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ARTISTS - THE FRANCO/SPANISH & ITALIAN/AMERICAN CONNECTION - FAMILIES & FILMMAKERS

PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS PROVOCATEUR EXTRAORDINAIRE:
Storyline: The continuous colossus turns his grandiose artistic eye to cinema, to excellent effect, after many a go-round of striding the various milieus he finds himself in, like a giant graffitist, constantly looking to leave a memorable mark that will last for the ages.
Robert Rodriguez (1968) - American director. Outer: Middle of ten children of a salesman, with six of his siblings becoming actors through his early efforts to turn his whole family on to the magic of cinema. Taken by his mother on weekly trips to a local movie theater, the San Antonio Olmos, which was a film school in itself in the eclectic fare it showed, from Hollywood’s silent past to its multi-camera present. Always doodling and drawing, he evinced an interest in both cartooning and filmmaking from a young age, and knew from the outset that the latter would be his life’s pathway. Began shooting films with his family’s Super-8 camera, using his siblings and relatives as his cast, and his house and neighborhood as backdrops for his various concoctions. Moved up to a video camera, and by his teens was handing in movies in lieu of term papers, while also penning a comicstrip, “Los Hooligans.” Won local competitions and festivals with his output, although his academics suffered because of his obsessive focus on celluloid. Nevertheless, he gained entry to the Univ. of Texas at Austin’s vaunted film school, through a trilogy he shot called “Austin Stories.” While there he created an award/winning comedy short called Bedhead, spending all of $400 to make it. 6’2”. In 1990, he married Venezuelan-born Elizabeth Avellan, five children from the union, all with the letter ‘R’ beginning their names. His wife would go on to serve as co-producer on a number of his projects. In order to finance his first film, he allowed himself to be a guinea pig for medical studies. That effort, in 1992, El Mariachi, a hyperviolent cartoonish Mexican western, cost all of $7000, and immediately established him as an independent filmmaker of note, after it was picked up at the Sundance film festival by a major distributor. Ultimately wrote a book about it, called “Rebel Without a Crew.” Followed it up with Desperado, which cost $7 million, and established both Antonio Banderas and Salma Hayek as transplanted American stars. Began collaborating with auteur director Quentin Tarantino, and gradually moved into mainstream commercial fare, most notably with Spy Kids and its successful sequels, after extended breaks, while punctuating his oeuvre with further paeans to sheer Hollywood visual visceral excess. Turned to digital filmmaking after century’s turn, while quitting the Writer’s Guild of America. Completed his earlier El Mariachi trilogy with Once Upon A Time in Mexico, as an homage to the Sergio Leone westerns that first excited his sense of the possibilities of cinema. Subsequently resigned from the Director’s Guild of America over a credit contretemps. Named his production company after his earlier comicstrip, before changing it to “Troublemaker Studios.” In 2006, he divorced his wife, following a long separation, and took up with actress Rose McGowan, after working with her on his half of Grindhouse, an homage to B movies that he did with Quentin Tarantino. The duo would subsequently become engaged, while she would serve as his main muse for a while, before calling off the engagement. Inner: A teacher, at heart, he always includes behind-the-scenes filmic lessons in all his DVDs. Extremely budget conscious, continually bringing in his films as cheaply as possible, with the dictum that creativity trumps money. Lights, camera, action lifetime of innovatively embracing the medium of film from his ongoing Hispanic root, in an apolitical go-round geared towards sheer image-making, without being weighed down by his propagandist prejudices of yore. Diego Rivera (1886-1957) - Mexican artist. Outer: Great-grandson of a Spanish marquis. Of Russian, Jewish and Tarascan Amerindian descent. Father was a large schoolteacher and mine owner. Mother was the daughter of a mine operator and telegrapher. Unconsciously received a sense of the undergrounder and the communicator from both progenitors. One of twins, his brother died at 2. Began drawing before he could walk or talk, and professed atheism at the age 4. His family moved to Mexico City when he was 7 and he was given a government scholarship to San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts, but was expelled for taking part in student riots. His first exhibition led to a government scholarship in Spain. Traveled throughout Europe for 14 years, beginning in 1907, spending much of his time in Paris, where he learned to combine various styles, while taking up the political ideals of the Russian communists in exile. Also hiked through Italy, inspecting Renaissance frescoes, which inspired him to become a portrait painter of his native land. Imbued with a sense of European modernism on his return to Mexico, he was commissioned to paint murals for the Ministry of Education in Mexico City. Joined the Mexican Communist Party, although his fellow members disparaged his work, claiming he wasn’t a social realist. Those dualities would persist, with his posture as a champion of the proletariat, despite being continually employed by capitalists and his own government. Always had a sense of fashion and the marketplace’s needs, with a great desire to be an artist of all the Americas. Murals would be his true metier, and he was far more at home working in grand simplified cartoon style, than standing in front of a confining easel. Used massive figures based on Aztec and folk art, with strong political overtones, as well as bright colors and simplified forms in all his work. Large in both view and weight, a 300 + pounder. Had a son of the same name in 1916, who lived for 2 years, with Marevna Vorobieva, a Russian/Jewish painter, whom he callously abandoned. Also had an illegitimate daughter in 1918 by her. In 1922, he officially married Lupe Marin, two daughters from the union although he was constantly unfaithful. In his early 40s, he married artist Frida Kahlo (Eva Aridjis) , some 20 years his junior, after she sought him out, and he became entranced with both her and her work. Later had a fling with her sister as well as many more illicit affairs, continuing the pattern he had set in all his relationships, where his own loyalty was to his painting. The duo divorced in 1939, then remarried the following year. Visited Moscow as a confirmed Stalinist, then did controversial murals in several American cities, although a mural for Rockefeller Center in NYC was rejected because of his inclusion of a picture of Lenin, and was destroyed, coincidentally on the day in 1933 that the Nazis held a mass book-burning. Declared far too radical for American tastes, he returned to Mexico to continue in his monumental style, although much of his later oeuvre was hackwork, and the rest of his artistic life was largely anticlimactic. Secretly remarried his agent, Emma Hurtado, two years before his death. Harbored a lifelong fear of blindness and paralysis. At the end, he lost the power to move his right arm via phlebitis. Died a communist, after being readmitted to the party. Thousands marched in his funeral procession. His autobiography, written in collaboration, My Art, My Life, appeared posthumously. Inner: Macho, sensual, highly political. Huge appetite for food, fame and the pleasures of the flesh. Great need to be nurtured, causing him to suck the blood out of all the women in his life. Grandiose lifetime of working on a huge scale in everything he did, opening himself up to the monumentality of cartoon social consciousness, rather than the painterly realism of all his previous existences, as a seminal figure in the ongoing evolution of art as a visual language of larger realities. Edouard Manet (1832-1883) - French artist. Outer: From a wealthy bourgeois family, father was a magistrate who wanted him to be a lawyer, but he was an inattentive student, who sketched in class rather than studied. Mother was the god/daughter of Swedish crown prince, and future king Charles Bernadotte (Randy Quaid). An army officer uncle who was an amateur artist fostered his desires, and at 16, he announced his intention to become a painter. His family strongly opposed his ambitions, but after twice failing his entrance exams to the Naval College, and shipping out as a pilot’s apprentice in between on a naval training ship to Rio de Janeiro, they finally relented. Well bred and well-dressed. In 1850, he entered the studio of Thomas Couture (Peter Jackson) but was impatient with classicism, and studied the old masters at the Louvre instead. In 1856, he left Couture, with whom he was in constant conflict, and traveled in Europe, visiting the galleries on all his stops, including Madrid, where he was much impressed with Spanish realism. Strongly influenced by his earlier lifes as Velazquez and Goya, particularly in their use of rich blacks to frame their subjects. Felt Velazquez was the greatest artist who ever lived. His two most provocative paintings, “Dejeuner sur l’herbe” and “Olympia” were modernizations of earlier works he had done as Giorgione and Goya. Both met with violently negative reactions, assailing public tastes with their shocking nudity. Preoccupied with tones and values, he was also eager to find public approval for his work, despite challenging its sensibilities. Built himself an exhibition hall lined in red velvet, in the hopes of huge financial success, which didn’t materialize, although he never lacked for money. Interested in conveying realism in a high style, and recreating reality in a totally artistic fashion, with both women and Paris as his favorite subjects. Loved the cultural life of the city, with numerous writers and artists as his closest friends. In his early 30s, to the surprise of his friends, he married his mistress of ten years, Suzanne Leenhoff, a Dutch piano teacher, by whom he had already had a son. His father was opposed to the union, since she had earlier been his inamorata, so he waited until after the former’s death in 1862 to make it official. The son may also have been his half-brother, and often posed for him. Contracted syphilis shortly after linking up with SL, perhaps contracting if from his own sire, with their mutual partner as the conduit. Went to Spain after the scandalous reception of “Olympia,” but did not like the country. Returned and experienced more hostility from the public. His studio was half-destroyed from the Franco-Prussian War, but his paintings were stored elsewhere and were left intact. Met Claude Monet (Claude Lelouch) and became friendly with the Impressionists, but he refused to exhibit with them, continuing to submit his paintings to the official Salon, despite difficulties with its acceptance of his work. Despite this setback, he was looked on as the leader of this fledging group. His legs began to give out, and he sought hydrotherapy, but was already a dying man, wracked with pain. His left leg was amputated when gangrene set in, and he died 11 days later of syphilis and rheumatism, the most notorious painter in Paris. Inner: Man of the world and man of principle. Witty, elegant, kind and handsome, with a great desire for attention. Student of surfaces, and an unintentional radical artist. Kept a collection of Spanish costumes in his studio, which he liberally used in his paintings. Weakness in legs may have been symbol of the relative lack of depth of his body of work, as well as the lack of support he felt for his work. Apolitical, having done his authority battles directly with his father. Approval-searching lifetime of drawing on his most notable past painterly lives and bringing them into the age of impressionism, concerning himself with taste and surfaces, rather than the depths behind them, which ultimately left him, literally, with only one leg to stand on. Francisco Goya (Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes) (1746-1828) - Spanish artist Outer: From a humble background, father was a goldsmith, who fell on hard times and was forced to live with his wife’s family. Mother was from the minor aristocracy. Grew up in the rough country of the provinces, where he was filled with ghost stories and superstitions that inflamed his imagination. His sire’s lot improved, and he apprenticed his son at 14 to a mediocre painter. Stayed with him 6 years, then moved to Madrid. In his mid-20s, he married Josefa Bayeau, the sister of the court painter under whom he had trained, after visiting Italy. Only one son survived her, a weakling. Settled in Madrid in his late 20s, and was drawn into the intellectual circles there, where he shared their progressive, liberal views. Commissioned to etch 16 of the Diego Velazquez paintings from the king’s collection, he unconsciously re-taught himself using that past life as his primary teacher. Painted in the traditional style of the time, and became a member of the Royal Academy in 1780. Had he died at 46, when he fell desperately ill from either meningitis or polio and wound up stone deaf, he would have been seen as an interesting, rather than outstanding artist. Had a breakdown from the shock of losing his hearing, having been a great talker beforehand, and withdrew for a year from work and company, and afterwards, his entire style changed, bringing out his true genius. A painter to Carlos IV (Johnny Weismuller) from 1789, and virtual art dictator of his court. Like his preceding life as Velazquez, he rendered the royal family in all their grotesqueries, without any remote sense of flattery, and, as an unvarnished truth/teller, he became the most successful painter in Spain. No longer subject to any voice other than his own, he produced savage satirical etchings, as well as memorable cartoons on the horrors of the Napoleonic intrusion on Spain. Used bizarre parodies and a nightmarish view of the contemporary world to underscore his deep disillusion with the tide of political and martial events in Spain. Although he remained in favor during various changes of regimes, he went into voluntary exile in France at the restoration of the Spanish monarchy in 1824 and further political repression. Continued painting until the end of his long life, dying in France, while feeling he had lost everything but his will at the end, since his eyesight was also fading. Exerted a strong influence on his next life in this series, Manet, successively building on the accomplishments of his Velazquez existence, and repeating many of its elements from the vantage of an impoverished rather than aristocratic birth. Inner: Rational, humane and moral, with a deep sense of the political imbalances of his time. Impulsive, impatient, and usually suffering from one physical ailment or another. Tyrant with his sitters, painting them quickly if he were bored with them, or getting into all their painterly possibilities if they intrigued him. Had the ability to grow and change artistically, opening himself up to new possibilities in his full maturity. Had a fascination with bullfighting, and an equal love for both country and city life. Deafening lifetime of shutting himself off to all but his genius while unconsciously building on past experiences to give greater freedom of expression to himself, allowing him to become an artist of the ages. Diego Velazquez (Diego Rodriquez de Silva y Velazquez) (1599-1660) - Spanish artist. Outer: From an aristocratic Portuguese family on his father’s side, living in Spain on a modest income. Both his parents were from Seville, and he ultimately used his mother’s name. Hs father supported his ambitions to be a painter, and sent him to a bad-tempered artist to apprentice, although the latter was so intolerable, he soon switched teachers, at the age of 11 1/2. Married at 19 to Juana Pacheco, the daughter of his 2nd teacher, and was already the most famous painter in Spain, beginning his career doing everyday scenes. His wife stayed in the background his entire life, and died a week after him. 2 daughters from union, one of whom married an artist. Called to the court at 24 to paint the king, Felipe IV (Walt Disney), he immediately became his official artist, spending the next thirty-six years of his life in royal employ, a fixture at the court, where he painted the Hapsburg deformities and regal grotesques precisely as he saw them. Took one extended trip to Italy in 1629, where he copied the old masters, and brought back several paintings by masters. A great admirer of Rubens (Louis Malle), whom he met and befriended. Rarely made preliminary drawings, and was totally impersonal in his work, signing barely a half-dozen of them. Lived in harmony with the court, performing services such as purchasing works, in an extremely quiet existence. Seemingly satisfied with his rather curtailed existence, and the opportunity it gave him to render what he saw as he saw it, without financial or esthetic limitations. Simplified his realities until he could render them in his acute perceptual style. In addition to portraits, he also did his/storical, religious and mythological works. In later life, he was involved with more and more court duties, and because of his deliberate, slow style, his output was small, despite its lasting value. Served as an usher for the court when the Infanta was given to her fiance, the French king, returned to Madrid, was ill for a week, and died. Inner: Reserved, nonjudgmental, a scientist with a paintbrush, rendering whoever was put before him exactly as they looked to him. Modest and unassuming. Restricted lifetime of working under the controlled aegis of royalty and the discipline of protocol but with the freedom to see clearly and paint exactly what he envisioned. Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli) (c1477-1510) - Italian artist. Outer: Very little known about his life. Described alternately as a peasant’s son or a nobleman’s bastard. Went to Venice to study under Giovanni Bellini (Paul Cezanne), who influenced his later work greatly. Because of the growing demand for his work, a fellow student, Titian (Louis Malle) worked as his assistant, as did Sebastian del Piombo (Andre Derain), both of whom would go on to spectacular careers of their own. Worked as a decorator in the city’s furniture shops, and also did frescoes, using the facade of his own house as an advertisement of himself. A gifted singer, he accompanied himself on the lute, and had the reputation of being a highly sociable companion. Used a combination of idealized form, color and light to create his poetic masterpieces, while fusing tone and form in warm, luminous colors. Captured the bucolic dreamworld of the imagination in his works, focusing on self-expression rather than conventional construction. There would be uncanny resemblance of certain figures to the later works of Edouard Manet. Never signed or titled his paintings, so that only one, “The Tempest,” can be truly documented as his. Probably died of the plague. Inner: Handsome and amorous. Painted with tremendous freedom of expression, uninhibitedly portraying nudes in an age still shackled to medievalia. Imagination-freeing lifetime of breaking with tradition to create a unique niche in the his/story of art in a brief life, before exiting at the height of his powers, so that he could return to explore in depth, his many aspects as the west’s premier cartoonist for the centuries.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS LONG-SUFFERING SELF-CELEBRATOR:
Storyline: The invisible woman uses her aching mortality as a canvas upon which to turn grotesqueries of misfortune into the beauty of an inner esthetic fully realized.
Eva Aridjis (1974) - Mexican/American director. Outer: Father was Greek-Mexican writer Homero Aridjis. Her American-born mother was a translator and environmental activist, while her older sister Chloe, to whom she is extremely close, is a novelist based in Berlin. Born in the Netherlands, while her father was serving as Mexican ambassador there. Grew up in Mexico City, where she attended the elite American School Foundation. Introverted as a child, she developed a deep imaginative connection to her own inner worlds, while gravitating towards other fellow misfits. Dressed all in black, and grew up in an extremely cultural home, which abounded with artists and intellectuals. Taken to galleries, recitals and poetry festivals by her parents, so that she was given an extremely worldly view of the arts. At 18, she decamped to the U.S., eventually graduating Princeton Univ. with a degree in Comparative Literature, before getting an MFA from NYU in Film and TV, while fighting off stereotypes that would have limited her considerable vision. Began her film career with shorts, before making her first documentary Ninos de la Calle, shot in Mexico City in 2003 for $70,000, which brought to light the plight of the city’s drug-addled street children. Continued her contact with a trio of them afterwards, during her yearly visits to Mexico, while winning awards for the effort, which led to her first English-language feature, The Favor, another prize-winner about connection and disconnection, which she wrote, directed and co-produced on a minimalist $500,000. Followed that up with La Santa Muerte, about a Mexican religious cult, a festival favorite around the world. Teaches screenwriting at her alma mater, while making NYC her base, living with British musician and photographer, Danny Hole. Inner: Identifies with misfits, and seeks their essence out in her work, which she invests with an unusual emotional intelligence. Humane, worldly and sharp-humored. Canvas-expanding lifetime of building on her earlier intensely realized focus of self-interest into the larger artistic landscape of alienated sense and sensibility. Frida Kahlo (Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo Calderon) (1910-1954) - Mexican artist. Outer: Mother was of Spanish an d Mexican/Indio descent, father was a Hungarian-Jewish photographer. 3rd of 4 daughters. Survived polio as a child, and originally intended to become a doctor. 5’3” and slim. At the age of 18, she was caught in a collision when a trolley hit a bus in which she was riding and drove a handrail into her abdomen and out her vagina, twisting her spine, and fracturing her collarbone, several ribs and a pelvic bone, as well causing 11 different breaks in one leg. During her recovery from numerous ghastly operations, she began to paint while wrapped in a body cast. Semi-crippled and constantly in pain the rest of her life. Uniquely uni-browed, with a strong facial esthetic, she kept a small menagerie of monkeys and miniature deer as reflection of her love for the natural world, while dressing in the colorful traditional garb of her native land. When she could walk again, she tracked down Mexican artist Diego Rivera (Robert Rodriguez) to look at her work, and he became smitten with her boldness, and married her in 1929, despite their near quarter century age difference. The duo shared an equal fervor for communism, and she, like him, was a lifelong member of the Mexican Communist Party. Suffered abortions and a miscarriage, as well as constant infidelities on both sides of their union. A friend of Leon Trotsky, with whom she briefly coupled while he lived in her house during his exile, despite being a Stalinist at heart. He, in turn, saw her heart as reflection of humanity’s greatest fear pain. Her husband’s fame totally dominated their relationship, despite his high regard for her abilities. Bi-sexual, she had affairs with some of her spouse’s groupies and artist/students, as well as Josephine Baker (Nicki Minaj), while remaining very attached to him, seeing herself symbiotically in him. From 1930 to 1933, the pair lived in the US, where she showed some of her works. Found the industrial impetus of the country quite fascinating, but also was revolted by its general stupidity and lack of taste. Had her first solo exhibit in NYC in 1938, selling almost half the paintings shown there. Rivera had a fling with her sister, which hurt her deeply, and the couple divorced in 1939, then remarried the following year, as her health continued to disintegrate. Her work was largely centered around her own self-image, coupled with myths and symbols. In 1943, she taught painting and sculpture at La Esmeralda school, although her students, known as “los Fridos,” had to go to her home in Coyocan to get their lessons, since her various ailments kept her casa-bound. In later life, more botched spinal operations followed, some 30 all told, leaving her back a mass of suppurating wounds, so that her right leg was later amputated. On her first show the year before she died, she was carried in on a stretcher, living out the adage of the artist as a work of art. Became more and depressed over her physical condition, and at life’s end, made two suicide attempts. As her bones began to dissolve, she became addicted to painkillers and finally died in her late 40s. After her body was cremated, Rivera scooped up a handful of her ashes and ate them. The urn holding them would wind up in her home in Coyoacan, Mexico, which would be turned into an eponymous museum. Discovered decades after her death as a feminist icon, and her reputation has grown ever since, culminating in a Frida-mania that reached its peak by century’s end, with some 60 theatrical productions based on her life, as well as a biopic starring Salma Hayek in 2001. Inner: Bright, beautiful and spirited with a passionate disposition. Surrounded herself with mirrors, so as to be always looking both at herself and into herself. Feisty, rebellious, narcissistic and suicidal. Fascinated with intense, gruesome imagery, as well as self-portraiture. Grotesquely painful lifetime of great physical suffering in order to delve far more deeply into herself as an artisan of the suppurating subconscious of invisibility. Eva Gonzalez (1849-1883) - French artist. Outer: Father was a well-known novelist, and her mother was an accomplished musician. Began taking instruction at 16 from a fashionable academic painter. Became friendly with the impressionist group, with a particular affinity for Edouard Manet (Robert Rodriguez), meeting him when she was 20. Striking beauty. Became Manet’s model and student, and had a warm friendship with him for the rest of their brief lives. Shared Manet’s desire to achieve success through the official Salon rather than independent exhibitions, and declined invitations to show with the Impressionists. Her early work reflected his Spanish period, although when he moved on to impressionism, she retained her neutral sense of color and precise contours. Exhibited at the Salon regularly, and was treated kindly by the critics. Had a small but loyal clientele, and a sober palette, as well as a disciplined style which changed little during her short span as an artist. Used subject matter from everyday life. Only in pastels did her color lighten. After a three year engagement, she married Henri Guerard, an engraver, at 30. A son was born shortly before she learned of Manet’s death, and she died five days later. Her sister then married her husband and raised their offspring. Inner: Serious and strongly self-motivated, with a somber view of life. Short-lived lifetime of close association with longtime friend/husband while maintaining her own integrity as an artist. Marie Benoist (Marie-Guellemine de Laville-Leroux) (1768-1826) - French artist. Outer: Father was a governmental administrative official who encouraged her interest in art, as well as her younger sister’s, Marie-Elisabeth. Studied with the predominant woman painter of her time, Elizabeth Vigee-Lebrun (Leni Riefenstahl), who passed her on to Jacques-Louis David (Abel Gance), despite the king’s decree that no women could be trained in the Louvre. Under David, she abandoned soft pastels for more brilliant colors and greater focus on draftsmanship. Strongly influenced by him in all of her later work. In her mid-20s, she married Pierre-Vincent Benoist, a royalist lawyer, whose anti-Revolutionary activities jeopardized their lives during the Reign of Terror. Exhibited frequently at the Salon, moving from myth to portrait to sentimental genre scenes then very much in vogue. Her sketchbooks, however, showed a continued interest in his/story painting. An excellent portraitist, she received a commission to paint the emperor Napoleon’s likeness. After her husband received the post of counselor of state, following the Bourbon Restoration in 1815, she had to withdraw from public exhibition, despite enjoying her greatest success at the time. Established a studio for women instead, and then probably focused more on teaching than her art, so that she painted very little her last decade and a half. Best known for La negresse, a portrait of a slave. Inner: Perceptive, acute, but subservient to the will of others. Subjugated lifetime of allowing herself to be swallowed up by a powerful teacher and also to be subject to the vagaries of a conservative mate. Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757) - Italian artist. Outer: Father was a Venetian clerk and village chancellor, mother was a lace-maker. Eldest of 3 daughters. Probably learned her mother’s profession, then switched to decorating the ivory lids of snuffboxes for the tourist trade. Encouraged by foreign visitors, she studied with several artists, and began selling miniatures in her mid-20s. Gained a reputation through her portraiture and received commissions from all over Europe for her work. Encouraged by a wealthy Parisian banker whom she befriended, she visited Paris in her mid-40s. Made a member of the French Academy, and was feted by Paris society. Eventually became overwhelmed by the social whirl, despite meeting many of the artists of the day, and returned to Venice, leaving there rarely the rest of her long life. Lived quietly with her widowed mother and unmarried sister, who assisted her in her work. After her sister died, her other widowed sibling lived with her. An accomplished violinist, she eventually began losing her sight. Suffered periods of intense depression over her blindness, and ended her life in a complete mental collapse. Best known for her portraits and allegorical paintings. Inner: Modest, unassuming, highly literate. Had a clear preference for work and quiet to an active social life. Interior lifetime of eventually disappearing into herself following acclaim and success, after suffering an artist’s greatest fear, the loss of visual connection to the world.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS ICONOCLASTIC DREAM/MASTER:
Storyline: The teacherly trickster uses his imagination as his primary landscape, while jousting at the windmills of hypocrisy with his scathing filmic lances.

Luis Bunuel (1900-1983) - Spanish filmmaker. Outer: Oldest of 7 children of a well-to-do businessman, who had once owned a gun shop in Cuba. Inherited an adventurous spirit from his sire. Enjoyed a privileged upbringing, with 5 servants. Good athlete, attended Jesuit schools then entered the Univ. of Madrid, becoming a lifelong friend of fellow trickster, Salvador Dali, whom he met there. Husky, and handsome with protruding green eyes. Became fascinated with the psychoanalytical theories of Sigmund Freud, repudiated his religious training and went to Paris in his mid-20s to pursue his ambition of a film career. In his late 20s, he directed his first movie in collaboration with Dali, An Andalusian Dog, a surrealistic work, which famously showed the cutting of a woman’s eye, which actually belonged to an unlucky calf, and then began to explore the themes that would dominant his creative life, social injustice, religious intolerance, and the eroticism of the dreamscape of the imagination. Returned to Spain to try to build a movie industry, producing several commercial works. In his mid-30s, he married Jeanne Rucar, a French Olympic gymnast a decade his junior, 2 sons from the union, including Juan Luis Bunuel, a film director. Left Spain at the outset of the Spanish Civil War to work for the Republican government in exile in Paris, and then came to the United States, where he did some film editing. Worked for the Museum of Modern Art, but was forced to resign when it became known he was the director of an atheistic film. Quit the U.S. in disgust and settled permanently in Mexico. With Los Olvidados in 1950, a study of slum youths, he established an international reputation. Dreamscapes abounded in further films which augmented his standing as an outstanding Spanish-language director with an equal sense of the irreal, the real and surreal. Made one more anticlerical film in Spain, which was suppressed there, but was smuggled out to win top honors at the Cannes Film Festival. Afterwards, he worked elsewhere for the rest of his career. Drank a liter of alcohol a day and rarely went to the movies. Deaf and absent-minded at the end, declaring he would love to rise every decade from the grave to buy newspapers to see the ongoing world’s story unfold. Published his autobiography, My Last Sigh, just before his death of cirrhosis of the liver. His wife wrote a posthumous book limning his machismo, possessiveness and jealousy, as well as his respectful 8 year courtship of her. Inner: Trickster, with a strong anti-traditional social agenda, and particular enmity towards the fanaticism in organized religion, most notably, Catholicism, as well as the Franco regime in Spain. Great admirer of the writing of the Marquis de Sade (Antonin Artaud). Held a lifelong love of firearms, with a fascination for the fast draw. Used to shoot in his office. Sardonic with a savage wit that became more subtle and elegant as he grew older. “Thank God, I’m an atheist,” is a fine example of his wit. Nose-thumbing lifetime of challenging the set precepts of society, through humor, imagination and a gift for stirring the unconscious of his audience. Theodore Chasseriau (1819-1856) - French artist. Outer: Born in the Dominican Republic, where his father was the French consul, while his upbringing was supervised by his older brother. The family moved to Paris when he was 2, and he came to study under Dominique Ingres (Pablo Picasso) at the age of 12, remaining with him 3 years. Won a Salon medal at 16. After visiting Ingres in Italy, he moved away from the linear classicism of his teacher, and embraced the romanticism of that master’s rival, Eugene Delacroix (Henri Matisse). A socially adept dandy, and highly ambitious, he painted the rich and powerful, although never established his own artistic personality through his portraits. After visiting both Marseilles and Algeria in his mid-20s, he used Arab subjects as a predominating motif in his work, and became known for his ‘Oriental’ paintings, although he employed European models for his projected views. Close friend of Gustav Moreau (Salvador Dali), whom he helped in his career. Received many commissions, and revived allegorical and religious painting in France, in a brief but successful life of directly integrating his imagination with public tastes. Suffered both ill health and exhaustion at life’s end, forcing him into a premature exit. Fused the classicism of Ingres with the romance of Delacroix. Inner: Charming, flamboyant, handsome and self-assured. Passionate, romantic, and particularly intrigued by the coloration of Semitic life. Teacherly lifetime of giving the mundane public his vision of exotic light, and being roundly supported for opening the unconscious imaginations of his viewers. Giovanni Pannini (c1695-1768) - Italian artist. Outer: Probably began painting in his hometown of Piacenza, although his early education is somewhat clouded. Settled in Rome in his late teens, and in his late 20s was admitted into the Academy of St. Luke. His early paintings featured elaborate architecture and small figures, and were theatrical in their constructs, while most featured either religious or his/storical subject matter. Became well-known for his frescoes, and in his late 30s, he settled into Roman topography as his chosen subject matter. Despite pandering to tourist tastes, he always displayed spontaneity and originality in his works. Admitted into the French Academy in his early 40s, and became its professor of perspective. His best known student was Hubert Robert (Salvador Dali). Became principal of his alma mater in his early 60s, and for the last five years of his life painted little. Inner: Focused lifetime of dealing with perspective as his primary artistic concern, while serving as teacher and exemplar of all that he had artistically learned. Jose de Ribera (1591-1652) - Spanish artist. Outer: Son of a shoemaker, little known of his early life. Studied with Francisco Ribalta (Salvador Dali). Known as “Lo Spagnoletto,” the little Spaniard, when he traveled to Italy as a young man, spending some time in Parma and Rome. Settled in Naples, a Spanish possession at the time, where he married Caterina Azzolino in his mid-20s, raised 2 children and spent the rest of his life. Influenced by Caravaggio (Jean-Luc Godard), he painted religious subjects, using the counterpoint of light and shadow to bring out form. Always had a strong feeling for flesh in his works, rendering people as they were, dirty fingernails and all. A member of the Roman Academy of St. Luke and a knight of the Order of Christ. Did work for the Spanish viceroys in Italy, maintaining his national identity, and was also employed by the Church, in its attempts to counter the Reformation with a heroic view of Catholicism. In his 40s, his style took on light and vivid color, before he reverted to his earlier technique. His works were widely imitated and copied in Spain. Excellent etcher and one of the few Spaniards to excel at drawing. Serenely mystical by the end of his life. Inner: Dramatic, austere, and bordering on the morbid, but with an intensely realistic sense about all his work. Honored the grotesque, seeing spirit in everything he did. Dream/master lifetime of transliterating his deep spirituality into honest renderings of the light and dark of life. Francesco Primaticcio (1504-1570) - Italian artist. Outer: Studied with an Italian artist who was invited to court of Francois I (David Lloyd-George) of France to redecorate the Fontainebleu Palace, and was sent in his place. Chose Antoine Caron (Salvador Dali) to assist him. Returned to Rome for a couple of years to purchase artworks for the king, and came back to do further decorations, working in the Italian Mannerist style of elongated figures and exaggerated musculature, which would affect French painting for the remainder of the century. Did considerable decorative work for the French nobility, playing with foreshortened perspective and the dominance of human figures in his works. For the last decade of his life, he worked in concert with a sculptor on the tomb of Henri II (Robert Downey, Jr.). Replaced the usual religious imagery with mythological figures, and, in a sense, introduced pagan sensibilities to French art, while subduing the violent tendencies of Italian art with the more elegant, subdued French style. Inner: Dream/master lifetime, once again, of serving as a bridge between myth and religion, and, as his ongoing predisposition, opening the unconscious of his viewers.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS SUPREME BUT SHY SELF-PROMOTER:
Storyline: The surreal salesman alternates between exhibitionism and reclusiveness while spilling most of his creative seed on his own masturbatory self-promotion.

Salvador Dali (Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dali Domenech) (1904-1988) - Spanish artist. Outer: Mother was from a family that designed and sold decorated art objects. Father was a prosperous notary, and an authoritarian. Encouraged in his creativity by his mother, he was nervous, spoiled and precocious as a child, with several surreal elements to his upbringing. He was born 9 months after the death from gastroenteritis of a 3 year old brother with the same name, whom his parents perpetually mourned. Told at 5 by his parents that he was the latter’s reincarnation, leading to a dreamy, timid and shame-filled childhood. Obsessed with his impotence and a small penis, he became a compulsive masturbator his entire life, as well as anally-oriented, and both fetishes would prove to be prominent themes in his subsequent works. Devastated when his mother died of breast cancer when he was 16, although he later did a drawing of Christ with the inclusion of some words about spitting on his mother’s portrait, which caused his father to toss him out of the house, after the latter had married his dead wife’s sister. Studied art at the Royal Academy in Madrid, where he showed an excellent technical facility, and became a lifelong friend of filmmaker Luis Bunuel from this period onward. Seen as ‘morbidly shy,’ by his fellow students, despite his ostentatious dress. Affected by the writings of Sigmund Freud, which he reinterpreted into images. Expelled from school when he announced he was more intelligent than his final examiners. A clever draftsman, and great imitator, who experimented with abstraction, then found his niche with Surrealism, doing most of his best work between the ages of 25 and 34, before running out of ideas, and spending the rest of his life creating antics, rather than art. The image of limp clocks would be forever associated with him, in his ongoing fetish with flaccid sexuality. Made films with Bunuel, including Un Chien Andalou, and joined the Surrealist movement, although was later expelled from it for his crass commercialism. Embraced the dictator Francisco Franco after the Spanish Civil War, which further alienated him from his fellow artists, many of whom never forgave him for that political apostasy. Illustrator of dreams, who believed in controlled paranoia as ideal for analyzing the world. Impotent and bisexual, he married a money-hungry Russian a decade older than he, Gala Eluard, the former wife of poet Paul Eluard, who handled all his business affairs and protected him from the world with terrifying possessiveness. Probably a virgin when he married, his wife encouraged his onanism, while she had endless affairs, before ultimately descending into parasitism, doling out millions to her boy-toys. Their marriage eventually deteriorated into random acts of violence, while his passion turned to physics and religion, as he re-embraced Roman Catholicism. His hyperreal images became increasingly contrived and repetitious, designed to make money and little else. When he ran out of painterly inspiration, he used himself as a canvas of self-promotion, with his trademark upturned mustache and outrageous escapades calculated not to offend his patrons, only to amuse them. Became a designer of theater sets and jewelry and took on lucrative advertising work. Purposefully went against the prevailing art currents, painting in a classical mode when abstraction became popular. Moved to the United States in 1940, and lived there for fifteen years. A flamboyant dandy, with vast crews of hangers-on, he was always on stage, wherever he was, despite his innate timidity. Did slick religious paintings without any sense of spirituality to them later on in his career, as well as works of large Benday dots, focusing on technical proficiency with little else behind it. Wrote his autobiography, “Diary of a Genius” in 1964. Also wrote a novel, “Hidden Faces.” Finally descended into ill health, and pure pathos at the end of his life, making one suicide attempt by deliberate dehydration, and another via a bedroom fire, before dying in a hospital of heart failure, while listening to a recording of his favorite piece, Richard Wagner’s (Werner Herzog) “Tristan Und Isolde.” Inner: Timid exhibitionist, always on stage, and yet feared ever being truly seen. Mass of contradictions, saw life as fun, and being contrary was part of his playful, albeit frightened, perverse nature. Right-wing politically, with a close identification with Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. Extremely voyeuristic, seeing people as playthings to be easily discarded, once he became bored with them. Conflicted limp c(l)ock lifetime of allowing his gifts to eventually go largely to waste by painting himself into a corner of self-exploitation, from which he could not escape. Gustave Moreau (1826-1898) - French painter. Outer: Son of a liberal architect, who supported his ambitions. Mother was a mayor’s daughter. Grew up in wealthy surroundings, allowing him to pursue his own dilettantism. Studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, but when he failed to win the Prix de Rome, he came under the influence of Theodore Chasseriau (Luis Bunuel), who helped him develop his symbolist style. Also influenced by the master-romanticist Eugene Delacroix (Henri Matisse). His favorite subjects were Biblical and mythological fantasies, with exotic, erotic details, violent configurations and mysterious lighting, giving his mind total free run on canvas, while counteracting his florid musings, with a highly controlled outer character. Proved to be early practitioner of surrealism, well before it was invented, with an excellent sense of color. Viewed as a literary painter, which disturbed him, although he was an academician at heart. Spent his last 46 years at his three story townhouse, on Paris’s Right Bank, becoming more and more reclusive over time. Made professor at his alma mater in 1892, where his greater reputation rests, as a popular teacher of Henri Matisse, Georges Roualt and other members of the Fauvist movement. Inspired great loyalty in his students, and was made a chevalier and officer of the Legion d'Honneur. Became wealthy and well-known, ultimately serving as the subject of a novel by Joris Huysman (William Burroughs). Went over hundreds of drawings as he was dying, signing and correcting them, so as to insure his legacy. On his death from stomach cancer, he willed his townhouse, 1200 paintings and 12,000 drawings to the state as a museum, with the wish that the collection be kept together forever, in one final ploy for immortality. Inner: Cerebral and solitary, choosing to remain remote from life. Complex and contradictory, saw art as a human ideal. Backwards looking visionary, far more the theatrical than the revealing artist. Opined, “I only believe what I do not see.” Fascinated by the power of myth, preferring the voluptuous projections of his imagination to real-life female nudes. Hermetic lifetime of exploring the opposite side of his celebrity, the withdrawn artist, in order to experiment unfettered with symbols and techniques, and give far more life to his imagination. Hubert Robert (1733-1808) - French artist. Outer: Son of a valet of a marquis. Through the latter’s patronage, he entered the French Academy in Rome at 20 and became a student of Giovanni Pannini (Luis Bunuel), from whom he evolved his style of romantic representation of ruins. Spent 11 years in Italy, touring the south of it with his close friend Jean Honore Fragonard (Louis Malle), and once getting lost in catacombs, before effecting a miraculous rescue, as a premonitory event symbolic of his future escape from the guillotine by invisible forces. Returned to Paris in his early 30s and was admitted to the French Academy the following year. Became known as Robert des Ruines, because of his fascination with decaying monumentality. Named Keeper of the King’s Pictures in his early 50s. Arrested for 8 months during the French Revolution, but someone else died in his place by accident. Upon his release, he became curator of the newly established Louvre Museum. An excellent draftsman, and restrained colorist, he enjoyed a solid reputation throughout his artistic life. Died of apoplexy. Inner: Somber and thoughtful with his esthetic firmly fixed on the past. Also adventurous and daring, actively engaging the present in order to integrate the past better into it. Probably saw himself on some level as an artifact of ancient times, with little connection to the revolutionary fervor of the present. Contemplative lifetime of his continuing longtime association with his friend/mentor, and reinterpreting the natural world through a romantic, desolate eye, while giving play to his own quiet, subdued nature. Francisco Ribalta (1565-1628) - Spanish painter. Outer: Early life largely unrecorded. Studied under a Spanish Mannerist, and began his career painting in that style. Traveled to Italy, where he studied and copied the old masters, returned and settled in Valencia, opening up a large studio under the patronage of the archbishop there, doing many paintings for the churches and convents of that city. Married Ines Pelayo, had 2 daughters and a son, Juan, who became a painter, but died young, after showing great early promise. Until his late 40s, his works were all imitative, done in the prevalent style of the time. After he was either introduced to the style of Caravaggio (Jean-Luc Godard), where light and shadow play off each other to create form, or somehow came upon that mode on his own, his work achieved a depth and a grandeur totally missing in his earlier oeuvre. Teacher of Jose de Ribera (Luis Bunuel), as well as a major influence on later Spanish painters. Had an opulence and freedom to his drawing, while remaining a constrained colorist, showing more of an intellectual than an emotional disposition. The last part of his career saw his originality come fully forth, with a simplicity of composition and a monumental spirituality through his use of lighting and color. Inner: Religious, cerebral and dualistic, restrained on the outside and aboil with the passion of his profession within. Resurrected lifetime of perfunctory performance, and then suddenly awakening to his deeper talent within, to become a highly memorable and influential artist. Antoine Caron (c1515-1593) - French artist. Outer: Origins unclear. Hired by Francesco Primaticcio (Luis Bunuel) to work on the chateau of Fontainebleu, proving to be one of the very few French painters of his age to be of significant importance. Did surreal landscapes very much in the manner of his future life as Salvador Dali, as well as allegorical representations of the Valois court, for whom he worked, coordinating the decorations for royal festivities. In addition, he painted violent massacres. His interests in magic, massacre and allegory were all reflective of the views of the time. Painted in the Mannerist style, with elongated figures and exaggerated perspective, and also did book illustration. Most of his career was connected with the French court. Forgotten until rediscovered in the 1930s. Inner: Highly social, probably had a strong sense of self-importance because of his court connections. Strongly supported lifetime of exploring ideas and themes that he would repeat later on, as well as working in an environment where he would have little competition for his painterly skills and his ability to transliterate his dream/master magical images to canvas.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS REVERED TEACHER:
Storyline: The grand illusionist serves as a long-lived beacon to the generations which follow him because of his singular search for artistic truths in all the media available to him.

Jean Renoir (1894-1979) - French film/maker. Outer: Son of impressionist Pierre Auguste Renoir (Louis Malle). Had an idyllic childhood in company of his father’s artist friends. His mother died when he was young, but he had a surrogate mother in his cousin, 15 years his senior. Not particularly studious, but he received a degree from the Univ. of Aix-en-Provence, where he wrote poetry and joined the cavalry in preparation for a military career. Wounded in the leg in the beginning of WW I, and during his convalescence, he spent much time in Paris movie houses. After recuperating, he rejoined the newly formed air force, and wound up a 2nd lieutenant by war’s end. Still unsure of what he wanted to do, he studied ceramics with his brother, then married Catherline Hessling, one of his father’s models, a few months after his famous sire’s death, one son from the union. Decided to set up a ceramics factory and was joined in the venture by the same-named son of the painter Paul Cezanne. Drawn into the world of the theater by his actress sister-in-law, he wrote a screenplay, which was made into a film starring his wife. Sold many of his father’s paintings to satisfy his wife’s lavish lifestyle and dreams of an acting career. Did a 2nd film, also starring his wife, on Cezanne’s property. His early films were clumsy, and almost ruined him and his backers financially, but he continued to explore the medium, despite the lack of public response. Divorced his first wife, had a ten year affair with his editor, then in 1944, he married his script girl, Dido Friere, whom he had met 14 years earlier. Began producing his own works, which still lacked commercial appeal, but showed his visual impressionistic adeptness. By the late 1930s, he finally found his visual voice, producing two masterworks, La Grande Illusion, about WW I prisoners of war and The Rules of the Game, a comedy drama of the loves of conflicting classes, which was not shown in its original form until nearly 30 years later. During WW II, he emigrated, along with many of his friends, to Hollywood, where his output was varied in quality. After the war, he returned to France via Italy, and continued his impressive work. Often played roles in his own films, as well as allowing his actors considerable leeway in developing their characters. Recognized as a true artist of the medium, although his later works did not match his earlier ones. Finally settled in Los Angeles, although maintained his French citizenship, and continued working there after a fifteen year hiatus. Also wrote a play, a novel and an invaluable memoir of his father, as well as an autobiography. Much honored in his later life, as one of the true greats of 20th century cinema. Died of Parkinson’s Disease. Inner: Strong personality with a social consciousness, via his magical childhood. End-life affliction indicative of a rigid nature at heart. Always open to new ideas, and an excellent teacher and inspiration to young filmmakers. Genius-gened lifetime of serving as a mentor and exemplar of a fascinating new medium, by coming in on a powerful artistic name, and then grandly adding to its luster. Camille Corot (Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot) (1796-1875) - French artist. Outer: Son of a draper who helped manage his mother’s millinery shop. Grew up in comfortable bourgeois circumstances. Did poorly at school, and even worse at his father’s trade, laboring 8 unhappy years at it. In his mid-20s, he was given a small allowance to pursue his singular wish, to become a painter. Had some private instruction and studied old masters at the Louvre, but did most of his learning from the direct observance of nature, painting out-of-doors, which was not the custom of the time. Spent three years in Italy, limning the countryside, and felt it was the happiest time of his life. Never married, put all his emotional energy into rendering landscapes. Returned to Paris and established a lifelong routine of spending spring and summer in the outdoors painting, and winter working in his Paris studio on larger pieces. Made a second trip to Italy in his late 30s, compiling enough sketches to last him the rest of his life. Several years later he made one more brief visit there. Had a largely uneventful life, traveling on occasion to view other European landscapes, but less and less as he got older. Did not achieve full material success until his late 40s, and from then on, was honored and well-paid for his work. Made a member of the Legion d'Honneur in 1846, and an officer in 1867 and helped younger painters, including Camillo Pissarro (Francois Truffaut) and Charles-Francois Daubigny (Robert Frank). His success did little to change his conservative routines; lived to paint and painted to live. Helped prepare the way for the impressionists with his natural renderings of nature. Suffered from gout at the end of his life, otherwise maintained good health throughout his long career. One of his final acts was to give 10,000 francs to the widow of Jean Millet (Ben Shahn) despite disliking his work. Inner: Trusting, modest, with simple tastes. Self-confident, conscientious and persevering. Kind and generous with younger painters. Totally apolitical, never read a newspaper, his singular interest was painting and finding veracity in nature. Truth-seeking lifetime of tunneling his vision into an ongoing fascination with landscape, and dedicating himself to its artistic rendering while teaching other young talents to do the same. Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) (1697-1678) - Italian artist. Outer: Born into a family, whose status was just below the nobility. His father was a theatrical scene painter. Worked along with his brother in his sire’s studio for several years in Venice, before moving to Rome to do the same thing in 1719. Adopted the name of Canaletto to distinguish himself from his progenitor, before moving back to his native city. Abandoned theatrical scenery, although not the dramatic poses of his subjects and became a highly successful landscape artist, with foreign patrons as his primary customers for the rest of his career. Worked out-of-doors, which was highly unusual for the time, while showing a fascination for architecture and its settings, as well as panoramic vistas. Usually incorporated several perspectives into a scene, so that was a dramatic re-rendering, rather than a realistic replication. Far more free and subtle in his earlier career, he reached a peak from 1726 to 1730, while his later paintings were limpid and repetitious, with less impressionistic effects, in a striving for more realistic detail. Because of the great demand for his work, he was constantly under pressure to produce, forcing him to sacrifice his artistic integrity for money. Expanded his scenic view to encompass other Italian sites, and was an extremely skillful etcher. Lived in England for 9 years, beginning in his late 40s, but only produced an occasional striking painting the rest of his life. Despite his loss of skills, he was elected to the Venetian Academy in his mid-60s, and at the nearend of his long life was made prior of the Collegio dei Pittori. Widely imitated during his lifetime in both Venice and England. Inner: Exacting, with a keen photographic eye for detail. The more successful he was, the more difficult he became to deal with. His easy acceptance probably made him much more wary of saidsame in his next go-round in this series, in the realization that facile material reward does not make for consistently superior art. Compromised lifetime of finding his niche, and then using himself up because of undiscriminating patrons eager to buy whatever he did, and his inability to resist their easy temptation. Annibale Carracci (1560-1609) - Italian artist. Outer: Son of a tailor. Younger brother of Agostino Carracci (Jacques Rivette) and cousin of Ludovico Carracci (Francois Truffaut). With his brother, he studied painting through tours of northern Italy, then pursued his father’s career, but at his cousin’s behest, he and his brother helped him open up a school in their native Bologna, known as the Incamminati (the Right Road), which would serve as a beacon for the next century in the development of European art. The most skilled artist of the three, with an excellent knowledge of Renaissance art. In 1600, he went to Rome with his brother, where he spent 8 years executing his mythological masterworks for the Farnese Gallery, with the assistance of his sibling and 2 other artists, winning great admiration there for his skills. Remained in Rome while his brother went on to Parma, and continued working there for the rest of his career, showing a quiet melancholy in his last works, perhaps as unconscious indication that his close association with the other two was at an end. His paintings were more diversified in style than his two cohorts. Inner: Highly skilled artisan, with a strong sense of European painterly tradition. Fraternal lifetime of working in close association with longtime family members, and proving to be the deftest of them all. Andrea Mantegna (c1431-1506) - Italian artist and engraver. Outer: Son of a woodworker, but was legally adopted by a painting teacher and collector of antiquities from Padua at the age of 10. Established his own workshop at 17, accusing his adopted father of exploiting him. Immediately won an important commission, unusual for someone of his precocious age. Until he was 30, he remained in Padua, a humanistic center of northern Italy, where he benefited greatly from his associations with people of learning, drawing on their wide-ranging knowledge in his work, and his own abilities at absorbing the esthetics of antiquity. Married Nicolasia Bellini and became the son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini (Jacques Rivette), and brother-in-law of Giovanni Bellini (Paul Cezanne) and Gentile Bellini (Francois Truffaut), influencing the work of the latter two, although resisting joining their studio, preferring to remain in Padua. Entered the service of the Gonzaga family of Mantua, remaining there for most of the rest of his life. Though limited in his patrons and movement in exchange for a fixed income, he managed to travel around Italy and renew his contact with the work of contemporary and previous masters. Introduced new illusionary principles in his work and gave heroic stature to his subjects, heretofore reserved for saints and his/storical and mythological figures. Proved to be the best printmaker up to his time. Worked slowly, making many preliminary drawings. Had a uniquely close relationship with his patron, Ludovico Gonzaga. After the latter’s death, his finances became precarious, but he received a commission from the pope to decorate his private chapel. Given the unique honor of a funerary chapel dedicated to him at his death. Inner: Highly independent, in response to his early exploitation. Patiently determined to get things right on canvas, with a lucid naturalness. Took great pride in his work, and was innovative and well-honored. Strong-willed lifetime of establishing himself early on and developing into one of the seminal artists of his day.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS EXPERIMENTAL TEACHER:
Storyline: The improvisational auteur takes the high road in his uncompromising desire to make people see and think through new eyes.

Jacques Rivette (Pierre Louis Rivette) (1928-2016) - French filmmaker. Outer: From a family of pharmacists. Father was a skilled painter and opera-phile. Grew up in a cultured household Pale, ascetic looking. Briefly attended college, but gave it up to go to Paris, despite strong academic inclinations. Became close friends with Francois Truffaut, toiling together on amateur films, and working as a cameraman for him. Failed his oral exam for film school, and instead, worked as a staff member on the influential film magazine, Cahiers du Cinema, then began his film career as an assistant to Jean Renoir, before serving as an assistant cameraman and shooting several shorts. Married Marilu Parolini, who continued working with him after the union ended as a co-writer. Also had a longtime working relationship with producer Martine Marignac. Made his first feature in his early 30s, establishing himself as a nonconformist filmmaker, with little use for conventional storyline and plot, save for one film which he adapted from a novel. Rather than working with scripts, he improvised with actors and allowed total chance to play a part in his largely undisciplined work, which made the film itself the medium of his message. His work naturally divided his audience into opposing camps of plaudits and yawns. Became editor of Cahiers du Cinema for two years in the mid-1960s, while remaining strongly identified with the tenets of the French New Wave, never deviating from its precepts throughout his uneven career. Only produced a small body of work, but proved to be an extremely influential theoretician, with several of his works considered masterpieces, including, L’Amour Fou and Celine et Julie Vont en Bateau. Rarely used close-ups, preferring the contextual arena of the whole body, while feeling no constraints by time, with none of his works clocking under 2 hours, and one, which has rarely been seen, Out 1: Noli Me Tangere, a staggering 12 1/2 hours long. Made his last film in 2009, before slipping off into an Alzheimer’s fog. His second wife Veronique, whom he wed near life’s end, helped him stay out of hospitals. Died at home of complications of the dis-ease. Inner: Uncompromising, with a powerful sense of individual vision. Calm, lucid, with no real private life other than his work. Very modest and shy, as well as intellectual and aloof. Saw film as the sum total of his existence. Dedicated lifetime of bringing his ongoing artistic integrity to the medium of film, while sticking to his principles of teaching first and entertaining later. Puvis de Chavannes (Pierre Puvis de Chavannes) (1824-1898) - French artist. Outer: Father was Burgundian, mother was from Lyon. Originally planned to be an engineer, but after a trip to Italy, he decided to become an artist. Studied briefly with a couple of artists, but was more heavily affected by Eugene Delacroix (Henri Matisse), despite a dislike of the Romantics. A classicist at heart, although an anti-academician, he drew his inspiration from the monumental paintings of the Renaissance, which he studied after a second year-long trip to Italy. At 30, he met Marie Cantacuzène a French princess and after a friendship of over 40 years, married her a year prior to his and her death. She became the model and central figure of a series of murals he did on the life of Saint Genevieve (Petra Kelly), his principal work. Painted on canvas in flat, pale oil colors, while simplifying his drawings in order to create the effect of frescoes, allowing his lucidity and novelty to override his limitations in other spheres. His absence of shadows, to simulate Byzantine mosaics, sat poorly with both the public and the critics, and he had difficulty in establishing himself. Decorated the Sorbonne in 1887-1889, and executed murals in several French cities, as well as for the Boston Public Library in 1896. Served as a forerunner of modern art, while still loosely conforming to the conventions of his time. Despite his coterie of admirers from the ranks of his fellow artists and writers, he never impressed the critics, who could not see what he was saying in paint because of his unconventionality. Elected to the presidency of the National Society of French Artists in 1894, and made a commander of the Legion d'Honneur. Inner: Highly original, analytic and intellectual. Great believer in order and clarity, always experimenting with reducing and simplifying things to their essence. Idealistic, strongly spiritual, albeit not overtly religious. Very routinized, ate one meal a day at breakfast, took two constitutionals, and devoted nine or ten hours to work, before relaxing in the evening with reading or conversation with friends. Self-taught lifetime of transliterating his unique artistic intelligence into the unusual oeuvre that challenged the conventional aesthetics of his day. Giovanni Piranesi (Giovanni Battista Piranesi) (1720-1778) - Italian artist, architect, archaeologist and author. Outer: Son of a mason and master builder. Studied architecture with an uncle, but quarreled with him, and wound up under an unrelated architect. Went to Rome at the age of 20, and found the Eternal City an endless repository for his design fantasies, allowing him to bend classical forms to his imaginative will. Permanently established himself there by his mid-20s, becoming embroiled in many of the artistic controversies of the day. In 1748, he began his Views of Rome, a series of 135 drawings which appeared serially until his death. Wrote polemical treatises, and married in his early 30s, his son and daughter eventually became his collaborators, also 3 other children. Spent the greater part of his life in Rome, where he made engravings of the buildings and monuments of both the ancient and modern city. Although his renderings were accurate, they were filled with imaginative and romantic exaggerations. Published his eccentric designs for interiors, which would influence later styles, as would his romantic conception of ruins. Also designed buildings, only one of which still stands. Received many honors, and his son acted as his curator, compiling some 2000 plates of his imaginative conceptions. Died of a malignant bladder. Inner: Cerebral, strongly opinionated. Self-poisoning end-life signaled an imagination far from at peace with its physical self. Bridge lifetime of separating from his longtime family, in order to assert his own unusual artistic perspective, while roughly mimicking the rest of his trio’s interest in architectural art. Agostino Carracci (1557-1602) - Italian artist. Outer: Father was a tailor. Brother of Annibale Carracci (Jean Renoir) and cousin of Ludovico Carracci (Francois Truffaut). With his sibling, he studied painting through tours of northern Italy, with Venice and Parma serving as particularly strong points of interest. Pursued a career as a goldsmith, but at his cousin’s behest, he and his brother helped him open up a school in their native Bologna in the 1580s. The school was a huge success and had a far-reaching influence in Italy, Flanders and France for the next century, because of the combined skills and zeal of the trio. Chief theoretician of the school, with a colder, harder style than his fellow Carracci. Probably the lesser artist of the trinity, but, conversely the most stimulating teacher. Along with his brother, he went to Rome to do paintings for the Farnese Gallery. Ended his career in Parma, where he died on completing the painting of “Celestial, Terrestrial and Venal Love.” Inner: Most cerebral of the trio and a natural court painter. Influential lifetime of teaching, painting and generating ideas that would effect European art for the next century. Jacopo Bellini (c1400-c1470) - Italian artist. Outer: Father was a Venetian pewterer. Trained under an influential Umbrian master, Gentile da Fabriano, and followed him to Florence, where the masterworks of that city’s artists completed his artistic education. Took service on the galleys of the state, and had criminal charges pressed against him in his absence. Imprisoned for contempt of court, he was released in 1425 after doing penance and paying a fine. Eventually settled in Venice in his early 30s and became that city’s most important painter. Father of Giovanni Bellini (Alain Resnais) and Gentile Bellini (Francois Truffaut), and father-in-law of Andrea Mantegna (Jean Renoir) via daughter Nicolesia. Close family, and despite the superiority of his progeny, was never jealous of their abilities. Instead, he constantly encouraged them, both while they worked as his assistants, and later as his partners. Used the traditions of Byzantine art and introduced the Renaissance configurations of his contemporaries to Venice, thus serving as a bridge figure, as well as a teacher for his talented brood and son-in-law. His two books of drawings were used as a model for compositions well into the next century and were his most enduring legacy, particularly his employment of realistic perspective on figures, heretofore only used in architectural depictions. Inner: Highly spiritual in his subject matter, with a paternal sense of the teacher about him. Quick-handed draftsman, and clear-sighted artist, with a lively and inquiring mind. Foundation lifetime of being paterfamilias to one talented son, an equally gifted son-in-law, and one son of genius, while leaving a teaching legacy that would last through the next century.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS OFFBEAT TEACHER:
Storyline: The introspective self-searcher alternates between insecure beginnings and an unsecured career to mark his highly personalized psychological way in the world.

Francois Truffaut (1932-1984) - French filmmaker. Outer: Mother was an unwed 19 year old. Real father was a Jewish dental surgeon, although he didn’t discover his identity until his mid-30s. Raised by his grandmother until he was 10. Neglected at home by his mother and misunderstood at school, making for an unhappy childhood. His good-natured step-father turned him over to the police for thievery at 16, and he was sent to a reformatory. A compulsive chronicler, he kept a journal of the many films he saw and books he read. His lifelong interest in film led to a position as critic on the avant-garde magazine Cahiers du Cinema, where his criticisms of the static state of French filmmaking had a strong influence before he even stepped behind a camera. Drafted into the army, he deserted and spent time in various military prisons, before resuming his role as a highly influential cinema critic, evincing both an anti-academic and an anti-left wing intellectuality. Slightly built. In his mid-20s, he married Madeleine Morgenstern, the daughter of a French producer, 2 daughters from the union, both of whom appeared in one of his films. Loving father, but despite his close friendship with his wife, he subsequently had affairs with many of his leading ladies, although he was also able to maintain deep ties with them, long after the eros had fled from their relationship. His infidelities, however, led to his divorce in 1965. His father-in-law backed his first film, despite critical tensions twixt the two and he was able to produce most of his films with his wife’s dowry. Also had a daughter by Fanny Ardant, a French actress. Began making short films, and quickly graduated to features, beginning in 1959, employing his ideals of director as complete author of his own works, with a responsibility for their totality. Became the pre-eminent director of this new wave of film/making, and after an initial burst, began exploring himself on film, revolving around the basic themes of unhappy childhoods and shy heroes confronting powerful, and often possessive women, using actor Jean-Pierre Leaud as his screen persona. Searched out his real father through a detective agency, then after viewing him from a distance, turned away. Best known for Jules et Jim, a love triangle, and the autobiographical The 400 Blows. His views became more leftist, although he remained largely apolitical, aside from a few showy gestures. Strongly affected by the films of Jean Renoir, as well as Alfred Hitchcock, about whom he published a book of interviews in 1983. His work veered twixt French and American sensibilities, and he also appeared in several movies as an actor. Died of a brain tumor, symbol of hidden cerebral anger. Inner: Private, hidden, secretive, intensely self-involved, with film as his passion and release. Loved his actors, understood their humanity. Self-searching lifetime of using an unwanted and unhappy childhood as a basis for turning his artistic eye towards the emotions of interrelationships, and working out his inner life through the magic of cinema and his obsession with beauty, through serial liaisons with most of his leading ladies. Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) - French artist. Outer: Son of a prosperous Jewish merchant of Portuguese and French descent, mother was Creole. Left home at 12 to study in Paris, showing an early interest in art. Returned after five years to work in his father’s store, and began sketching the native populace. His sire refused to support him in his art studies, and he ran away to Caracas for two years, staying with a Danish painter. His father ultimately relented, and he returned to France in his mid-20s. Academic training, however, did not suit him, and he sought out Camille Corot (Jean Renoir) for further study, exhibiting as a self-styled pupil of his. Sought out other artists as well, exchanging ideas with them, and working with the younger impressionistic painters. Close friend of Paul Cezanne (Alain Resnais), one of the few who could deal with his prickly temperament. Fled to England with impressionist Claude Monet (Claude Lelouch) to escape enscriptment in the Franco-Prussian War, and at 40, married Julie Vellay, his mother’s former maid, by whom he already had 2 children, and would later add 5 more to his brood, 5 of whom would also become painters. Returned to France to find his home had been looted, and found a new residence outside Paris. Joined by Cezanne and the two painted there. Did simple scenes, eschewing the dramatic in favor of capturing the light. His continual financial hardships plagued him, and he never really knew security until his 60s. The only one of the impressionists who exhibited at all 8 of their shows. Adopted the style of the later neo-impressionists, and was constantly experimenting with his work, showing a continued openness to the new ideas of younger artists. Had a remarkable 20 year correspondence with his eldest son, limning his struggles with technique and finances over the last 2 decades of his life. His wife threatened to drown herself and their 2 youngest children over their continuing poverty. Just when his paintings began to sell, he was plagued by a chronic eye infection, which made out-of-door work impossible. Worked mainly in Paris afterwards, painting from the window of hotel rooms. Despite all his travails, he remained committed to his art his entire life. Inner: Kindly, fatherly, humble and teacherly, always ready to encourage young artists. Doggedly persistent and enthusiastic, with considerable wisdom, and totally committed to his chosen path. Self-punishing lifetime of severe struggles to maintain his integrity as an artist, as well as a continued association with his longtime crypto-family members. Bernardo Bellotto (1720-1780) - Italian artist. Outer: Father’s origin and occupation obscured. Nephew of Canaletto (Jean Renoir), with whom he studied, using the same nickname for himself, as Canaletto the Younger. His work was often confused with his uncle’s, although his urban scenes were darker and colder in tone and color. Like his uncle, he used a camera obscura to achieve realistic-looking views, and gradually developed his own style, employing cool lighting effects and great architectural detail. Permanently left the country in his late 20s, after traveling through northern Italy. Became a court painter at Dresden for nearly 20 years, before traveling to Vienna, spending 4 years doing views of the city. Went to Warsaw under royal employ, then returned to Dresden, where he became a member of the Academy in 1764. Visited St. Petersburg, then finished his career in the employ of the king of Poland, doing city views of Warsaw. Their accuracy was such, that they were used after WW II to restore the older sections of the city. Inner: Probably decided he needed more conflict to bring out his inner dimensions, which were hinted at in the stylistics of this go-round, necessitating his next lives in this series, where he would suffer more profoundly for his art. High-stepping lifetime of travel and expanding his landscape vistas, after beginning life in the company of his longtime family associates. Ludovico Carracci (1555-1619) - Italian artist. Outer: Son of a butcher. His initial teacher told him to give up painting, while his fellow students called him the Ox, for his perceived stupidity. Studied in various Northern Italian cities, and worked with Tintoretto (Federico Fellini), before returning to his native Bologna with the intention of opening up a rival school there. Sent for his two cousins, Agostino (Jacques Rivette) and Annibale (Jean Renoir), who had been a goldsmith and tailor respectively, and induced them to take up the profession of painting. Together with an anatomist, the trio, still in their 20s, inaugurated a school called Incamminati (the Right Road), that would have a far-reaching influence on Italian, Flemish and French art. Although the two brothers would eventually leave to pursue work elsewhere, he remained at the school as an enthusiastic teacher until the end of his life. Showed himself to be an excellent graphic artist, as well as being imbued with a strong sense of religious mysticism. The trio collaborated on many palace frescoes, and he alone worked exclusively in Bologna, executing numerous altarpieces. Inner: Fatherly, teacherly and spiritual. Conflicts would be mirrored by his outer butcher’s son appearance, and his highly developed esthetic interior. Fraternal lifetime of organizing his teaching skills to their fullest advantage, while trying to integrate his internal/external dualities by taking the right road between them. Gentile Bellini (c1429-1507) - Italian artist. Outer: Son of Jacopo Bellini (Jacques Rivette), older brother of Giovanni Bellini (Paul Cezanne), and brother-in-law of Andrea Mantegna (Jean Renoir). Probably named after his sire’s master, Gentile da Fabriano. Trained by his father, whose influence he mirrored in his works, as well as that of his brother-in-law, with whom he also studied. Close family, with all mutually supportive of one another. Painted with a hard austerity, in an intellectual rather than emotional style, with stiff compositions, wooden figures and awkwardly defined spaces. Quickly won commissions on his own, and established himself as an independent artist. Married twice. Probably settled in Venice around 1460, and earned the admiration of both its citizens and government. Although less talented than his far more influential brother, proved to be an excellent portraitist and landscapist. Made an honorary knight in 1469 by the HRE, and five years later was given the task by Venice of restoring and repairing the paintings on the walls of the Great Council Wall, an extremely prestigious honor, thanks to his ability to limn narrative scenes. In 1479, he was sent by the doge of Venice to Constantinople, where he spent two years at the court of the Sultan there, and used the Turkish miniaturist style in his later paintings. Collaborated with his brother on frescoes in the doge’s palace, with a particular attention paid to small details in crowd scenes. Inner: Controlled, cerebral and austere in his early works, although his brother’s serene style eventually softened his outer work into a gentleness and sweetness that probably affected his inner self as well. Fraternal lifetime of close association with longtime compatriots, and his own ongoing evolution of his unique style, as well as his inner personality.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS ACCESSIBLE AUDIENCE-PLEASER:
Storyline: The chameleonic colorist easily gains ongoing acceptance through his genuine love for the vibrant tones of life, which he finds interchangeable with the very breath of existence itself.

Marc Chagall (Moishe Shagal) (1887-1985) - Russian/Franco/American artist. Outer: Mother ran a small haberdasher shop, and made all the familial decisions. Father was a devout Orthodox Jew, and worked in a herring-pickling plant. Oldest of 9, including 7 sisters, in a close-knit family. Extremely attached to his mother, and spent his life connected to wifely mother-figures. Grew up in the Jewish quarter of the Russian town of Vitebsk, whose images he would portray his entire painting life. Shy with male companions, he affected effeminate ways as a teen, rouging his lips and cheeks, and wearing eyeshadow, while an unconscious eros would infuse some of his later works. His religious family attracted him to the nonrational mysticism of Hasidism. Received a solid education, during which, he saw a classmate copy a picture from a magazine and knew he wanted to be an artist. After learning elements of drawing, he went to St. Petersburg in 1907 to study art, and also began designing sets and costumes for an antirealist theater, although Jews at the time could only live in the city with a permit. Served a brief jail term, for not having one, after pretending to be a servant in a lawyer’s house. Staked to a trip to Paris by a rich patron in his mid-20s, he settled in its bohemian quarter and transposed his somber Russian iconography into a far brighter palette than his native work, under the enthusiastic encouragement of his fellow avant-garde cohorts, who were also experimenting with their own styles. Spent 4 years on the edge of Paris, creating the basis for the work that he would spend the rest of his life expanding upon - upside down figures, luminous colors, and montage compositions in a deceptively primitive style. Had his first one-man show in Berlin in 1914, then returned to Vitebsk, just in time for WW I. Worked in a realistic mode there, and in his late 20s, he married the poetic daughter of a wealthy Vitebsk merchant, Bella Rosenfeld, whom he had met early in life, one daughter from union, whom he didn’t acknowledge initially because she wasn’t a boy. His wife would subsequently serve him as critic, protector, agent, translator and social connector. In the October revolution, he was made commissar for art in Vitebsk, but political infighting caused him to move to Moscow, where he produced sets and costumes for the stage. Left Russia for good in 1922, moving first to Berlin, and then back to Paris. In the 1920s and 1930s, the quality of his work declined in his striving for popularity, while he longed for a Russia which did not exist. Narrowly escaped deportation to Auschwitz by the Vichy government through intervention, and subsequently moved with his family to New York, then Connecticut, and stayed several years, suffering the death of his wife in 1944, a dolorous event he commemorated in many paintings. Returned to France in 1948, to make his permanent home there. Had a son with his housekeeper, Virginia Haggard McNeil, and moved to Provence in the 1950s. When that relationship ended, he married a fellow Russian-Jew, Valentine Brodsky, in his mid-60s, and she became his final protector. During all this time, he worked in a host of mediums: paintings, etchings, drawings, lithographs, murals, stage settings, ceramics, stained glass and tapestries, bringing his genius for color to all of them. Despite criticisms of fatuous sentimentality, repetitive themes, and an uneven quality to his work, he continued his prolific output into immense old age, augmenting cathedrals, synagogues and opera houses around the world, until he finally died 3 years short of a century, a venerated master with an angelic charm who knew how to keep his audience continually delighted for decades. Inner: Charming, impish, seductively simple. Saw life and color as the same thing, and tried to infuse his work with a genuine love of subject matter. Never really comfortable in any language other than Yiddish, and never really attached to anyplace save for his own imaginary Russia. Decorously protected lifetime of exploring the dimensions of color and feeling, and infusing them with the decorative emotions of a genuine love of life, while seeking out a series of mothers to keep him eternally youthful. Paul Delaroche (Hippolyte-Paul Delaroche) (1797-1856) - French artist. Outer: Son of an art expert. His uncle was curator of the Cabinet des Estampes, and his brother was an artist as well. The family milieu made him very conscious of the value of producing popular art, which he strove for his entire life. Studied under various teachers, beginning with landscapes then switching to his/story after entering the studio of Antoine Gros (Andre Derain). Honors soon followed, including being made a knight of the Legion d'Honneur in 1828. In his mid-30s, he became a professor at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and was made a member of the institute. Frequently illustrated tragic moments in the lives of famous people from his/story. Often made wax models of his compositions before committing them to canvas. Borrowed from both the classicists and the romanticists, fusing the most commercial aspects of each in his glossy, polished canvases. Engraved reproductions of his oeuvre enabled thousands to hang them in their homes. Produced huge pictures which appealed greatly to the Parisian sense of drama. An extremely successful artist, with a deliberate sense of wide appeal, he was greatly rewarded and honored for his efforts. Inner: Highly commercial lifetime of working on an illustrative level, with the calculated aim of pleasing as large an audience as possible with his graceful gift for non-challenging color and composition. Francesco Guardi (1712-1793) - Italian artist. Outer: From a family of painters, including his father. Trained along with his brother in the workshop of their elder sibling, who took it over when his sire died. A sister married Giovanni Tiepolo (Pablo Picasso). The three family members collaborated in various genres, and then he made his singular reputation through landscape paintings of Venice. A close follower of Canaletto (Jean Renoir) for a decade, after having been inspired by his earlier works. After Canaletto’s work began slipping, he surpassed him in style, employing shimmering atmospheric effects painted with swift, bold brushstrokes. Didn’t achieve his full style until he was 40, and wasn’t recognized until his late 40s. His work was particularly popular with foreigners. Married Maria Pagani in his late 40s, two sons from the union, with one becoming an imitator of his father. Did commemorative views of visits by a Russian duke and the pope. Extremely prolific, with a romantic sense of pre-impressionism, which proved very profitable, since he had no other rivals. Elected to the Venetian Academy 9 years before his death. Inner: Probably a figure of easy charm and grace. Well-supported lifetime of enjoying critical, financial and esthetic success through a steady market for his work, once he had found himself as a painter, and mastered his ongoing ability to please no matter the genre or audience. Guido Reni (1575-1642) - Italian artist. Outer: Father was a musician. Entered the studio of a Flemish painter as a child, and eventually became a pupil of the Carracci at their school in Bologna. Favorite of Ludovico (Francois Truffaut), but aroused so much jealousy that he was dismissed from their academy. Painted in Bologna for several years, then went to Rome around 1600, and received a commission from the pope for a Crucifixion of St. Peter, although ordered to do it in manner of Caravaggio (Jean-Luc Godard), then Rome’s leading painter. Inspired much jealousy from fellow artists because of his growing fame and his ongoing capacity to please his audiences. Spent 20 years in Rome before returning to Bologna, although the pope induced him later to return to the Eternal City. His career would divide into three stages, beginning with strong contrasts of light and shade, a transition period of more natural renditions, and a final sentimental period. The last part of his life, he returned to Bologna and established an academy there. Inner: Noted for his voluptuous sentimentality, as well as his grandeur of style and glittering tonality. Jealousies may have risen from his own competitive, commercial nature, and his ongoing rapport with his audiences. Unconflicted lifetime of continued association with the same trinity of artists, while establishing his own unique artistic persona as a beloved purveyor of easy-to-see art. Vittore Carpaccio (c1450-c1525) - Italian artist. Outer: From a family of fishermen and boat-builders. His early life and studies remain unrecorded. Became a friend of the Bellini family, and probably went to Constantinople with Gentile Bellini (Francois Truffaut) in 1479, where that painter greatly influenced his style, coloring and drawing. Married, his sons also became painters. His style was noted for its rich color, luminosity and wealth of detail. Executed narrative paintings of the pageantry of Venice, with a particular fondness for great crowd-filled works. Interested in the outer trappings of the city, and its wealth, much as if he were a writer or a reporter with paint. Proved extremely popular because of the recognizable elements in his urban portraiture. Also did numerous religious paintings, although he focused on legendary his/story rather than spiritual episodes. His later work showed an obvious decline in his skills, and his end-life is clouded in mystery. Inner: Energetic and highly interested in the exotica of the Orient, gained through viewing drawings. Inconsistent lifetime of association with longtime friends/rivals, while giving his own imagination considerable play through both fancied and contemporary scenes in his ongoing journey as a well-loved witness to the bearable lightness of being.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS PEASANT AGITPROP:
Storyline: The socio/political pictorialist employs his story-telling skills to limn the lives of the disadvantaged, while maintaining his humble birth patterns to keep his heart and soul integrated with his self-appointed role as chronicler of the perennially dispossessed.

Ben Shahn (1898-1969) - Lithuanian/American artist. Outer: Father was a woodcarver and carpenter who belonged to the Misnagdim Jewish sect, which put an emphasis on the virtue of craftsmanship. Oldest of 4. When he was 4, his sire was exiled to Siberia for revolutionary activities, and his mother and siblings left the country. Emigrated to America with his family when he was 8, to be joined by his father, who had fled Siberia. The family lived in a cold-water flat, giving him early motivation to tell the story of America with an emphasis on social commentary. Became a lithographer’s apprentice while attending high school at night. Went to NYU, CCNY and the National Academy of Design, and visited Europe twice in his late 20s to study the old masters. Married Tillie Goldstien, in his mid-20s, son and daughter from the union. Traveled with her to Europe, then abandoned her and his family in 1935, to the disapproval of both friends and his larger Jewish family. First came to public notice with a series of paintings based on the trial of Nicola Sacco (Terry Nichols) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (Tim McVeigh), two cause celebre immigrant anarchists convicted of murder in the early 1920s. Highly sympathetic to them, he soon established himself as a left-wing artist with a strong emotional overbite in his work. Took up the camera in his early 30s, using it, as well as other photographs, as graphic points of reference for his work. In his mid-30s, he married Bernarda Bryson, an artist and a Christian, 2 daughters and a son from the second union. Worked for the NYC Public Works Art Project as well as the Farm Security Administration as both artist and photographer. Close friend of the photographer Walker Evans, at one point sharing an apartment with his during the Depression. With his 2nd wife, he executed a series of panels for the lobby of a Bronx post office which were a panorama of American life. More of a draftsman than an artist, his early work had a primitive quality to it that later became softer and more ornamental. Taught art at various schools and was Charles Eliot Norton Professor of Poetry at Harvard. Exhibitions of his work appeared in many parts of the world, and he won many awards. Later in life, he became less political and more reflective. Inner: Energetic, highly principled and largely fearless. Strong sense of justice and integrity, and the most integrated of the trio with whom he has long been connected. Identified with his subjects, disliked sentimentality or idealization of the underclass. Politically aware lifetime of social activism through art, before turning inward to look more closely at his own processes. Jean-Francois Millet (1814-1875) - French painter. Outer: Of Norman peasant stock, spent his youth working on the land. Studied art in Cherbourg, then was subsidized by a friend to go to Paris, where he worked in the studio of Paul Delaroche, who was his artistic antithesis. Rejected by the Salon, he returned to Cherbourg after a cholera epidemic in Paris, and did portraiture, before finding his true niche with the paintings of peasants, with which he would always be identified. Married in his mid-20s, to Pauline-Virginie Ono, who died after three years of consumption. Returned to Paris, won acceptance to the Salon, but suffered great hardship in the revolutionary environment and moved to Barbizon, where, along with Theodore Rousseau (Walker Evans), he helped establish the Barbizon school of natural landscapes. Remarried in his late 30s, 9 children. Continued to use peasants as subjects, and came under attack as a socialist, forcing him to publicly defend himself. Finally recognized in his 50s for the classical artist he was, during which time he employed pastels, which were probably his finest works. Received the Legion d'Honneur in 1868. Inner: Intellectual, meditative, philosophical, and a humanitarian at heart. Sensitive to the suffering of others, with a romantic realist’s draw towards pre-industrial existence. Integrity-filled lifetime of celebrating the simple dignity of ordinary life, and weathering the criticism and misunderstanding around his visual quest to be true to himself as an artist, and true to his ungainly subjects in his re-rendering of them. Louis Le Nain (c1593-1648) - French painter. Father was a sergeant royal to a local official. From a modestly properous family that acquired vineyards and farms around Laon. Early life and training unknown. Called ‘the Roman,’ for having visited the Eternal City, probably to study the art there. Served his apprenticeship with his older brother Antoine (Robert Frank) alongside his younger brother Matthieu (Walker Evans), and like them remained unmarried, toiling closely together with one another in the same workshop. Since they didn’t date anything, or sign their initials, all three are looked on as one artist. The most powerful and gifted of the trio. Influenced by Dutch art, they were known for their realistic and celebratory studies of peasant life. All 3 were received into the newly formed French Academy in 1648, then a few months later, he died within days of his brother Antoine. Inner: Good-hearted and extremely sympathetic to his subject matter. Simple tastes and pleasures, preferring rustic environs to the hurly-burly of the city in order to get at artistic truths. Interested in the ordinary without imbuing it with anything other than its direct reality. Fraternal lifetime of extremely close association with his principled and uncompromising siblings, creating a connected genetic consciousness that married them to one another in their work and their lives over many a century.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS ASTUTE RECORDER OF THE ORDINARY:
Storyline: The pain-filled pictorialist ignores his own deep waters to portray the hard lot of others, while remaining aloof from the demands of intimacy through his fears of the feminine.

Walker Evans (1903-1975) - American photographer. Outer: From a prosperous Midwestern family. Raised by a domineering mother, giving him a life-long resentment of female power. His father, whom he adored, was a successful advertising copywriter. Grew up in an exclusive Illinois suburb, where his family had moved when he was 4. One older sister, as well as several servants. Moved to Toledo at 12, when his sire changed jobs, and found public school a shock. His parents subsequently separated, with his father moving in with a neighbor, and his mother going on to NYC. Landed in private school at 16, which he hated. Ultimately changed schools to Andover, where he was seen as eccentric and vain, but was able to make the transition there, thanks to an avidity for reading. Went to Williams College, where he spent most of his time in the library, reading and self-educating, then dropped out after his freshman year, with the thought of becoming a great writer. Practiced his French, worked at the NY Public Library, and then went to Paris in 1926, enrolling at the Sorbonne. A proclivity for watching and observation turned him to his true metier of expression, photography, particularly after he saw he didn’t have the Olympian talent of the writers he loved. Deeply inspired by the photographs of Eugene Atget, using them as a basis for his own detailing of 19th century New England architecture. Returned to the U.S. the following year, and worked in a bookstore, while steeping himself in photography, finding large size view cameras perfect for his exacting, shy nature, since he could hide behind them. Took a night job on Wall Street in order to photograph during the day, then traveled, to the South Seas, and Havana, while playing around with the idea of film, although was never able to launch a career in that medium. Largely apolitical, despite leftist sympathies, he shared an apartment with Ben Shahn in NYC while eking out a living during the early part of the Depression decade, showing a particular affinity for NY’s downside. Began photographing rural victims of the great Depression for the Farm Security Administration, unerringly capturing the telling aspects of their lives through their faces and postures. Took a leave to travel with writer James Agee to Alabama to document sharecroppers for Fortune magazine in his mid-30s. The result of that trip was the extraordinary, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men. Wound up sleeping with two of Agee’s wives, with the latter’s urging and approval. Married Jane Ninas, the daughter of a well-to-do bank cashier, in 1937, 3 children from the union, with the eldest daughter dying young. Later divorced in 1955. Married again in 1960 to Isabelle von Steiger, a biographer who was 4 years his senior, daughter from the union. the daughter of a well-to-do bank cashier in 1937, 3 children, the eldest daughter dying young. Later divorced. Married again in 1956 to a biographer who was 4 years his senior, daughter from union. Both marriages ended in bitter divorce through his excessive demands for attention, his resentment of female independence and his infidelities. Close friend of numerous NY creative luminaries, who played musical chairs with bed-mates. May have been bisexual. In the late 1940s, he became special photographic editor of Fortune magazine, continuing with his interest in architecture, and rural churches, as well as doing a remarkable series of NYC subway shots of people. A heavy drinker, he eventually needed drying out. Became a professor of graphic design at Yale, and was elevated to professor emeritus the year before his death. An eccentric collector of detritus and trash, which he would arrange artistically. His early work would prove to be far superior to later efforts, which were geared towards an undemanding audience. Died after a six year struggle with cancer. Inner: Shy, modest, self-effacing, thought the work transcended the artist. Aloof, courtly, cold, prickly, exacting, methodical, intellectual and indolent. Straightforward, dismissive and decisive. Sought to tell the pictorial truth, which he felt resided in the ordinary. Sympathetic to strangers, misogynistic with intimates. Unintegrated lifetime of trying to experience himself purely as a truth-telling artist, at the expense of his own larger humanity and those close to him. Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau (1812-1867) - French painter. Outer: Son of a tailor, he began painting in his teens. Studied under several artists, but left their studios to work directly from nature, which was an unusual practice at the time. Based his style on 17th century Dutch landscapists, searching for the wild and dramatic in his pictures, which appealed to the Romantics. Began to exhibit regularly at the Salon, then was rejected, as well as maligned, for 7 straight years, despite a growing reputation. Visited the Fontainebleu area, and settled in the village of Barbizon, creating a school of natural landscape that took its name from there. Unmarried, but lived with his mistress from his mid-30s. Close associate of Jean Millet (Ben Shahn), who, along with him, was a Barbizon artist. His work became more tranquil as his style matured, and after the Revolution of 1848, he received recognition from the Salon as a major landscape artist. Became president of fine arts jury for the exposition of 1867, at the end of his life. Inner: Meditative and melancholy. Much of his work was done from the perspective of being inside looking out, trying to transcend the baseness of life through an enforced serenity that allowed him to bury his emotions. Queasy lifetime of easing his interior conflicts by focusing almost entirely on his work, and allowing it to heal his sense of distance from the rejecting world that came to see him far after he came to see it. Mathieu Le Nain (1607-1677) - French painter. Outer: Father was a sergeant royal to a local official. Family was moderately prosperous, owning vineyards and farms. Early life and training unknown. Served his apprenticeship with his older brother Antoine (Robert Frank) then, along with his sibling Louis (Ben Shahn), joined together in creating a workshop, with all three working closely together with one another in interchangeable harmony. Like his siblings, he remained unmarried, staying wedded to his art. None of the trio ever dated or signed anything, nor did they individualize their work with their initials, so that the trinity were viewed as one artist. All three were received into the newly formed French Academy in 1648, with his two older brothers dying within days of one another, several months later. Focused on peasant life with them, although he was the most experimental of the three. Excelled at portraiture, and was the singular brother who became official painter to the city of Paris, as well as a chevalier, outliving his siblings by nearly 3 decades. Had a free and fluid style, and enjoyed a prosperous career on his own, working with numerous assistants. Inner: Considerably younger than his fraternal mates, with a cleverness to his work that distinguished it from the more down-to-earth sentiments of his brothers. Fraternal lifetime of extremely close association with his brother/cohorts, before establishing himself on his own, to enjoy the singular rewards built on their collective efforts.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS PHOTOGRAPHIC PURIST:
Storyline: The principled pictorialist remains unwavering in his commitment to art for art’s sake, while keeping his own interior protected from self-view, as his family acts out the emotional excesses he is incapable of.

Robert Frank (1924) - Swiss/American photographer. Outer: Son of a successful Jewish businessman, who had been rendered stateless by WW I and settled in Switzerland. Mother, who was Swiss, became blind at 50, and was an extremely fearful person, thanks to strong Nazi presence in the countries all around them. One older brother. Felt constrained by his bourgeois upbringing from an early age. Short and stocky. Studied photography to escape his father’s business, then emigrated to the U.S. after WW II, and became more enamored of his chosen art form. Worked briefly as a fashion photographer, before touring South America on a photo shoot. In 1950, he married artist Mary Lockspesir, 2 children from union, separated in 1969. Spent five years traveling and shooting in Europe. Close friend of photographer Walker Evans. Settled in NYC, and won a Guggenheim fellowship, which allowed him to do The Americans, focusing on marginalized Americana, and giving him his reputation as a true artist of the camera. No American publisher, however, was initially interested in the book, and it had to be published in France in 1958, before finally seeing print in the U.S. the following year. Met Jack Kerouac and became involved in the Beat community, shooting the avant garde film, Pull My Daisy in 1959. Renounced still photography in 1960 to pursue other interests, particularly filmmaking, using the experimental techniques he had honed through his camera work. Most of his oeuvre from this period was fictionalized autobiography. Divorced, he bought a home in Nova Scotia with artist June Leaf, and married her in 1975. His daughter, Andrea, died in a plane crash in 1974, and his work became heavily grief-tinged, while his son, always a difficult person, later committed suicide. Gained even more fame through a documentary on the rock group Rolling Stones’ American tour, while also adding acting to his resume. Continued working with the same high integrity and lack of care for material reward, although his later years were heavily blemished by the loss of his children. Suffered a heart attack in the early 1990s. Inner: Viewed as a dour iconoclast, although in actuality, dry-humored, kind and humble, despite his projected coldness. Detached, reclusive and adverse to interviews, preferring to be an observer, rather than a commentator. Great artistic integrity, uncompromising in his work and life. Family problems and losses are indicative of a certain disconnection from the more mundane aspects of life, particularly its emotional excesses. Resolute lifetime of exploring his visual fascination with the world via a camera, while maintaining the same high artistic standards he has carefully nurtured throughout this series of lives. Charles-Francois Daubigny (1817-1878) - French artist. Outer: Son of a successful landscape artist under whom he studied. Worked as a book illustrator as a youth, then spent time in the studio of an established artist. Passed a year in Italy studying the works of the old Renaissance masters, then returned to Paris to do his/storical and religious canvases. His true love, however, was for landscape painting. By the time he married in 1843, he was an artist of some repute. His son from that union was a close imitator of his. Became friends with Camille Corot (Jean Renoir), and used the same district for his canvases, depending on close observation and a restrained manner to bring forth his studies. Became more lyrical in his use of light, later on, but always worked with a minimum amount of emotion and compositional structure. Painted while floating on a houseboat, which would become the working method of some of the impressionists. Influenced by the Barbizon school of outdoor painting, although never a direct part of that chromatic crew. Concerned with the accurate portrayal of light in all his landscapes. Encouraged the work of the young impressionists, particularly Claude Monet (Claude Lelouch), whose work he foreshadowed. Traveled in England and Holland. Made a chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur near the end of his career. Inner: Observant, cerebral and highly encouraging to young artists, serving as a teacher and exemplar to them. Father figure lifetime of teaching by example, as well as sharpening his powers of observation and accurately rendering them, although maintaining his emotional disconnection from life, preferring the serenity of light and form to the turbulence of the inner waters they reflect. Antoine Le Nain (c1588-1648) - French artist. Outer: Early life and training unknown. Accepted as a master painter at St. Germain-des-pres in 1629, and served as a teacher to his younger siblings, Matthieu (Walker Evans) and Louis (Ben Shahn), who were originally his apprentices. Eventually established a workshop with them, and like them, remained unmarried, working closely together with one another in interchangeable harmony. Because they neither dated anything, nor signed their initials, all three are looked on as one artist. Influenced by Dutch art, they were known for their realistic and celebratory studies of peasant life. Known, in particular, for small portraits and miniature family scenes. Received into the newly formed French Academy in 1648, and died shortly afterwards, a few days after his brother Louis. Inner: Like his siblings, preferred the uncomplicated rustic life, seeing it as a simple and direct way of getting to the heart of his art, while focusing on a smaller-than-life reproduction of the world around him. Fraternal lifetime of extremely close association with his principled and uncompromising siblings, creating a connected genetic consciousness that married them to one another in their work and their lives.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS BOHEMIAN ALIEN:
Storyline: The self-flagellating freak continually creates himself as a totally unique canvas, but cannot learn to appreciate himself as his own best creation.

Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960-1988) - American artist. Outer: Mother was Puerto Rican, father was a Haitian-born accountant, and the duo separated when he was 7. The former, who supported his artistic inclinations, eventually had to be institutionalized. Wanted to be a cultural hero like his musical idol, Jimi Hendrix. Dropped out of school for a while at 15, and became a street urchin, doing lots of LSD to loosen up an already scattered consciousness. Ended his formal education 2 years later. Became a graffiti artist on buildings in NYC’s SoHo, using the tag SAMO for “same old shit.” Prowled the streets, crashed art world parties, and played in an avant-garde band called Gray, which was dedicated to making unusual noise. Began creating work from debris and refuse and gathered patrons from it. Painted in the basement of a SoHo art dealer and his canvases began to sell, but he rebelled, feeling he was being used. After more successful shows, he hooked up with artist Andy Warhol, who served as a stabilizing influence, painting and partying with him. As a trendy dread-locked exotic, he used both bright colors and language on his deliberately primitive poster-like paintings, which were mostly auto-biographical. Adopted by the culturati, he became quite popular during the 1980s, for his unusual stylistics and his alien mien. Had totally dual feelings about the twin f’s of fame and fortune, which he dealt with by massive ingestions of drink and drugs in an unstoppable slide into his own personal oblivion. Despondent at Warhol’s death, he died 2 years later of a heroin overdose in his late 20s. Inner: Profoundly alienated with a gifted eye for expressive art. Equally imbued with a creative and destructive impulse. Oblivion-drawn lifetime of following a bohemian pathway towards self-annihilation in yet another incarnation where both his physical being and his unusual oeuvre would set him apart from everyone else. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Montfa) (1864-1901) - French painter. Outer: From a wealthy, aristocratic family whose lineage extended back to the time of the Emperor Charlemagne (Napoleon). His ancestors, the counts of Toulouse, once ruled western France, and his family had long borne the grotesqueries of inbreeding. His parents were first cousins. Particularly close with his devoutly religious mother, as well as the rest of his family. Grandfather, eccentric father and uncle were all talented draftsmen, and he grew up in a privileged milieu on an estate. A younger brother died in infancy. At the age of 13, he broke his left thighbone in an accident, and the following year broke his right thighbone, which retarded the growth of his legs, making him stunted and unable to walk without the aid of a cane. Grew to 4’11”, with a fully developed torso, but legs the size of a child’s, symbolic of his own ongoing childlike connection to the planet. Had a habit later on of associating with unusually tall men. Held a lifelong love of sports, pushing himself to be an active participant in them. During his period of convalescence, he amused himself by drawing, and after passing his baccalaureate, he decided to become an artist. Studied under several teachers, but found them restrictive to his growth, and rented his own studio in Montmartre in 1884, where he painted portraits of his friends, and became involved in the bohemian life there. Influenced by the impressionists, while searching for his own niche, his works began selling by 1888. Frequented cafes, sketching characters of the district, while virtually inventing the poster as a conveyor of art, which brought him fame and attention. Also trolled brothels, observing prostitutes with their clients, which led to a series of paintings called ‘Elles,’ which showed them in a sympathetic and humane way. Captured movement through color and composition in a unique style, and took great delight in his posters being posted all over Paris, using the city as his gallery. Unlucky in love, always seeing himself as a self-pitying freak. Known as the “Coffeepot,” to the habituees of Montmartre. Thought to have popularized the cocktail in the late 1890s. Always ironic and derogatory about his physical deformity, he also developed syphilis, and began drinking more and more heavily, suffering a mental breakdown when his mother left the city. Committed to a sanitarium, and after his release, he resumed his self-destructive drinking, while suffering both paranoia and hallucinations. Died two years later in his mother’s arms shortly before his 37th birthday. Painted well over 1000 pictures in a 15 year career. Inner: Filled with self-loathing, yet determined to be noticed and adulated. Witty and gregarious, loved being the center of attention. Totally unique in aptitude, physicality and artistic expression. Sensitive, gluttonous, generous, affectionate and extremely aware of his literal shortcomings. Literally foreshortened lifetime of expressing his uniqueness in highly memorable fashion, without the ability to truly appreciate himself. Henri Murger (1822-1861) - French writer. Outer: Mother was ambitious for him and saw to it he completed primary school. Father was a concierge and tailor. Unattractive, small and untidy, with a colorless beard and rheumy eyes. Served as secretary to a count who claimed noble and diplomatic ties, and completed his education under his employ, while finding the time to develop his writing skills. Became a poet, and part of the bohemian life of Paris, but was often destitute, and allowed his health to deteriorate. Wrote for fashion periodicals, edited a trade publication for the hat industry and did hack work. After the publication of Scenes de la vie boheme in 1849, he enjoyed success and better circumstances, purchasing his own home, and finding acceptance for his other work. Never married, and his years of deprivation, and overwork, did him in, and he died in a Paris clinic, short of forty. The government then paid for his funeral as a public event. After his death, his most famous piece was adapted by Giacomo Puccini (Francis Ford Coppola) for his opera, La Boheme. Inner: Self-loathing, sensitive, self-destructive. Eternal outsider lifetime of chronicling bohemia as an unattractive alien, without the advantage of birth that he would add to this scenario the next time around, in a continual attempt to try to earn love from a physically unique outer shell, and a strikingly creative inner one.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS HEART-FELT SPIRITUALIST:
Storyline: The two-sided seeker gradually expunges himself of his own inner darkness in order to live purely in the light and fully celebrate the spirit of the Christ both within and without.

Georges Roualt (1871-1958) - French artist. Outer: Born in a cellar during a bombardment of Paris against the re-establishment of the Paris Commune. His symbolic underground entrance into a violent destructive world would subconsciously put him on a pathway of searching for spiritual meaning in an otherwise demeaning sphere. Son of a cabinetmaker. Became interested in art through his grandfather’s collection of Honore Daumier’s (R. Crumb) lithographs, which he credited as his first art school. Took evening courses in art and then was apprenticed to a glazier for 5 years, beginning in 1885. Later worked on the restoration of medieval stained-glass windows. Entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1891, and was a favorite pupil of Gustav Moreau (Salvador Dali), ultimately becoming the curator of a small museum dedicated to his teacher’s pictures. Became an ardent Roman Catholic, and began to frequent Paris law courts, to closely observe those who had fallen from God’s graces, which proved a favorite subject matter for him. The post-impressionists, such as Paul Gauguin, turned him towards the use of strong color after a psychological crisis, and he became loosely connected to the Fauvists, after painting Biblical subjects in a more academic manner. Also used Jesus Christ as his subject matter, doing a series of crucifixions. Until WW I, he utilized watercolors and oil on paper, afterwards employed thick oils, with religious subject matter as his consistent theme. Worked in all kinds of media, and often reworked earlier pictures. Married Mathe Le Sidaner in his late 30s, 4 children from the union. After WW I, he began to paint with a calmer emotionalism, portraying the possibility of redemption. Expanded into engravings, set designs and cartoons for tapestries. During and after WW II, clowns became his favorite subjects. Won a lawsuit establishing artists’ rights for works never offered for sale, and burned over 300 of his own canvases which he felt were inferior. In his last ten years, he added greens and yellows to his palette and did mystical landscapes, although the bulk of his work was always human figures. Inner: Extremely sensitive to human misery and depravity. Deeply spiritual, searching for the possibility of redemption in an otherwise suffering world. God-loving lifetime of continuing to explore his profound sense of Christ consciousness through artistic expression and an underlying humanistic empathy with the down-trodden. Georges de La Tour (1593-1652) - French painter. Outer: Father was a prosperous baker. Lived all of his life in the duchy of Lorraine. In his mid-20s, he married Diane Le Nerf, the daughter of a recently ennobled supervisor of finances for the Duke of Lorraine. 10 children from the union, including a painter who worked with his father. Came under the influence of Caravaggio (Jean-Luc Godard), either through viewing reproductions of his work, or possibly travel. Moved to his wife’s nearby hometown, and was the town’s master painter for the rest of his life, making a very comfortable living. Became a painter to the duke of Lorraine, and his works were collected by various nobles, as well as the king. Garnered complaints from neighbors for excess dogs and lordly behavior, including attacking a sergeant-at-arms and savagely beating a peasant. Began as a realistic purveyor of minutely detailed religious paintings illumined by daylight, then in his 40s began to turn out nocturnal scenes illuminated by candle or hidden sources, which became his ultimate trademark. Had a keen eye for details of common life as well, and probably used a camera obscura, while working in the subdued tones of the Reformation. His last works avoided all sense of detail, and reduced form to its geometric essence, while he enjoyed the life of a country gentleman. Fell into obscurity after his death from an epidemic, and interest in his work was not revived until the 20th century. His wife died two weeks before him. Inner: Contemplative and highly spiritual, but with a grounded sense of position and power. Name was an anagram of his later life in this series. Suffered the duality of having a pure artistic vision and sense of spirit, with being an angry, bullying man of wealth and prestige. Unintegrated lifetime of artistically playing with the light of darkness, as well as trying to reduce his vision to its essentials, while falling prey to the unloving spirit he still held within himself around the material world, and, perhaps by acting it out, ultimately releasing it. Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro) (c1400-1455) - Italian painter and monk. Outer: Early life unknown. First trained as a small-scale manuscript painter. establishing his reputation in his late teens, and then entered the Dominican order in his early 20s, following his brother, who was a scribe, taking the name of Fra Giovanni di Fiesole. After his death he was known as Fra Angelico, because of his high moral virtue. Trained by a skilled miniaturist, and combined the pious life of a monk with the active one of a painter, keeping abreast of trends, particularly the use of space and perspective. Had an excellent sense of color. In his late 30s, he entered the monastery of San Marco in Florence, where he did mural work, based on religious themes, with serene figures devoid of human passion. Used lay assistants and had numerous disciples, while keeping his convent going through the sale of his works. Eventually called to Rome by the pope in 1447, where he spent close to 5 years, working with assistants on pictorials of the lives of the saints, as well as frescoes and decorations. Returned to Florence and became the prior of monastery, before ending his career in Rome. Little is known of his final years, before he died in a Dominican monastery. Inner: Serene and virtuous. Modest, self-effacing and unpretentious. Cloistered lifetime of integrating his two great loves of all his existences, his religiosity and his artistic expression, in a life contained and defined by conservative tradition, but not limited by his extraordinary sense of color.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS PANDERER TO POPULAR TASTE:
Storyline: The satyric slickster has long transliterated his feminine ideal onto both canvas and screen to well-rewarded public acclaim, only to see times pass him by, through his inability to move beyond his own limited vision of the larger and far more challenging domain of esthetics.

Roger Vadim (Roger Vladimir Plemiannikov) (1928-2000) - French filmmaker, writer, actor and producer. Outer: Father was a Belarusian immigrant, who left after the Russian Revolution, and became a French citizen and diplomat, after marrying a French actress. Spent his childhood in Egypt and Turkey, in a highly cultured multi-lingual atmosphere. His parents were divorced when he was a young teen, leaving him largely on his own. Refashioned his last name from his middle name, and at 16, made his stage debut as an actor. Studied at the Univ. of Paris, but dropped out at 19 to pursue both acting and writing full time. Became an apprentice film director through the auspices of writer Andre Gide, while also working part time as a journalist. Saw a picture of Brigitte Bardot, then a teenage fashion model, and began an affair with her, which outraged her parents, since she was only 15 at the time. Her father threatened him with a gun, while she threatened them with suicide, and the duo continued their romantic liaison, with both making their movie debuts together. Married her in 1952, and in 1956, he made his debut on the international stage with And God Created Women, an international box office hit, which was most noted for her sex kittenish presence in it. By 1957, the duo had divorced, but he continued using the same formula of molding highly sensual mates into box office fodder. His next wife was Danish actress Annette Stroyberg, who helped him produce one daughter and several films, between 1958 and 1960, followed by American actress Jane Fonda, with one daughter from that union, as well. The most noteworthy effort of their collaboration was Barbarella. Their union lasted from 1965 to 1973, at which point, his filmic career went into eclipse. In 1975, he married Swiss heiress and wardrobe supervisor Catherine Schneider, which produced a son, and end in divorce two years later. His final marriage was in 1990 to actress Marie-Christine Barrault, who was nearly two decades his junior. In addition to his two daughters in wedlock, he also had a son out-of-wedlock with actress Catherine Deneuve. Spent the latter part of his life writing memoirs about the earlier part of his life. Also penned several other works, as well as painting and sculpting in his spare time. Died of lymphoma, and his funeral was attended by all his ex-wives, as well as a host of his lovers. Inner: Highly seductive and endlessly fascinated by beautiful women. Lubricious lifetime of celebrating his usual captivation with the feminine ideal, only to ultimately see his audience move far beyond him, per his usual flirtation with fame, fortune, and being largely forgotten. William-Adolphe Bougereau (1825-1905) - French artist. Outer: From a family of wine and oil merchants. Went to school through the auspices of an uncle, a curate, which led to his further education at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux, where he was a prize-winning student. Began painting portraits of his uncle’s parishioners, which led to Paris and the Ecole des Beaux Arts there. Apprenticed at an academician’s studio, where mythology and his/story provided subject matter and won the coveted Prix de Rome in 1850. Studied Renaissance masters, while staying at the Villa Medici in Rome, and subsequently found easy favor with his eye candy concoctions of mythological themes, angels and conventionally beautiful women. Highly disciplined, he would paint from early morning to nightfall in his studio, while also socializing while there. Married Marie-Nelly Monchablon in 1856, and the duo produced 5 children. Exhibited yearly at the Paris Salon and his works were gobbled up by an undemanding clientele, allowing him to live well, with a large home and studio in the trendy left bank Montparnasse section of Paris. A traditionalist and beautified realist, he garnered commissions galore for decorating homes, churches and public buildings, while maintaining his social connections through a ton of correspondence. Became a member of the French Academy and a Commander of the Legion d’Honneur in 1885. A decade earlier he began teaching drawing at the Academie Julian. Lost his wife and an infant son in 1877, and nearly 20 years later, he married Elizabeth Jane Gardner, an American-born former pupil of his. Died of heart disease. While winning the approbation of those who admired surface art, he was derided by the avant-gardists of his own profession, and his reputation subsequently sank into oblivion, before reviving in the latter part of the 20th century, as a skilled academician whose works ultimately revived in their commercial worth. Inner: Slick and commercial, giving his undiscriminating audience exactly what they wanted without ever challenging them. Known as a lecher, he was also the subject of much carping and contumely by jealous associates. Highly social, highly disciplined and an enthusiastic teacher. Despised the Impressionists, in his unbending support of the classical traditions of French painting. Celebrated lifetime of enjoying widespread fame and its attendant fortune, as a skilled practitioner of giving sentimental life to the public imagination of his time, before being relegated to posthumous obscurity for those precise reasons. Jean-Baptiste Greuze (1725-1805) - French artist. Outer: Father was a master tiler. 6th of 9 children. Although his sire discouraged his artistic talents, a portrait painter from his native Lyon encouraged them, and ultimately brought him to Paris. Accepted at the Royal Academy, he quickly established himself as a young artist of note, winning important support for himself from a noted collector. In 1755, he traveled to Italy, in the company of an abbé, a rich amateur, although garnered little from the trip, other than showing he could do good head-studies of women. Wished, however, to do something more with his talents, using them for moral and educational instruction. On his return he painted a series of popular genre pictures that told moralizing stories, and became an extremely popular artist, feeding into the sentimentality of the times. In 1759, he married Anne-Gabrielle Babuty, a bookseller’s daughter and his feminine esthetic ideal, who ultimately embezzled some of his fortune, in a union that ended with their bitter divorce nearly a quarter century later. The pair produced one daughter, who was devoted to him. Basically a storyteller, his works were literary in their nature, dependent on their visual narrative, rather than their intrinsic artistic style. In 1769, he was made a member of the French Academy, although not as a historical painter, per his wishes, but as a genre painter, which angered him greatly, and he refused to exhibit again with them. Instead, he showed his works in his own studio, and enjoyed considerable success, amassing a huge fortune. Did many portraits of leading French figures of the day. His works were largely artificial and somewhat prurient, geared to appeal to popular tastes, rather than the tastes of the ages. During the French Revolution, he lost both his fortune and his popularity and died in poverty. Inner: Extremely vain, with an overarching view of himself and his abilities that were not supported by his realities. Rancorous, and quick to take offense at any and all perceived insults. Proud, puritanical and largely without humor. Pogo-stick lifetime of gaining and then losing it all via an inflated view of himself, making him far more wary of vacillating public tastes in his next go-round in this series, which would be geared for a full life run, before once again being relegated to obscurity and contemptuous reassessment by those who postceded him.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS VIGOROUS INDIVIDUALIST:
Storyline: The resolute rebel refuses to allow gender to stop her from entering previously male bastions, and creating both the smaller canvases of her works and the larger ones of her life, in thorough accord with her wishes.

Lina Wertmuller (Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmuller von Elgg Spanol von Braucich-Job) (1928) - Italian filmmaker. Outer: Of aristocratic Swiss descent on her father’s side. Great-great-grandfather supposedly fled to Naples after slaying a romantic rival in a dual. Father was an autocratic pro-fascist Roman lawyer, who wished his daughter to follow the same profession. Received her contempt for authority from her tenuous relationship with him. Sympathized with her browbeaten mother, who finally divorced her husband in 1973 after 50 years of marriage. One brother, who eventually handled her publicity. Extremely rebellious, she wound up being thrown out of a dozen Catholic girl’s schools, before eventually becoming a teacher herself. 5’3”, 110 lbs. Developed a fascination for the theater, thanks to a schoolmate who went on to marry Italian actor Marcello Mastroianni. Went to Rome’s Theater Academy, and upon graduation in 1951 toured Europe with a puppet show, before spending the next decade as an actress, playwright and director in the theater. In 1963, through the help of Mastroianni, she entered films by serving as an assistant to Federico Fellini on 8 1/2, and the same year, wrote and directed her first film, The Lizards. Two years later, she began a long and profitable creative partnership with Giancarlo Giannini, an actor from her theater days, who joined her production company and would serve as her continual star of choice. In 1968, she married sculptor and conceptual artist, Enrico Job, who would serve as art director on all her films. Went on to write all of her subsequent scripts, showing a Felliniesque flair for sex and excess, but with an added political and social overview. By the early 1970s, she had found her international voice with The Seduction of Mimi, which won her a best director award at the Cannes Film Festival. Following a series of equal successes, in 1976, she wrote and directed her masterpiece, Seven Beauties, a brilliant look at a smalltime seducer facing survival in a Nazi concentration camp. Won a Warner Bros. contract for the effort, although her European sensibilities proved too intractable for American audiences, and by the end of the decade, she was back making independent films. None of her subsequent efforts managed to capture the international imagination of the latter part of the 20th century, although she continued working through the 1980s. Wrote her memoirs in 1993. Inner: Highly energetic, with a lot of emotion and controlling male energy. Socialist/anarchist, tempestuous and volatile. Bullies and browbeats on the set, but also is open to impulsive on-the-spot change in her work, so that she mixes control with freedom. Megaphone-in-hand lifetime of taking clear control of her life on all levels, in her ongoing self-appointed role as purveyor of pure female artistic will. Rosa Bonheur (Marie-Rosalie Bonheur) (1822-1899) - French artist. Outer: Oldest child of an art dealer. Mother was his former pupil. Father was also a Saint-Simonian, or utopian socialist and an ardent Republican, as well as a devotee of the emerging school of French landscape painted right from nature. One of 4, with two brothers and a sister. Grew up in poverty, but was taught alongside her brothers, and enjoyed a masculine overview of things her entire life. The Saint-Simonians gave her a sense of gender equality, which allowed her to pursue her own unique pathway with complete personal confidence. Her sire was a drawing master and landscapist and was her original teacher. The family moved to Paris in 1829, but her mother died at 36, 3 years later, exhausted by the family’s financial limits. Refused at 10 to be an apprentice to a dressmaker, and instead spent her time sketching animals in the still wild Bois de Boulogne, while studying their anatomical forms closely. As a teenager, she found a lifelong companion in fellow artist, Nathalie Micas, and the two came to see themselves as husband and wife in a forty year relationship. By 17, she was able to abet the family income by making copies of the old masters at the Louvre. Often dressed in men’s clothing in order to give her access to male spheres, gaining official authorization for them, since the practice ran against the custom of the time. Dissected animal parts she got from butchers, and attended both horse fairs and cattle markets, while showing an equal fascination for both sculpture and painting. Won a Gold Medal at the Salon in 1848, and her first great triumph was “The Horse Fair,” in 1853, a voluptuous equine scene. Having secured her reputation, she never regularly participated in the Salon afterwards. Thanks to her success, she maintained a large country home, with a huge menagerie of exotic animals. Proved to be very popular with women and the working class, thanks to an overt sexuality in many of her horse pictures. Became the first woman to receive the coveted grand cross of the French Legion of Honor, which was bestowed upon her personally by the empress Eugenie (Paloma Picasso) in 1865. Received many international awards, and was much honored for who she was, by the highest tier of society. Very active in the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and held a longtime fascination with the American west. Nearly a decade after the death of her longtime partner in 1889, an art student, Anna Klumpke, joined her and helped her write her memoirs. When she died the following year, she left everything to her. The latter’s ashes ultimately joined the other two in 1946. Inner: Despite being well ahead of her time socially, she was conservative artistically. Loved the horse above all animals, and preferred the company of a few intimate friends to the larger social scene. Liberated lifetime of giving full vent to the creative feminine without compromising it a whit by compliant femininity. Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614) - Italian artist. Outer: Her father, Prospero Fontana, was a leading Bolognese painter, and served as her teacher. Worked in a variety of genres, and was quite beautiful, judging by an early self-portrait. Initially painted in the style of her progenitor, before adopting the Venetian coloration of the Carracci, who were highly influential teachers of the time and also fellow Bolognese. Began her career doing portraits of the upper-class residents of her city, while also doing large scale religious paintings, and both male and female nudes. In 1577, she married Paolo Zappi, the son of a count, who served as househusband and assistant to her. 11 children from the union, although only 3 outlived her. In 1603, she and her family were invited to Rome by Pope Clement VII (Joachim von Ribbentrop) and she wound up spending the rest of her life in the Eternal City. Gained powerful patronage there, and continued doing religious paintings, as well portraiture, including one of a future pope. Elected into the Academy of Rome, one of the few women to win that honor, and died in her adopted city. A large enough trove of her works allowed her to bequeath more paintings to posterity than any other female artist of the pre-1700 period. Inner: Well-socialized, highly skilled and richly fecund both artistically and maternally. Well-buttressed lifetime of enjoying unabated success while finding both the domestic and professional support she needed in order to grow and develop as both an artist and a social being, allowing her later on to assay more unconventional means towards finding the same professional and private succor.

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PATHWAY OF THE MAGICIAN AS VISUAL VIRTUOSO:
Storyline: The illustrious illusionist earlier finds the transition from legendary stage performer to innovative filmmaker filled with economic hazards, despite an outrageous gift to amuse and delight through oddball innovation and highly inventive imagery, as he tries to integrate his magic with the demands of materiality, in his succeeding go-round.

Michel Gondry (1963) - French filmmaker and video-wizard. Outer: Grandfather invented one of the first synthesizers, while his father sold electric guitars, and was also a computer programmer. Mother was an accomplished pianist. Middle-class upbringing. His family was very tuned into pop music, and he initially wanted to be a painter or inventor. Received extensive art school training, although was only able to get a low-level job in a calendar company from it, while playing drums in a geek-pop band called Oui Oui, at night. Began his filmmaking with promotional videos for the band, showing a flair for the highly unusual, and ultimately turned to TV commercials and musical videos, when his trickery came to the attention of others. In 1991, had a son, Paul, who would eventually collaborate with him. 3 years later, he moved to London, and worked in advertising, which taught him how to tell stories in a half minute or less. Had a productive relationship with the Icelandic singer Bjork, collaborating on a half dozen videos, and was soon in demand by artists around the world, as well as global merchandising companies. Evincing brilliant mechanical skills that could create virtually any illusion, he became a highly sought-after technician, while his work proved to be fodder for numerous special effects makers, trying to duplicate his outlandish inventiveness, or figure out just how he did it. In 1997, he moved to NY and eventually, he went into filmmaking himself, beginning with Human Nature, in 2002, employing the same off-beat sensibilities and strange storylines that marked his earlier work, while developing his narrative skills to match them, although it never reached its public. Fared better with Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, in which the memories of a failed couple are erased, and then followed it up with The Science of Sleep, once again plumbing his own failed relationships. Created an autobiographical DVD called, “I’ve Been 12 Forever,” while slowly putting more and more of himself into each of his succeeding works, working on several of them at the same time. Inner: A romantic and child at heart, using his emotions to dictate filmic storylines. Extremely inventive, with a charming feel for imagery and a great delight in trompe d’oeil effects. Largely low-tech, he eschews computer-generated effects in preference for imaginative four dimensional solutions. Liquid light lifetime of building on his earlier oeuvre so that his talents are more solidly supported by the public, allowing him the freedom to continue creating without bankrupting his preternatural gifts. Georges Méliès (1861-1938) - French filmmaker. Outer: Son of a wealthy footwear manufacturer. Expected to enter the family business, but showed an early talent for the arts. Served in the French infantry as a corporal, then enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts against his father’s wishes, who made him work at the family plant as a mechanic. Went to London in his early 20s, continued his art studies, worked in a large store, and was enthralled by the stage presentation of conjurers that he witnessed. Returned to Paris and became a professional magician, while also doing caricatures for a satirical publication under the name, Geo Smile. Married in his mid-20s, 2 children. After his father’s retirement, he took over the business with his brother, but when the widow of magician Robert Houdin, a past-life wife of his, put up his theater for sale, he sold his shares to his brother and bought it, becoming manager director of the Theatre Robert-Houdin in his late 20s, and quickly establishing a reputation for fascinating showmanship. Became entranced with the new medium of movies, which fit in with his magic lantern stage illusions, and began showing film as part of his shows, initially commonplace events, then after an accidental discovery, optical illusions. Called his production company Star Film. Experimented with cameras, designed his own sets, and built his own glass-enclosed studio, Europe’s first. Extremely innovative with the camera, virtually inventing all its early tricks. Created over 400 films, all around themes of illusions. His best known work was A Trip to the Moon, made in 1902. Set up an American branch with his brother, but the audience for his trick films soon grew tired of the novelty, and he lost most of his money. Got into debt, sold his estate, and was eventually forced out of business because of the commercialism of the new industry. Went back to performing his old magic show, but that too failed, and he was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1923. The Theatre Robert-Houdin was demolished, and he became manager of a worker’s theater in the Saar, during which time his wife died. Chanced on Jeanne d’Alcy, a former star of his productions who ran a concession stand in a Montparnasse railway station, married her in 1926, and ran the stand with her. Towards the end of his life he was recognized for his early contributions and was given a rent-free apartment, where he spent his last few years. Inner: Born showman, with a gift for recognizing the truly magical in all he did. Highly imaginative risk-taker and illusionist, although ultimately undone by his own illusions surrounding his audience. Illusory lifetime of secretly equating art and innovation with ultimate financial failure, a position he would try to work through in his succeeding go-round in this series. Jean-Eugene Robert-Houdin (1805-1871) - French magician. Outer: Father was a watchmaker, received a good education at the College of Orleans, although he saw school as a prison. Trained in his sire’s profession, which bored him, thanks to a far greater interest in magic from early childhood onwards. Worked on mechanical devices in Paris, and appeared on stage in evening clothes, rather than in wizard costumes, as was the custom, in an attempt to demystify his art and serve as an accessible entertainer. Employed common objects to create optical illusions, for the same reason. Spent a decade at the Palais-Royal, beginning in 1845, and married the daughter of a celebrated watchmaker. First magician to use the new medium of electricity, in keeping with his ongoing predilection for exploring the latest technology to enhance his magical arsenal. His success allowed him to have his own theater, the Theatre Robert-Houdin, which was specifically geared for his performances. Invented the floating boy trick, through hidden metal supports. Sent to Algeria in 1856 by the French government to expose dervishes by copying their feats, and also wrote about his art, explaining the feats of his predecessors, in his ongoing role as both teacher and entertainer. His name was adopted by mega-magician Harry Houdini (Tony Curtis) when the latter began his storied stage career. Considered the father of modern stage illusionists. His widow ultimately sold his theater to a later incarnation of himself, in a final trick on his part. Wrote his auto-biography in 1857 and two books on prestidigitation. Inner: Highly innovative, with a watchmaker’s sense of precision, timing and mechanics, and a fascination for all things mechanical. Educational illusionist, eager to teach as well as perform. Alakazam lifetime of serving as the father/teacher/exemplar of his future incarnations in this series, allowing him to directly hand over his venue to himself the next time around, in what may have been his most magical act of all.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS BRISTLING BRUSHMAN:
Storyline: The suicidal aesthete continually derails himself by doing self-battle or dueling with those around him, to either helplessly fall on his own sword, or invite others to accommodate his ongoing need for self-obliteration.
Theo van Gogh (1957-2004) - Dutch filmmaker, actor and writer. Outer: Great grandson of his namesake, an art dealer and the brother of doomed artist Vincent van Gogh (Francis Bacon). Father was a member of the Dutch secret service, while an uncle was executed by the Nazis as a resistance fighter during WW II. Grew up in the Hague, and studied law in Amsterdam, but found the lure of the theater far greater and took up acting, directing and writing. Began his film career in 1982 with Luger, a film noir that he would later repudiate. By the 1990s, he was receiving national and international awards for his work, including 5 commendations at the Netherlands Film Festival, while also making occasional appearances as an actor. His output, however, would be more specific to Holland, and was not widely viewed outside its borders. Married, one son from the union. Expanded into TV work, while also penning provocative articles for a variety of journals. Also expanded to 300 lbs, via a prodigiously unhealthy lifestyle of chain-smoking, drugs and drink. In that spirit, he maintained a website called “The Healthy Smoker,” in which he attacked multiculturalism. An atheist, he was an equal opportunity slanderer of religion and religious institutions, insulting all three of the One God belief systems with the same irreverent impunity. Garnered far more enemies than friends with his various stances, although was viewed as a champion of free speech by some. Worked in conjunction with transplanted Dutch MP Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali refugee, and outspoken critic of Islam. Made Submission, a public TV documentary short, in response to domestic violence in Islamic cultures, showing 4 women in see-through robes with Koranic texts in Arabic painted on their bodies, as they discussed their abuse. Received death threats galore over the film, and was placed under police protection, against his will. Later rejected continued police surveillance, seeing his future in total fatalistic terms. Shot 8 times and then had his throat cut by Mohammed Bouyeri, a Dutch-born Moroccan Muslim, while bicycling down the street. Two knives were left in his torso with a 5 page note pinned on one of them, threatening a variety of perceived enemies. A posthumous work, 06-05, based on the assassination of Dutch populist politician Pim Fortuyn was released after he died, while his assassin received a life sentence without parole. Inner: Cynical, mocking and pessimistic about his fellow humans. Anti-monarchist and a member of the Dutch Republican Society. Extremely self-destructive on every level, and largely unafraid of death. Profoundly provocative lifetime of taking on everyone in the name of free speech, and intentionally pushing things politically and culturally to insure, once again, his premature exit. Andre Derain (1880-1954) - French artist. Outer: Father was a prosperous pastry cook and municipal counselor. During his conventional education, he decided to become an artist, and went to two schools in Paris. Studied the old masters and impressionists, but refused to take up cubism. At the forefront of the avant-garde along with his friend, Henri Matisse, with whom he founded the Fauvist movement. Married in his mid-20s to Alice Princet, the ex-wife of an insurance actuary, after having an illegitimate son with his model/mistress, whom his wife eventually adopted. Prodigiously strong, he was capable of tremendous bursts of work. Highly social, he numbered the progressive culterati of pre WW I Paris as his intimates. Underwent an internal upheaval, as his art flattened from the bold use of color to a restrained sense of neo-classicism, seemingly moving back in time, as others of his generation surged forward. Served in the army during WW I. Regarded as the greatest living French painter during the 1920s, then his reputation plummeted, as his work became more and more inhibited, showing no real variation to it. Also did theater design and book illustrations. Made an ill-starred official trip to Germany during the Nazi occupation in WW II, although he went in the belief that some French prisoners of war would be released. Suffered a stroke that affected his eyesight a year before being killed by a car. Inner: Physical and melancholic, with an internal draw towards slow-motion artistic suicide, closing himself down to his superior abilities, in an unexplained fear of finding what lay at his true artistic heart. Ungrounded lifetime of discontinuing the exploration of his own considerable talent, almost as if he had died inwardly as a painter decades before his own demise. Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835) - French artist. Outer: Son of a miniaturist, from whom he received his early training. Entered the studio of Jacques Louis David (Abel Gance), who was his father’s friend, although he was much more attracted to the romantic movement, than the neoclassicism of his teacher. Particularly influenced by Rubens (Louis Malle). Through David’s help, he went to Italy where he met Josephine Beauharnais (Estee Lauder), and through her, his hero, Napoleon. Accompanied the French army on many of Napoleon’s campaigns, and became its primary portrayer. Probably the most talented of all the artists who contributed to the emperor’s mythos of supreme commander. His paintings were all imbued with the romanticism of color, emotion and movement. His output had a strong influence on Eugene Delacroix (Henri Matisse). After Napoleon’s fall in 1814, he worked for the restored monarchy, who awarded him the title of baron. Took over David’s studio when that artist was forced into exile, but reverted to his earlier neoclassicism out of loyalty to his teacher, much to the disapproval of younger artists, as well as David himself. His best work from this period were his portraits, which reflected his earlier sense of the romantic. Eventually made a professor at the Royal Academy, but the same year, after his last salon picture was openly laughed at, he felt himself a total failure and drowned himself in the Seine. Inner: Romantic, passionate nature, as well as strongly melancholic. Forward/backward-looking lifetime of hero worship, only to be ultimately undone by his own sense of lack of the heroic within, a continual theme of his. Sebastiano del Piombo (Sebastiano Luciani) (c1485-1547) - Italian painter. Outer: From an upper middle-class family. Didn’t begin his training until his late teens, which was unusual for the time. First studied under Giovanni Bellini (Paul Cezanne), then became a pupil of Giorgione (Robert Rodriguez), in his native Venice. The latter influenced him greatly, causing his earlier work to be confused with that great artist’s. Went to Rome where he received a commission from a banker, then settled permanently in that city, falling into the circle around Raphael (Pablo Picasso), and showing himself to be a skilled portraitist. Began collaborating with Michelangelo (Henri Matisse), who thought he could be the best painter in Rome if he worked on his draftsmanship. Served as a bridge figure between the warm coloration of the Venetian school, and the monumentality of the Roman school. Michelangelo’s influence clearly showed in all his subsequent work, and he enjoyed a spectacular reputation for his portraiture. In 1531, the pope gave him the lucrative post of keeper of the papal seal, from which he received his nickname “del Piombo.” Bought his own home, and because of the security it afforded over the last seventeen years of his life, he painted very little. Inner: Initially strongly self-motivated, but unable to maintain it in the face of easy success. Had a facility for assimilating the style and teaching of contemporary masters, while proving their potential equal. Inconsistent lifetime of achieving financial security, and probably realizing afterwards that it did not augment his creativity or particularly enhance his life, making him, as always, a victim of his own suicidal tendencies as an artist, killing himself on the inside, while drifting off into idleness and unproductivity on the outside.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS SACRIFICIAL LAMB TURNED SELF-RECLAIMER:
Storyline: The autobiographical artist literally returns from the dead to bear further witness to social and political oppression, despite being apolitical herself, as she continues to give graphic life to her memory, no matter the varied circumstances in which she finds herself.
Marjane Satrapi (1969) - Iranian/ French artist and writer. Outer: Great-granddaughter of a former Shah of Persia, although he had so many wives and children, she would consider her royal descent diluted, and of little real interest. The only child of a prosperous leftwing politically active family, she was imbued with a sense of independence from an early age. Attended the Lycee Francais, a nonreligious bilingual school in Tehran, until the Iranian revolution in 1979 overthrew the Shah, and inserted Ayatollah Khomeini. Became privy to the beginning of the Iran-Iraq War, where thousands of teenagers not much older than herself were martyred. Subsequently sent to Vienna in 1984 to escape the Khomeini regime, although returned to Tehran for college, where, at 21, she married a fellow student named Reza, only to divorce 3 years later. Got a master’s degree from Tehran Islamic Azad Univ.’s School of Fine Arts, before moving to Strasbourg, France, where she continued to study illustration. Married a Swede, Mattias Ripa, and settled in Paris. Found her artistic voice through David B., a French comics artists, and began drawing in a style similar to his. Her graphic autobiographical novel of her youth, “Persepolis,” published in 2000, brought her to international attention. Published a sequel to it, as well as other graphic novels and children’s stories, winning continual acclaim for her work. Persepolis was made into an animated film in 2007, winning an Academy Reward nomination, allowing her to work on adaptations of her other works, as well. Inner: Self-involved and self-recording, as in all her go-rounds in this series, with the added fillip of the written word to complement her artistic gifts. Liberating lifetime of finally making it into middle-age, as an ongoing witness-bearer to the continuous vicissitudes that define both her inner and outer existence. cCharlotte Salomon (1917-1943) - German artist. Outer: The maternal side of her family was racked by suicide over a multigenerational span. Mother, aunt, grandmother and great-grandmother all killed themselves. The former was a deep depressive, who eventually jumped out of a window, while her father was a withdrawn provincial surgeon with academic aspirations. Told by her family that her mother’s death was due to influenza, which she believed for years. An only child, she was often ignored, and left to her own creative devices. Following her mother’s demise, her sire married Paula Lindberg, a charismatic opera singer. As a teen, she fell madly in love with a shellshocked intellectual, whose mystical theories about art and life entranced her. After Adolph Hitler’s rise to power in Nazi Germany, she was admitted to the academy of art as its only Jewish non-Aryan, but refused to stay in school because of her humiliated status. At 18, she was accepted at the State Academy of Fine Arts, and awarded the academy prize, which was later revoked because of her religion. Left for southern France to stay with her grandparents before the outbreak of WW II, and her grandmother killed herself shortly after her arrival. Briefly interred with other Jews at the beginning of the war at a camp in the Pyrenees, then married Alexander Nagler, a former Jewish-Austrian businessman. Feverishly recorded her past in some 800 watercolors along with accompanying texts that depicted both her real and fancied life, including an obsession with a voice teacher, which was probably never actualized in her lush, nightmarish autobiography. Gave it to a sympathetic French couple just before she was taken to Auschwitz, saying, “Keep this safe. It is my whole life.” Died pregnant in a concentration camp, but her work was later recovered by her father and stepmother and published. Inner: Doomed, yet with a sense that art is eternal, even though life is fleeting. Shy, extremely internal, hated to talk in company, but maintained a sense of immortality in her work. Accursed lifetime of desperately trying to capture herself on paper in an overwhelming milieu of death, from both the past and the present. cPaula Modersohn-Becker (Paula Becker) (1876-1907) - German artist. Outer: Father was an engineer of the railroad bureaucracy and the son of a professor, mother was from an aristocratic background. 3rd of 7 children. Grew up in a cultured home open to artists and writers. The family moved to Bremen, where she began studying art. Stayed with relatives in London, and continued her training there. Her sire fretted about her becoming an artist, so she was forced to complete a teacher’s training program before she was allowed to continue as such. Attended a women’s art school in Berlin, and became part of a circle of artists formed by the Worpsweder School, which had a colony near Bremen. The group rejected industrialization and preferred simple rural life, although she, in turn, eventually rejected the group’s ideals, and went to Paris on New Year’s eve of the new century. Spent 4 different stretches of study in Paris over a 6 year period, where she also frequented artistic circles. Her early work was naturalistic, but her later oeuvre was influenced by the coloration of the post-impressionists. Married Otto Modersohn, a fellow artist and a recent widower with a young daughter in 1901. Separated from her husband, who later tried to persuade her to reconcile her artistic and domestic life, and she did. Gave birth to a long wished-for daughter, and shortly afterwards, suffered an embolism and a fatal heart attack. Introduced French post-impressionists into German art, and is generally classified with the expressionists because of her focus on both herself and her inner feelings. In her brief 31 years, she did 400 paintings and over a 1000 drawings. Also did several nude self-portraits. Inner: Saw art as a means of self-discovery and self-affirmation. Extremely sensitive, with a great desire to achieve grandeur through simplicity. Constantly experimenting with both technique and subject matter. Sketchy lifetime of focusing on self-expression as a means of liberating her from her otherwise oppressive surroundings, before succumbing to her unhappy heart. Constance Mayer (1775-1821) - French artist. Outer: Daughter of a customs official, to whom she was deeply attached. Later did a portrait of the both her and her father, illustrating the strong connection. Had several well-known teachers, including Joseph-Benoit Suvee and Jean Baptiste Greuze (Roger Vadim). Followed the pattern of female artists of the time, doing sentimental moralizing works, which were artificially staged, and showed the strong effect of Greuze on her earlier works. Despite her high connections, she managed to avert the horrors of the Terror and the French Revolution. Met Pierre-Paul Prud’hon in 1802, and he opened her up to allegorical themes. Learned by copying from him, and also collaborated with him, absorbing his style. Commissioned by the empress Josephine (Estee Lauder) to do a painting on mythological themes, and though it was poorly received in some quarters, it was later sold as a Prud’hon, bringing a much higher price. By 1810, she was occupying quarters near him, while working in his atelier and sharing meals with him, in an intimacy that transcended master and student, although he told her he would remain single if his wife ever died. Because of their close connection, his children became overtly hostile to her. Her father’s death in 1810 affected her deeply. In 1818, she began experiencing periods of anxiety and depression. Continued working up until the end of her deliberately abbreviated life. After learning she was going to be evicted, she grabbed Prud’hon’s razor and slashed her throat. Inner: Charming and vivacious, although extremely dependent on the men in her life. Harbored a great fear of aging, feeling if she lost her attractiveness, she would lose her male support as well. Codependent lifetime of proving an apt pupil, but an inept respecter of herself, an ongoing theme which has led her to more than overwhelm her creativity with unhappy destructive end-runs throughout several in this series of lives.

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