them. Managed to be banned from visiting the UK as well as Australia for an extended period for his misogynistic lyrics, forcing him to cancel tour dates His 2017 release and 4th studio album, “Flower Boy,” showed a change in direction for him, as he hinted at his own possible homophilia, Has won several MTV Music video awards. Has a net worth of $8 million. Inner: Savvy self-promoter, while carrying a host of internal conflicts, with his low road lyrics and need to be heard as a voice of his times. Remains anti-religious and an atheist, viewing the Bible as an object, rather than a sacred work. Controversy-laden lifetime of taking his poetic game up a whole other level in an effort to dig far deeper into his profound sense of alienation in order to see where it will ultimately take him. Theodore Roethke (1908-1963) - American poet. Outer: From a family of German extract. Grandfather had been chief forester for the sister of the Prussian chancellor, Otto von Bismarck (Menachem Begin), before emigrating to the United States. His father was a florist, and operated a large greenhouse with a brother, which became the subject of numerous later poems by his son. His mother was a seamstress, and both were undemonstrative but devoted parents. Imbued with a sense of the midwestern landscape from childhood. Grew to be 6’2”, 220 pounds, and was a lifetime hypochondriac. His uncle, who was partners with his sire, committed suicide, after embezzling company funds, and his father died of cancer shortly afterwards, while he was in his teens. Educated at Michigan and Harvard, publishing his first works while at the latter. Dropped out of graduate school because of finances and took a teaching post. After a drug and drink-induced mystical sense of union with nature, he suffered his first manic-depressive breakdown at 28, which would recur periodically the rest of his life, thanks to his uninhibited mood swings, and attendant antisocial behavior. Despite his unbalanced persona, he continued to lecture at the college level, where he was noted as a brilliant teacher. Found unfit for service in WW II. Awarded a Guggenheim fellowship in 1945, and enjoyed having his poetic abilities recognized and lauded, including a Pulitzer Prize in 1954 for The Waking. Very conscious of the works of his last two poetic lives, viewing himself as equally “lost.” Married a former student of his in his mid-40s, lived briefly in Italy, then returned to the Univ. of Washington, where he continued writing, lecturing and giving readings. Was found in a friend’s swimming pool, where he had died of coronary occlusion, in one last gesture of being overwhelmed by his watery emotions. Inner: Manic-depressive, with an acid wit and simple reverence for the natural world. Competitive and compulsive with a great desire for fame, but also had a sense of humiliation and disgrace about his mental weakness. Continually searched for himself through the infinitude of carefully measured language Unbent lifetime of trying to transform himself from his own sense of internal weakness into a celebratory voice of nature, but the possessor of far too much unintegrated internal baggage to totally do so. John Clare (1793-1864) - English poet. Outer: Son of a farm laborer, grew up in extreme poverty, mother was illiterate. Had little schooling, worked from the age of 7 onward, and his formal education ended at 12. 5’. His parents’ folk ballads, and his own extraordinary memory, as well as the support of his progenitors, turned him into young poet. Wrote in secret, saving his wages to buy books of poetry. Small, frail, and subject to supernatural terrors. Also experienced early disappointment in love, apotheosizing a childhood obsession with Mary Joyce, to whom he later thought he was married, in his periods of madness. Briefly became a popular celebrity in London as a peasant poet, and was granted an annual annuity, although continued to do field labor throughout. In 1820, he married Patty Turner, the daughter of neighboring farmer, 7 children from union. His later poetry sold poorly, and he had to continue working as a farmer to support his family and his dependent father, while resenting his subsequent literary rejection. His life, however, became one misfortune after another, and he took to drink. Became subject to delusions, and was confined to an asylum for four years. Escaped, walking 80 miles and eating grass along the way. After seven months, he was certified insane and re-confined to another asylum for the last 23 of his life, where he continued to write works of some visionary power. Inner: Prodigious memory, self-taught, compulsive and shy, with a bipolar disorder. Probably welcomed his removal at life’s end to an environment where he could focus totally on the beauty of his interior, without the harsh hand of the outer world intruding on it. Unclear lifetime of suffering and madness in order to touch on his profound and poetic sense of the unbearable lightness of nature. Christopher Smart (1722-1771) - English poet. Outer: Father was a steward for a viscount, family moved after the noble’s death. Following his sire’s demise, when he was 11, he continued his schooling, and, with the patronage of a duchess, he was educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge, and became a fellow and lecturer there. Incurred debts, gave himself to drink, and finally moved to London, where he became a hack writer, and involved himself in editing and theatricals. In his mid-30s, he married Anna Carnan, the stepdaughter of the man for whom he worked. Despite some recognition, he was constantly in debt through his restless improvidence. Fell prey to religious mania and was confined for his madness several times between 1756 and 1763, using the time to further limn his observations and thoughts on paper. Despite his personal debilities, he befriended many of the cultural elite of his time. Wrote both satires and religious works, noted for their beauty and simplicity. In 1770, he was condemned to debtor’s prison, where he died the following year. Inner: Intuitive channel, but unable to remain grounded because of his deep sense of religiosity. Restless, self-destructive, with an inordinate focus on the sublime emotions of aesthetics and spirituality, and little regard for the conventions of normality. Disorderly lifetime, as always, of allowing his own spiritual madness free reign in his ongoing failed attempts at integrating his internal processes through the disintegration of his outer realities.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS CHARITABLE CHAMPION OF CAUSES:
Storyline: The trickster troubadour gives serial lyrical celebration to his ongoing exploration of his multi-faceted self as an ongoing voice of his times
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Ludacris (Christopher Brian Bridges) (1977) - American rapper, writer and actor. Outer: Of African-American descent, with some indigenous ancestry. An only child, he was xtremely close to his sire, he began rapping at 9. Poet Justin Ryan Fyfe, whom he met in high school, would be his most important musical influence. Eventually his family moved to Atlanta, where his father opened him up to a wide range of music. 5’8”, slim and muscular. Graduated from Georgia State Univ., where he majored in music management. At the time he also served an internship at a local radio station, hosting under the name Chris Lova Lova. Cofounded Disturbing the Peace Records in 2000 with his manager Chaka Zulu. The indie label featured what was known as “Dirty South” sound, and brought him a contract with Def Jam, which allowed him to repackage his initial album and retitle it “Back for the First Time,” bringing him his first platinum hit. More would follow. Made his film debut in 2003 in 2 Fast 2 Furious, and would continue with the series into the teens. Gave a memorable support performance in 2004’s, Hustle and Flow. Lost his beloved father to diabetes in 2007. Gave homage to him in his Grammy award speech for Best Rap Album, “Release Therapy” and song, “Money Maker.” Fathered three daughters by different mates before marrying Eudoxie Mbougulyergue in 2014. Creator of numerous charities, including the Ludicris Foundation, in order to inspire Has won a host of awards, including 3 Grammys, and a trio of MTV Video Awards. Has a net worth of $25 million. .Inner: Highly charitable, socially aware and gifted both musically and lyrically, Good-humored. lifetime of both giving and giving back to his large fan base, as a 21st century voice to be reckoned with. Langston Hughes (James Mercer Langston Hughes) (1902-1967) - American poet and playwright. Outer: On his paternal side, both of his great-grandfathers were white slave owners, and traders, with both Scottish and Jewish blood, who co-habited with their chattel. On his maternal side, he was a mixture of African-American, French, English and indigenous American. Parents separated soon after his birth and latter divorced, with his father ultimately moving to Mexico to escape America’s racism, and school teacher mother forced to travel in search of employment. Had one older step-brother. Raised primarily by his stern maternal grandmother, who died when he was in his early teens. Often lonely with her, living in poverty, as she rented out rooms to support them. 5’4”. Returned to his mother, who had remarried, eventually settling in Cleveland. Began to write poetry, and was introduced to the works of Carl Sandburg and Walt Whitman (Allen Ginsburg) who would serve as his major influences. Had his earlier work rejected by poetry magazines. After graduating high school in 1920, he spent a year in Mexico with his father, with whom he had a strained relationship. His first published work, “The Negro Speaks of Rivers,” brought him notice Enrolled at Columbia Univ. to study engineering, although the prejudicial environment bothered him deeply and he dropped out. Worked at odd jobs, before becoming a ship steward and traveling to Spain and Africa. Lived briefly in Paris, before returning to the U.S., working as a busboy in Washington. Showed some poems to Vachel Lindsay (Tom Waits) who helped promote him, and he wound up winning a scholarship to historically black Lincoln Univ. in Pa. His first book of poetry, “The Weary Blues” was published in 1926, and established him as a distinctive lyrical voice, via his use of jazz rhythms and dialect to portray black urban life. More poetry would follow, along with his first novel, “Not Without Laughter,” which came out in 1929, following his graduation. During the 1930s, he lectured widely in the US, as well as the USSR, Japan and Haiti. Served as a war correspondent for several American newspapers during the Spanish Civil War. A closeted homophile, since he felt coming out would only prejudice his own people against him. Published his autobiography in 1940, “The Big Sea,” and began a newspaper column for the Chicago Defender, creating Jesse B. Semple or “Simple” a black everyman. After penning the lyrics for a Broadway musical called “Street Scene” in the late 1940s, he was finally financially independent enough to buy a house in Harlem. Continued his prolific output as a major black voice in American culture. Penned a large body of poetry, as well as 11 plays, and a host of prose works, including the “Simple” series. Died from complications from prostate cancer, and had a highly musical funeral. Cremated afterwards with his ashes interred beneath a Harlem research center for black culture in Harlem. His house received landmark status and its street was renamed Langston Hughes Place. Inner: Refused to differentiate between his own experiences and the common experiences of black America. Specifically addressed his work to black readers. Lyrical lifetime of giving both serious and humorous voice to the black experience in America as its self-proclaimed troubadour and recorder. Fitz Hugh Ludlow (1836-1870) - American writer and internal explorer. Outer: Father was an extremely emotional abolitionist minister, whose outspokenness against slavery caused an angry mob to drive him from his home and destroy it, months before his son’s birth. One older sister, with whom he was very close. His sire also aided the Underground Railway, bringing slaves up north. Told stories about abolitionist heroes and martyrs while a young child, which affected him deeply. Given rigorous home schooling, learning Greek and Latin. while proving to be both bookish and frail, as well as nearsighted. Lost his mother to ill health when he was 12, which made him obsessive about mortality. Began drug use at 16, and continued at Princeton and then Union College in upstate NY, with a particular fondness for hasheesh. Wrote poetry all during this time, as well as some college songs, while being viewed alternately as strange and hilarious by his peers. After graduation, he hoped to return as a professor, although fate had other plans for him, thanks to his regular voluptuous intake of cannabis extract, which greatly inspired his creativity, while also spurring an interest in medicine and healing. Briefly worked as a teacher of English and the classics at a private academy, before publishing “The Hasheesh Eater,” in 1857, which rehashed his own personal use of the drug. It became a bestseller and made him a public personality at the age of 21. Despite his infamy, he struggled financially, while influencing his fellow Rathskeller habitueés and scriveners at Pfaff’s, to celebrate the narcotic in their own works. Friend of poet Walt Whitman (Allen Ginsburg), as well as other NY bohemians, while writing for many NYC’s periodicals. Studied law and passed his bar in 1859, although never practiced. At the same time he wed Rosalie Osbourne, whose mother was semi-horrified that she had married a dope fiend. Took a job at the NYC Customs House, to supplement his meager writer’s income, before the couple headed out west in 1863 with artist Albert Bierstadt (Julian Schnabel), with the intent of publishing his travelogues. Helped create a group modeled after his Pfaff’s crew in San Francisco, who put out a weekly paper. Finally published his travelogue, “The Heart of the Continent” in 1870, although it was considered largely irrelevant because the trans-continental railroad had made travel far easier for far more people by that time. Struggled greatly with his addictions hie final years. Returned to NY and then left with his sister and wife for Europe, briefly visiting London, before going to Geneva, where he finally expired. Died of tuberculosis, the day after his 34th birthday, although his continued use of drugs probably contributed greatly to his early demise. His last words were allegedly “tell all my friends that dear Jesus is all I ever thought him; my only savior, my Lord and my God.” Inner: Imbued with a strong sense of Christianity, although had an iconoclastic sense of his own spirituality and felt a great need to constantly test his faith. Ultimately had mixed feelings over his drug use. Internal voyager lifetime of exploring his creativity via ingested stimulants while struggling constantly with his faith in existence and in himself.


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PATHWAY OF THE POET/MUSICIAN AS ONE OF A KIND BARD:
Storyline: The different drummer returns from an early exit to continue his pursuit of his unique sensibilities around song and story.

Chance the Rapper (Chancelor Jjohnathan Bennett) (1993) - American rapper, songwriter, producer and political activist. Outer: Of African American descent. Father was an aide to former Chicago mayor Harold Washington, and also worked for Barack Obama when he was a senator. Older of two brothers, with his younger sibling Taylor also a rapper. His progenitor dreamed of a political life for him. Had a comfortable middle-class upbringing, and began rapping under the name Chano. Went to a college prep high school, where he was suspended for 10 days for marijuana possession his senior year, using the experience for his first solo mixtape, “10 Day.” His subsequent collaborator efforts were released on a free download website called DatPiff. 5’10” and slim. Showed himself to have both a unique voice, social thinker and music sensibilities. HIs second mixtape, 2013’s “Acid Rap” was also released as a free download, and further enhanced his reputation as a potent voice of his times. Avoided the major labels that wanted to sign him, and instead released his work through streaming in order to maintain is total artistic independence. Has collaborated with fellow independents Lil Wayne and his personal musical hero, Kanye West, carving out his own unique niched for himself. depending on revenue from touring and merchandise rather than big claustrophobic contracts, which he felt would limit him musically. Fathered a daughter in 2015, with Kirsten Corley Worked with a group of musicians called the Social Experiment on his next album, “Surf”, a jazzy soulful effort, which had high profile contributors. Donated his 2017 Grammy for Best Rap Album for “Coloring Book,” the first ever to chart on Billboard from just streaming, to the DuSabe Museum of African American History in Chicago, as well as $1 million to Chicago public schools. Has a net worth of $9 million. Inner: Fiercely independent, with a very strong social awareness, as well as a desire to uplift all through both his music and his sense of fairness and justice. Highly focused lifetime of marching to his own beat and bringing both joy and a redress of societal wrongs to the world-at-large. Richard Farina (1937-1966) American folksinger, songwriter and novelistL Outer Of Irish and Cuban descent. Went to a tech high school in Brooklyn before getting an academic scholarships to attend Cornell Univ., where he majored in engineering, then switched to English, before dropping out in 1959 just prior to graduation. Becams involved in the Greenwich Village folkie scene, marrying Carolyn Hester, a successful folksinger, some 18 days after they met. Became her agent and toured the world with her performances, while focusing on his own noevelwriting. In 1961 he met Bob Dylan and they became close friends. Traveled to Europe, where he met Mimi Baez, the teenage sister of singer Joan Baez, which led to his divorce and subsequent marriage to Mimi. Moved to Carmel, Ca, where they composed songs, and the following annum, debuted as Richard and Mimi Farina and signed a contract with Vanguard Records. Eventually they released three albums, beginning with "Celebrations For a Grey Day," Published his novel “Been Down So long It Looks Like Up to Me” in 1966, a comic picaresque work. After a book-signing appearance at a Carmel bookstore, he took a ride on a motorcycle at a high speed, and it tipped over on the right side of the road, and tore through a barbed wire fence into a field. Although the driver survived, he was killed instantly. Inner: Ironic and self-protective with a propensity for living on the edge. Work in progress lifetime of living fast and dying young as a means of quickly exploring himself, before returning in equally self-aware fashion in order to deal with an increasingly out-of-balance world.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS ONGOING EXPLORER OF THE EVERYDAY:
Storyline: The self-referential scribe maintains his lyrical gift for celebrating the ordinary remarkability of life, after many a go-round as pen-and-paper poet, by switching his primary medium of expression to film and all its visual complexities.
Wes Anderson (Wesley Wales Anderson) (1969) - American filmmaker. Outer: Of English descent. Great grandson of Tarzan creator Edgar Rice Burroughs (Josh Whedon). Mother studied art, and got a Ph.d. in anthropology to pursue a career as an archaeologist before becoming a real estate agent. Father was an advertising and PR executive, and sometime writer. The middle of three brothers, including younger sibling Eric, an illustrator and sometime actor, whose designs have been featured in several of his films. His parents divorced when he was 8, affecting him deeply. Lived with his mother afterwards, who often took him along on archaeological digs. Became an upstart at school because of it, before turning towards creativity as a release, after he got hold of his father’s Super-8 camera when he was 10, and began churning out silent films in his backyard. An avid reader, he amassed a large collection of special editions, showing a well-developed esthetic even at any early age. Went to both public and private school, doing large and complex play productions based on well-known stories, while also showing himself to be a decent athlete. Graduated from the Univ. of Texas, as a philosophy major. 6’1” and slender. Began making short films with Owen Wilson, after meeting him in college, airing some on a local cable access station.. One became his first full length feature film in 1996, Bottle Rocket, a comedy which garnered a cult following, despite not being a commercial success. Accepted at Columbia Univ.’s school of filmmaking, but opted for practical rather than more academic experience. His subsequent films would feature many of the same players, with Bill Murray appearing in most of them. Along with Wilson, he co-wrote Rushmore in 1998 and The Royal Tenenbaums in 2001. Rushmore would gain him critical and box office acclaim, and the even greater success of The Royal Tenenbaums would give him bigger budgets and a large following because of the eccentric comedy nature of much of his work. Has a distinctive visual style that emphasizes the element of self-contained worlds, with long takes and tight close-ups, while his soundtracks often feature a singular band from the 1960s and 1970s, in his ongoing self-referential need to give added ballast to his stories, which reflect on his growing up absurd, and the sense of loss he had about ordinary family life. Has had a long-term relationship with Juman Malouf, a Lebanese writer and costume designer, while remaining unmarried. Won a Golden Globe for Best Picture in the comedy genre in 2015 for The Grand Budapest Hotel, a clever and melancholy comedy with a his/storical and European veneer, and his usual top-notch cast and touch. Inner: Courtly and a gentleman to the core, with an extremely well-developed esthetic. Loves Paris, and has spent considerable time there, feeling just walking its streets is a movie in itself. Often pens films centering around broken families, with a search for father figures extremely important to some of his characters. Self-exploring lifetime of using the medium of film to look at the dynamics of his upbringing, as he continues his fascination with the ordinary, while switching his focus from viewing the world’s larger injustices to exploring the one fate gave him as a youngster. Wallace Stevens (1879-1955) - American poet. Outer: Of Pennsylvania-Dutch extract. Father was a lawyer who dabbled in poetry. 2nd of 5 children. Attended Harvard as a special student, but dropped out to pursue a literary career, becoming a journalist, before resuming his law studies, at NYU per his progenitor’s wishes. Admitted to the NY bar in 1904. Delayed his marriage for five years, until his early 30s, out of financial prudence, courting his future wife, Elsie Kachel, a shopgirl, long distance via poems and letters. No one from his family attended their wedding, and he never visited or spoke to his disapproving father again, and only resumed contact with his mother following the former’s death. The duo had an unhappy but stable union although people often took his fanatically domestic wife as a servant, which he also seems to have done, as well. Their daughter, Holly, would later edit her father’s letters and one of his poetry collections, while labeling her mother as mentally ill, with her overprotectiveness and highly suspicious nature. Finally turned to poetry when he had secured himself as an insurance investigator. Spent most of his working life with Hartford Accident and Indemnity Company, which he joined in 1916, rising to the level of vice president, a position he held the last two decades of life. Often would compose while walking to work, then dictate the results to his secretary. His first volume of verse was published in his mid-40s. Won the Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award in 1955 for his collected poems. Clung to his job, despite being offered the chance to deliver the prestigious Norton lectures at Harvard late in life. Had no intimate friendships, and no one was ever allowed into his home. An intellectual rather than emotional poet, revealing little of himself. Never learned to drive, and often composed poetry on his three mile walk back and forth to work. Once ballooned to 300 pounds. Supposedly converted to Catholicism on his deathbed, although no record exists of it, before dying of liver cancer. Inner: Affluent, aloof, deliberately hidden and undemocratic. Kept himself neatly divided twixt business and esthetics, with never the twain meeting. Addicted to candy, perhaps as compensation for an otherwise lack of sweetness in his life. Fiercely reticent and equally cerebral, while viewing poetry as an act of conscience. Compartmentalized lifetime of putting all his ducks in order, in order to delve unimpeded into the cognitive side of himself, unbothered by the messy emotions of friendship and intimacy. Fitz-Greene Halleck (Fitz-greene Hallock) (1790-1867) - American poet. Outer: His ancestors were early Pilgrim fathers. Born and died in the same town. Father was a Tory merchant. Raised an Episcopal, he was a voracious reader as a child. Able to master several languages, he began rhyming almost as soon as he could write. At 14, he changed the spelling of his last name. Became a clerk in a cousin’s store, while living with his family, and taught himself to be a bookkeeper. In 1808, he joined the Connecticut militia, rising to the rank of sergeant. Found his military experience to be both stimulating and fun. Opened an evening school where he taught writing, arithmetic and bookkeeping, which allowed him the wherewithal for his passion in collecting books. Served as a clerk for several NYC banks, beginning in 1811, and wrote only as an avocation, neatly compartmentalizing his working life. Collaborated with Joseph Rodman Drake (Randy Newman) on a series of satiric verses, beginning in 1819, which were very popular. A severe fear of adverse criticism, however, limited his output. Wrote little later on in life, although was friendly with writer Charles Dickens (Richard Burton). Became a confidential secretary of John Jacob Astor (John D. Rockefeller) in 1832, and also served as his cultural advisor, telling him what pieces of art to buy. Appointed one of the original trustees of the Astor library for his services. A lifelong bachelor, he retired to his native town to spend the rest of his life there, thanks to an annuity from Astor. Lived with his unmarried older sister, Maria, and she was at his side when he died. Inner: Extremely courteous, well hidden, stiffly mannered. Monarchist, looked down on democratic rule. Hidden lifetime, once again, of focusing primarily on his financial grounding, with written self-expression as a secondary means of defining himself, while keeping himself distant from all possible intimacies and their potential for criticism and revelation.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS AS ECLECTIC ODESTER:
Storyline: The shining-armored knight unleashes a well-received resume on a highly receptive world, proving himself in the diverse realms of the poetical, professorial and political, as a man for all seasons, even when entering the hip-hop realm, as an elevator of pop culture.

Macklemore (Ben Haggerty) - American rapper. Outer: Of Irish descent. From a nonmusical middle-class family. Mother was a social worker, who encouraged her son to support those who were different from the norm. Fascinated by hiphop from an early age, he began writing lyrics at 14, while also performing as a child. Attended the same high school that boasted Jimi Hendrix as an alumna, where he succumbed to both alcohol and drugs, forcing his parents to move him to another school, which did little to ameliorate his addictions. 6' and sinewy. Released his first mixtape, “Open Your Eyes,” in 2000, under the name Professor Macklemore. Earned a B.A. from Evergreen State College in 2005, and the same year issued, “The Language of My World.” The spotlight, unfortunately, sent him spiraling downward into even further drug abuse, until his father got him into rehab in 2008 for a 35 day stint. Teamed up with producer Ryan Lewis, whom he met on MySpace afterwards, and enjoyed a huge popular success in 2012 with their first album, “The Heist,” while opting to stay away from major record labels, preferring online marketing and word-of-mouth. Their first two singles, “Thrift Shop” and “Can’t Hold Us,” wound up on top of the charts, the first time that ever happened. As a non-traditional rapper, his subject matter is often witty and off-the-wall, rather than the usual sex-drenched fare. Began touring in 2013, and the following year won his first Grammy for Best New Artist, as well as three more awards for best rap album, song and performance, causing consternation in some circles, who see him as more of a pop artist than a true rapper. Drew considerable wrath for a costume he wore at the EMP museum in Seatlle, where he seemed to be mocking Jewish stereotypes with a large prosthetic hooked nose, fake beard and wig, forcing him to issue a lengthy apology, in what has been a series of gaffes on his part ever since becoming a highly noticeable public figure. Married longtime girlfriend Tricia Davis in 2015, one daughter from the union. Inner: Hard worker, driven, with a desire to elevate via the means of ordinary pop culture. Progressive and teacherly in all his performances, explaining and edifying. Difficulty with substance abuse, although increasingly more grounded as he has gotten older. Professorial lifetime of switching his modus operandi to popular music while maintaining the same desire as always to make the world a better place for his having graced it. Archibald Macleish (1892-1982) - American poet, political figure and teacher. Outer: Son of a self-made Glascow-born Chicago department store magnate who founded the Univ. of Chicago. Mother was a clergyman’s daughter and president of Rockford College prior to their marriage, the third for her husband, who was reserved, stern and withholding of his love. Four children all told, the middle of three brothers, with one sister. Developed a love of both reading and writing from his mother’s equal affinity for the written word, while her sense of social responsibility was also passed down to him. Had a privileged and cultured upbringing on a 17 acre estate, and was handsome, athletic and bright, to complete a quartet of can’t miss attributes. Educated at Hotchkiss, then Yale, where he played football, edited the literary magazine, the Lit, and was elected to Skull and Bones, while majoring in English. Subsequently first in his class at Harvard Law, and while there, he married Ada Hitchcock, a concert singer, in his mid-20s, 4 children from the union, although his wife subordinated their care to safeguarding her husband’s career, and one did not survive infancy. Served in France during WW I in the Yale Mobile Hospital Unit., rising from private to first lieutenant, at which time, his first volume of verse, “Tower of Ivory,” was published. Transferred to an artillery unit, saw action, then was returned to the U.S. as an instructor, while losing a brother, a fighter pilot, in the fray, which deeply embittered him. Taught constitutional and international law at Harvard, while forming friendships with many of the culterati of the time. Practiced law in Boston, before abruptly giving it up the day he was offered a partnership, and moved with his family to Paris for five years, beginning in 1923. Joined the expatriate writing community there, wrote modernist poetry, returned to America, and bought a farm in western Mass., which became his permanent home, then retraced the route of conquistador Hernando Cortes (Hugo Chavez), winning a Pulitzer Prize in 1933 for the epic he composed about it, while becoming a journalist for Fortune magazine for nine years, beginning in 1929. Later won two more Pulitzers, for his collected poems, and for his verse play J.B., for which he also garnered a Tony. An outspoken antifascist liberal activist, he won a presidential appointment as Librarian of Congress for 5 years beginning in 1939, and became part of FDR’s inner circle. Despite his various successes, or perhaps because of them, he remained a continuous target of scorn from elements of both the left and the right. Served as assistant director of the Office of War Information, during WW II, disseminating patriotic propaganda, and then was assistant Secretary of State, as well as one of the founders of UNESCO. Elected president of the American Academy of Arts & Letters in 1953, he publicly fought McCarthyism, as well as the anti-Red hysteria of the time. Finished his career with a thirteen year stint as a prestigious Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory at Harvard, where he was popularly known as “Archie,” before retiring in 1962. Helped free poet Ezra Pound, an old friend from Paris, after he had been institutionalized following WW II. Served as an unofficial American poet laureate, in a life rich with honors, achievement, and creative productivity, including the Medal of Freedom in 1977. Continued his output into old age, waxing lyrical on aging and love. Died a millionaire, two weeks shy of his ninetieth birthday. Best remembered for his play and poem on the life of Job, J.B, which was the antithesis of his own richly-rewarded and relatively conflict-free existence. His poetic reputation would suffer some following his death, although he remains an exemplar of the active, engaged esthete. Inner: Multifaceted and extremely grounded in the real world as well as the ethereal world of poetics. Political and poetical, with a genuine concern for justice and the ability to perform at a high level in any discipline into which he invested his considerable talents. Always felt esthetics provided the upliftment needed against the various ‘isms’ of the 20th century, including unbridled capitalism. Multifaceted lifetime of many achievements in many fields, with both the oral and written powers of exposition to augment them, but without the genius to be a truly transcendental character beyond his own time. Hugh H. Brackenridge (Hugh Henry Brackenridge) (1748-1816) - Scottish/American writer and jurist. Outer: Father was an impoverished farmer. The family migrated from Scotland when he was 5 to a Pennsylvania farm, completing their journey by selling their surplus clothes. His mother was highly intelligent and encouraged her son’s studies with a local clergyman. Often walked miles to borrow books and newspapers. At 15, he ran a school in Maryland, which gave him the money to attend Princeton. Classmate of Philip Freneau (Trent Reznor), with whom he collaborated on one of the earliest prose fiction pieces written in America. Powerfully built, with a booming voice, a large nose, a florid face and excellent oratorical skills. As an ardent Whig, he contributed patriotic writings to the Revolutionary cause and wrote two plays while serving as chaplain during that conflict. Studied law and in his early 30s, moved to the frontier town of Pittsburgh. Helped establish the first newspaper, bookstore and school there, while holding several political posts. Suspected of disloyalty through his activities during the Whiskey Rebellion, but was later exonerated. His best known work is "Modern Chivalry," a picaresque satire. Became a leader of the Republican party on the western frontier of colonial America, and for his last 15 years, lived in Carlisle, Pa, where he was justice of the Pennsylvania supreme court until his death. Married twice, with his first wife’s name unknown. Their son, who was afraid of him, became a lawyer and writer. Two years after his initial spouse’s demise, he wed Sabina Wolfe, a German-speaking farmer’s daughter, proposing on his first date with her, then sending her to Philadelphia so she would be properly socialized to be his mate. His later works were less effective. Inner: Caustic wit, eccentric, had many enemies, but also was honest and able, and was known as “a gentleman of the old school.” Used to prop his bare feet on the justice bar, and would ride naked in the rain, with his suit under the saddle, so it wouldn’t get wet. A compulsive teacher, he was interested in elevating everyone, despite his less than lofty views on race. Busy lifetime, as always, of acknowledged accomplishment and achievement in a variety of fields, from the judicial to the executive to the expository, while proving himself to be a chivalrous exemplar of the modern-day poetical knight, unafraid to joust with his adversaries.

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PATHWAY OF THE POET AS RHYTHMICAL CYCLOPS:
The former philologist/physician eschews his earlier straight and narrow pursuit of language mastery in order to fully embrace the down’n’dirty of rap, as an unapologetic practitioner of its street verse in reaction to the slow recognition earlier given him as a far less radical figure.
Fetty Wap (Willie Maxwell II) (1991) - American rapper and songwriter. Outer: Of African-American descent. Grew up in a housing project in Paterson, NJ, a town he had earlier celebrated in verse. Named after his grandfather and raised in his church. One of three children, with a sister and brother. Both his mother and brother were also musically inclined, as was his birth father and an uncle.. An accident as a child almost cost him his sight, as doctors saved his right eye, while he lost the vision in his left to glaucoma. Wore a prothesis in school, which he would occasionally pop to impress his friends, while pretending he had been shot. Admitted he was more fascinated with money than books while growing up, which gave him part of his rap name “fetty,”, which is a playoff on ‘confetti.’ Dropped out of high school in the tenth grade and sold drugs, with little real focus to his life. 6’ and slim. Had a son with Ariel Reese, with whom he had grown up, in a non-contentious relationship, unlike his subsequent loves. Began showing an interest in a music career in 2014, initially as a rapper and then as a singer as well, with a desire to create a new, unique sound. Took the second half of his nom de rap from violent rapper Gucci Mane. Sold tapes on the street and drew attention to himself with the drug-inspired love song “Trap Queen,” a huge hit in 2015, which got him a record deal with 300 Entertainment. His subsequent releases all proved to be hits, in his ability to reflect the worlds of his target audience. His debut album, “Fetty Wap” hit number one on the Billboard charts in 2015, and the following annum, he was named Billboard’s top new artist. Also part of a trio that calls itself Remy Boyz 1738, although wound up kicking one of its members out. Had a daughter with Lezhae Zeena, in a volatile relationship that saw him show little real interest in maintaining a connection with his second baby mama. Subsequently had a daughter in 2016 with actress and ex-girlfriend Masika Kalysha, who is six years his senior. after first denying he was the father, and then showing strong interest in the child, in his ongoing connect and disconnect from parental responsibilities. Inner: Possesses a wobbly voice, but has good musical and lyrical instincts. Volatile personality, clashing with anyone who runs counter to his considerable will. Likes to sport a Haitian fly in honor of his first daughter’s grandmother. Feels Paterson shaped him and identifies strongly with the town. Wants his style of music to be known as Trap & B, a combo of heavy beat southern rapping on gritty subjects infused with an R&B sound. Recompense lifetime of going after fame’n’fortune early on, after having been denied it as a far more conventional figure, unwounded by the exigencies of fate. William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) - American poet and physician. Outer: Born and died in the same New Jersey town. Mother was of Basque and Dutch-Jewish descent, and had grown up in Puerto Rico, while his father was an English-born businessman. Passionate about sports, until he discovered an adolescent heart strain, then turned his abundant energy towards literature. At 15, he went to Europe for 2 years with his younger brother and mother, a highly unusual woman, with a romantic and exotic personality, and was educated in Switzerland and briefly in Paris, before returning to the United States. Became a close friend of poet Ezra Pound, when both were at the Univ. of Pennsylvania together. Received a medical degree from there, after switching from dentistry, and didan internship in NYC, before resigning when he discovered dishonesty in their accounts. Privately printed his first volume of poems in 1909, then did postgraduate work in pediatrics in Germany before beginning a lifelong practice among the poor of his workingclass suburb of Rutherford, settling in the same home for the last 50 years of his life. In 1913, he married Florence Herman, the sister of his brother’s former fiancee, 3 children from union. Often resented that medicine paid for his writing, but maintained his dual life of healer and poet, somehow finding the time to be an exemplar in both fields. Wrote prolifically in a variety of forms, and his most memorable poem was Paterson, an autobiographical look at the essence of America. Able to convey the feeling of ordinary things through the idiomatic speech of his verse. Also wrote essays, short stories, and a three volume chronicle of an immigrant family in America. Maintained his practice until the 1950s, when a series of strokes forced him to retire and hand it over to his oldest son, although he continued working as a pediatric consultant. In 1952, a heart attack caused him to lose his power of speech, and the following year, another attack made him so depressed, he entered a mental hospital. Continued writing, however, after he could no longer practice medicine. Died in his sleep of heart disease. Extremely prolific, he was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1963, for his last book, "Pictures from Breughel." Inner: Compassionate, courteous, kind and driven. Great desire to speak in the American grain, locating all his work in his own country’s culture. Extremely sensitive to injustice, celebrator of the extraordinariness of the ordinary. Healing lifetime of giving power to his imagination, while grounding himself through service to others. William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878) -American poet and editor. Outer: One of seven children, with four brothers and two sisters. Second son of a learned physician with classical Calvinist leanings, mother was literary and kept journals. Family descended from Puritans, household was conservative and religious. Delicate and nervous as a child, but also precocious, learning the alphabet at 16 months. Began writing simple verse at 7, and later studied Latin and Greek, harboring a longtime fascination with the Grecian poet Homer. His early work showed a strong interest in natural processes. Withdrew from Yale because of finances, and studied law privately, ultimately becoming a lawyer for a decade, a calling he loathed. Wrote poetry in his spare time, which established his literary reputation as a bard of the beauty of nature. Happily married in his late 20s, to Frances Fairchild, the daughter of neighboring farmer, one daughter from the union. Moved to NYC to indulge in his love for language, ultimately becoming part-owner and editor-in-chief of his own newspaper, the NY Evening Post, which occupied him the rest of his working life. Clever investments made him a millionaire, allowing him to patronize the arts and travel with his family. Rejected his upbringing, ultimately becoming a liberal Unitarian. Revered the power of nature, and took strong editorial stands on anti-slavery, free speech and trade, and power to working people, and participated in the founding of the Republican Party. In his 70s, he concentrated on translating the whole of Homer. Died from a brain concussion, after falling, following a dedicatory speech in Central Park at the unveiling of a statue of the Italian patriot, Giuseppe Mazzini. Best remembered for the poem, "Thanatopsis." Inner: Simple and unpretentious, although reserved, austere and cold, as well as pious and melancholic, thanks to his upbringing. Blank verse moralizer, and adroit craftsman. Puritan turned Romantic, and forced to struggle between freedom of expression and the controlling tenets of his childhood. Bardic lifetime of trying to find a balance between work, expression and affecting his times, from a springboard that was bound to give him considerable conflict in finding his true self.

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