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ARTISTS - THE MEXICAN/DUTCH/GERMAN/AMERICAN CONNECTION

PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS AS TOTAL MASTER OF ALL ARTS:
Storyline: The sublime self-portraitist scales the heights of creative expression via the sheer heft of his genius, but also sometimes plummets just as quickly to obscurity, because of his inability to reconcile his superior gifts with a world that refuses to support his extravagant sense of self, as he works to finally find a balance between the two.
Alfonso Cuaron (Alfonso Cuaron Orozco) (1961) - Mexican filmmaker. Outer: Father was a nuclear physicist employed by the UN’s International Atomic Energy Agency. Grew up in Mexico City and had an early fascination with film. Always wanted to be a director, while harboring a secret fantasy of becoming an astronaut. Felt himself a nerd, with films as his singular refuge. One younger brother, Carlos, who would be a writer on some of his features. Received a camera for his twelfth birthday, and was inseparable from it afterwards, save for when he was frequenting the cinema or the two studios near his house. Largely a loner, with an absent father. Studied philosophy at the National Autonomous Univ. of Mexico, per his mother’s wishes, and also filmmaking at CUEC, which was part of the same teaching complex, per his own desire. 6’. Collaborated on a short film there, “Vengeance is mine,” although it was shot in English, which caused his expulsion from the film school. While there, he married actress Mariana Elizondo in 1980 and had a son with her in a union that lasted until 1993, although was over well before then. Forced to bide time in a museum afterwards, until rescued by friends. Began working in TV as a techie, which brought him back to film work as an assistant director on several productions, before making his big screen debut as a director in 1991 with Solo Con Tu Pareja, a sex comedy about a philandering businessman tricked into believing he has AIDS. Also wrote, produced and co-edited it, establishing a pattern for himself of near complete creative control over his later efforts. The film proved to be a huge hit in Mexico, and led to American TV cable work with an episode of “Fallen Angels” in 1993. Two years later, he released his first American feature, A Little Princess, which he was disappointed in, followed by another literary reworking, Great Expectations, which received mixed reviews, and caused him much turmoil because of a lack of a definitive screenplay. Returned to Mexico afterwards, and founded Anhelo Productions, which produced Y Tu Mama Tambien, a lusty sex romp road trip movie, that was more in keeping with his true self, and proved an international success. In 2001, he married Italian cinema art critic, Annalisa Bugliani, whom he met in Venice. Daughter and son from the union, with the latter suffering from autism. Moved to NYC with his family, and did the third in the Harry Potter films afterwards, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, which was seen as vastly superior to the first two, in its true rendering of a magical environment upon the screen. Topped himself with Children of Men, a futuristic tale of a largely sterile planet shot with long takes from a distance, so as to give it an added voyeuristic immediacy. Signed a deal with Warner Bros. to give worldwide distribution to his subsequent work. Acknowledged as a master of his craft by this time, he also directed “I Am Autism,” for the Autism Speaks organization, although received heavy criticism for his presentation of the affliction in negative terms. Created the production and distribution company, Esperanto Films, and, after divorcing in 2008, settled in London. His non-stop space actioner, Gravity, won him a Best Director Oscar in 2014, along with six other awards.Inner: Always learning from his efforts, by trying to bring a different visual approach to each film. Great desire to connect with young people, feeling it keeps him fresh and relevant. Close friends with Guillermo Del Toro and Alejandro Inarittu, as the three musketeers of Mexican cinema. Reclamation lifetime of searching for truth in his filmmaking, while making sure that his work surpasses his ego, so that he doesn’t fall prey to the pitfalls of the past, that neutralized his extraordinary ongoing talent in whatever art form he assays. D. W. Griffith (David Wark Griffith) (1875-1948) - American filmmaker. Outer: Son of a former colonel in the American Civil War, known as “Roaring Jake” throughout the South. His father had also been a practicing physician, and was a member of the Kentucky legislature. By the time he was born, however, the family was in reduced circumstances. Deeply influenced by his sire’s war stories and family readings of English literature, and was equally effected by his progenitor’s death when he was only 7. Forced to live with relatives, then moved to Louisville, where he ended his formal education in order to contribute to his family’s finances, as an elevator operator and clerk. 6’, 190 lbs. Exposed to the cultural and theatrical life of the city, he began an acting career with amateur groups, then turned professional and toured with various companies. Wrote two unsuccessful plays, before selling some scenarios for one-reel films. Appeared before the cameras as an actor, before finding his true niche behind it as a director in his early 30s. For the next 5 years, he made some 400 films for Biograph, introducing and refining many of the basic techniques that would be unique to motion pictures, from close-ups to long shots to cross-cutting, while forming a stock company of players, whom he endlessly rehearsed, and ultimately brought to California with him from NY. Carried his films in his head, never using a script. Along with cinematographer Billy Bitzer, who was the first cameraman to film under artificial lights, he introduced fade-outs and fade-ins, close-ups and framing techniques. A romantic at heart, he employed actresses as his shifting muse, and often fell in love with them, while female characters dominated in all his work, most notably Lillian Gish. In 1906, he married an actress, Linda Arvidsen, who worked in his movies, duo separated in 1911 and divorced in 1936. His first great spectacle was Birth of a Nation, released in 1915, a Civil War drama with a decidedly pro-Southern and anti-African-American sensibilities that was censored in many cities, but was, nevertheless, a revolutionary work of art, and heralded the birth of cinema as a spectacular mode of storytelling. His next film, Intolerance, an epic of four interwoven stories from pre-biblical to modern times was even more spectacular in its execution and structure, although it proved to be a financial failure, thanks to an equally intolerant public for lengthy entertainment. Built his own studio in New York, and along with Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks, the 3 most popular stars of the day, formed United Artists in 1919, which had financial troubles because of its lesser films. Became a contract director, but by the early 1930s, his career was over, largely because of his inability to find a successful avenue for projecting his own complex Victorian inner life on the screen. Never able to finance another film, despite his extraordinary contribution to the artistic side of the motion picture industry. Sold his shares in United Artists, occasionally tried rehashing old scripts, or enter into negotiations for film projects, but nothing ever materialized. Married Evelyn Baldwin, a young actress, in the mid-1930s, but the union did not last, and they were divorced in 1947. Tried to start a new career as a Broadway producer, but failed there as well. Although he owned a ranch in Southern California, he lived in a succession of apartment-hotels. Spent the rest of his life as a sad, aloof has-been. Finally faded to black from a massive cerebral hemorrhage in a Hollywood hotel room, a bitter, lonely forgotten man. Inner: Aristocratic and aloof, with a sure-handed creative genius, but an inability to gauge the temperament of popular taste. Chivalrous, romantic, with an idealized view of womanhood. A Victorian melodramatist at heart, with a genius for the visual display of story, albeit a limited sense of the actual tales he limned. A disdain for money made him careless and extravagant. Intolerant lifetime of brilliant creative expression, coupled with a downward trajectory dictated by a mass audience unable to fully appreciate his extravagantly, extraordinary artistic genius. Thomas Girtin (1775-1802) - English artist. Outer: Father was a well-to-do brush-maker, of Huguenot descent, who died when his son was 8. Raised by a draftsman stepfather. Apprenticed to an authoritarian painter and engraver for seven years, and was imprisoned briefly for refusing to serve his term of indenture. Worked in an engraving shop, where he met co-worker J.M.W. Turner (Francis Bacon), with whom he both traveled and drew. Became a copyist along with Turner for an art connoisseur, which influenced his watercolor style. Exhibited at the Royal Academy, and made numerous sketching tours of landscapes of northern England and Scotland, which showed his great breath of talent and artistic expression. In 1799, he became one of the founding member of the Sketching Society, which promoted his/storical painting, then considered the apex of genres by the art-world. A watercolor virtuoso, he virtually reinvented the medium, from tinting to full color painting. In his mid-20s, he married Mary Ann Borrett, the teenage daughter of a wealthy goldsmith, one son. Continued his sketching trips, worked as a drawing master, and began using oils in 1800, executing a 360 degree panoramic view of London the following year in that medium which measured 18 feet high by 108 feet in circumference. Had no interest in human character as subject matter, or dramatic landscapes. Preferred simple rural villages or regional abbeys, and the light that formed them. In the last years of his very brief life, he painted in a Romantic style, exerting a strong influence over subsequent English landscape painting. Took a year-long trip to France, then returned home and died of asthma in his studio. On his death, Turner declaimed, “Had Tom Girtin lived, I should have starved.” Inner: Generous, unselfish, and generally well-liked. Disliked fashionable society, preferred the company of common folk, and chafed at any impingement on his freedom. Sketchy lifetime of effective work and modest social ambitions, perhaps to circumvent his usual existence pattern of over-extending himself financially and falling into arrears and neglect. Rembrandt Van Rijn (Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn) (1606-1669) - Dutch artist. Outer: 8th of 9 children, 4th and youngest son of a miller, who was well off, well-connected and able to give him a good education. Mother was a baker’s daughter. Enrolled in the Latin School, in preparation for a career in the ministry or public service, but showed far more interest in doodling, which led to an apprenticeship with a painter. Entered Leiden Univ., but left to study under various artists, all of whom gave him an appreciation of Italian art, although he refused to go to that country, preferring instead, to employ his acute powers of observation on the world around him, using himself as a primary model, and disguising his innate handsomeness in his desire to look at the less esthetic emotions beneath. A superb draftsman, he quickly mastered the art of etching, and soon had a flourishing studio, before moving permanently to Amsterdam in his mid-20s. Won fame with a group portrait, and quickly became a leading portraitist in Holland. Established his unique style of building paintings out of extremely dark and muddy backgrounds, playing with the dramatic counterpoint of dark and light in the manner of the Italian master, Caravaggio (Jean-Luc Godard). Had an acute sense of drama to his group work, and an excellent sense of psychological penetration to all his portraits. In his late 20s, he married Saskia van Uylenburgh (Lillian Gish), a wealthy woman and niece of the owner of the painting business he had joined, 4 children from the union, 3 dying in infancy, with the youngest, Titus (Robert Zemeckis), becoming an artist. The duo lived lavishly, entertaining royally, with his heavily mortgaged house as a cultural center. Took on many students, and received many commissions, with a reputation for brilliance and unconventionality in his canvases. Never collaborated with anyone in his workshop, signed almost everything he did, and never worked from life, preferring to take everything into the studio with him, through his need to have total artistic control over his re-creations. After the death of his wife in 1642, the same year he painted Night Watch, his popularity began to wane, which brought out the true artist in him, challenging him to supercede the criticism leveled at his work by going deeper within to draw out the ancient master that was always there. Sued by Geertje Dircx (Frances Farmer), a former servant and lover in 1649, whom he promised to support and then didn’t and ultimately had committed as a threat to his commercial stability, as he went deeper and deeper into debt. Despite some carping, he was generally well-viewed by critics during his life, although that did not necessarily translate into enough work to support him in the style to which he had become accustomed. Made trustee of his son in his wife’s will unless he married again, which prevented any further official unions on his part. While his early work showed an artist of immense talent, his latter oeuvre had the unmistakable kiss of genius about it. As he experienced loneliness, alienation and unhappiness, his work thickened and drew depth from his dolor. His lifestyle eventually forced him to declare bankruptcy, which necessitated his mistress, Hendrickje Stoffels (Cameron Diaz) and surviving son to manage his affairs by setting up a dummy dealership, with himself as its employee. Had two children with the latter, one dying in infancy, and the other, Cornelia (Bessie Love), named after his beloved mother, surviving him. Turned ever more to self-portraiture during this period, showing himself as a victim of the tragic misfortune of passing fame. Lost his mistress in 1663, at which point he stopped drawing, and then died of unknown causes in poverty a year after his son. Ultimately buried near Hendrickje, rather than his wife. His reputation began to skyrocket again a century later, until he is now regarded as one of the great artists of western civilization, with his name having risen to an archetypal level as an unquestioned genius of the brush. Did some 90 self-portraits, all told, beginning with making faces to catch expression, and ending with penetrating insight into his morose condition, and about 700 paintings have been attributed to him. Inner: Self-possessed and self-obsessed, with a deeply spiritual and intellectual mindset, that would be drawn out by his continuing later life hardships. Extravagant, egotistical and martyr to his own superior abilities. Left no diary and few letters, revealing a minimal inner life, although few Dutch artists of his time left any internal record of themselves. Loved to dress in rich costumes, and admired Durer, his preceding go-round, but had little use for the latter’s intellectual and theoretical approach to art, but rather, complemented that life, by attacking all his work from a purely emotional standpoint. Blind people, that ultimately artist’s fear, appear numerous times in his canvases. Flying and crashing Dutchman lifetime of bringing the art of oil painting to new levels, while acting out the inner belief that only in struggle and adversity can true genius emerge, a theme he would later repeat to far less effect. Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) - German artist, etcher, engraver and theorist. Outer: Son of a goldsmith, one of 3 surviving children out of 18 born to his parents. Not particularly fond of his mother. Extremely precocious, and an inveterate painter of remarkable self-portraits from the age of 13 onwards. Began his career in his father’s workshop, then was apprenticed to an artist and woodcutter. After 3 years, he began his travels as a journeyman artist, visiting the Netherlands, Alsace, and Switzerland. Returned to southern Germany and in his early 20s, married Agnes Frey, the daughter of a prosperous merchant. Set up his own workshop, and made his first trip to Italy, concentrating on Venice, which influenced his further development deeply, both in the landscapes he rendered and the work he observed, being particularly taken with the art of Andrea Mantegna (Jean Renoir) and Antonio Pollaiulo (Marcel Duchamp). Continued to use himself as a periodic subject, but the Italian Renaissance style now became clearly evident in his subsequent paintings, when he returned to Germany. Did woodcuts in the traditional Germanic Gothic mold, but the classicism and humanism of Italy were now integrated into his esthetic sensibilities. Contemporary fame, however, rested in his prints, rather than his paintings. Began to experiment with human proportions, trying to render the true geometry of bodily representation. In 1505, he took a 2nd trip to Italy that lasted two years, spent mostly in Venice, with Giovanni Bellini (Paul Cezanne) as his clear inspiration. Considered Italy his spiritual and artistic home. Beginning in 1512, he was employed by HRE Maximilian I (Charles de Gaulle) to execute decorative work over the next 7 years. Entertained royally by artists and intellectuals during his year in the Netherlands, which he visited with his wife, viewing his own past-life works as Jan van Eyck. Greatly admired Martin Luther (Martin Luther King) although never met him. His health began to decline over his last 7 years, when he contracted malaria after stepping into the swamps of Zeeland to see a whale. Concentrated on writing treatises on geometry, fortifications and human proportion, while stopping painting altogether his final two years. Inner: Highly intellectual truth-seeker, with a scientific bent. Self-possessed and self-obsessed. Pious and virtuous, as well as an excellent salesman, always knowing his self-worth. Saw himself in Christlike terms, although without his later martyred endings, as the artist/prince as pure purveyor of expression. Cerebral and theoretical in his approach to art, in complete contrast to his next go-round in this series. Obsessed with self-portraiture, with a deep need to constantly look within. Self-searching lifetime of integrating the Renaissance traditions of Italy and Germany through his own extraordinary technical abilities, while keeping his natural extravagance in check, preferring the luxury of his intellectual interior to the outer trappings of success. Jan van Eyck (c1385-1441) - Flemish painter. Outer: Beginnings obscured. Brother of Hubert van Eyck (Francis Bacon). Received patronage from the count of Holland, working in the palace of the Hague, until the count’s death. From his early 30s onward, he spent most of the rest of his career in the employ of Philip the Good of Burgundy (FDR), for whom he made several diplomatic missions of state in search of a titled wife for the noble, painting the portrait of his ultimate affianced bride, then bringing her back to Flanders with him. Settled in Bruges, and married in his late 30s, at least two children from union. Often credited with being one of the primary innovators in painting with oils. Best known for his 12-paneled “Ghent Altarpiece,” which he probably executed with his brother. Transliterated religious icons into everyday objects, and with his sibling founded the Flemish school of painting. Inner: Subtle, refined artistic consciousness. Well-patronized lifetime of giving realistic grounding to the art of oil painting, while serving as a teaching bridge about the divinity of shape in the ordinary and familiar. Giotto di Bondone (1266-1337) - Italian artist. Outer: Probably the son of a peasant, who owned some land. Seemingly dwarvish, judging from his skeleton, which was just over 4’ tall. Assumed to have studied under Cimabue (Pablo Picasso), who discovered him drawing sheep on a flat stones, and took him to Florence to teach him painting, and was soon eclipsed by his remarkable pupil, although the story may be apocryphal. Sturdy and plain-featured. Worked in many parts of Italy and became a revolutionary artist, with humanity as his primary subject matter, giving life and breadth to figures in a break with Byzantine tradition, that had merely made them design elements. Supposedly could draw a perfect circle freehand. Served the Franciscans in many of his executions, and became the first artist to give movement to his figures, and the first to connect dramatic stories with living people. Married twice, the first time in his early 20s to Ricevuti Lapo del Pella, at least 3 sons and 3 daughters from the union. A friend of Dante (Ezra Pound), doing several portraits of him. Worked in the tradition of religious subject matter, albeit humanistic in his concepts and execution, as well as narrative in his designs. Able, for the first time, to convey a sense of three-dimensionality on a two-dimensional surface, thus ushering in post-medieval art. Best known for a series of 38 frescoes, begun in 1305 in Padua, which detail the lives of the Christ and the Virgin Mary. Strongly influenced by Pietro Cavallini (Francis Bacon), in moving on from Byzantine art to far more representational work. Enjoyed widespread fame, as well as enough fortune to become a landowner several times over in his own right. Worked for Robert of Naples, in his mid-60s, and ended his career as official architect of Florence. Inner: Prophetic in his abilities, with a self-surety to all he undertook. Known as a great wit, as compensation for his ungainly physicality. Visionary lifetime of being a true esthetic revolutionary, helping to introduce into the art of painting the space, drama and perspective that would explode a century later into the brilliance of the High Renaissance.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS BRILLIANTLY MAD CARTOONIST:
Storyline: The compleat alien alternately swallows and acts out his howling humanity, while stroking, slashing and self-annihilating his way into his unintegrated heart in order to release the master of color and light that lies forever bubbling up within him.

Francis Bacon (1909-1992) - Anglo/Irish artist. Outer: Father was a retired major in the English army, and a collateral relative of the English philosopher for whom he named his son. Mother was a wealthy Dubliner, who encouraged her son to dress up in her clothes. 2nd of 5 children. Effeminate as a boy, thanks to his mother’s ministrations. Raised as a Catholic, which would provide subject matter for many of his subsequent irreligious works. His father was a gambler and alcoholic who operated an unsuccessful racing stable. Introduced to sex by the grooms who worked there, while admitting to being sexually attracted to his sire, and alternately loving and hating him. Routinely whipped by the grooms in front of his progenitor, creating a profoundly alien personality, that felt absolutely no compunctions about acting out his anger and madness in ludicrous manner. Asthmatic his entire life, which drove him to be an artist. Because the family moved often, he had virtually no formal education, receiving tutoring from a clergyman and briefly attending a boarding-school. Finally expelled from his house at 16, when he was caught wearing his unbalanced mother’s underwear. Never forgot the pain of his childhood. Left for London, traveled on the continent, and without any formal art training, he began painting on his own in the 1920s, after seeing a Picasso exhibit in Paris. Returned and entered a homophile milieu, supporting himself through theft, gambling and prostitution and an allowance from his mother. Deeply influenced by the expressionism of Vincent van Gogh, a former life of his. Lived with his elderly nanny, the well-named Jessie Lightfoot, who used to sleep on the kitchen table during the day, and shoplift to help maintain his menage household. Ran an illegal gaming den in his studio, with his nanny as hatcheck girl, while given to dressing up in make-up and drag, or all in black, while often playing the leather-clad submissive. On her death in 1951, he abandoned any fixed address and studio, and flitted about from the countryside to Tangiers, and at one point fell in love with the owner of a collection of rhino whips who wanted to keep him chained to a wall as a pet. The death of his father released a new power in his art, and he began painting screaming popes with slashed mouths in the manner of Diego Velazquez (Robert Rodriguez), as well as twisted wrestlers, blood-soaked crucifixions, and a host of other startling images on muted backgrounds, so that they would jump out at the viewer. Placed a particular focus on the mouths of his subjects, often slashed in with his palette knife. Used photographs, film and other artist’s works for his inspiration. Once booed Princess Margaret for her singing in a private home, much to the shock of everyone present. Openly homoerotic, and a mischief-maker supreme. Traveled freely, moved often and exhibited frequently, although also destroyed many of his works. Often painted his own self-portrait, eventually giving himself a sense of dignity, after earlier presenting himself in a degraded fashion. Ever the voluptuary, with a fascination with flesh and all its putrefying and grotesque beauty. Occupied the same image-strewn workroom-studio his last 31 years, while also maintaining a relative youthfulness and buoyancy about himself up until the end. Active his entire adult life as an uninhibited purist, he eventually died full of years of a heart attack, while visiting a friend in Madrid. Cremated afterwards, with the location of his ashes unknown. Inner: Perverse, impudent, outrageous and atheistic. Spoke his mind, had few pretensions and many friends. Ultimately wished to just throw a handful of paint at a canvas, and have a full-formed portrait emerge from it. Always went for visceral reactions that went beyond rationality in his art. Disliked the work of his contemporary abstractionists, finding them too watered-down for his tastes. Trickster lifetime of mocking his own deep spirituality on every level, in response to often being oppressively buried by it in earlier lives. Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) - Dutch artist. Outer: Eldest of 6 children of a Protestant pastor. Had a still-born older brother of the same name and birth date who died the year before he was born. Always conscious of him through seeing his memorialized grave-site. Enjoyed an extremely close relationship with his older brother, Theo. His mother doted on him, although his sire was ultimately disapproving of his artistic bent. Enjoyed wandering in the countryside as a youth, and had a relatively happy childhood, albeit showed a religious intensity bordering on the fanatic. Apprenticed to an art dealership where his uncle was a partner. Worked for him for several years, which roused his interest in art, although not in art dealing. Had a particular affinity for the Dutch school and the canvases of Rembrandt (Alfonso Cuaron). After a romantic rejection when he was 20, he became solitary and withdrawn. Worked as a language teacher and lay preacher in England, before returning to the Netherlands to labor for a bookseller. Decided to dedicate his life to the spiritual upliftment of his fellow suffering humans, but had difficulty with subsequent traditional theological training, and went to a poor coal-mining town in Belgium, there to share in its overwhelming poverty and misery as a lay missionary. Gave away all his worldly possessions, but was deemed a little too literally Christian and was dismissed in 1879. Penniless, and with his faith destroyed, he cut himself off from everyone, and turned to drawing to salve his misery. For the next 10 years, he produced an extraordinary body of work, studying first in Brussels, then moving to his father’s parsonage and working from nature. Painting around Holland, he began to evolve his distinctive style in brilliant still lives and portraits, immersing himself in the hardships of peasant life. Became enamored of Japanese prints, as well as the works of Peter Paul Rubens (Louis Malle), and decided to study art formally. Enrolled at Antwerp Academy, but felt far too constricted by academia, and eventually joined his brother Theo in Paris in 1886. After viewing the paintings of the Impressionists and meeting several of them, he opened up his palette to the brilliance of his most renowned works, layering his canvases with such thickness of paint that they fairly jumped out at the viewer. An inveterate letter writer, he was able to mold language in a similar primitive way as his painting, to convey his turbulent and roiling interior, with a particular facility for re-rendering his canvases into words for fellow artists. Moved to Arles, and was joined by Paul Gauguin (Jean-Luc Godard), but the two had a falling out, and he wound up cutting off part of his left ear. Began to suffer from a mental imbalance and feared he would lose his sanity if he stopped painting. After a short stay in a hospital, he asked to be shut up in an asylum, where he stayed for a year, alternately calm and despairing, while he muted his previous explosion of colors to concentrate on building forms through lines. Always searching for a sense of community, he found one among his fellow lunatics, noting they cared for one another in their moments of clarity. Unhappy he could not paint directly from nature, he left the asylum to go to Paris to see his brother, before going to live with a homeopathic doctor. At first enthusiastic, his innate desperation soon returned. Propped his easel against a haystack and shot himself in the chest, dying two days later. Only sold one painting in his lifetime, but a century later, he became the highest priced artist in his/story. Left an unparalleled legacy from 10 short years of work. Inner: Victim of his own profound and unhappy spirituality, with an extraordinary sensitivity to the suffering of his fellow humans. Cartoonist extraordinaire, with an irreal sense of hue that countered his own passionate but depressed personality. Liked to suck the paint from his brushes, which probably helped loosen his weak grasp on the world around him. Saw nature in supernatural terms, and art as an autobiographical means towards spiritual growth. Doomed lifetime of giving blazing color to his confused interior, before succumbing to a deep-seated misery and loneliness, that made him unable to appreciate his own rare genius, without the much-needed affirmation of others. J. M. W. Turner (Joseph Mallard William Turner (1775-1851) - English artist. Outer: Father was a barber and wigmaker, and 6 years younger than his spouse, who died insane in London’s Bedlam asylum, when her son was in his late 20s, after suffering from fits of violent temper. She had been abandoned well beforehand by her family, and was probably the same maternal figure as in his Bacon life. A younger sibling died before the age of 5. Had almost no formal education, but studied mythology and science on his own. Sent to live with a fishmonger uncle at the age 10, when his mother’s instability forced him out of the house, and he began to exhibit drawing talent. Received some instruction from a watercolorist, then entered the Royal Academy schools to study art at 14. Maintained a devotion to the Academy his entire life, since it give him cultural cachet. Short, squat and homely with a pugnacious temperament, and a Cockney accent. Spent his summers walking and drawing landscapes, while keeping one fingernail long, in order to scratch directly into the paint. Began working for engravers, where he met Thomas Girtin (Alfonso Cuaron), with whom he traveled and drew. Continued his art education, turning to oils. Made an associate of the Royal Academy in his early 20s, and became a full associate at 26, taking his duties seriously. In 1798, he began a decade long affair with Sarah Danby, a widow, 2 children from the union, although the duo never married. Opened his own studio 2 years later, received many commissions, and was assured of success in his career from then on. Never painted from nature, always working in his studio, although did thousands of drawings from careful observation of natural phenomena. After his mother’s commitment to Bedlam at century’s turn, his father came to live with him, serving as his assistant into his own old age, finally dying in 1829. A born tramp, he would sleep anywhere, eat anything and work in all sorts of weather. An inveterate walker, he often hiked 25 miles a day, covering a large part of the British Isles, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and France, drawing all along the way. Particularly attuned to the sea, and its potential for great roiling emotion. Began his career painting in dark tones, but after his discovery of the possibilities of sunlight, he infused his work with an extraordinary sense of color, fluidity and motion. Lived with his housekeeper, a girl of 16, until his death. The richer and more famous he became, the more secretive he was, occasionally living under an assumed name, all the while courting both prestige and wealth. Eventually, he resigned his position as professor of perspective at the Academy, to devote full time to his work. Had a sweeping sense of nature, and gloried in its uninhibited power, perhaps as a reflection of his own creative sensibilities. Continued traveling into old age, and in his latter years, he became somewhat unhinged by overwork, as well as by a fondness for drink. Abandoned his house in London, which was a ruin, and his dying words were, “The sun is God.” Left his entire collection of work to Britain, and instructed it be kept together in one gallery, although it was not. Inner: Secretive, unsociable and eccentric, but extremely observant. Excellent memory, self-obsessed. Far more attuned to nature than his fellow humans, disassociating himself from everyone the more he became venerated for his abilities. Felt “the only secret I have is damned hard work.” Brush-maestro lifetime of working as an alchemist with paint, trying to capture the natural world through light and color, while keeping himself hidden from the prying eyes of the public, in yet another unintegrated go-round where his profound spirituality went entirely into his work and love of nature, rather than his life and love of self. Hans Baldung-Grien (Hans Baldung) (c1484-1545) - German artist. Outer: From a family of lawyers and doctors. Chose an unusual pathway for his relatively privileged background. In his mid-20s, he married Margareth Herlin, the daughter of a merchant, no known children from the union. Became an assistant to Albrecht Durer (Alfonso Cuaron), who had a strong influence on his work, and ran his workshop for 2 years, while the latter was in Venice. Because of his love of the color green, he added “grien” or “green” to his name, employing it in both his clothing and art. In addition to being an incisive, and somewhat sinister, portrait painter, he did extensive engravings, tapestry, stained glass designs, woodcuts and drawings. Interested in brilliant color and the effects of light. Often did witches and mythological scenes, showing a somewhat disturbed imagination. Eventually settled in Strasbourg in 1509, and was considered the most remarkable painter of his time there. An early supporter of the German Reformation, which he celebrated in his art. Became a member of the Strasbourg town council, as well as official painter to the episcopate there, and was elected senator the year he died. Inner: Dark-minded and imaginative, but reasonably integrated into the world around him, enjoying both power and prestige, while taking particular sustenance from the religious revolution going on around him. Balancing lifetime of inner healing through the color green, and trying to expand his narrow spirituality through a deeper immersion in the secular world, as well as a release of his imaginative excess in his work, rather than allowing it to implode on himself, as is his usual modus operandi. Hugo Van Der Goes (c1440-c1482) - Flemish artist. Outer: Nothing known of his life until his late 20s. Related to his descendant, Vincent van Gogh, a future life of his. Accepted as master in a painter’s guild in Ghent, after which he received many commissions for decorations. Worked in a realistic style with a deep spiritual content, and an emotional overlay unprecedented at the time in Flemish painting. Exhibited an excellent psychological penetration in all his works, with cold, clear coloration and severe countenances. Elected dean of the guild in 1473, but 2 years later, at the height of his career, he entered a priory as a lay brother. Continued to paint and receive visitors, but because of acute depressions, tried to kill himself during a mental breakdown, and died soon afterwards. Inner: Disturbingly spiritual, with a deep melancholy to most of his work. Probably felt unworthy in his expression of the spiritual, despite the obvious genius of his work. Unhappy lifetime, once again, of getting totally lost in himself, in an ongoing saga of extreme frustration over not being able to find the release in his enormous gifts of creative expression, to recognize his own sacred place in the his/story of art, a trait he directly passed down to his far more famous descendant. Hubert van Eyck (c1370-1426) - Flemish artist. Outer: Brother of Jan van Eyck (Alfonso Cuaron). Very little known about his life, and a continual mystery remains as to whether he even existed or not. Worked in concert with his brother on several pieces, and along with his sibling is considered one of the founders of the Flemish school of painting. Probably a being of overwhelming spirituality, who felt it necessary to disappear into his brother’s larger reputation, but, more than likely, was his equal in many ways. Inner: Hidden lifetime of mysterious symbiosis with his brother and longtime friend, adding another dimension to his already considerable skills, before vanishing into the fog of unrecorded obscurity. Pietro Cavallini (1259-c1320) - Italian artist. Outer: Early life largely unrecorded, with very little known about him other than his work. His first authenticated piece is a series of Fresco decorations in a Roman church, done in his late teens and early 20s. Attempted to restore earlier Byzantine frescos from the 5th century, which proved to be instrumental in showing him how to move on from the flat representations of that time into a far more dynamic rendering of space and figures. In 1291, he did a series of mosaics based on the life of the Virgin Mary for a Roman church, evincing a definite break with the past in creating a sculptural approach to the human form, while paying attention to light sources, so as to mimic genuine illumination in place of its distinct absence in flat Byzantine art. His best known work is a Last Judgment fresco, executed in 1293. Also did frescos of Old Testament scenes, although little of them survived. Able to individualize figures, with the space around them clearly defined along with shading and color harmonies to bring out their personalities. Invited to Naples in 1308, to work at the court of King Charles II of Anjou, which brought him into contact with Gothic art, and the new French approach. Returned to Rome around 1315, with his last five years ill-recorded. Had numerous pupils, to continue on with the ideas he introduced, so that he was both teacher and practitioner, while remaining largely veiled, as he has in many of his go-rounds. Proved to be an important influence on the far better known Giotto di Bondone (Alfonso Cuaron), who is often credited as the seminal transitory figure between Byzantine and High Renaissance art. Inner: Personally iInvisible, with only his work giving testament to his ongoing ability to continually elevate art to its next level. Innovator and elevator lifetime of doing the prefiguring work that would lead to the High Renaissance explosion of the next century, when space, perspective and figure portrayal would lay the groundwork for the depth and resonance of painting to come.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS EXPATRIATE PORTRAITIST:
Storyline: The sure-eyed stranger repeatedly adapts himself to foreign shores, winning plaudits in the process for brilliantly skimming the surface of everything he sees, while never plumbing the messy depths beneath them.

Stanley Kubrick (1928-1999) - American filmmaker. Outer: Father was a physician, who encouraged his creativity. One sister. Had a lonely childhood, was an indifferent student, and attended high school irregularly. 5’8”, 155 lbs. Sold a photograph to Look magazine at 17, while still in high school, then worked for them as a staff photographer for 4 years, while he took classes at Columbia Univ. Married Toba Metz, a high school classmate in 1948, divorced in 1952. After making two documentaries, he shot his first feature, Fear and Desire in 1953. Married and divorced a ballet dancer, Ruth Sobotka, after 3 years, in the mid-1950s. Neither union produced children. In partnership with a producer, he formed a production company, and made his first film with a professional cast and crew, The Killing in 1956, about an elaborate racetrack robbery. In 1958, he married Christiane Harlan, a German-born actress, 2 daughters and one step-child from the union. Established himself as a director by his late 20s, with Paths of Glory, about military injustice in the French army during WW I. His subsequent work showed him to be a unique talent, as he began to take more and more control over all aspects of his films. Unhappy with the Hollywood system, despite his auteur status in it, he moved to England in 1961, and spent the rest of his life there, building a studio outside of London, and dedicating himself totally to filmmaking. A complete control freak, to the point of checking the sound and projection in some of the theaters where his films were to be exhibited. Also a techno-enthusiast, always insisting on the latest equipment. Wrote or co-wrote all his movies, save for his last two Hollywood productions. His later work proved to be less successful, a reflection of his growing distance from the world around him. Lived an extremely reclusive latter life, only leaving his home for work-related activity. A voracious reader, he preferred the telephone and e-mail in maintaining his outside contacts, which still remained considerable because of his wide range of interests. Because of his attention to all the details of filmmaking, his output became increasingly sparse, but his reputation stood as one of the outstanding directors of his time. One daughter shot a documentary of him doing The Shining. Died of natural causes with his eyes finally shut after delivering the trailer of his completed final project, Eyes Wide Shut, a curiously antiseptic view of erotic obsession. Inner: Fierce perfectionist, meticulous to the point of obsessiveness. Had an absolute need for complete creative control over his output. Information freak, continually absorbing data, with a dark, misanthropic view of humanity that was exaggerated by his enforced reclusiveness. As he became more renowned, he continually re-shot scenes over and over, often draining the life out of the performances of his actors, in order to try to get at their naturalness. Preferred enigma to explanation in his works, while harboring a dark, mistrustful view of humanity. Expatriate lifetime of completely losing himself in his work, preferring a second-hand artists’ vision and experience, to a first hand coming to grips with his own ongoing neurotic compulsions. John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) - American/English artist. Outer: Born into a quirky expatriate American family living in Florence that had emigrated because of the death of a daughter, and settled in permanent exile. Deeply attached to them his entire life, and never married. Far from rich, his mother was a hypochondriac whose health would worsen with each return to the United States, while his father was a New England doctor. Both parents were confirmed Europhiles. Had no real formal education, but had a great facility with languages, was an avid reader, accomplished pianist and skilled draftsman. Spoke with a British accent. Visited the U.S. at 21 for the first time, but only rarely returned afterwards. Attached himself to the atelier of a successful Parisian academic painter, who had a strong influence on him. Enjoyed immediate success, although he gained the reputation of being a little too accurate in his portrait renderings. Became a lifelong friend of the writer Henry James (Louis Auchincloss), who went out of his way to support him. After a pair of portraits in the Paris Salon of 1884 caused a stir, he moved to London and installed himself in James Whistler’s (Orson Welles) old studio, making that city his permanent base, just as he had done in virtually all the lives in this series. Probably never had a sexual relationship in his life, preferring to express his sensuality through his art rather than his physical being. Grew rich and famous off his portraiture, particularly after a tour of the United States, in which he painted high society and derived an international reputation. Finally ceased doing portraiture, because of the interference from his clients, and did landscapes and impressionistic paintings the rest of his career, save for the commissions he couldn’t refuse. Declined a knighthood in 1907, because he was an American. Concentrated on water colors from 1910 onwards, and served in WW I as an artist for the British government. Died in his studio of cardiovascular dis-ease, and his reputation diminished afterwards. Inner: Urbane and cosmopolitan, but had a lifelong sense of isolation, with which he never fully dealt. Aloof, master of surfaces, extremely calculating careerist. Idiosyncratic portraitist, rather than a penetrating one. Workaholic, with a keen eye for the surface of things. Expatriate lifetime of refinement and esthetics and continuing his patterns of earlier existences, then finally breaking with them in order to open himself up to greater possibilities as an artist. John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) - American/English artist. Outer:Parents were Irish immigrants. Father was a widowed and cash-strapped tobacconist, who died when his son was young. Mother remarried an engraver of mezzotint portraits in 1748. His half-brother from the union, Henry Pelham, became an artist and engraver, as well. Had a stutter and was largely self-taught as an artist, through the assimilation ofcontemporary traditions, and quickly established himself as a singular master of them. Particularly adept at portraiture, earning him the reputation as the finest artist of colonial America. An excellent colorist, with a fine sense of the vitality of his sitters, many of whom were the leading political figures of his time. Always paid meticulous attention to the details of dress and background materials, so as to give an unusually vibrant realism to his paintings. Felt, however, that his colonial audience was extremely limited in its appreciation of true art. In his early 30s, he married Susannah Clarke, the product of two wealthy Boston merchant families, six children from the union, with three surviving infance. Had an extremely happy home life, with his daughters reading to him while he worked. Eager to expand his horizons, he sent a painting to England which was exhibited and highly praised there. As the political turmoil of Revolutionary America began to escalate, his commissions declined and he emigrated to Europe just prior to the American Revolution. Settled in London, where he enjoyed continued patronage, although he altered his portraiture style to meet with the more idealized tastes there, allowing himself to be usurped by fashion, rather than remaining true to his own vision. Always paid careful attention to skin-tone, laboriously matching his pigment to it, while demanding numerous sittings of his subjects in order to truly capture them. Added his/story painting to his oeuvre, which prefigured Romanticism’s themes of humans struggling against nature. His later work was more self-conscious and sophisticated than his earlier paintings, losing a considerable amount of their elan and vitality. Had a finely tuned sense of detail and verisimilitude. Died of a paralytic stroke. Inner: Highly ambitious, as well as materialistic, with a definite sense of his own self-worth. Methodical perfectionist and loyalist to his adopted nation, continually searching for approval from its cosmopolitan elite. Noted for his diligence and industry. Wished to measure his skills against the European masters, and was more than willing to compromise his gifts in order to guarantee his success on the far side of the Atlantic. Expatriate lifetime of teaching himself in the backwaters of art in order to bring out his gifts in a noncompetitive environment, before compromising himself in a more sophisticated milieu, yet again becoming a Londoner after first incarnating thru foreign roots. Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) - Flemish artist. Outer: Son of a well-to-do silk merchant. Apprenticed at the age of 10 to a successful Antwerp artist, and was influenced by Peter Paul Rubens (Pierre Renoir), the pre-eminent Flemish artist of his time, who considered him his best student. Began doing portraits at an early age, showing a precocious gift for capturing his sitters, although he was always more concerned with their facades than their emotional depth. Showed an early maturity in all his dealings, and at 18, he was declared a master in the Antwerp guild. Entered the studio of Rubens, more as collaborator than a student, although the relations between the two eventually became strained, perhaps because of the competitive nature of both. Through the connections of Rubens, he traveled to England at 21 to paint at the court of James I (Kenneth Tynan), but returned home before leaving for Italy, once again using associates of Rubens for his travels. Based himself in Genoa, where the thriving merchant class sought him out both socially and professionally, and traveled all over Italy for 6 years, studying old Italian masters, and painting Italy’s aristocracy. Returned to Antwerp in 1627, receiving many of Rubens’ commissions since the latter was engaged in diplomatic activity. His Italian influence showed in his work, with a tenderness to his portraits and an interest in rendering mythological subjects, as his work began to grow cooler and more artificial. Returned to England in 1632 after a brief trip to Holland, and was knighted by Charles I (George VI) for his court paintings. After one last sojourn in Antwerp, he came back to London, exclusively doing portraiture. Married Mary Ruthven two years before his death, and had one legitimate and one illegitimate daughter. At the onset of the English Civil War, he nervously skittered back and forth between England and the continent, before returning to London in ill health, where he died. His legacy of portraits idealized their sitters, and, as in his other lives, he lost a lot of his spontaneity as he grew older and more controlled in his work. Inner: Suave, refined, ingratiating, workaholic. Highly ambitious, with a definite sense of own self-worth. Expatriate little prince lifetime, once again, of establishing himself elsewhere before emigrating to his adopted home of London to cap off a highly successful career. Hans Holbein the Younger (c1497-1543) - German artist. Outer: Father was a well-known painter of the same name, from whom he received his early artistic education. Also had a brother Ambrosius (Art Spiegelman) and uncle who were minor painters. Went to Basel, with his brother in 1515 and established himself there, journeying to Italy and France during the decade he spent in Switzerland. Entered the painter’s corporation, and in his mid-20s, he married Elsbeth Schmid, a tanner’s widow a few years his senior, and became a burgher of Basel, associating with the humanists of that city. 4 children from the union, including an earlier son of hers. Later had several illegitimate children via an English mistress. Did illustration, portraits, and executed woodcuts, including a series of scenes around the medieval “Dance of Death.” Became friends with Erasmus (Edward Abbey), who wrote him a letter of introduction so that he could travel through the Netherlands to England in 1526. Emigrated there when the environment in Basel became stultifyingly censorious, leaving his wife and children behind to begin his remarkable career as a portraitist there. Also began a pattern stretched over many lifetimes of being an emigrant from elsewhere who settled in England in order to cement his career. Returned to Basel 2 years later, but the atmosphere was even more contentious, and so he returned to England, once more abandoning his family, to live out most of the remainder of his life there. Painted the major personalities of that country, and attached himself to the court of Henry VIII (Maxwell Beaverbrook). Did some 150 portraits the last decade of his life, with great attention paid to the details of his sitters’ accouterments, their costumes, jewelry and accessories. Also served as a fashion designer for the court. Inner: Shrewd, driven and highly ambitious, with a definite sense of his own self-worth. Had an excellent sense of observation, although his interior life remained completely hidden. Far more interested in the look of things, with virtually no sense of the spiritual in any of his works, only outer design. Expatriate lifetime of mastering the intricacies of portraiture, without having the desire to plumb beneath the surface of his remarkable draftsmanship, which would also be a consistent theme of his. Rogier van der Weyden (c1400-1464) - Flemish artist. Outer: Son of a cutler, and had a comfortable upbringing in the rising merchant class. Probably had a university education and did not begin his career as a painter until the relatively advanced age of 27. Enrolled as an apprentice in the workshop of Robert Campin (Robert Altman), and remained with him for five years, becoming a guild master. Also strongly influenced by Jan van Eyck (Alfonso Cuaron), whom he probably met. After beginning his career with religious pictures, he added portraits to his repertoire, which meshed with his devotional paintings. Interested in bringing the heavens down to Earth through the tradition of artifice and newly acquired art of rendering reality as it was. Married Elizabeth Goffaert in his mid-30s and settled in Brussels, the native city of his wife, where he was appointed city painter. 4 children from the union. Remained there the rest of his life, achieving an international reputation as the most popular portrait painter of his time. Visited Rome and was warmly received there, adding an Italianate style to his later works. His last 15 years were filled with commissions and honors. Had a large workshop where his son worked, and every Flemish painter of the next generation was indebted to him. Inner: Austere, with an iconic sense of his visual realities, combining traditional spiritualism with the reality of nature. Foundation lifetime of serving as a visual bridge-maker between the sublime and the natural, and giving Flemish painting part of its extraordinary base, so as to ground European art in its newly found humanism, which he would later take advantage of as one of its foremost portraitists down through the centuries. Paul Limbourg (1387-1318) - Dutch artist. Outer: Father was a woodcarver, mother was the sister of artist Jean Manouel, who served both French nobility and France’s royal house. One of five brothers and a sister, including two brothers who were artists, Herman (Terence Malick) and Johann (John Schlesinger), as well as a canon and a goldsmith. On their sire’s death around 1398, two of his siblings went to Paris at the bidding of their uncle, and he joined them in 1402 to work for Philippe the Bold (Darryl Zanuck) in illuminating a bible. The latter died in 1404, and the trio came to work for his older brother, Jean, duc de Berry (Richard Zanuck) who was an avid collector of illuminated manuscripts. Quickly proved to be a favorite of the duc, as the trio began working on illuminating a Book of Hours, a medieval devotional manuscript popular at the time, which came to be known as Belles Heures du Duc de Berry. Given the position of court attendant to the duc, who gave him a large house in Bourges, as well as other property in return for the decorating work he had done for him. The brothers then illuminated what is considered the highpoint of medieval manuscript art, Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, which is viewed in some circles as the most valuable tome in the world. Unfinished at the time of the serial deaths of the brothers, it was completed by unknown artists. Attracted to 12 year old Gillette Mercière, although her parents disapproved of the match. The duc had her confined, but she was released on the king’s command, and the duo wed in 1411, in what would prove to be a childless union. Along with his siblings and the duc he died during an outbreak of the plague. Proved to be the most famous of his siblings, although their names would always remain linked as medieval illuminators who brought their particular discipline to its acme. Inner: Ingratiating and highly materialistic. Worked in the Northern European gothic style of the time, although evinced a touch of the Italianate. Sibling revelry lifetime of taking full advantage of the opportunities given him to elevate medieval manuscript illumination to its high point, while also enjoying both fame and good fortune for his efforts.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS ISOLATED VISIONARY:
Storyline: The hallucinatory hermit maintains his uncompromising commitment to bringing forth the purity of his interior, without a thought of personal profit, save for the ongoing evolution of his high-flying and deep-spirited imagination.

Terence Malick (Terence Frederick Malick) (1943) - American filmmaker. Outer: Paternal grandparents were Assyrian Christian immigrants, from Lebanon and/or Syria. Of British descent on his maternal side. Father was an oil geologist and oil company executive, raised in Texas and Oklahoma. Oldest of 3 brothers. Played high school football, graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Harvard, then was a Rhodes scholar at Oxford. 5’7”, with brown hair and brown eyes. Met philosopher Martin Heidigger and translated his “Essence of Reason,” while working as a log jammer during the day, before becoming a journalist for Newsweek, Life and the New Yorker. Taught philosophy at MIT and then decided to become a filmmaker. Attended the American Film Institute’s Center for Advanced Films .In 1970, he married his assistant Jill Jakes/ No children from the union, which ended in divorce in 1978. Worked on several scripts and made his directorial debut in 1973 with Badlands, a film based loosely on the murder spree of Charles Starkweather, which he also produced and scripted. His second film, Days of Heaven, an unspeakably beautiful evocation of the turn of the century mid-West was also well-received, although, like his first effort, was a box office failure. Unhappy with the marketing aspects of filmdom, he decided to take a break from it. For the next 20 years, he studied Buddhism in both Paris and the Himalayas and then returned to Austin, occasionally doing script doctor work, but largely in retreat. Married Michelle Morette, a French woman, in 1985, divorced in 1998. His final union, in 1998, was to Alexandra Wallace, a former high school classmate. Finally ended his self-imposed exile in 1998 with The Thin Red Line, a WW II drama, that received mixed reviews. Divorced after he finishing filming it, although remained undaunted by the whole process, and interested in continuing his public career, which he did in 2005 with The New World, a revisiting of the Pocahontas (Halle Berry) legend. Added to his odd and sporadic oeuvre with Tree of Life in 2011, a meditation on all of creation, as well as meaning in individual lives through both parental teachers and direct experience. His next offering, 2016’s Knight of Cups was roundly dismissed as a stagnated effort, not worthy of him, despite moments of visual brilliance. Followed it with Voyage of Time, an actorless abstract meditation on the development of our universe and planet, via extraordinary images, as if he were filming his own associative interior. The dazzling documentary suffered litigation by one of its backers for not being paid, which was settled before its release, and served as further symbol of petty concerns played against the grandeur of all existence. The third offering of the trilogy, Song of Songs, saw him return to form with an imagistic love triangle set in Austin, Texas, with three musicians playing their own internal music off one another. Has a net worth of $15 million. Inner: Intensely private, extremely publicity shy, had not granted an interview since 1974 before his return to filmmaking in the late 1990s. Perfectionist, with strong hermit proclivities in keeping with all his lives in this series. Devout Episcopalian, deeply spiritual. Humble, mercurial, extremely well-read, with a host of conflicting characteristics, all adding up to a curious genius. Harbors a propensity for multiple retakes until his actors exhaustedly stumble on their own truths, a metaphor for his own life as well. An obsessive editor, spending up to two years on some of his vehicles in order to get them in accord with his unusual sense of vision. Prickly and principled lifetime of turning his visionary sensibilities to the far more public venue of film, while retaining his odd, alienated ways, preferring quality to quantity and absolute control over his special vision of life. Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917) - American artist. Outer: Father was a custom’s house official and coal dealer. Damaged vision stopped his education at the grammar school level. Followed a successful restauranteur to NYC and settled permanently there in his early 20s, briefly studied painting, before beginning his career as an idyllic landscapist. Took 4 short trips to Europe, but found his total inspiration from within. Only produced about 150 paintings during his lifetime. Omitted nonessential details, working instead with general forms, until he had reduced his subjects to their artistic essence. Had a strong affinity for night, often using moonlight in his paintings, and was an abstractionist well before it became an accepted artistic movement. Also an accomplished poet, employing literature as his inspiration. Lived in trash-filled rooms, and dressed like a rag-picker, inspiring a fellow artist to call him one of the first citizens of the moon. Increasingly distrustful of the world around him, he became more and more reclusive as he grew older. Made patrons wait years for paintings. Despite being a lifelong bachelor, he was obsessed with women on a fantasy level. Cared for by his friends, with no interest in money. The last 20 years of his life saw his capabilities as an artist diminish, thanks to his disassociation from life. Died an impoverished recluse, despite having been an aggressive dealer all his painting life. Inner: Mystical, magical, romantic. Compared himself to an inchworm at the end of a twig, twisting for new footing in the unknown. Saw art as a totally internal experience. Reclusive lifetime of being totally unintegrated with the outer world, while having extraordinary access to his inner one. John Cozens (John Robert Cozens) (1752-1797) - English artist. Outer: Son of Alexander Cozens (Orson Welles). Mother was the sister of portraitist Robert Pine (William Wyler). Father was an exemplary watercolorist, and son followed his training, as well as benefited from his financial largesse. Exhibited at the age of 15, showing early imaginative talent in watercolor landscapes. Spent 3 years in his mid-20s traveling from Switzerland through Italy, spending much of his time in Rome, using the mountainous landscapes of the Alps and the Roman Campagna for inspiration for his work, which was muted and melancholy. Took a second trip 3 years later, in the company of the eccentric author William Beckford (J.D. Salinger) who had been a pupil of his father, and these two trips would prove to be the heart of his unhappy life. Became insane at the age of 41 and spent the rest of his existence under the care of an alienist and amateur draftsman. His work influenced later landscape artist greatly for his ability to bring emotional expression to watercolor. Inner: Sensitive, tender, melancholic, ultimately sentencing himself into too much of a self-prison to ever be released. Life largely hidden, save for the recordings of his itinerary. Unbalanced lifetime of being given tremendous advantage, and yet squandering it in the belief that suffering is the motivation for great artistic expression. Hercules Seghers (c1590-c1638) - Dutch artist. Outer: Son of a Flemish textile merchant who occasionally dealt in paintings. As a Mennonite, his father fled to Haarlem to escape persecution and eventually settled in Amsterdam. Studied art there and was influenced by Adam Elsheimer. Spent a largely alienated life, out-of-touch with contemporary painting. In his mid-20s, he married Anneken van der Brugghen, a woman 16 years his senior who had money of her own, enabling them to buy a large home, as well as adopt his illegitimate daughter. Ran up debts, and lost both his wife and home, before marrying a second time to Cornelia de Witte. Lived in poverty, limning isolated, jagged, mountain scenes devoid of humanity. All his work was highly original, and the product of a mind that did not wish to intimately touch the lives of others. Experimented with etching and print-making, to create a unique oeuvre, which only spanned a decade. Extremely depressed by his failure to support himself, he took to drink, and eventually died from a drunken fall. His reputation flourished after his death. Inner: Lonely and isolated, despite the admiration of other artists for his work, including Rembrandt van Rijn (Alfonso Cuaron), who owned several of them. Chose, instead, to separate himself from society in order to work from the vantage of his own highly developed interior imagination. Reclusive lifetime of developing his esthetic sensibilities through deliberate isolation, choosing a pathway of melancholic seclusion in order to further explore his ongoing bleak stranger-in-a-strange-land sensibilities. Pieter Brueghel (c1525-1569) - Flemish painter. Outer: Very little known about his life. Probably fairly well-educated, he was apprenticed to a leading Antwerp artist and was accepted into the painter’s guild there. Learned tempera painting from a teacher’s wife. Exposed to humanistic thought, he began his lifelong interest in portraying peasant themes, for which he is renowned. Traveled to Italy in 1552, stayed in Rome with a painter/priest and returned through the Alps, drawing numerous mountain views, which deeply impressed his lowland consciousness. Returned to Antwerp and in his late 30s, married Mayken van Aelst, the daughter of his teacher, 2 sons from the union, Jan (Brian Singer) and Pieter (David Cronenberg), both of whom became well-known artists. Directly plugged into the style and technique of his previous existence as Hieronymus Bosch, expanding his inner visionary capabilities to encompass the worldly delights of the lower classes. The most influential painter of the century in Flanders, with an extraordinary capacity to capture great sweeping vistas of people set against discernible landscapes, combining the life of nature with the natural life he saw all around him. Moved with his wife to Brussels, had numerous patrons, and saw his style mature into a direct bridge between Italian and Flemish art. Had a great interest in falling figures towards life’s end. Died in his late 30s, leaving an extraordinary legacy of work. Inner: Extremely accurate in his observations of humans, technology and nature. Moralist, but without an overt sense of religious judgment to his work. Probably gained his pictorial insights by being a distanced observer of all he saw, rather than a ready participant. Balancing lifetime of looking outward to express his spirituality, rather than his usual total dependence on his interior to make his unique vision come alive. Hieronymus Bosch (c1450-1516) - Flemish artist. Outer: Little really known about his life. Grandson and son of accomplished painters, he spent his whole life in his place of birth, from where he got his name. A member of a religious brotherhood, Confraternity of Our Lady, whose records provide the only scant data on his existence. Worked on altarpieces and stained glass windows for the town cathedral, and received a commission from the archduke of Austria to paint a Last Judgement. Recognized as a distinguished painter during his life. Probably used hallucinogenic mushrooms when he worked. His overriding themes were sin and divine redemption. Best remembered for his visions of heaven and hell, with a painterly emphasis on the latter. His works were filled with writhing figures, hybrid monsters and a host of fantastical creatures that mark him as one of the great cartoonists of all time. Equally subtle and sensuous in his portrayal of earthly divinity. His later body of work shows a greater appreciation of the beauty of earthly delight, with saints supplanting sinners as his favorite themes. Inner: Pessimistic moralist with distinct judgments on the human condition. Hallucinatory lifetime of allowing his imagination absolute free reign over his deep personal concerns about medieval morality, while scouring both his interior heavens and hells in the process. Herman Limbourg (?-1318) - Dutch artist. Outer: Father was a woodcarver. Mother was the sister of artist Jean Manouel, who served the noble courts of France, as well as its crown. One of five brothers and a sister, including two brothers who were artists, Paul (Stanley Kubrick) and Johann (John Schlesinger), with the other two sons, a canon and a goldsmith. Probably the oldest of the three artists, since his name is always mentioned first in conjunction with the other two. Following their sire’s death in 1398, he and Johann were summoned by their uncle to work in Paris. Learned gold-smithing in Paris, although the two Limbourgs were forced to leave the city because of an outbreak of the plague. While traveling back home in 1399, he and Johann were captured and held prisoner in Brussels before their uncle’s patron, Philippe the Bold (Darryl Zanuck) paid their ransom, and they were released in 1400. Following Philippe’s death in 1404, he and his brothers worked for Jean, Duke of Berry (Richard Zanuck), an avid collector of manuscripts. Among other projects, they illuminated Très Riches Heures, a Book of Hours, which was a Christian devotional work popular at the time. All were well-rewarded for their labors by their generous patron, although little record of their lives exist from 1403 to 1408. Along with Johann, he left his house and furnishings to his mother in order to settle permanently in France, a move Paul had already made. The duke was so pleased with their work, he assigned them to a second Book of Hours, which became Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, and is generally regarded as the apex of late medieval book illumination, as well as one of the most valuable tomes in present-ay existence. Unfinished at the time of the serial deaths of the three siblings, it was completed by artists unknown, although the bulk of the work had been done by the Limbourgs. Along with his brothers and the duke, he perished of the plague. Inner: Nothing known of his personal life, but probably never married. Like his siblings, worked in a Northern European mode, with a touch of Italianate influence. Family ties lifetime of working closely with his siblings to create two masterpieces of medieval illumination that would insure him an artistic immortality, despite his own ill-recorded personal existence.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS HIS OWN GREATEST CREATION:
Storyline: The self-mythologizing realist tries once again not to become undone by his self-made realities, which arose from his earlier refusal to temper his ongoing love affair with his reflection in the mirror, so as not to look directly on his own shortcomings.
Alejandro Inarritu (Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu) (1963) - Mexican/American filmmaker, composer, writer and radio talkshow host. Outer: Father was a wealthy banker, who went bankrupt when his son was five. In order to support the family, he bought fruits and vegetables at a central market and sold them to restaurants. Had an impoverished but happy child, with a deep respect for his sire for providing for the family. Worked as a DJ for a top-rated Mexican station, and entered film as a composer for features. Began studying filmmaking in the US, and was put in charge of production for Televisa, a Mexican TV company afterwards, becoming one of their youngest directors. 6’ and known as “El Negro” for his dark complexion. Set up a company, Zeta Films to produce advertising, shorts and TV programs, while also writing and shooting commercials. Directed a half-length feature, Detras del dinero in 1995 and then came to international attention at century’s turn with Amores perros, a trio of dark tales about Mexico City life that intersect around a car accident. Won several international awards for the effort, and continued doing shorts, as well as indies, including working on September 11, with a host of international directors about the effects of 9/11/01 on the rest of the world. Married editor and graphic designer Maria Eladia Hagerman de Gonzalez, daughter and son from the union, after losing their first son from medical complications two days following his birth. The loss made him desire vengeance, before he was able to transmute it and let it go. Moved to Hollywood, and did a well-received English-language film on the drug life, 21 Grams. His next project Babel, was a compilation of interwoven stories shot in four countries, which won the Best Director Prize at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, and Best Picture at the Golden Globes the next year. Able to work with top stars, while using the same cinematographer, Rodrigo Prieto, on all his efforts. Won the lifetime enmity of longtime collaborator, writer Guillermo Arrigo over screenwriting credits for 21 Grams. Continued doing shorts and well-received features, including Biutiful, a paean to the responsibility of fatherhood symbolically saluting his own sire. Had a big breakthrough hit in 2014 with Birdman, with Michael Keaton, his most challenging film, with everything in it carefully choreographed because of long takes, and his desire to be absolutely truthful to its story of an action actor looking for legitimacy. Subsequently won a Golden Globe in 2015 for his contribution to the screenplay for it, then garnered a Best Director Oscar for it afterwards, as well as a Best Picture nod, as his acceptance speech prompted an outpouring of praise and pride for Mexico. In 2016, his The Revenant, a brutal 19th century tale of vengeance and survival, also garnered a best director Golden Globe for him, as well as a subsequent Oscar. Created a virtual reality installation, Flesh and Soul, in the Los Angeles county Museum of Art in 2017j that plays to one viewer at a time, with the theme, what it’s like to be a undocumented immigrant in the US. Inner: Highly competitive with a cinematic fascination for displaced people. Storyteller at heart, with a variety of modes of presenting them. Take two lifetime of reinvestigating Hollywood from an alien perspective once again, but with far greater self-discipline and responsibility, bred from an upbringing deliberately designed to teach him how to be far more accountable for his actions. Erich von Stroheim (Erich Oswald Stroheim) (1885-1957) - Austrian/American actor and filmmaker. Outer: Son of a Jewish hatter who had settled in Vienna. Perpetrated the myth he was the descendant of a noble Prussian military family, and had served as a cavalry officer, adding the aristocratic ‘von’ to his name. 5’7”, stout and commanding. His actuality was that he saw brief army service, and worked as a supervisor in his father’s hat factory. Ran up huge debts, which his parents paid off under the condition he leave Austria. Emigrated to the United States in his early 20s and did odd jobs, including working as a journalist for a German language newspaper, and as an agent for a hat firm. Married Margaret Knox in his mid-20s, and his wife helped him with his English, before coming to Hollywood at the beginning of WW I, where he worked as an actor and assistant for D.W. Griffith (Alfonso Cuaron), a leading director of the early silents. Divorced, he married Mae Jones, a theatrical costume designer, in 1919, one son from the union, which ended in divorce as well. Married Valerie Germonprez, an actress, afterwards, and though they separated after a decade and a half, they never officially divorced. Their son, Josef, became a composer. Was billed as “The Man You Love to Hate,” for his portrayals of stereotypical Prussian military officers. Became a director himself, capping his career with Greed, based on a novel about the corruptability of money. Shot the movie virtually page-for-page from the book, and it ran for 42 reels, although only a 10 reel version was released to mixed reviews. Totally broken when studio head Irving Thalberg (Steven Spielberg) cut his film, a symbolic act with far-reaching consequences that established the pre-eminence of the studio over the artist. Always a stickler for realistic detail, he invariably ran way over his budgets with his demands for complete artistic freedom, and alienated all the production heads for whom he worked as the King of Wretched Excess. In addition, his movies were extremely sophisticated for the American public, and by the end of the 1920s, his role as a director was over, despite the commercial success of most of his films. Returned to Europe as an actor for the rest of his career, playing his Prussian stereotypes, and later caricaturing himself in 1950 in Sunset Boulevard, as a famous director turned butler. Dramatized himself both on-screen and off, blurring his own sense of reality. Wrote several novels and collaborated on a number of scripts, but never was allowed to direct a talking picture, despite anticipating that phenomenon through his sense of detail and realism. His final unofficial union in the late 1930s, was to French actress Denise Vernac, who was some 3 decades his junior and served as his secretary, while appearing with him several times on screen. Lived in France the last part of his life and was awarded the French Legion d’Honneur shortly before he died from spinal cancer, while preparing to write his memoirs. Spinal diseases are usually associated with a feeling of lack of support. Inner: Proud, uncompromising, extremely extravagant, with a total indifference to money his entire life. Self-involved, self-celebrating, immodest, a realist who was never above invention about himself, and could not countenance the realities his excesses created. Self-deceptive lifetime of maintaining the integrity of his vision, without regard to cost, which eventually cost him his career, despite his being well ahead of his time. Gustav Courbet (1819-1877) - French artist. Outer: Oldest child and only son of a prosperous landowner who held municipal office. Had 3 younger sisters, one of whom married an artist, who meddled in her brother’s affairs and finally became insane. Passionately loved his place of birth, returning to it constantly throughout his life, while also holding his family in high warmth and affection. Had an animosity towards book-learning, preferring his education from real life. Attended the College Royal of Besacon where he studied art, and reluctantly prepared for a career in the law, per his sire’s wishes, although spent more time at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Had a far greater interest in becoming a painter, and after much pleading, finally won his father’s support, and took off for Paris in 1839. Copied pictures of the 17th century Spanish masters, and had his first painting accepted by the Salon when he was 25. Though his further canvases were rejected, he continued his submissions, while his early oeuvre received both critical and public acclaim. Never married, preferring to remain wedded to himself. Pursued a path of presenting life as it was, rather than the prevalent Romantic dramatics or neoclassical idealization, which caused much controversy in the art world. Highly social, with many artistic and literary friends, he became the leading figure of the Realist school, culminating in a projected fantasy of his studio, in which he incorporated himself at center stage, contemplating a landscape, with a nude looking over his shoulder, while surrounded by friends and associates. Opened his own pavilion of Realism when it was refused for an Exposition exhibition, providing the first venue for his school of art, although it initially proved a failure. Visited Germany in 1856, where he was well-received, and returned determined to silence his critics. Became the leader of a whole new generation of artists, executing nudes, portraits and landscapes, with a careful eye for telling detail. Refused the cross of the Legion d'Honneur, declaring he wished to belong to no institution, and wanted to be known as a free-spirited independent. As an atheist and socialist, he took part in the revolutionary activities of the Paris commune at the time of the collapse of the 2nd Napoleonic Empire in 1871, although alarmed by its excesses, he soon resigned, after taking care to protect public works of art and architecture. Arrested and brought before a military court in the mistaken assumption he was responsible for the destruction of a commemorative column. Sentenced to six months as a scapegoat, he became seriously ill. After retreating to his native Ornans, his case was reopened, and his entire personal property and all his paintings were seized. Fled to Switzerland, rented the house of a fisherman, and suffered 4 years of anxiety and misery, before finally dying there of incurable dropsy brought on by excessive drink, bloated and exhausted on all levels. Inner: Supremely self-assured to the point of arrogance, while considering himself a realist to the core, with the desire to re-create living art. Enjoyed the company of writers more than artists, and loved flirting with grand ideas. Sensualist, egotist, prevaricator and optimist, as well as a born rebel, harboring a fascination with how he looked. Self-confident lifetime of serving as teacher and primary proponent of the realistic school of art, only to be undone by a reality that was not of his making, and falling victim to his distorted self-view as a man for all disciplines. Karel Fabritius (1624-1654) - Dutch artist. Outer: Son of a schoolmaster, who was a part/time artist. Both he and his brother, Barent, eventually became painters. Took the name Fabritius from his original trade as a carpenter, which he practiced until he married his neighbor’s daughter, Aeltge Hermannsdr, in his late teens. His wife died two years later, as did both their children. Moved back home for several years afterwards, before remarrying Agatha van Pruyssen, a widow, in his late 20s. Studied under Rembrandt van Rijn (D. W. Griffith) and became his most adept pupil. Although his early works reflected Rembrandt’s use of building light out of darkness, he developed an opposing style of silhouetting his figures against light backgrounds and playing with daylight highlights. Did portraits, self-portraits and genre subjects, and excelled at creating illusions of perspective. Died of injuries when the Delft powder magazine exploded. Many of his paintings were destroyed in the explosion as well, although he proved to be a major influence on succeeding Dutch artists. Inner: Self-assured and self-made. Back-to-the-drawing-board lifetime of tutelage by a great master, finding himself in the light and shadow of that genius, and then making a spectacular exit, taking his work with him, perhaps as a way of thoroughly reinventing himself from scratch in later lives in this series. Niklaus Manuel (c1484-1530) - Swiss artist, soldier, writer and statesman. Outer: Father was an Italian apothecary who had emigrated to Switzerland. In 1509, he translated his surname, Alleman, into German. Nothing is known of his earlier art training. Studied the art of Albrecht Durer (Alfonso Cuaron) and the Renaissance artists of northern Italy, which impelled him to pursue a career in the Germanic Renaissance style. His earliest dated painting was 1515, and his last was five years later, although he continued to draw afterwards. Executed portraits, and large, colorful mythological and biblical works. Often painted witches, with a focus on the innate power of women. Involved himself in politics as a member of the Bern city councils, beginning in 1511, and also fought as a mercenary soldier for the French in Lombardy, where he was wounded. Got caught up in the Protestant Reformation, and spent the rest of his creative coin on anticlerical polemics in the form of plays for the rest of his life, putting his aside his brush for the pen, as a far more formidable weapon. Inner: Self-assured and impulsive, neatly dividing his later working and creative life into the trinity of art, literature and politics. Activist lifetime of strong involvement on all levels during extremely revolutionary times of artistic, religious and political upheaval.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS SUBLIME SEASCAPIST:
Storyline: The solitary sailor looks to the sea to see himself, as he floats alone on family-built rafts that allow him his own solo horizons, built out of strong foundations.

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) - American artist. Outer: From a solid middle-class family who had settled in Massachusetts nearly 2 centuries earlier. Father was a hardware merchant, mother was from a town named after her grandfather. Very close to his older brother all his life, who was a successful chemist and gave him generous support. Enjoyed an outdoorsy boyhood, which endowed him with a lifelong appreciation of nature. Apprenticed at 19 to a Boston lithographer for 2 years, his only early art training. Opened his own studio and began doing illustrations for Ballou’s Pictorial and Harper’s Weekly. Moved to NYC at 23, where he studied at night at the National Academy of Design. 2 year’s later, Harper’s sent him to Washington as its artist in residence. Recorded the Peninsular campaign as well as Lincoln’s inaugural. After the Civil War, he visited Paris, and then returned to America, spending the next decade doing rustic scenes and landscapes, while perfecting his watercolor techniques. Took 2 trips to the North Sea coast of England in the early 1880s, which brought forth his abiding interest in seascapes. Returned to America and left NY permanently, moving to Prout’s Neck in Maine. Decided to dedicate himself completely to his vision of nature and the sea and lived hermit-like there for the rest of his life, with winter trips to Florida or Bermuda. In his last year, he worked only in watercolor. One of the outstanding artists of the 19th century, moving from illustration to impressionistic landscape, with the seas as his ultimate milieu. Slowly transformed himself by building on his skills, discovering watercolors later in life as the perfect medium for his desire to capture the luminosity of the sea’s roiling water. Able to support himself throughout his life via his work, unusual for an artist of the time, and ultimately became a pure visionary of nature. Slow worker from full maturity onward, doing only a couple of oils a year, while increasingly preoccupied with money and self-worth through it. Seen as the foremost American painter of his time in his old age, and was heaped with honors and awards. Died in his studio. Inner: Strong-willed, terse, and the possessor of a dry Yankee sense of humor. Neat and highly systematic, with a very clear vision of how he should pursue his artistic life. Self-trained and completely independent, believing that vision came from observing nature, not another artist’s rendition of it. Became more temperamental as he aged, particularly towards adverse criticism or slow sales, which would make him vow never to paint again, until something else captured his imagination. Affectionate with his birth family, shy and stand-offish to everyone else. Solitary lifetime of making a total commitment to his art and his vision, eventually isolating himself completely to pursue his muse. Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009) - American artist. Outer: Youngest child of the well-known illustrator, N.C. Wyeth (Joe Breza). Two sisters became artists as well in a lively household geared towards self-expression. Born with a faulty hip that caused his feet to splay when he walked, and was deemed too delicate to go to school, because of sinus trouble. Learned from his exacting father, who had a collection of theatrical props in his studio, which encouraged his sense of the dramatic. His sire also used to make him draw the entire human skeleton from memory. Influenced by the paintings of Winslow Homer, a later life of his from an earlier era, which served as an inspiration for him, to the point where he made a special pilgrimage to his studio when he was in his 20s. His progenitor focused more on the development of his sisters, until he was 15, then taught him tools and materials, but not technique, which he worked out on his own. Removed from the world-at-large by his sire, who was his only teacher and, in a sense his jailer as well. The latter wanted him to be an illustrator and urged him to use more color, although he employed only what he saw in New England and Pennsylvania, using tempera to limn his lost and lonely feelings. A seascape, a la Homer, made him an immediate success at 20. Met Betsy James, the teenage daughter of a newspaper editor on his 22nd birthday and later married her, one son from union, Jamie Wyeth, also became a well-known painter, while the other, Nicholas, became an art dealer. His wife served as his business manager, controlling his commercial life, and also competed with his sire over him. The latter’s death in a car/train collision, when he was in his late 20s, proved to be turning point in his artistic life. Prior to that tragedy, he saw himself as a water-colorist, afterward he wanted to be a serious artist. Used tempera, painting broadly, then tightened his work, searching for fleeting rather than frozen moments. Began painting people, as well as putting far more emotion into his landscapes. Most of his human subjects are seen as isolated and unsmiling. His best known painting, which rocketed him to fame in 1948, is “Christina’s World,” the backview of a sprawled female figure, who was crippled, looking out at a landscape. Had to have a lung removed, afterwards, because of a near fatal disease in his bronchial trubes, and during the operation, he had a vision of artist Albrecht Durer (Alfonso Cuaron) beckoning him into the beyond, although the latter later withdrew, and he returned to life. The operation would sever the muscles in his shoulders, and his painting life lay in limbo, until he finally recovered. Had a mixed reputation later on in the art world, thanks to attacks by abstractionists, who saw him as old-fashioned and sentimental. Nevertheless, his larger reputation would continue unabated with the less-demanding public-at-large. Lived in two homes, one in Maine and one in Pennsylvania, using their surroundings as his basic inspiration. A series of nude paintings of Helga Testorf, a neighbo,r aroused the prurient interest of the art world late in 1986. Became one of America’s most honored artists, to all but the avant-garde art community, and the first to receive the Presidential Freedom Award. Also won the unusual honor of being admitted to the French Academy of Fine Arts, the first American since John Singer Sargeant (Stanley Kubrick) to be so honored. Died in his sleep at home. Inner: Extremely self-critical, always looking for deeper meaning in his work. Reserved, hermit-like, and as dry and contained as his carefully rendered paintings. Felt painting emotions into objects was his primary goal as an artist. Conservative Republican, and a quiet self-promoter. Favorite saying was, “you have to break all the rules.” Andrew’s world lifetime of learning from a longtime family member, as well as his later-lived earllier self, before pursuing a pathway of deliberate isolation to bring his visual sense to new heights and depths. David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690) - Flemish artist. Outer: Son and pupil of his father, David Teniers the Elder (Joe Breza), a well-known Baroque painter of the same name. Developed his technique under the tutelage of Peter Paul Rubens (Louis Malle), and especially Adrian Brouwer (John Ford). Became a master of the Antwerp Guild in his early 20s, and its dean a dozen years later. In his mid-20s, he married Anna Brueghel, the daughter of Jan Brueghel the Elder (Brian Singer), 7 children including David Teniers III (Jamie Wyeth), also a painter. Painted in almost every genre, but focused on peasant scenes. Excelled at handling crowd tableaus, and as both a landscape and still-life artist. Moved to Brussels in his early 40s and embarked on a second career as court painter and keeper of the art collections of the regent of the Netherlands. Also held at the position with his successor. Remarried in his mid-40s, 4 more children. Ultimately received into the guild there in his mid-60s. A prime mover in the foundation of the Antwerp and Brussels Academies, receiving important commissions from various European royalty. His paintings are noted for their exquisite harmony of coloring in all their details. In his early works, a heavy brown tone prevails up until his mid-40s, after which his palette became more more golden, with a brief period of silver, before the gold returned. Considered among the finest of the genre painters of Flanders. Inner: Warm touch to his work, particularly adept with crowds. Well-rewarded for his work, as in all his lives in this series, where material compensation would be extremely important to him. Well-supported lifetime of coming under the influence of the same teacher/father, while focusing on illustrative genre scenes in order to broaden his painterly abilities at rendering the realities he continually sees around him. Claude Vernet (Claude Joseph Vernet) (1712-1789) - French artist. Outer: Father, Antoine Vernet (Jamie Wyeth) was a decorative painter and also his first teacher, beginning a four generation cycle of artists in the family. Went to Rome at 20, and continued his studies there. Became the first marine painter in Europe and was in demand by several courts. After an absence of two decades, he returned to Paris in his early 40s and became a member of the French Academy in 1753, and a councillor 13 years later. Commissioned by the king to paint all the seaports in France, but after completing 15 of the 20, he grew tired of traveling and settled in Paris for the rest of his life. Father of Carle Vernet (Joe Breza), also a well-known painter. Died at the outset of the French Revolution. Inner: Once again, material support would be of the essence to him, in a yet another go-round where his talents would be recognized early, and he would be able to make a handsome living off of them. Foundation lifetime of artistically discovering a milieu he would later return to, the sea, and making its emotional potential his life’s work, while maintaining his intimate family relations with the same core of brush-wielding beings.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS PAINT-SPLATTERED PATERFAMILIAS:
Storyline: The impish impressionist often surrounds himself with longtime family members while unconsciously following their, as well as his own, patterns to different and more satisfactory conclusions.

Joseph Breza (1951) - American artist. Outer: Father was a factory worker, grew up amidst the working/class row houses of Trenton, N.J., while his mother encouraged his artistic skills. The second of 4 children. Attended Mercer County College, majoring in biology, and began work as a lab technician. Went to the Southwest at 23, as he did his previous go-round, but this time decided to stay and explore the sun-dappled milieu as a pure painter, rather than return home and be a commercial illustrator, as he had done before. Began painting landscapes, eventually developing an impressionistic/expressionistic style, while settling ultimately in Santa Fe, after initially living in an old New Mexican railroad town, unconsciously reflecting his earlier demise at the hands of a locomotive and his rebirth as a Southwest artist. Largely self-taught through direct painting experience, with occasional lessons and a semester at the Art Student’s League in New York. In his late 30s, he married Emily Manganiello, a grade/school teacher, one adopted daughter from union, Liliana Breza, a budding poet and artist herself. Has gotten more and more expressionistic as he has gotten older, while playing with nature as an abstract force of discernible patterns. Inner: Dualistically highly social and hermetic. Good sense of humor, impressionist in both his art and his ability to mimic people. Bird fancier and flute player. Reinventing lifetime of actualizing the goals of his previous existence by repeating its earlier dynamics and finding a sense of the divine in his own artistic reinterpretation of nature, while loosening himself up in the process, having finally found his true metier, after separating from his longtime family. N. C. Wyeth (Newell Convers Wyeth) (1882-1945) - American artist. Outer: Born on a farm that had been in the family for 150 years at the time of his birth. Mother was the French-Swiss daughter of a horticulturist, and father was a farmer and grain dealer. Eldest of 4 brothers. Had a very outdoorsy and physical boyhood, giving him a sense of both space and freedom. Knew he wanted to be an artist from his mid-teens onward. His mother intervened when he was supposed to be sent off as a farmhand, despite his sire’s reluctant protests. Attended art schools, then sent drawings to the famed illustrator, Howard Pyle (Jamie Wyeth), and was accepted as a student. Did a cover for the Saturday Evening Post at 20 and his career as an illustrator, and later teacher, began. Remained part of a close-knit group of former Pyle students the rest of his life, and had an excellent sense of the human body. Had an excellent sense of the human body. At 23, he went to the Southwest, spending several months of high adventure, as well as being imbued with the landscape. Held a great reverence for Amerindians and their attachment to the land. Felt obligated to return, however, and settled in Pennsylvania, married Carolyn Bockius, and started a family of 5. Father of Andrew Wyeth, two daughters, Henriette and Carolyn, also followed pursued artistic careers, while the other two became an inventor and a musician. Had a great conflict about doing serious easel work or illustration, for which he was trained. Opted for the latter because of his growing family, which he housed on 18 acres in Chadd Ford, Penn. Became a well-known illustrator, with a particular emphasis on western motifs. Illustrated many books, including the Bible, enjoying its stories, although had earlier hated Sunday school. Detested his label as an illustrator, although it made him a huge celebratory. Had a costume trunk, often outfitting the family and friends as models for his illustrations. May have had an affair with one of his daughters-in-law, after becoming obsessed with her later in life. In his later years he did easel work, including landscapes and still/lives. Began to lose confidence in himself as a painter, and became more and more moody and depressed. Killed in a car wreck at a railroad crossing, by a westbound mail train, along with his namesake grandson on the seat beside him, when his station wagon stalled. Extremely prolific, did some 3000 paintings and illustrated 112 books. Inner: Vigorous, highly physical, good-humored, and a storyteller at heart, sacrificing his higher artistry for a career as a visual narrator. His secret desire to be a landscapist and full-fledged artist were thwarted by his responsibilities. Ferociously energetic and a chronic meddler, who oversaw the artistic development of all his children, in exacting manner. Contained lifetime of developing his draftsmanship, while dreaming of being freed to pursue a deeper rendering of both nature and human nature. Carle Vernet (Antoine Charles Horace Vernet) (1758-1836) - French artist. Outer: Father was Claude Vernet (Andrew Wyeth), a well-known marine painter, under whom he studied, reversing their usual roles. Entered his art studio at 11, and won several awards for his early paintings. Won the Prix de Rome at 24, then underwent a mystical experience in Italy, and became prey to such melancholy, that he wished to become a monk, but after being called back to France, he established his reputation as a his/story and animal painter, with a rendition of horses as he saw them, breaking the tradition of the time. Married Fanny Moreau, the daughter of artist Jean-Michel Moreau. Fostered the talents of their son Horace Vernet (Cecil B. DeMille), who became the most popular military painter in France, after studying with his father. Became a member of the French Academy at the outbreak of the French Revolution, and later a member of the French Institute and Legion d'Honneur, although his sister was guillotined during the revolution. Painted military scenes under the Directory, afterwards, and accompanied Napoleon to Italy, painting several battle scenes from direct observation. Under the Restoration, he was court painter to the king and did hunting scenes, genre pictures and landscapes, as well as lithography, enjoying great popularity throughout a time of great upheaval. Did a long series of societal studies, many satirizing both manners and customs, which were reproduced by engravers. Better draftsman than painter. Inner: Good eye for natural detail, and a natural storyteller through his focus on narrative and image over emotion in his work. Well-supported lifetime of continuing to pursue his artistic expression as a visual narrator, along with his ongoing family. David Teniers, the Elder (1582-1649) - Flemish artist. Outer: Pupil of his elder brother, as well as Peter Paul Rubens (Louis Malle), then studied in Rome under Adam Elsheimer. A his/story, genre and landscape painter, with a particular affinity for peasant scenes, combined with landscapes. Also did biblical and mythological subjects, with religious themes predominating in much of his oeuvre. Married, with 4 sons, all of whom became painters. His earlier canvases show a certain crudeness in color, but later works show the influence of his son, David Teniers the Younger (Andrew Wyeth), where there is much greater freedom and harmony. Painted a significant portion of his work to pay his debts, which extended over many years, and led to his imprisonment. His work grew lighter towards the end of his life. Inner: Overextended himself in his responsibilities to himself as an artist and his children as their support. Foundation lifetime of being both teacher and student of his prime pupil, his son, allowing him to match his artistic storytelling skills with his sense of color and harmony, while giving play to the unexpressed spirituality that lies at the heart of all his art.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS FAMILY PROGENITOR & SCION:
Storyline: The also-rising son continues to try to forge his own identity through a close association with a famous artistic family, while conservatively sticking to what he knows best, transliterating life to canvas and paper.

Jamie Wyeth (James Browning Wyeth) (1946) - American artist. Outer: Son of Andrew Wyeth, third generation artist in one of America’s first families of the brush. Mother was a writer. Left public school at the age of 6 to be tutored at home. Spent 8 hours a day sketching and drawing, largely indifferent to boyhood distractions. Began studying at the age of 12 with his aunt Carolyn for two years, although found her a restrictive teacher. Unlike his father, he chose oils over tempera in order to consciously separate himself from him. Also loved the texture and the moistness of the medium. Looked to Howard Pyle as one of his emulatory masters, unconsciously plugging into an earlier life of his. Also influenced by Winslow Homer (Andrew Wyeth), among others, while also remaining extremely close to his sire, since the two work in different modes, and enjoy a mutual frankness about each other’s work that he has always found extremely helpful. Had his first one man show at 20, and his first retrospective at 30. Derided by critics for going against the convention of modernism and sticking with traditional techniques. Boxed into the same kind of illustrative work he did earlier, concentrating on eyes to bring out the character in his portraits. Good draftsman, but unable to break out of the illustrative mode of lives past. Nevertheless, he was a highly successful artist by the time he was 20, thanks to his name and his skills. Focused on portraiture and animals, using impastoed oils. Also dissected corpses in a NY morgue in the 1960s, to get a better feel for human anatomy. At the same time, he also began doing large-scale animal portraits, playing with textures to capture their feathers or furs. Did a posthumous portrait of Pres. John F. Kennedy, and also took part in visually recording the U.S. space program. In 1968, he married Phyllis Mills, a member of the Du Pont family who was crippled in an auto accident just before their childless union, and she would serve as one of his primary seated models. In the 1990s, he moved to a lighthouse in Maine, to be more by himself, and in the process, his focus completely changed. Began painting eerie dreamscapes, populated by syntheses of people and animals from both is present and the past. Expanded his use of mediums as well, adding charcoal, pen-and-ink and water color to oil. Paints virtually every single day, and it remains the singular focus of his life. Has a net worth of over $55 million. Inner: Handsome, boyish, casual, easy-going. Socially at ease in any situation. Well-known since an early age, which didn’t spur him to go beyond his innate gifts until his mid-40s. Doesn’t have a great need for people, although studies his subjects very carefully before committing them to canvas. Continued lifetime of close association with longtime family, as a means of further developing himself as an artist. Howard Pyle (1853-1911) - American illustrator. Outer: Born into a Quaker family. Inherited his artistic skills from his mother, who was thwarted in her own ambitions, through raising a large family, but had an infectious love of art and literature. Father had a leather business. Spent his childhood in Wilmington, Delaware, then went to Quaker schools, where he proved to be an undistinguished student. A distaste for academics ended his education with high school. Began studying art with a Belgian immigrant living in Philadelphia, while working in his father’s leather business. Large and genial. Wrote an illustrated article on Chincoteague Island, then went to NYC. Had initial difficulties, studied at the Art Student’s League, and hung out with other illustrators. Married Anne Poole in his late 20s, union produced a large family. Worked hard, and by his late 20s, was able to return to Wilmington as an established artist. Had an enormous capacity for work, and became a kindly delineator of early American his/story. A competent illustrator, and good visual storyteller, while his strength was in his pen and ink drawings. One of the first to take advantage of the new coloring processes. Conducted a class for 6 years at Drexel Institute, and, though criticized for his techniques, produced several successful artists. Established his own school in Wilmington at the turn of century, where N.C. Wyeth (Joe Breza), his future grandfather, studied. The pre-eminent teacher of illustrators in the U.S. for the generation that followed him, while his clear love of life came through his teaching. Went to Italy with his family to study the old masters, but his health was declining. Depressed at the end of his life because of his lack of vitality. Died of a renal colic after being abroad for a year. Inner: Devoted family man, nothing bohemian about him, despite his artistic calling. Enthusiastic teacher, jovial, social and highly expressive. Well-supported lifetime of continuing in a successful commercial vein, without stretching his innate abilities. Antoine Vernet (1689-1753) - French artist. Outer: Decorative painter and the first of 4 generations of French artists. Father and teacher of marine painter Claude Vernet (Andrew Wyeth), switching their usual roles. 3 sons all became painters, and his family intermarried into other artistic families. Better remembered as a progenitor than for the distinctiveness of his own work, which did not transcend his time, despite successfully supporting him. Inner: Commercial and well-socialized, providing a comfortable foundation for those longtime members of his family who would follow him. Multi-generational support lifetime of continued association with his genetic cohorts, while making a comfortable, if unmemorable, living off his art. David Teniers III (1638-1685) - Flemish artist. Outer: Third generation of a family of painters, all holding the same name. Father was the noted artist David Teniers the Younger (Andrew Wyeth). Spent his career as an imitator of his sire, never really exploring his own talent in any distinctive way, and content to trade off on his family’s well-established name for a life of easy success and little real artistic challenge. Inner: Tail-end lifetime of ending, rather than beginning an artistic dynasty, largely through a lack of originality and a desire to be successful in a proven mode, rather than fashioning a unique style of his own, an ongoing theme of his.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS HIGH AND LOW-FLYING DUTCHMAN:
Storyline: The dotty and depressive netherlander continually drowns in his own turbulent seas, through his inability to stop them from flooding the leaky and poorly-wrought dikes of his interior landscape.

Willem de Kooning (1904-1997) - Dutch/American artist. Outer: Formidable mother ran a tough waterfront saloon for sailors, while his father was a beer-distributor. The watery occupations of his parents would be symbol of his own unsteady seas. His parents divorced when he was 5, and he was raised by his mother and stepfather, after a bitter fight for custody. Apprenticed to a firm of commercial artists and decorators, he also attended an art academy in Rotterdam. Went to work for an art director of a large department store, and became aware of modern art movements. Sneaked into the United States as a stowaway in his early 20s, and became a house painter, and shopwindow designer. Eventually settled in NYC, and became close friends with haunted artist Arshile Gorky. Abandoned commercial art in his 30s, and struggled with poverty, while searching for an appropriate metier to express himself. Began experimenting with various artistic styles, finding his niche in abstraction and simple geometric forms, which he would later discard for a melding of disparate elements, that he felt most closely expressed his inner workings. Labored for the WPA during the Depression, which gave him the opportunity to do fulltime creative work, and was awarded several mural commissions during this time. Met Elaine Fried, whom he later married in 1943, and she also became a noted painter, as well as propelled him to a central position in the Abstract Expressionism movement, through her writings and her use of powerful critics as lovers to further his career. Both drank and had numerous affairs, in a tumultuous domestic union, which, nevertheless, was dually inspiring in their mutual development as artists, although it ended as such in the late 1940s, even though they were viewed as a duo for decades afterwards. His first one-man show was with enamel house paints because he couldn’t afford oils. As an abstract expressionist, he was the central figure in the NY art scene of the late 1940s, rising from a formidable underground reputation to prominence in the overground art world, although he did not gain financial remuneration for his oeuvre until his late 40s. Worked in figurative and abstract modes, eventually combining the two, with a focus on the abstracted female form. His brushstroke was said to have been delivered at 95 mph. Moved his studio to Long Island, and continued painting abstracted women, although with far more of a negative connotation to them in his slashes and distortions. Had a daughter with a commercial artist, his only child, who enchanted him, and he moved from NY to Long Island to be near her. Spent his last decades at the studio he built there, and continued bingeing, philandering and painting. His wife eventually returned to him in his late 70s to take care of him, and she died a decade later from lung cancer. Fell apart in his last decade and a half, often unshaved and untoileted, and deeply depressed, questioning his ability to paint, but a host of supporters, legal, commercial and financial, kept up the myth that he was still a master. Began suffering from Alzheimer’s disease in his 80s, although kept working throughout much of the decade, with the help of his assistants, since he was totally befogged without a brush in hand. Finally reduced to round-the-clock nursing care, but still continued to paint until his death at 92. Inner: Charismatic, witty, articulate, and seductive with an Elmer Fudd Dutch accent. Obsessed with spontaneously recording his personal contretemps with urban chaos, where nothing ever remains constant. Knew he had his secured place in the schema of art his/story, although it gave him little comfort in later life. Wascally wabbit lifetime of combining his self-destructive habit patterns, with his extraordinary creative output to draw his complex interior out, playing the role of aesthetic rationalist who eventually slips into irrationality. Johan Jongkind (1819-1891) - Dutch artist and etcher. Outer: Studied in the Hague with local landscape painters, then went to Paris for a further apprenticeship, before exhibiting at the Paris salon, while also showing the self-destructive traits that would eventually do him in. Returned to the Netherlands for an extended stay, before returning to Paris, where he met a female artist, Madame Messer (Elaine Fried) who lived with him beginning in his mid-40s and rescued him from his alcoholism and despair. Became involved with the impressionists, and served as an important bridge figure for them, using both Dutch and French landscapes in his explorations of the effects of light and atmosphere. Settled in France, where he did the landscapes for which he is most noted. Suffered from a persecution complex, and spent most of his earnings on alcohol, becoming heavily indebted. Eventually died in a mental institution. Inner: Paranoid, with a great desire to escape his self-made realities, and finding nowhere to run from them. Extremely unintegrated, with his outer work in no way reflecting his interior. Low-flying Dutchman lifetime of exhibiting outer calm in his art, and intense inner turmoil in his refusal to accept his considerable talents on their own terms. Pieter de Hooch (1629-c1685) - Dutch artist. Outer: Little really known about his life. Father was a butcher. After briefly studying under a Haarlem painter, he became a servant and painter to a wealthy merchant. In his mid-20s, he married Jannetje van der Burch, a woman from Delft and was inscribed into that city’s painters’ guild, 7 children from the union. Painted simple domestic scenes, with housewives, maidservants and children. His small canvases reflected the artistic concerns of his contemporary Jan Vermeer (Alain Resnais). Liked to show the geometry of rooms opening into other rooms, revealing the vistas behind them, all bathed in various intensities of light. Moved in his early 30s to Amsterdam, where all trace of him eventually vanished. Later work in Amsterdam was done to please a wealthier and more sophisticated clientele and has far less of the artist in them. Eventually died in a madhouse. Inner: Visionary homebody, master of the domestic scene. No letters or drawings of his remain. Hidden lifetime of focusing on geometrical composition, and the play of light on them, before disappearing into larger less satisfying works and probably an equally unsatisfying life, and finally into his own unstable mind, a continual failing of his to ultimately integrate his interior with the outer world, despite his superb gifts at recreating it. Dirk Bouts (c1410-1475) - Flemish artist. Outer: Little known of his early life and training, although he may have studied with Rogier van der Weyden (Stanley Kubrick), because of the latter’s influence on his works. Spent most of his life in Louvain, where, in his early 30s, he married the daughter of a local merchant, became a member of the painter’s guild, and eventually was appointed official painter to the city. Two sons also became painters. A highly original artist, noted for his elongated figures in awkward geometric poses, with troubled faces. All of his body of work was centered on religious themes, exhibiting the sober severity of his time and place. His works were richly detailed and colored, and he had strong grasp of space and depth in his art. Remarried in his late 50s. Inner: Intensely spiritual, with a highly distinctive style. Probably suffered a strong inner torment, as reflected in the people he painted, and may very well have ended his existence in the same manner as the other go-rounds of this series. Hidden lifetime of translating his innate sense of artistic patterns into the troubled religiosity of his inner and outer life, while once again lasting many a year despite his problems in accepting himself as he is.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS UNHAPPY HERMIT:
Storyline: The joyless recluse finds little to assuage his profound gloom save the abstracts of ordinary life, which he infuses with his stilted lighting and deeply felt disconnection from all emotion save for pessimism and melancholic misanthropy.

Edward Hopper (1882-1967) - American artist. Outer: Of English, Welsh, French and Dutch descent. Father ran a drygoods store, and gave his son a middle-class Baptist upbringing. His mother was given to browbeating the rest of the family, although she introduced him to art and theater. One older sister. A voracious reader, he drew from childhood on, and was sadistic towards young girls when he was a teenager. Later characterized his home town as, “intolerably stupid.” Left for NYC as soon as he could, at the age of 17, and initially trained as a commercial illustrator, then attended the NY School of Art for 5 years, beginning in 1901, where he studied under Robert Henri (Martin Scorsese), then later taught there. 6’4”, dourly handsome and solidly built. Made a trinity of trips to Europe, studying art in Paris and Spain, while supporting himself via his commercial work. After 1910, he never visited Europe again, preferring to find his own way as an American painter. Initially concentrated on etchings, before turning permanently to oils in 1924, the same year he married artist Jo Nivison, who served as a female model for almost all of his paintings afterwards. The duo were complete opposites - he was large and slow-moving, she was small and birdlike, and her constant chattering more than counterbalanced his monumental silence. Around the same time, he abandoned his earlier impressionistic influences for a stark, emotionally strangled palette, and became a painter of profound alienation, limning depressed people in equally bleak surroundings. Proved somewhat freer in his watercolors, which he did on New England summer vacations from 1923 to the mid-1940s, and it was those works that first brought him to public notice. Most of them were architectural, with no figures present. Gained national recognition in 1933 when he was given a one-man retrospective by the Museum of Modern Art. Best known for “Night Hawks,” a diner study, as well as his silhouetted and harshly lighted street scenes, run-down houses and bleak landscapes, all of which emphasized loneliness and disconnection, as well as abstract design. No one ever smiled in any of his works, nor did they ever do much of anything. Lived and worked in the same walk-up apartment in NYC from his early 30s until his death at 85. Ate in diners, voted Republican and never took a taxi, or paid for an expensive theater seat, even after he had money. His long and sour union with his wife, curtailed her career through his total self-absorption in his, despite their mutual dependence on one another. Eventually he completely disregarded her, while she resented him, although remained his continual support. Intolerant of children, never wanted any. An inveterate theater-goer and movie fan, as well as reader, he spent far more time collecting ideas for paintings than actually painting. Until he was 40, he sold only one painting, at the infamous NY Armory Show of 1913. His wife kept a diary of their unhappy relationship, replete with descriptions of physical fights, despite his towering over her by nearly a foot and a half. As he got older, he found it more difficult to work, suffering from artist’s block, and he gradually disappeared into himself and his grim routines. Died in his studio and his wife followed him 10 months later. Inner: Glum, introverted, sour, pessimistic, cynical, melancholic and dyspeptic. Had a pathological need to totally suppress and abuse all of his wife’s desires and ambitions. Showed no use for small talk, and was known for his complete and utter silences. Spent months thinking out each canvas before ever applying paint to brush. Stated that his goal was “the greatest possible austerity without the loss of emotion.” Gloomy lifetime of capturing his alienation on canvas through the interplay of form, light and the sad geometrics of humanity. Kasper David Friedrich (1774-1840) - German artist. Outer: Born near the Baltic Sea. Father was a soap-boiler and chandler, as well as a strict Lutheran. Mother passed on when he was 7, and a brother died while trying to save him from drowning as a youth in an icy lake, while a sister succumbed to typhus, leaving him with a lifelong sense of melancholy and loss. 6th of 10 children, with his family supporting his artistic ambitions. Educated by private tutors, then studied art in Copenhagen at its prestigious eponymous Academy, before settling in Dresden, Germany near the end of the century. Tall and thin, and deeply religious, as an active practitioner of pietism. Originally worked in inks and watercolors, and did not take up oil painting until after the century’s turning. A close observer of the natural world around him, he exhibited a deep gloom to his paintings of isolated landscapes, with a subtle sense of color, which allowed him to explore eerie light effects. Played with the Christian icon of the cross in some of his landscapes, subtly integrating it into natural settings, to show his view that the world around him was a direct emblem of his larger spiritual universe. Although largely isolated, he befriended several other northern landscapists. Became a professor at the Dresden academy in his early 40s. His singular style of spiritual landscapes did not affect any other artist, and he remained largely a solitary figure, connected to no movement, so that his works went largely unnoticed, despite being in visual accord with the romantic movement of his era. Married in his mid-40s, which introduced a feminine element to his art. Neglected and bitter, and more and more pessimistic as he grew older, even though he was made a member of the Berlin Academy. Just to add to his ongoing misery, he suffered a stroke in 1835, which paralyzed his arm and prevented him from painting his last 5 years, which were probably the most painful period of an extremely painful life. Inner: Mystical and pantheistic, with a profound unhappiness evident in his work and his person. Felt nature was suffused with divine will, and God was to be experienced via nature. Saw art as a mediator between humans and God. Relied on his own feelings, putting his spiritual emotion into his landscapes, as he tried to combine his inner self with his outer vision. Saved-from-drowning lifetime of trying to heal his alienated wounded interior through the re-creation of landscape on canvas, but gaining little joy from his sad, unhappy existence, save for the release of his creative work. Meindert Hobbema (Meyndert Lubbertsz) (1638-1709) - Dutch artist. Outer: Father was a carpenter. Much of his life is somewhat obscured. Adopted the name Hobbema when he was a young man, and lived his entire life in Amsterdam. Adopted the name Hobbema when he was a young man. Taught by and was a close friend to Jacob Ruysdael (Thomas Hart Benton), with whom he often took sketching trips. Patiently observed the countryside every day in all kinds of weather, and then transliterated his observations onto canvas. Focused on the Dutch landscape, with an especial affinity for dark trees and twisted foliage, which framed his otherwise tranquil compositions. Used both bright and subdued colors, and preferred quiet rural scenes, staying absolutely true to them, while infusing them with a magical beauty, despite the prosaic nature of his chosen compositions. Reached his peak in his late 20s, before responsibilities of family and work curtailed his pure artistic existence. At 30, he married Eeltije Vinck, the cook of the burgomeister of Amsterdam, and through her obtained a minor post checking weights and measures of imported wines, 4 children from union. Once thought to have stopped painting upon gaining the post, but continued developing as an artist throughout his life, despite having less time to pursue his careful, meticulous studies of the natural world immediately around him. His wife died in 1704, and was buried in the pauper section of their local cemetery. Died a pauper, and received the same ignominious interment. Little esteemed during his lifetime, he achieved his reputation posthumously. Inner: Solitary, extremely observant and melancholy, although less alienated than in other go-rounds in this series. Hobbled lifetime of making an attempt at integrating himself with the world through its landscapes rather than its people, and curtailing his imaginative excess in the process, although continuing to utilize suffering and poverty as a benchmark for his purity as an artist.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS SORCEROR’S APPRENTICE:
Storyline: The creative cameraman proves a seminal figure in the early film industry with his longtime teacher/father/master, only to run afoul of the latter, and the industry itself, before returning from his sudden fade to add new dimensions to his ongoing technical mastery.

Robert Zemeckis (1952) - American filmmaker. Outer: Father was Lithuanian, mother was Yugoslavian. Brought up in a working-class Catholic family, where TV was the only indication that a larger creative world existed outside his home. Began using his parents’ 8 mm home movie camera to record family events, and gradually taught himself special effects to augment them. Although his parents felt that his blue-collar background precluded him from pursuing a career as a director, he saw film school as his ticket to doing what he wanted most to do. 6’ and bespectacled with dark brown hair and eyes. Went to Northern Illinois University, then transferred to USC film school, after submitting a music video based on a Beatles’ song. Initially rejected because of mediocre grades, he was accepted after pleas and promises. Hooked up, while there, with Bob Gale, who would become his primary writing partner in his later works. Wound up winning a Student Academy Reward, as well as Steven Spielberg’s attention, and the latter produced his first two films. Began his career as a film cutter for NBC News in Chicago during his summer vacations, and also editing commercials. Collaborations on film scripts led to his first directing job, which was a failure, as was his second, as well as a scripting effort for 1941, which put him on employment for 3 years, but Romancing the Stone in 1984, proved a sleeper hit, and allowed him to establish himself with the trio of films that made up the Back to the Future series, in which his penchant for special effects and comedy would come to the fore. Worked constantly, with little room for a social life, while marrying actress Mary Ellen Trainor, who appeared in 4 of his films, one son from the union, although the strain of his workaholic schedule eventually doomed the marriage to divorce in 2000. Created the first seamless live action-animation film with Who Framed Roger Rabbit?, and later topped himself with the enormously successful Forrest Gump in 1994, mixing actual newsreel footage with the rise of his idiot savant subject. The film won 6 Academy Rewards, including Best picture and Best Director, allowing him ultimately to donate $5 million to USC for an eponymous state-of-the-art Digital Arts Center there in 1999. Continued into the millennium, making movies, where the visual trickery is as notable as the filmwork itself, including The Polar Express, where the actions of the actors were captured and digitally translated, in keeping with his own goal of translating analog cinema into digital. In 2001, he married actress Leslie Harter,2 sons from the union. Has two production companies, ImageMovers and DarkCastle Entertainment, which he co-owns with producer Joel Silver. After the millennium, he has focused more on writing and production on both the large and small screens, as well as video games, with a particular affinity for Back to the Future, in the latter realm. Has a net worth of $50 million. Inner: Work-besotted with a man-on-a-mission sense of himself. Always keeps his camera moving, rarely employing fixed shots. Effects-laden lifetime of moving up to the next level in his ongoing mastery of the mediums available to him, as the crypto-son of long-ago genius, continually looking to rise to that level himself. Billy Bitzer (Johann Gottlieb Wilhelm Bitzer) (1872-1944) - American cinematographer. Outer: Parents were German immigrants. 2nd child, and older of 2 sons. Father was a blacksmith and a harness-maker. Little is known of his early life. Short and stocky. Eventually Americanized and changed his name to George William, which became G.W. and then Billy. May have originally apprenticed as a silversmith. In his mid-20s, he moved to NYC, and began work as an electrician, while attending night school. In 1896, he joined the American Mutoscope Co., and three years later, set up the lighting for the first successful indoor film. By 1900, he was the principal cameraman for the company that became Biograph, initially working as a newsreel photographer, showing himself to be highly innovative with his lighting techniques. Shortly afterwards, he entered a common-law marriage with Elinore Farrell that lasted for the next two decades. In 1908, he collaborated with director D.W. Griffith (Alfonso Cuaron) for the first time on A Calamitous Elopement, and the two would continue together as a revolutionary team in the early period of silent cinema, inventing many of the subsequent standards of filmmaking, including the close-up, the dissolve, the fade and numerous methods of indoor lighting, so that filmmaking could become a studio affair. Because of their close partnership, it is impossible to tell who came up with what. The duo reached their apex in the mid-teens with The Birth of A Nation, which was funded in part by his own life savings. Their working relationship became strained around 1920, when Griffith began hiring younger cameramen. In 1923, after the dissolution of his earlier relaionship, he officially married Ethel Boddy, one son from the union. Converted to Roman Catholicism from Lutheranism in middle age. Blacklisted from the industry in 1929 over a labor union dispute, he retired, to spend the rest of his life largely in obscurity. Died of a heart attack. His autobiography, Billy Bitzer: His Story, was published posthumously in 1973. Inner: Highly innovative, with an extraordinary eye for artificial light, and an inventiveness that would inform a whole new medium forever after. Electric lifetime of being there at the birth of a national pastime, filmdom, and contributing mightily to its forms and techniques, only to be shunted aside, like so many others, as it ate its originators alive in order to feed a rapacious public’s appetite for the ever new. John Sell Cotman (1782-1842) - English artist. Outer: Father was a barber turned prosperous silk mercer and dealer in foreign lace. Taught himself drawing from the age of 4, and, although he was intended for his sire’s profession, in 1798, he moved to London in order to become an artist. Good looking, with pleasant manners. Found employment coloring aquatints, and joined an informal school, where he met Thomas Girtin (D. W. Griffith), who was some 7 years his senior. May have taken a sketching trip to North Wales with Girtin, and in 1800 exhibited at the Royal Academy. The following year, he joined Girtin’s sketching club, and supported himself selling drawings used in amateur sketching patterns, while, like Girtin, becoming an extremely proficient water colorist. A Romanticist originally, his atmospheric works showed Girtin’s strong influence. Two years after the latter’s premature death in 1802, his style opened up to become more light-filled and serene, as he abandoned the muddy moodiness of his earlier oeuvre, in order to play off the contrasts of light and dark, and bring out the foundation of his excellent drawing skills. Returned to Norwich in 1807, and became a member of the Norwich Society of Artists, serving as its president in 1811, while enjoying patronage throughout the rest of his life. Married Ann Miles, the daughter of a farmer, in 1809, 5 children from the union. Taught all of his progeny drawing, and his two eldest sons, Miles and Joseph, both became landscape artists. Published several works of etchings of architecture, taking several trips to Normandy, thanks to an affinity for its countryside, in order to gather material for same-such. Spent the rest of his life in England, and largely worked out of his studio, after taking notes and pencil sketches in plein air. In 1825, he was elected assoc. exhibitor of the Society of Painters in Water Colors and exhibited with them until 1834. Struggled with the burdens of a large family, and his work began to reflect it in the 1830s, as it got darker and moodier again. In 1834, he moved to London to become drawing-master at King’s College, and was eventually succeeded in that position by his eldest son. Depressed and in ill health his last years, thanks to an ongoing manic-depressive condition, with an emphasis on the latter, he died in obscurity, but was rediscovered later on in the century, and acknowledged to be the master he was. Inner: Very tied up with his family, whose financial support caused him much anxiety and insecurity. Watery lifetime of finding the perfect medium to reflect his moodiness, while transliterating his ever-changing internal landscape into high memorable art. Titus van Rijn (1641-1688) - Dutch artist. Outer: Father was Dutch master Rembrandt van Rijn (Alfonso Cuaron). Mother was Saskia van Rijn (Lillian Gish), who died when he was one, and made him heir of her considerable estate. Named after one of her sisters. The only one of the four children of the duo who survived. Wet-nursed by Geertje Dircx (Leighton Meester), who became his father’s lover, before falling out of family favor. Served as a model when he was child for his father. Trained as a painter by his sire, but hardly left any examples of his work. Along with Hendickje Stoffels (Cameron Diaz), his father’s subsequent mistress, he formed a dummy art dealership of which his father was an employee, so as to avoid creditors for the latter. Married Magdalena van Loo, the daughter of a silversmith, in 1668, but died a half year later of the plague. One posthumous daughter from the union, who lost her mother soon afterwards. Inner: Sorceror’s apprentice lifetime of intimate familial connection with genius in order to learn second hand from it, as prelude to continuing as a more equal, as well as competitive, partner with it.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS SCREAMING DEPRESSIVE:
Storyline: The neurotic nordic munches on his never-ending melancholy to such grim extent, that he often manages to swallow himself alive, while bearing his existences as if they were a weight far too heavy for an ordinary soul to carry, despite making great art out of all of them.

Lars von Trier (1956) - Danish filmmaker. Outer: Parents were middle-class communist activists. Father was a Jewish academic, although his son later found out his real sire was a high-ranking Catholic classical musician. Mother was a civil service worker, and told her son on her deathbed that she was looking for artistic genes, and found her husband’s family unprepossessing, so that she mated with her employer, a member of an illustrious clan of composers, to produce him. Raised largely without rules, so that all his decisions were his, resulting in a multi-phobic personality, replete with continuous panic attacks and much anxiety throughout his life, as well as a need to make rules. Continually beaten and persecuted by older children in school, adding to his ongoing paranoia. Made his first film at 12, and also appeared in a Danish TV series. Graduated from the Danish Film School in 1983, where he was a top student and added ‘von’ to his name. His short, Images of a relief won the Best Film award at the Munich Film Festival the following year. His first feature, Element of Crime, showed an uncanny mastery of image, and a secondary interest in story, as did his subsequent works, done in trilogies, which, nevertheless serially garnered prizes at the Cannes Film Festival. Married actress/director Caecilia Holbek, 2 daughters from the union. Became a household name in Denmark with “The Kingdom,” in 1994, a TV soap His breakthrough film was the beginning of yet another trilogy, this one on “female goodness,” Breaking the Waves in 1996. At the same time, his mother revealed his true father on her deathbed. When he subsequently confronted him, he was disowned and threatened with lawsuits. Calmed down with Prozac, divorced his first wife, and married Bente Froge, their childrens’ kindergarten teacher, while converting to Catholicism, and maintaining his interest in Marxism. Two sons from the union. Ever the rule/maker, he created Dogme 95 with 3 other Danish directors, which eschewed special effects, and reduced film to its hand-held, natural light essence. With Dancer in the Dark in 2000, he used digital equipment, one of the first films to do so, and finally won the top prize at Cannes with it. No stranger to controversy, he created Dogville in 2004, part of a trilogy which was accused of anti-Americanism, although its political tenets were also quite applicable to Denmark. Got himself canned from the Cannes Festival in 2011, with some ill-thought remarks about being a Nazi, in an attempt to be both humorous and clumsily self-revelatory. Owns Zentropa Enterprizes, which produces his films, as well as those of his fellow Dogme 95ers. In 2014, in his first interview in three years, he announced he may never make another film, since his oeuvre was shot while he was intoxicated and he no longer drinks a bottle of vodka a day or imbibes narcotics.Inner: Eccentric, highly political, strongly religious, and confrontational. Extremely difficult to work with, often getting into conflicts with his actresses, who find him abusive. Great fear of flying, limiting his immediate world. Claims to use actresses as surrogates of himself, while his stories continually debase them. Muted scream lifetime of dealing with his immensely neurotic nature through filmic exploration, while trying to remain grounded, after a deliberately ungrounded upbringing which forced him to rewrite the rules of existence for himself. Edvard Munch (1863-1944) - Norwegian artist. Outer: Family descended from the cultural aristocracy of Norway, but was impoverished. Father was an army surgeon, who harbored a gloomy religiosity. 2nd of 5 children. His mother died of TB when he was 5, and his aunt came to live with his family. His older sister, Sophie, to whom he was particularly close, died of TB 9 years later, and another sister was institutionalized. His sire fell into fits of depression and violent temper, with fanatical visions of himself and his children in eternal damnation, seeing tuberculosis and bronchitis as God’s punishing illnesses in his extreme Lutheran fundamentalism. Briefly studied engineering in Oslo to satisfy his father then took up sculpture, before renting studios to do landscapes and studies of the urban poor. Became a part of the Kristiane Boheme movement, which was anti-bourgeoisie, sexually liberated and geared towards social equality. Also became involved with the wife of his art teacher, who was his distant cousin, and was devastated when she ended it, while his own burgeoning sense of sexuality marked the oeuvre of this period. Disappointed by the reception of his work, he became more conventional, concentrating on landscapes and portraits. Did a large one-man exhibition in his mid-30s. Went to Paris in 1885, and later enrolled in art school there, but fell into a deep depression at his father’s death from a stroke. Unable to paint, then began again, switching to neo-impressionism. Based himself in Berlin for the next 15 years, where he fell in with a bohemian group, and cycled his works around the dual themes of love and death. Never married, fearing he would transmit his family’s instability to his progeny, and looked on his paintings as his children instead. Became a printmaker and also began an interest in photography. Traveled in France and Germany, although an unhappy romantic involvement with a Norwegian woman sent him to a sanitarium at century’s turn. Shot in the left hand during the break up of the relationship, losing part of a finger. In his mid-40s, alcohol and nicotine poisoning sent him skittering back into a sanitarium in Copenhagen to deal with a “nerve crisis.” Afterwards, he moved to an isolated estate, and spent his last 3 decades alone, surrounded by his work. Found a Norwegian audience and patrons, and was able to live comfortably. Relatively robust in old age despite doing presenting himself in his self-portraiture as a frail, vulnerable old man. Developed problems with cysts in his eyes, and became fatally ill after a munition explosion broke the windows in his house. Died of an attack of the heart. Refused to participate in the Third Reich. His most famous piece is “The Scream,” a simply drawn figure in absolute torment. Inner: Fascinated with the color red and blood. Obsessive to an extreme, said he was born dying, while pursuing his favorite trinity of subjects, sex, death and the search for wonder in a godless world. Often painted numerous variations of an image, and did copies of works that he sold for himself. Deeply concerned with emotional interrelationships, although without the grounding to maintain them. Silently screaming lifetime of being given a grim, brimstone foundation via his father, and then using it as a shaky springboard to explore his dual fascination with sex’n’death through canvas and a hyperemotional interior that could barely bear his artistic burdens. Philip Otto Runge (1777-1810) - German artist. Outer: From a family of shipbuilders. His parents were wealthy merchants, as well. 9th of 10 surviving children. Missed a lot of school because of ill-health, while learning to do scissorcut silhouettes from his mother. When he did attend, he was challenged in the hyperdramatic Sturm und Drang sensibilities then infusing German culture. Apprenticed at an older brother’s merchant firm beginning in 1795, and the latter, recognizing his artistic talents, supported him, while also introducing him to the culturati of Hamburg. Didn’t take drawing lessons until 20, when he began his studies at Copenhagen and Dresden academies, at which point, his all-abiding interest in art took hold. Resettled in Hamburg in his mid-20s, where he fell in with the romantic mystics there, including Caspar David Friedrich (Edward Hopper). Married Pauline Bassenge in 1804, after his father had earlier refused to bless the union because of her youth, 4 children from the union. Fascinated with the works of the 17th century mystic Jacob Boheme, he studied them closely, while also building on a friendship with polymath Johann Goethe (Thomas Mann), with whom he corresponded. After moving about to avoid the Napoleonic Wars, he returned to Hamburg in 1807 for the few years he had left, and began a new company with his brother. Published a pair of fairy tales, based on local works, which would be included in the collected works of the Brothers Grimm. Painted cosmic allegories, although never completed a full set. An excellent portraitist, he used light to emphasize expressiveness, while employing his family as subject matter. Fascinated with color as well, seeing it as a reflection of higher spiritual realities. Eventually wore himself out in his 30s, trying to capture a sense of the infinite through paint. Died of tuberculosis the day before his last child was born. Inner: Deeply spiritual, and obsessed with finding God at the end of his brush. Strongly Christian, with the desire to express the true harmony of the universe through color, number and form. Unfinished lifetime of setting up artistic goals for himself, which he would continue to pursue in further lives in this series, in far more unbent manner. Matthias Grunewald (Mathis Gothardt) (c1480-1528) - German artist. Outer: Less known about him than any other artist of the first rank. Even his name was a later fabrication of Greenworld, and was probably reflective of the green world he wished to paint. His birth date ranges widely, and his early training is totally obscured. First recorded around the year 1500. By 1509, he had become both court painter and leading art official to the elector of Mainz, and later was made superintendent of works and architect to that official. Unhappily married, he occasionally added his wife’s surname to his own, as if to underscore the burden of her. Largely led a solitary and melancholy life. Painted his masterwork, the Isenheim Altarpiece, an 11-winged painting, in which he shows a writhing, bruised, bleeding, distorted Christ on the cross as its centerpiece, limning in as graphic a manner as possible the torment and absolute agony of his death, while counterpointing it with the innocence of a paschal lamb, and the figures of Mary Magdalene and the Virgin Mary in pain and supplication, with his brilliant reds and whites offsetting the dark, gloomy composition. Because of his sympathy with the Peasant’s Uprising of 1525, he left the service of the elector, and spent his last 2 years visiting cities which were sympathetic to the newly formed Protestant cause. Supervised the town’s waterworks in Halle, the city in which he died. Had no pupils or followers, and remains a curious, isolated genius, and probably viewed himself as an absolute failure as a human being. Inner: Deeply melancholy and troubled, a Christ on his own cross, who probably derived little pleasure from his existence, despite the revolutionary fervor and passion of his times. Strongly spiritual, using color as his means of evoking his sense of divine connection. Solitary and melancholy, with a gift for unhappiness. Held a sense of confusion and failure surrounding his support of controversies of his time. Suffering lifetime of leaving his tortured mark on the collected works of western art, while never being able to transcend his own pain and profound unhappiness.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS PESSIMISTIC EXPATRIATE:
Storyline: The aloof outsider brings his dark vision to bear on the country that conquered his own two times running, while trying not to poison himself with his acid, alienated interior.

Wim Wenders (Ernest Wilhelm Wenders) (1945) - German filmmaker. Outer: Son of a surgeon. Made his entrance the week the atomic bomb was exploded over Hiroshima, ending WW II in the Pacific, and also came in after his native city of Dusseldorf had 80% of it obliterated. Had a fascination with the effect of American culture on Germany through the occupation of American forces there as a child, and as a teenager continued his fascination with America via comics, music and film. Thought about entering the priesthood, while going to Catholic parochial school. Although a pre-med at college, he painted rather than studied, then dropped out and moved to Paris, where he became an apprentice etcher. Spent his nights at the movies, and decided to become a filmmaker. Returned to Germany, enrolled at the new Munich film school, and became the only major German director of his generation with formal cinematography training. Wrote movie reviews for a monthly cinema magazine and began his career making shorts in his mid-20s. Founded, along with 14 other students, Filmverlag Der Autoron, to distribute films. Anxiety, alienation and male wanderlust are continual themes of his. Married German actress Edda Kochl in 1968, divorced 6 years later, and quickly married actress Lisa Kreuzer, only to part four years afterwards. After establishing himself in the German cinema, he tried his hand at American moviemaking, although his first effort proved disastrous. Since then, he has mastered the American idiom, and works comfortably within its framework. Married singer Ronee Blakley in 1979, divorced 2 years later, and quickly married actress Isabelle Weingarten, only to suffer a similar fate with her one year following. Best known for Wings of Desire, the story of an angel who wishes to return to Earth, which won the Best Director award at Cannes in 1987, and became a film Hollywood later co-opted with a slick, empty, albeit popular remake. Produced, scripted and acted in numerous of his own films, where place is always a driving force in the subsequent storytelling. Won an honorary doctorate in theology for his oeuvre, after the Church decided his films represented genuine spiritual quest. Tall and gangly, as well as an accomplished photographer. In 1993, he married one of his crew members, Donata Schmidt. Continues to live in the United States, where he set up an independent production and distribution company, to give his outsider’s view on his adopted country’s obsession with power and violence. Inner: Pessimistic and grave with a peculiar fascination for America as a conquering nation with a host of pathologies. Softspoken, gentle and thoughtful, and an avid traveler. Frames all his shots himself. Compassionate and generous in all his filmic characterizations, with a particular affinity for disconnected people. Outsider lifetime of exploring interrelationships, particularly between men, and men and places, on film, while remaining aloof and reserved in his non-cinematic life. Paul Leni (1885-1929) - German filmmaker and art director. Outer: Came to Berlin at the age of 15 to become an avant-garde painter, although had difficulty establishing himself, until he became a set designer, working for producer Max Reinhardt, among others. Entered German films in his late 20s as an art director, and two years later as a director, creating one of the most celebrated expressionistic works of that era, Waxworks, which was a three-part study in tyranny. Served as art director on most of the German films he created, either alone or in collaboration, as well as for other directors. In his early 40s, he came to Hollywood, quickly establishing himself with a horror-suspense film called The Cat and the Canary, which introduced many of the standards of horror fare, while also initiating America’s subsequent commercial fascination with that genre. Made 3 more films, all noted for their sense of mood and mystery, as well as their architectural style, then died suddenly of blood poisoning from an ulcerated tooth, at the advent of the sound era. Inner: Moody and gloomy. Expatriate lifetime of exploring the darkness inherit in humanity on film, only to literally poison himself with his ultimate pessimistic view of modern American life, before returning again in his next go-round to pursue his bi-national vision more fully. Wilhelm Hensel (1794-1861) - German artist. Outer: Father was a poor country parson. Sister Luise Hensel became a religious writer and poet. During his childhood, he spent all his free time painting. Made his own colors, since the family could not afford to give him supplies, while also evincing talent in penning poetry. Reluctantly went to school to pursue mining engineer as a vocation, although was saved by a patron who saw his drawings. His sire died when he was in his mid-teens, putting pressure on him to support his mother and sisters, which he did with etchings and illustrative work, although he hurt his later sight, via laboring by dull candlelight. Volunteered in his late teens during the Napoleonic Wars, and after their conclusion, remained in Paris to study the plethora of art there. Afterwards, he was unsure whether he should pursue his writing or his art, although his draw towards drawing ultimately proved overwhelming, and he became a portraitist. Began courting Fanny Mendelssohn (Alicia Keyes), the musical sister of composer Felix Mendelssohn (Leonard Bernstein), although both families had reservations about the union, because of their religious differences, she being Jewish, and he Protestant. Spent several years in Italy doing religious paintings, as well as copying the works of Raphael (Pablo Picasso), per the desire of the Prussian king, and then returned to Germany in 1828 to become court painter and a professor of history painting at the Akademie. Married Fanny Mendelssohn in 1829, one son from the mutually supportive union, who took it upon himself to become his illustrative family’s biographer. Their home became a salon for Berlin’s culterati, until he lost his wife in 1847. The following year, he showed his traditional, conservative leanings when he supported the status quo during the eruption of revolutionary activity all over Europe, then spent the rest of his life painting and teaching, while his eyesight slowly narrowed through excesses from his youth. Left a collection of over 1000 pencil drawings of social figures of his time. Inner: Deeply poetic and pious nature. Traditionalist lifetime of rising from extremely modest circumstances to become a national figure, while also enjoying a stimulating union, only to see both his larger and smaller world crumble, causing him to retreat back in himself.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS ONGOING MACABREMEISTER:
Storyline: The alchemist auteur loves to create nightmarish scenarios in order to explore his fascination with the duality of mind and body, and the transformative aspects of integrating and disintegrating both via filmic means.
David Cronenberg (1943) - Canadian filmmaker. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Father was a journalist who wrote a stamp column and contributed to crime magazines, while his mother was a professional pianist. Had one older sister, Denise, who became a costume designer, and worked on some of his films. Shy and eccentric, he played classical guitar as a youth, while also dabbling in short story writing, and evincing a fascination for the eerily offbeat, including insects. Raised on DC comics and horror films, while growing up in an intellectually stimulating middle-class home. 5’9”. Went to the Univ. of Toronto, initially as a biochemistry major, before graduating with a degree in literature. Married Margaret Hindson in 1970, divorced seven years later, one daughter from the union, Cassandra, who became a second unit director. Worked on Canadian TV, as well as serving an apprenticeship in indie fare, with a focus on sci-fi and horror. Enjoyed financial backing by the Canadian governmental film agency CFDC with Shivers in 1975, which was its first release, other than soft-core porn, to realize a profit. Married director, producer and cinematographer Carolyn Zeifman in 1979, two daughters from the union. His first big hit was Scanners in 1981. Followed it up with Videodrome in 1981, and a remake of The Fly in 1986, evincing an ongoing fascination with remorphed humanity, and science run amok. Reached auteur status with Dead Ringers, in which twin gynecologists lose themselves in one another and Naked Lunch in 1991, a visceral reinterpretation of William Burroughs’ largely unfilmable manic paean to addiction. Slowly expanded out of the semi-restrictive genres that marked his earlier career, in order to allow himself to explore pure psychological drama, such as Crash, eXistenZ and M. Butterfly, which allowed him exotic locales and opulent costumes to go along with his askew view of the human condition. Has also appeared in the films of others, mostly in cameos, with an occasional major role, although he has kept his presence to peripheral characters in his own works. His subsequent oeuvre would embrace both high budget and indie vehicles, in his ongoing violent outer exploration of deep-seated internal conflicts and fears. Given the French Legion d’Honneur in 2009. Inner: Fascinated with mutations, criminality, and the works of William Burroughs, feeling himself a kindred spirit to the uberalienated latter. Uses many of the same people for his films behind the camera, thanks to a great sense of loyalty to his personnel. Dual level lifetime of realizing his various artistic obsessions through film, while keeping his outer self disturbingly normal in order to give his abnormally imaginative interior uninterrupted reign. Robert Wiene (1873-1938) - German filmmaker. Outer: Oldest son of an actor. Younger brother Conrad also entered the family profession and became an actor, director and screenwriter. Originally wanted to be a lawyer, going to school first to the Univ. of Berlin, and then to the Univ. of Vienna. While in the latter city, he began playing small roles on stage, ultimately helping fashion a new theater, before turning his creative talents towards film. Wrote the script for The Weapons of Youth in 1912, and may have directed it as well. Two years later, he became a contract director for Berliner Messte-Film, while also working for several other large and small film companies, doing a host of productions for them. Collaborated with a variety of silent film folk, including Henny Porten, one of the Germany’s biggest actresses of the era, and its first great silent star. Following WW I, he helped co-create an association of Viennese film directors, which he ran until 1922. In 1919, he shot his expressionistic masterpiece, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, a tale of madness and murder, and it proved an overwhelming success both in Germany and elsewhere, which allowed him to form his own production company, Lionardo-Film, in 1922. Continued exploring darkly themed stories over the next several years, earning mild plaudits for his efforts, before moving back to Austria and taking over the direction of the Wiener Pan-film company. Returned to Berlin in 1926, and produced a string of releases to finish out the silent era, and then with the advent of sound, began delving into genres other than psycho-thrillers. Had his final German film, Taifun, banned, and after Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler took power, he left for Budapest in 1934, and then London, before finally settling in Paris. Along with Jean Cocteau (Brian Singer), he tried but failed to produce a sound remake of his masterpiece in 1937. His later work would make critics question his original abilities, and wonder if his earlier efforts were more the product of the people he used, than his own peculiar genius. Died of cancer, before completing his last film, Ultimatum, which was finished by German-born American director Robert Siodmak. Inner: Expressionistic lifetime of transliterating his fascination with the nightmare aspects of existence onto film, before returning to prove to himself and others, he was, indeed, an auteur of far more than passing interest. Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Fussli) (1741-1825) - Anglo/Swiss artist, critic and writer. Outer: From a distinguished multigenerational Swiss family in the arts and sciences. 2nd son of a portrait painter and art critic. His father was his initial instructor, but wanted him to be Lutheran pastor, despite his many protests to the contrary, and the fact all his other siblings went into the arts. Ambidextrous, he could draw with his left hand while his father read aloud to him. Short, slim, abstemious and frugal, with a prominent nose. Studied theology at the Collegium Carolinum, gaining an excellent classic education, and was ordained, delivering his first sermon in 1761. After becoming persona non grata the following year, by collaborating on a pamphlet that exposed the corruption of a Zurich magistrate, he left the country and went to Germany, where he became friends with the British minister to the Prussian court, who invited him to England. Fluent in several languages, he became a translator in London in 1764, while promoting Anglo/German literary relations. Became a traveling tutor to a young English lord, which he disliked doing, and a fist fight soon terminated the engagement. During this period, he also penned a tome on French writer, Jean Jacques Rousseau (D.H. Lawrence). Began to paint on the advice of artist Joshua Reynolds (Tony Richardson), and in 1770, he went to Rome to study for 8 years, with a particular interest in the mannerists and Michelangelo (Henri Matisse), whom he assiduously copied. On returning to England, he painted scenes from his/story, the Bible, mythology and his own supernatural imagination. Most noted for his terrifying images, and sense of Gothic romance, with nude figures caught in strained and violent poses, although he was more of a designer than an accomplished painter. Married Sophia Rawlins, a former model, in his late 40s, no children from the union. Exhibited at the Royal Academy, and became a full member as well as a highly influential professor there in 1799, teaching for over 2 decades, up until the time of his death. A popular lecturer, with an acute critical acumen, he displayed an encyclopedic knowledge of art. Also continued his translations, as well as paintings and illustrations of the works of eminent English writers, most notably William Shakespeare (William Butler Years). In addition, he exhibited a lifelong interest in entomology, the study of insects. Became a leading figure in London society, and close friend of poet/visionary William Blake, whom he influenced. Well-thought-of as a writer, particularly since English was not his native language. Died in the home of a countess, after a brief illness. Inner: Caustic wit, good raconteur, and vain, with a taste for opium. Held a fascination with the colossal, as well as the bizarre, albeit from a position of respectability. Inhibited in all but his imagination. Renaissance man lifetime of strutting his stuff in a variety of expressive modes, including teaching, as an undaunted stranger in a strange land, with the facility for finding and displaying the universal in his overweening esthetic sensibilities. Pieter Brueghel the Younger (c1564-1636) - Flemish painter. Outer: Father was artist Pieter Brueghel (Terence Malick), who died when his son was one. Mother was the daughter of his father’s teacher. Older brother of Jan Brueghel (Brian Singer). Lost his sire when he was 5, although he later used his works as his painterly model. Had a sister as well. His mother died when he was 14, and he and his siblings were raised by his maternal grandmother, who was also an artist, and probably his first teacher. Around the same time, the family moved to Antwerp, and he entered the studio of Gillis van Coninxloo, a landscape painter. By the time he reached his early 20s, he was listed as an independent master in one of the city’s painter’s guilds. In 1588, he married Elisabeth Godelet, 7 children from the union, including Pieter Brueghel III, who was largely a copyist. Focused on landscapes and religious matter, showing a particular fascination with hobgoblins, grotesque characters and fiery transformations, leading to his nickname of “Hell” Brueghel. Did honor to his sire’s work by copying it, although he lacked the depth of artistic insight of his missing mentor, so that his figures were merely pictorial, rather than the humanistic emblems his father was able to masterfully concoct. Nevertheless, some of his copies would subsequently be taken as original renditions by his progenitor. Maintained a thriving atelier, and had a good sense of both space and movement. Remembered far more, however, for being his father’s son, than for his own artistic accomplishments. Inner: Fascinated with the grotesque, and, as in all his go-rounds in this series, transformation through trial by fire. Copyist lifetime of learning directly from a master, while exploring his ongoing nightmare sensibilities on canvas, a process he would continue unabated through the next near half millennium.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS ALIENATED LIMNER OF ALIEN LIFE:
Storyline: The gifted graphic adept makes highflying art of out of cartoons, with a sure feel for cinematic image, and an equal identification with the mutant sensibilities of his super-powered outsiders.

fBryan Singer (1965) - American filmmaker. Outer: Never knew his birth parents. Adopted as an infant, he was raised in a Jewish household in New Jersey. An only child, he always harbored a sense of aloneness. Fascinated by WW II as a youth, he formed a “Nazi Club,” although his mother summarily ended it. Never much of a student, and dyslexic. Wore big hair, and got beat up a lot, thanks to projecting a nerd sensibility. Largely alienated, he would unconsciously become a perfect artistic channel for some of the alien comic book characters he grew up with, and later re-immortalized on the silver screen. Studied filmmaking at NYC’s School of Visual Arts, then transferred to USC’s School of Cinema-TV, graduating in 1989. 5’11”. Shot a short called, Lion's Den, with actor Ethan Hawke, a childhood friend, then won the Grand Jury Prize at Cannes in 1993, for his next effort, Public Access. Drew subsequent notice 2 years later with the unusual crime drama, The Usual Suspects, and was suddenly a potential Hollywood player, a role he cemented by the X-Men series, based on a comic book of mutant superheroes. Did the first two to big box office after the turn of the century, before opting out of the third, amidst much personal angst, to do Superman Returns, a Christ reading of the Man of Steel, that would be redolent in the minds of some, with his previous go-round as Cocteau. It, too, proved to be a big budget hit, despite mixed reviews, and placed him in the top rung of Hollywood’s bonanza boys. Formed his own production company, Bad Hat Harry Movies, which was taken from a line of his favorite film while growing up, Jaws. Continued his WW II fascination with Valkyrie, a failed plot on the life of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, which succeeded in capturing the public imagination, with Tom Cruise as its eye-patched lead. As with all his films, the gloss of his visuals, and his old-fashioned sense of exaggerated melodrama supersedes all else, making for an artist unable to take his material beyond the scope of his considerable optical imagination, and into the realm of true art. In 2014, he was accused of raping a man while he was a teenager, via his powerhouse position in Hollywood, although he was later dropped from the suit. Agreed to pay his accuser $100,000 to settle out of court without it being an admission of guilt, which the latter, Michael Egan, turned down, losing his lawyer in the process. Had a son the following year with longtime close friend actress Michelle Clunie. Inner: Sensitive, insecure, self-involved, and a loner at heart. Not into the trappings of fame, still living like a college student into his 40s. Hypochondriac and homophile, with the true passion of his life, his creativity. Always conscientious about his budgets, even when they loom in the $200 million range, with the self-view that he has the primary responsibility for bringing each project successfully into port. Solo flying lifetime of honing his gifts down to one all-encompassing discipline, and riding on the capetails of mutants and supermen to great success, while usually suspecting the worst, when things fall outside his control. fJean Cocteau (1889-1963) - French writer, artist and filmmaker. Outer: Father was a non-practicing lawyer, who was so thoroughly dominated by his wife’s family, that he committed suicide when his son was 9. Began writing poetry right afterwards, and subsumed the loss by feeling compelled later on to be a father figure to France’s avant garde, taking on that mantle while still in his 20s, as if to underline the overwhelming need. Attended the Lycee Condorcet and traveled around Europe with his mother, while becoming a precocious poetic poseur. Adopted as such in Parisian circles shortly after his mid-teens. At the age of 20, he published his first volume of poetry, “Aladdin’s Lamp.” Despite his subsequent outpouring in a host of artistic disciplines, he would always consider himself a poet, above all else. While serving with ambulance units during WW I, he continued to inveigle his way into the highest circles of Paris’s vanguard, including the fey Sergei Diaghliev (Gerard Mortier) crowd, where his posturing and homoerotic nature were given laudable audience and outlet. Challenged by the impresario himself to astound him, he came up with a collaboratory ballet that proved quite revolutionary in 1917, and from that point onward, his fertile imagination never stilled. Wrote poetry, plays, novels and essays, sculpted and molded, and painted everything from decorations to tapestries. Although he would be accused of liberally borrowing from friends, he always put his unique imprint on all he did. Had a particular affinity for adopted “sons,” in his ongoing father fantasies, and became particularly infatuated with the doomed teenage writer, Raymond Radiguet (Patti Smith), serving as his lover/mentor, until the latter’s late conversion to heterosexuality. Devastated when RR died at 20, in 1923, he turned to opium, and then briefly Catholicism, before swallowing his loss. Continued with his drug addiction for the rest of his life, while trying to turn everything he touched and consumed into capital ‘A’ art. A deft showman, he viewed himself as an ongoing performance piece. Took his first shot at filmmaking in 1930, with Blood of a Poet, which was looked on as self-centered and pretentious, as was most of his personal work. Best known for Beauty and the Beast, an imagistic retelling of the famous fairy tale, released in 1945, as well as his Orpheus dramas, both earlier staged and later filmed. Used his lover, Jean Marais, in almost all of his films, while also writing screenplays for other directors, and transposing his own stagework to the silver screen. By the time he became an international figure, he allowed himself to be swamped by celebrity, as well as the need to constantly produce in a whole variety of modes, which dulled his discrimination, blunted his standards and fed into his ongoing insecurities, although he never stopped working. Still capable of producing cogent work, on occasion, he, nevertheless, let the larger world pass him by, so that his influence was on the wane by the time WW II finished playing out. Considered himself apolitical during the fray, although curried favor with German literary salons and artists, as a way of avoiding French Nazis, and getting invited to the best parties during the Occupation. Produced a couple of out-of-the-ordinary films afterwards, and issued more writings, then spent his final decade as a guest of a wealthy patroness, who also gave shelter to the last of his adopted “sons,” Edouard Dermit, who became his heir. Died of a heart attack. Inner: Flamboyant and febrile, but subject to mood swings, thanks to an inability to transmute loss into healthy grieving emotion. Probably felt that he should focus on one discipline the next time around, so as not to dissipate his talents. Prodigious pen lifetime of playing father to everything and everyone younger than himself, until the world grew past him, and he came to be regarded by the vanguard as passe, despite leaving a memorable legacy that, upon occasion, touched on the brilliant. Benjamin Haydon (1786-1846) - English artist and writer. Outer: Mother was the daughter of a priest and sister of a general, father was a prosperous printer, stationer and publisher. An only son, he decided on becoming a painter early on. Showed a good aptitude for study, and briefly flirted with medicine as a career, before the gory sight of an operation permanently squelched that ambition. Resumed his desire to become a great his/storical painter, and moved to London in 1804, in order to enter the Royal Academy, where Henry Fuseli (David Cronenberg) was one of his teachers. Spent long days painting, and always prayed earnestly over each of his endeavors, convinced God had a personal stake in his success. Exhibited his first work at the Academy at 21, and began receiving commissions. Fell out with the Academy in 1809, after it hung one of his works in a sideroom and began taking on pupils the same year. From the age of 24 onwards, when his allowance from home was suspended, he lived a largely unstable life, occasionally producing a picture of note, while getting himself deeper and deeper into debt. Extremely social, he consorted with London’s literary and poetic elite, although alienated many of them with his constant importuning for money. Used Biblical themes in his storytelling canvases, but his ineptitude with money affected both his work and his ability to produce. Took a trip to Paris to study at the Louvre, and on his return, he was arrested, although not imprisoned for debt. Tried to set up a school to rival the Royal Academy in 1820, and the following year, he married Mary Hyman, a beautiful Jewish widow with three children, to whom he proved devoted. Two years later, he was imprisoned for debt, during which time he petitioned the government for money to decorate churches and public buildings with appropriate his/story paintings to underline their significance. Toured the country and lectured around that idea, visiting all of England and Scotland’s principle cities, only to wind up in prison again in 1827, where one of his works was bought by George IV (Warren Beatty). On his release, he continued his touring and lecturing. Published a well-regarded autobiography, and kept a lively journal of his times, while continuing to be beset by financial problems via his unsuccessful exhibitions. While working on a large painting, he shot himself, and when the act failed in its intent, he slit his throat. The subsequent coroner’s jury issued a verdict of insanity over the act. Inner: Conceited to the point of derangement. Passionate, perverse, and persevering, even when his realities were nowhere near his fantasies. Won as many enemies as friends, and had little real sense of his true place in the world. Indelibly optimistic lifetime of overestimating his gifts, and underestimating the world’s resistance to them, thanks to a supercilious belief in his special status in God’s good graces and a total lack of understanding of how to provide for providence’s unpredictable vagaries. Jan Brueghel (1568-1625) - Flemish artist. Outer: Father was artist Pieter Brueghel (Terence Malick), who died when his son was one. Mother was the daughter of his father’s teacher. Younger brother of Pieter Brueghel II (David Cronenberg). Had a sister as well. His mother died when he was 10, and he and his siblings were raised by his maternal grandmother, Mayken Bessemers, who was a miniaturist. The family moved to Antwerp soon afterwards, and he studied under the latter. Began with storytelling canvases inspired by scripture. Went to Italy for seven years between 1589 and 1596, working in Naples, Rome and Milan, where he gained a cardinal as his patron. Returned to Amsterdam, where he worked closely in collaboration with Peter Paul Rubens (Louis Malle) and other Flemish masters. A fashion plate, he dressed in velour, which gave him the nickname of “Velvet” Brueghel, while he focused on landscapes, still lifes, and flower compositions, working on wood as well as canvas. While his brother aped his father in both subject matter and style, he developed more of a feminine sensibility, ultimately abandoning any sense of storytelling for the pure esthetics of composition via flora and still-lives. Married Isabella de Jode, the daughter of an engraver, and had two sons, Jan and Ambrosius, who took the family tradition into yet another generation as their progeny carrying their famous name into the 18th century, while his daughter Anna married painter David Teniers the Younger (Andrew Wyeth). In 1610, he became court painter of the Spanish governor of the Netherlands. Both well-to-do and respected, he owned several homes in Antwerp, as well as an extensive art collection. Died from cholera. Inner: Well-socialized, materialistic and adept at realizing his various ambitions. Velvet overground lifetime of making his will manifest, before returning to do quite the opposite, via an overinflated view of his abilities and a distorted view of his true place in the divine scheme of things.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS MAESTRO OF THE MIDAS TOUCH:
Storyline: The prospector painter continually goes for the gold in his equal abilities at self-promotion and touching on the collectible tastes of the wealthy, while trying to expand his sensibilities in order to mine his own considerable talent for self-expression.

Julian Schnabel (1951) - American artist and filmmaker. Outer: Mother was an art enthusiast, father was a Czech immigrant with a rudimentary education, who became a meat wholesaler. Very close to the former, who fawned over him and encouraged his development as an artist. The youngest of 3, by 9 years, he had a middle-class Jewish upbringing. Chubby and high-strung as a youngster, with an obsession about art, which he would see as central to his existence. At 14, the family moved to Brownsville, Texas, where his father went into the resale clothing business. Extremely isolated as a teenager, he went on to become a fine arts major at the Univ. of Houston, while working at a topless bar, designing the breasts of the dancers. 5’8” and husky. Moved to NY in the early 70s, and completed his education with the Whitney Independent Study Program, while throwing himself into the artistic social life of the city and earning the rep as a pushy, but talented young painter, who used sculptural devices to ornament his free-flow work. As such, he quickly became a central figure in NYC’s SoHo artistic scene. Began to be noticed by the late 70s, while his unique sculptural style brought him his first show at decade’s end. After his 2nd European trip, he married Jacqueline Beaurang, a Belgian film stylist, in 1980, one son and two daughters from the union, including daughter Lola, a photographer, sculptor and artist. Became the dominant young artist of his generation over the next decade, showing himself to be extremely prolific, while expanding his oeuvre to encompass a far wider range of styles as he experimented with novel materials. Became a millionaire, with a worldwide clientele, as his busy life and his need for control grew far too much for his wife, and his marriage fell apart. Took up with a Parisian fashion model, Olatz Lopez Garmendia, whom he eventually married, twin sons from the union. Used painting to restore his sense of self, and developed a softer palette and a less masculine tone to his work, while searching far more for self-expression, and less for universal acceptance. In the 1990s, as a longtime cinephile, he turned to film as a natural extension of his artistic expression, directing Basquiat, a look at the flame-out artist who was consumed by his own struggles with fame and fortune, and followed that up with Night Must Fall, on the equally self-destructive Cuban writer Reinaldo Arenas, garnering considerable praise for the latter. Won a Best Director award at Cannes for his next effort, Le Scaphandre et le Papillon (The Diver and the Butterfly), about a man helplessly trapped in his own immobile body and reviewing his life, which was shot entirely in French, a language he had to learn. Ended his marriage in 2008, and took up with Rula Jebreal, a Palestinian over two decades his junior, and filed Miral, a look at a half century in the hard lives of Palestinian women, based on her autobiography, which drew both praise and flack for its anti-Isaeli slant, as he continues exploring the various media available to him, with his own supreme sense of self undiminished by the good or bad reception he receives. Eventually split with his inamorata for someone over thirty years his junior, May Andersen, a Danish supermodel, with whom he had a son. Inner: Egotistical, cocky and confident with more than his share of chutzpah. Generous, competitive, opinionated and domineering with a white-knight sense of himself as champion of current tastes. Loves being the spoke of a crowded wheel, issuing orders to keep things rolling. A mother’s kisses lifetime of breaking through his previous self-limiting barriers of success at all artistic costs to discover the superior artist within that was there for the prospecting all along. Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) - German/American artist. Outer: Father was a cooper. Brother Charles became a photographer. Taken to America at 2, where his progenitor made barrels for the whaling trade. Received a grammar school education and decided in his early 20s to study in Germany to become a painter. Handsome, distinguished and polished. Studied art for 4 years in Dusseldorf and Rome in the mid-1850s, then returned to America, with a distinctly European sensibility, proving himself an apt, albeit conventional artist. Went out West in 1859 with a survey party, which changed his entire career. It would subsequently be built on the unusual sense of light that the great outdoors could afford him, as he became the founder of the Rocky Mountain school of American art. Focused on the dramatic in nature, with histrionic weather and sunsets, as well as a manipulation of detail in order to present his subject matter in highly operatic fashion, while always looking for exaggerated grandeur in order to justify his exaggerated prices, which were the largest paid to an American artist up to that time. Built a grand house for himself in Tarrytown, NY, while pursuing politicians, magnates, institutions and princes as he maintained a large studio and a lavish lifestyle. Eschewed any sense of the real by exaggerating everything in his landscapes, so that they were dramatically composed from foreground to background, without giving the eye any natural rest. Never taken seriously by the critics, but he preferred the critical acclaim of fat wallets to the opinions of posterity. On his second trip, he fell in love with Rosalie Osbourne, his traveling companion’s wife, who promptly divorced her husband, thanks to a substance abuse problem he had, and they married in 1886. At the same time, he began painting the animals of North America and in 1887 he traveled to Spain and then the West Indies in order to do a series on the discovery of America. His wife died in 1893 and the following year, he married a widow. Eventually fell out of favor with his American compatriots, although continued to be supported by his European clientele, and was subsequently viewed as a turgid painter of monumental emptiness. Inner: Highly ambitious, with the ability to command huge sums for his work, thanks to a talent for self-promotion, and the ability to capitalize on artistic currents of the day. Opportunistic lifetime of discovering gold in the golden west and riding it for all it was worth to him, in an unvarnished go-round of prospecting rather than painting. Anton Raphael Mengs (1728-1779) - German artist. Outer: Son of a distinguished Dresden miniaturist, under whom he studied. His father took him to Rome at the age of 14, where he copied frescoes by Raphael (Pablo Picasso) in miniature for the elector of Saxony. Appointed painter at 23 to the Saxon court, where the king supported his further artistic education, he did portraits, his/storical works and religious subjects. Returned to Rome in 1751, where he settled and became a close friend of J.J. Winckelmann, an art critic. Following the latter’s ideas, he became the leading practitioner of neoclassicism, which he wrote about, exerting considerable influence through his theories, creating a widespread revival of classicism, according to the Roman model. His masterwork was “Parnassus,” which created a sensation when it was exhibited. Worked in Naples and Madrid, decorating royal palaces while being well-paid for his labors. Chief rival of Giovanni Tiepolo (Pablo Picasso) while he was there. Ended his career in Rome. Inner: Far more the intellectual than the emotional artist, with little warmth or originality in his work, despite his technical and compositional skills. Expatriate lifetime of championing a new style of art and achieving great material success through it, both as a theoretician and a practitioner, while opting for the gold in his primary motivation for self-expression, in his ongoing earlier pattern of playing to aristocratic tastes rather than exploring himself more deeply as an artist.

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