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ARTISTS - ENGLISH & AMERICAN PAINTERS, FILMMAKERS & PRE-RAPHAELITES

PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS SELF-SEEKING LANDSCAPIST:
Storyline: The turned-around traveller tries to turn the terrain around him into a veritable library of self-discovery, but usually winds up taking a different pictorial pathway from the one he initially chose in order to find his true self, despite his ongoing fame and fortune from the seemingly wrong road taken.

Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975) - American artist. Outer: Named for his great uncle Thomas Hart Benton (Harry S. Truman), a famous Missouri senator. His mother was nearly two decades younger than her husband, an elegant, high-strung commanding woman, who came to loathe her spouse, who was a squat, hard-drinking populist lawyer and 4 term Congressman who called himself the “Little Giant of the Ozarks,” and thought artists were pantywaists. The duo were known as Beauty and the Beast in Washington, and waged a continual tug-of-war over their son, largely looking at their other three progeny as afterthoughts. Took his mother’s side when his parents inevitably separated, while following her dictum he become an artist, much to his sire’ chagrin. Spent his youth shuttling between Missouri and Washington, D.C., while reveling in all the attention given him by his feuding folks. Under 5’3”, but extremely macho, he often got into fist-fights as a young man. After working as a cartoonist for a Missouri paper, he was educated at the Art Institute of Chicago, one of whom tried to seduce him, then went to Paris at 19 to continue his studies, where he lived a bohemian life and experimented with modernism for 5 years. All of his initial teacher were gay, with one trying to seduce him. Grew a beard and had a mistress, but his mother eventually brought him home. Moved to NYC, where he struggled to find his artistic style, working in all sorts of modes, while having some difficulty in reclaiming himself as an American. Served in the Navy at the end of WW I, which freed him from romantic illusion and grounded him as an artist, thanks to his realistic depictions of his no-nonsense surroundings. In his mid-30s, he married Rita Piacenza, an Italian immigrant and initially one of his students, son and daughter from the union, with his wife initially working as a hat designer to help support them. Turned to cartoonish realism, and, during the Depression, he became the most famous artist in America through his mural work of Indiana life, which was exhibited at the Century of progress exhibition in 1933 in Chicago. Controversy surrounding his unflattering portrayals landed him on the cover of Time magazine in 1934, which cemented his reputation. Fascinated with epic paintings of his/story, and an inveterate note-taker and sketcher, he compiled mountains of information for each of his works. Taught at the Art Student’s League in NYC, where Jackson Pollack was one of his primary students, with both learning from one another. Also taught in Kansas, while continuing his mural work on public buildings in the midwest. Worked on the Harry S. Truman presidential library, beginning in 1960, and became friends with him, in an odd crypto-linkage with his karmic namesake. Came to be an American icon of the rough-hewn artist, parlaying an aggressive personality with a sure sense of story-telling design. Died of heart disease after collapsing in his studio, with his brush still in his hand, in an ironic play on the bridge linkage of his middle name. Ten weeks later, his beloved wife followed him. Inner: Stubborn, cocksure of himself, and an inveterate talker, who considered himself a genius, and loved being a public figure. Homophobic in extremis, feeling they were all hellbent on destroying him, thanks to his father’s obsession with the subject. Performance artist lifetime of drawing all his interests and painterly skills together, along with a personality of self-appreciation that would assure him a controversial, yet acceptable place in the art of his time. Thomas Cole (1801-1848) - English/American artist. Outer: Father was a woolen manufacturer with fine tastes but poor business abilities. Wanted his son to be a lawyer or iron manufacturer to compensate for his own financial failings. Became an engraver, instead, of simple designs for a calico factory. An omnivorous reader, he became enchanted by America through the printed word. Sailed there at 17 with his family, and stayed in Philadelphia. Trained by an itinerant portrait painter, who taught him European traditions, then studied at the Pennsylvania Acad. of Fine Arts. Really wanted to be a his/story painter in the elevated European tradition, but American his/story offered far less potential to him, so he turned to the land, studying it under great physical hardship. Pale, medium height, with light blue eyes. Became a fulltime painter in 1823, against his father’s wishes. His landscapes impressed Asher Durand (Ansel Adams), who bought some, assuring him of a successful career. In his mid-30s, he married Marie Bartow, and settled on the western bank of the Hudson River in upper New York state, to become the dean of the Hudson River school of landscape painters, preferring the genre since he had difficulty with human figures. Journeyed by foot in the Northeast, making pencil sketches, then did studio studies of his vast array of notes and drawings. Went to Italy, as well as England and France in his late 20s and early 40s for several years. Probably always felt out of place as an American, despite his affinity for the country’s powerful terrain. In later life, he painted several storytelling series, limning infancy to old age in one, and an allegoric progression of humankind in another. Died of an inflammation of the lungs. Inner: Strong moralist, both dramatic and nostalgic in his works, which spoke of both loneliness and mystery. Felt God spoke through nature, and always made his human figures completely subservient to their vast surroundings. Longed for a quieter, more civilized age, and hated the desecration of the American interior by settlers. Evangelical, anti-democratic conservative, with a sense of white superiority. Excellent gift of observation, with a realist’s eye. Deeply imbued with a sense of pessimistic nostalgia, living in a country with a past to which he could not relate. Fish-out-of-water lifetime of combining his dark vision of humanity with the uplifting light of nature. Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) - English artist. Outer: Youngest of 9 children, his mother was a skilled flower-painter and encouraged her son’s artistic abilities, while his father was a manufacturer of woolen goods, and a dissenter by religious persuasion. Constantly sketching as a child and youth, until he was allowed to study art and etching in London for 3 years, although was largely self-taught as well as particularly inspired by Dutch landscape art. Tall and handsome. At 19, after painting her portrait, he married Margaret Burr, the illegitimate teenage daughter of a duke, with an annual annuity of £200, then settled in Ipswich as a portrait and landscape painter. Also an amateur music-maker. His first painting of note was inspired by Jacob Ruisdael, an earlier life of his. Despite a great love of landscapes, economics dictated he do portraiture, since his wife and 2 daughters had expensive tastes, requiring him to make money. Close relationship with his spouse, although one daughter, after marrying a musician he disapproved of, was subject to mental imbalance. Moved to Bath in 1759, a wealthy and fashionable resort, where his work was much in demand. Had numerous well-known sitters, from both the acting profession and of a literary bent, while he continued his musical pursuits, adding several more instruments to his repertory. Although overburdened with work, his circumstances forced him to concentrate on commercial portraiture, leaving landscape as an avocation, rather than his main vocation. The latter were never rendered directly from nature and usually clouded and sad-looking, reflecting his own frustrations at not being allowed to do what he loved best. Highly social, with a great love for theater. Became one of 36 founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, exhibiting regularly until he had a falling out over the placement of a painting and never showed there again after 1784. Exhibited in his own house afterwards, to far less economical effect. Having achieved the wealth and position he sought, he moved to London in 1774 and won the favor of the royal family, painting the king 3 times, as well as many state and cultural figures, while continuing to do landscapes in his spare time. Particularly good portraitist of women, while always experimenting and playing with new techniques. Extremely well thought of both during his career and afterwards, as the pre-eminent portraitist of his time, despite his resistance to the genre. His most famous painting was of a young neighbor, “The Blue Boy,” painted around 1770. While sitting at the trial of former India governor-general, Warren Hastings, he felt a chill at the back of his neck, which was a harbinger of a fatal cancer, to which he succumbed several months later. On his deathbed, he sought a reconciliation with his longtime rival Joshua Reynolds (Tony Richardson). Inner: Inventive and original. Warm-hearted, generous and independent, although easily irritated. Voluble, witty, but not particularly learned. Extremely visually oriented, he always went for truthful likeness in his portraiture, although made his subjects look good as well. Thwarted lifetime of compromising his real painterly love, and oddly creating his most memorable artistic life in the process. Jacob Van Ruisdael (c1628-1682) - Dutch artist. Outer: Son of an artist, frame-maker and art dealer, under whom he probably initially studied. Trained by his uncle, Salomon Ruysdael (Ansel Adams), a well-known landscape painter. Traveled extensively in the Netherlands and western Germany, finally settling in Amsterdam, where he became a close friend of Meindert Hobbema (Edward Hopper). Became the first Netherlander to use landscape as an expression of his moods, transliterating his interior into the outdoor scenes he portrayed. Particularly fascinated with trees, which became a personality focus for his paintings. Always a precise draftsman, he began working larger and larger, with massive forms and vibrant colors. After his late 20s, his compositions were more spacious and his colors became brighter. Never married. Made a medical doctor 6 years before his death, and set up a practice in Amsterdam. Found few buyers for his masterpieces, however, and wound up in ill-health, ending his life in a poorhouse, despite being the finest landscape painter of his particular school. Inner: Detail-oriented, and highly-personalized in his work, sacrificing commerciality for self-search through his work. Principled lifetime of painting for self-expression, rather than a ready market, and suffering mightily for it at life’s near end, causing him to opt for more compromised pathways in his later lives in this series. Albrecht Altdorfer (c1480-1538) - German artist. Outer: Little known of his early years. Father and brother were both artists, probably trained with the former. Spent most of his life in Regensburg, as a primary member of the Danube school of painting. Held city offices there from 1519 to 1535, including the post of city architect. One of the first Europeans to paint landscapes totally divorced from human subjects. Particularly liked sheltered places in forests of tall trees, and picturesque ruins. Sensitive to the dramatic effects of light, as well as the total effect of his pictures. Also did religious works, while integrating his figures into their landscape or architectural backgrounds for the over-all effect of his paintings. Inner: Deeply spiritual and self-reflective. Well grounded lifetime of opening up the European eye to the presence of God and self in nature, as well as serving as a guiding spirit for his generation of German artists.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS ENERGETIC EYE:
Storyline: The intrepid globe-trotter switches her focus from intense competitive self-involvement to limning the world’s dispossessed in dramatic graphic fashion.
Erin Currier (1975) - American artist. Outer: Grew up rurally, and was introduced to drawing, painting and collage by her mother at a very young age. Her implements were more than enough to satisfy her while growing up, as she assumed the stance of class artist in school. Received a BFA in costume design and technical theater at the College of Art in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and the state would become her base. At century’s turn, she began doing Buddhist deities while working as a waitress in Taos, using scraps of tossed-away packaging for her collage canvases, while teaching herself Tibetan thankga, or deific portraiture, which opened her up to socio-political themes. Sensitive to the plight of the displaced, she eventually decided to dedicate her artistic life to limning them, showing the inherent beauty in struggle among the planet’s dispossessed. Became the first artist and US citizen to have a solo show at the Embassy Republica Bolivaria de Venezuela in Washington DC, while also enjoying considerable early success, with her works collected by celebrities. Partnered with the somewhat older Anthony Hassett, a writer, poet and artist, who often accompanies her on her travels, which have taken her all over the globe, in her never-ending curiosity about its endless panoply of unheralded citizens. Her trips, in turn, are financed by her art sales, so that she is able to continually integrate her economics with her output, without having to depend on other sources of income. Inner: Humble yet quite confident in her mission to give pictorial honor to those exploited and repressed by the power structures of their nations. Uses consumer waste as her material, recycling the trash of others into the collages and canvases she employs for the transformative art at the heart of her work. Despite a dissimilarity of focus as her previous incarnation in this series, she holds a similar fascination with self-portraiture, although uses it to limn her progress over the years, rather than as pure self-celebration. Emphasizes and identifies with the people she portrays, seeing the inherent beauty in struggle, resistance and defiance. Keeps detailed journals around her observations and inner thoughts, so as to be constantly talking to herself through whatever material she employs. Refocused lifetime of feeling far less need to concentrate on personal power and far greater desire to try to give visual testimony to the disempowered. Margaret Bourke-White (1906-1971) - American photographer. Outer: Mother was the daughter of a drunken Irish ship’s carpenter. A perfectionist, who had trained as a stenographer, she taught her daughter that fear was not an option in her life, while involving herself in publications for the blind. Father was a designer, inventor, amateur photographer and naturalist, who came from an Orthodox Jewish family. Both parents were Ethical Culturalist, and ran an austere household. One of 3 children, with an older sister and younger brother. Awkward as a teen, she brought a puff adder to school to call attention to herself, and spent the rest of her life creating self-myths. Went to Columbia Univ. and studied engineering and biology, before switching to photography, initially using a second-hand camera with a broken lens that her mother had purchased for her for $20. Married Everett Chapman, an engineering student, in 1925, but divorced him the following year, to continue her studies in photography, which she completed at Cornell Univ., where she got a degree in biology, while working as a photographer. Attractive and stylish. Became a freelancer in Cleveland, where she indulged in her fascination with machinery and heavy industry. At the same time she added her mother’s maiden name to her own. Moved to NYC in 1929, and was selected by publisher Henry Luce to do the first cover of Fortune magazine, becoming the first staff photographer for it, while also working in advertising, making a tidy fortune for herself in the latter. Made the first of several trips to the USSR in 1930, and was jolted into a realization of human suffering during an assignment in 1934 to photograph drought-stricken farmers in the Midwest, which changed her orientation. Did some of her finest work for Luce’s Life magazine, beginning with that publication’s initial issue in 1936, as one of its four initial photographers, and wound up with its first cover to her credit. Enjoyed the subsequent fame and name she established for herself, and wound up publishing a book following each of her major assignments. Alternated between the roles of gritty photographer by day and sleek glamourpuss by night. Produced “You Have Seen Their Faces” in 1937 with writer Erskine Caldwell, photographing rural poverty in the South. Moved in with him afterwards, even though he was wed at the time, and in 1942, she officially married him, only to divorce again 1945, but not before doing several more books together. During WW II, she returned to Moscow to cover the German air attack, and became the first woman combat photographer, on both the Italian and German fronts. Slept in muddy trenches and learned how to bathe out of her helmet, while risking life and limb for the photos she wanted, although she was viewed as imperious and calculating by her fellow male competitiors. Also one of the first to photograph the concentration camps, when the U.S. liberated them. Unlike her compatriots and their 35 mm camera, she used heavyweight equipment, which men, including generals, would eagerly tote for her. Following the war, she went to India, where she photographed and interviewed Mohandas Gandhi minutes before his assassination, then went on to South Africa and Korea, where she suffered a fall, and was diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease afterwards, which forced her into retirement in 1957, and caused her a slow paralyzing death. Penned her autobiography, “Portrait of Myself,” which became a bestseller, during her decline, although she burned her diaries before her death, at which time she was reduced to just blinking her eyes for communication Inner: Difficult, highly ambitious, with a driving sense of perfection. Highly competitive, fearless, stylish, manipulative, impatient, and irksome to many fellow photographers, who also resented her success, as well as her commanding presence. Pack rat, saved everything but her diaries. Extremely concerned with image, both hers, and those on other side of the lens. Uppity woman lifetime of wedding herself to her work, before her rigidity forced a long, slow reassessment of herself in a fading body which denied her the very essense of her existence. Eadweard Muybridge (Edward James Muggeridge) (1830-1904) - English/American photographer. Outer: From a family that had a stationary and papermaking business in London. Recreated his name to reflect its Anglo-Saxon root. Began his working life in the family business, then emigrated to the United States from England in his early 20s, with his 2 younger brothers. Hustled and huckstered his way through several professions, including book importer, before finding photography to his liking, and subsequent fame from his photographs of Yosemite Valley in California. Possibly suffered brain damage in a stagecoach accident when it hit a tree in Texas in 1860. Underwent medical treatment in NYC and London the following year, then sat out the Civil War, before re-emerging in San Francisco, as a photographer who signed his work, “Helios.” Began experimenting with photographic motion, when he was hired by Leland Stanford (Ronald Reagan) in 1872 to photographically prove that a horse had all 4 legs off the ground when running, creating, in the process, the very first motion picture. Married Flora Stone, a divorcee half his age, at the same time, and, after believing their subsequent son was fathered by Major Harry Larkyns, accosted, shot and killed him. In the sensational trial which followed, he was acquitted on grounds of justifiable homicide after discovering the infidelity through an inscription on the back of a photograph. Divorced and traveled afterwards for a number of years in Mexico and Central America, taking publicity wet plates for the Union Pacific Railroad, to which Stanford was connected. Resumed the original project and took trip release pictures with a series of cameras to prove the point. Gave lectures with a Zoöpraxiscope, which he invented, projecting images on a screen in rapid succession, which would be another forerunner of filmmaking. Under the auspices of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he took thousands of photographs of humans in simple motion, both clothed and naked, for the use of both artists and scientists. His most important work was Animal Locomotion, 11 volumes of 100,000 photos taken over a 13 year period. Did little photography the last decade of his life, and died while digging a miniature scale reproduction of the Great Lakes in his garden. Inner: Eccentric, cantankerous, glum and obsessive. Fixative fixated lifetime of turning his longtime fascination with movement and biology into directly capturing action through the immediacy of photography, while acting out his violent interior, and being excused for his excesses. George Stubbs (1724-1806) - English artist. Outer: From a prosperous family of Liverpool leather merchants. Father was a tanner. As a child, he dissected horses and dogs, while working in his father’s shop. Also made drawings from bones lent to him by a local doctor. Later served separate apprenticeships of both drawing and dissecting, after moving to York, where he lectured to students at York Hospital. Objected to copying pictures as a means of learning, and was largely self-taught afterwards. Given the body of a 110 year old woman by the town surgeon, which he dissected and drew. Visited Italy in 1754, and between 1756 and 1758, he dissected horses at a farmhouse, with the help of his future wife, Mary Spencer. Son from union became an engraver and printmaker. Rigged up pulleys for their bodies, and worked inward from the skin to the skeleton, which he compiled in his monumental, “Anatomy of a Horse,” bringing it out in 1766, after engraving his own plates. Settled in London, and established himself as a portrait painter. Painted the great racehorses of his time and the families that owned them, putting them in placid landscapes as counterpoint to their beasts’ dramatic physicality. Little really known about his personal life, save for his output. Carefully planned out all his works, to such extent they seem surreal, and had a great skill at producing exact likenesses of all his subjects. Was probably the greatest horse painter who ever lived, but eventually was pigeonholed as such, and fell out of favor, particularly with the critics, thanks to a frozen, distant view of his subject matter. Spent the rest of his life on an exhaustive series of studies comparing the anatomies of a man, a tiger and a hen, leaving that work unfinished at his death. Inner: Cranky, obsessive, experimental. Analytical anatomist’s lifetime of searching for perfection in his rendering of the animal kingdom, while exhibiting all his imperfections in dealing with humans. Paulus Potter (1625-1654) - Dutch artist. Outer: Son of a painter, from whom he probably received his early training. Entered the Guild of St. Luke in Delft, then moved to the Hague, where he enjoyed the patronage of the prince of Orange and was admitted to the guild in 1647. After marrying Adriaena van Balckeneynde, the daughter of an architect, he settled permanently in Amsterdam, following a falling out with some of his fellow painters and a member of the ruling stadholder’s family. In his brief career, he focused on animals as his primary subject matter. Did numerous etchings as well, showing a simplicity and naturalness in all his works, before dying prematurely of tuberculosis. Worked continually throughout his active life, producing about 100 paintings, including his best known work, “The Bull.” Inner: Deep love and understanding of nature. Brief lifetime of capturing the natural kingdom on canvas precisely as he saw it, in preparation for a far more eccentric set of go-rounds pursuing the emotions behind his fascination with motion.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS POLYMATHIC PATERFAMILIAS:
Storyline: The eclectic exhibitionist employs his fascination with information as a tool for exploration and self-exploration, while serving as teacher, seducer and exemplar of the newest forms of technology in his ongoing role as patriarchal craftsman supreme.

Matthew Barney (1967) - American video artist and sculptor. Outer: Mother was an abstract painter, father worked as an administer of a catering service. One older sister. The family moved when he was 6, from San Francisco to Boise, Idaho. Parents divorced when he was 12, and he stayed with his father in Idaho, but visited his mother in NYC regularly, becoming familiar with the contemporary art scene there. Medium height, and blue-eyed. Good athlete, although too small for big time college football. Went to Yale Univ. where he majored in art and paid his way through college by working as a model for 5 years. 6’. Came to see his body as one of his artistic tools, and used himself as a work of art, with one of his earlier videos showing him climbing up and down a pole while applying Vaseline to his naked orifices. Quickly became an artistic phenomenon, after his first exhibitionist exhibition in West Hollywood in 1991. Focused initially on gender-bending sexuality, sports and fashion, before expanding his imagistic sensibilities to include landscapes, his/storical characters and elaborate set-ups. Married Mary Farley, a forensic psychologist whom he met while she worked for an art gallery. Began producing a series of numbered films with the common title of Cremaster, which is the muscle that raises and lowers testicles to respond to temperatures. The 5 films, which run over 6 hours, and were shot between 1994 and 2002, became increasingly more expensive and elaborate, and, in turn, spawned sculptures, photographs and books, aided by his assistants, while establishing him as one of the most influential artists of his generation. Appears in all his films, sometimes naked, sometimes in elaborate costumes, as he explores his own story, his fantasies, and detritus from pop culture and his/story, piling image upon image to create an ambiguous sense of the abstract visual nature of existence. Hooked up with Icelandic singer, Bjork, in an intensely private relationship, one child from union. Duo eventually settled in New Jersey. After being quiescent for several years, he made a movie with her, Drawing Restraint 9, once more turning his ongoing life into fodder for film. Inner: Charming, charismatic, intense and soft-spoken. Friendly, detached and extremely analytic, with a fascination about restraint. Private, chameleonic, hard-working, preferring to express his interior through his work rather than his relationships. Exhibitionistic lifetime of employing his polymathic sensibilities in the service of his own ongoing exploration of himself through art, moving easily from his past mastery of the tools at his behest into the Information Age and all its advanced toys of expression. Edward Weston (1886-1958) - American photographer. Outer: Father was a skilled mechanic, carpenter and factory hand. Received his first camera from him at 16. Worked as an errand boy and salesman for Marshall Field & Co., spending his spare time taking photos in Chicago parks. His career began with the purchase of a postcard camera, traveling door-to-door, taking personal pictures. Got a job retouching negatives in Los Angeles, and in 1909, married Flora May Chandler, a school-teacher, who supported the family for a while, 4 sons from the union, including Brett, a photographer, and Cole, a noted snap-shooter and master printer as well, who labored as his father’s assistant. Worked his way up from darkroom assistant to full-fledged photographer, building his own studio in a tiny shack, and becoming a successful portraitist. Loathed retouching photos, which was the custom at time, and his later works all were directly photographic, with no negative artifice to them. Began sending his pictures out, and developed an international reputation, becoming the only Californian exhibited at the London salon. Maintained a dual life of middle-class clientele and bohemian friends. Discovered expressionism and symbolism, as well as Freud, and his pictures became hard-edged with an extreme clarity to them. Although attached to his sons, he detached quickly from his wife, having affairs galore with models, assistants and female disciples. Went to New York and was singularly impressed with Alfred Stieglitz (Steven Soderbergh), then moved to Mexico for several years, which opened him up tremendously. Involved with photographer Tina Modotti (Ana Mendieta) during this period, but returned to his family in 1926. Traveled up and down the California coast, married again, to an 18 year old, Charis, nearly thirty years his junior, who much later wrote a loving memoir of their life together, although he eventually left her for an even younger woman. The singular constant in his life was his photography, all else, save his sons, was secondary. Became the first photographer to win a Guggenheim fellowship. Developed Parkinson’s Disease, which made photography impossible, so that his last studies were made in 1948, although his work had descended into morbidity and eccentricity by then, and he died in his own home a decade later from the disease. Left an impressive body of unique work, with close-ups of vegetables and seashells, as well as nudes, and finally passed on from Parkinson’s disease. Inner: Restless philanderer, with an equal desire to discover visual truths. Chilly and self-absorbed, although able to inspire admiration from those close to him. Self-involved in extremis lifetime of pioneering in a new art field, and fully exploring the freedom of his wandering and astute eye. Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) - American artist, inventor, silversmith, polymath, and naturalist. Outer: Father was a schoolmaster, who had been convicted of forgery and embezzlement in England, and sentenced to hang, only to be pardoned on condition he emigrate to America, which he did, a circumstance his son never knew. One of five children, including a brother, James, who also became a painter. Grew up in an environment where learning and practicality were valued. His sire died when he was 9, leaving the family in dire straits, so that he was forced to apprentice to a saddle-maker at 13, while his mother took in needlework. Slender, with a long nose. Worked as a saddle-maker, coach-maker, silversmith, watchmaker and dentist but his revolutionary activities offended his loyalist creditors, so that he traded a saddle for a few painting lessons, and became a portrait painter, working in the tradition of primitive nativist. Met his future wife, Rachel Brewer, when he was 18 and she 15, and gave her an hour to make up her mind in a lightening proposal, which thoroughly flummoxed her, but gave indication of his own impulsiveness. Several years later, in 1762, he married her and together they had ten children, naming several of them after famous Renaissance artists, including Raphael, Rembrandt, Rubens and Titian, and each became a lesser artistic light in his own right. After studying with John Singleton Copley (Stanley Kubrick) in Boston, he was sent by a group of wealthy Marylanders to London in 1767 to study with Benjamin West (Steven Soderbergh), and on his return, 2 years later, he became a leading portrait painter of the colonies. Moved to Philadelphia, which became his home, and fought in the Continental Army during the American Revolution, taking vigorous part in several campaigns and eventually rising to the rank of captain. Continued painting while in the field, carrying both a musket and a palette, doing miniatures of Continental Army officers, as well as 60 portraits of Gen. George Washington (George Marshall), over the course of his life. Friendly with most of the great figures of the period, he also did several other luminaries of the Revolutionary era. Served in the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1779 for a session, then had a breakdown of sorts, which lasted two years and ended his career as soldier and politician and he returned to painting full time. In 1791, a year after his wife’s death, he married a second time, to Elizabeth DePeyster, a New Yorker, 7 more children from the union, several of whom he began naming after scientists, until his wife demanded a plain old Elizabeth for their next daughter. His spouse would eventually die in childbed, with his 18th issue. His household also included offspring of his brother and sister, as well as numerous transients, including future inventor Robert Fulton (Gordon Parks). Other relatives would be added to the mix, which come to include bears, birds and snakes, as well as an elk and a five-legged cow with two tails. Indulgent and impartial as a father, he was quite progressive in his medical stances, while showing himself to be quite sparing in his own habits. Held women in high esteem, and had a great need for their companionship. Along with his progeny, he established a natural his/story museum in Philadelphia, which became the prototype for further museums as well. Managed to assemble over 100,000 objects. His endless curiosity impelled him to investigate and display the scientific phenomenon of his day, making Philadelphia a cultural center of his time. Although modest in some arenas, he was an eager self-promoter, continually peppering the newspapers with announcements of his new projects. Organized the first U.S. scientific exhibition in 1801. In 1804, after being widowed again, he married Hannah Moore, a Quaker, who helped raise the remnants of his large brood. Managed to gain a relative level of expertise in a variety of fields, including optometry, shoemaking and taxidermy, while also penning several books in an all-around Renaissance display of scientific and artistic virtuosity. Also helped found the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Painted around 1100 portraits during his lifetime. Overstrained his heart by carrying a trunk on his back for a mile, while out courting his potential fourth wife, and died several months later, on Washington’s birthday, experimenting to the end by counting his own failing pulse. Inner: Restless, inventive, zealous, with an infinite curiosity about everything. Largely boyish in his enthusiasms, and viewed by contemporaries as someone who never really grew up. Endlessly optimistic and endlessly curious, the very personification of the new nation of his time. Classic tinkerer with the ability to construct or mend anything. Polymathic lifetime of jack-of-all-trades inventiveness and equal creativity as procreator, proprietor and portraitist. Lucas Cranach (Hans Lucas Muller) (1472-1553) - German artist. Outer: Son of a painter who also served as his teacher. Little known of his early life. Ultimately went to Vienna, where he became very ill, and reinvented himself, dropping his last name, and calling himself after his hometown. Earned the patronage of the Holy Roman Emperor, and came in contact with Viennese humanists, doing several of their portraits. Noted for his beautiful background landscapes. Appointed court painter to Friedrich the Wise (Willie Brandt) of Saxony in 1505, where he spent the rest of his career, serving 2 succeeding electors, and making Wittenberg an artistic center, attracting many young artists. Developed a style of mannered elegance to suit court tastes, and did numerous portraits, as well as Biblical and mythological scenes, with a strong Catholic emphasis in his early works. Also put the faces of his patrons in his religious paintings, to underline their own perceived sense of immortality. Held offices of councilor and burgomeister, and was always sensitive to the currents of power, and his relationship to them. A close friend of Martin Luther (Martin Luther King), he designed woodcuts for him and made engravings for some of his tracts, which were extremely useful to the Reformation. In addition, he did several portraits of him and his family, including his parents. As such, he was the first Lutheran painter doing altarpieces and paintings for Lutheran churches. A great believer in the Protestant ethic, he became the 2nd richest man in Wittenberg through a pharmacy, a printing press and as a wine salesman, as well as head of his large and productive studio. Hung out in intellectual circles, married Barbara Brengbier, a woman of noble birth and the daughter of a burgomeister, and had 2 sons who were painters, as well as 3 daughters. Ended his career by following his captured elector into the new court at Weimar, where, full of years, he died. Greatly honored afterwards. Inner: Called the swiftest of painters, working at incredible speed. Impulsively creative, rather than reflective, and always attuned to exploiting each of his situations for the most they could bring him. Pictorially perceptive, catching the humanity behind all his sitters, and unafraid of presenting them as he saw them. Pivotal his/storical point lifetime of exercising both power and painterly skills during an era of great religious upheaval, and benefiting greatly from the new work ethic of the time.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS KNOTTY NONAGENARIAN:
Storyline: The Rio Grande grande dame redesigns her visual realities into striking abstracts, while remaining flinty and aloof from ordinary intercourse in an all-out pursuit of her own private visions as a legend within her own lifetime.

Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986) - American artist. Outer: Of Hungarian Protestant on her maternal side and Irish Catholic descent on her paternal side. 2nd child and first daughter of Wisconsin farmers, who combined their two family farms following their marriage. One of 7 children all told. Her parents wanted all their children to be independent, while her aloof and aristocratic mother made it a point to expose her progeny to culture. Began taking drawing lessons with 2 sisters at the age of 10, then received her first formal art education 3 years later. The family moved to Williamsburg, Virginia when she was 14, and her father opened a grocery store, which did poorly, causing her mother to leave him, although the two eventually rejoined only to serially die, she from TB in 1916, he from an accident 2 years later. Slim and athletic, she was sent to a boarding school where she developed the affectations she would use her entire life, black, loose-fitting clothes, which contrasted sharply with the ruffles and bows of her classmates. Studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, before contracting typhoid, and, after a long convalescence, went on to the Art Student’s League in NYC, storming into Alfred Steiglitz’s (Steven Soderbergh) avant-garde gallery when she was 19, demanding to know why some of her drawings were hung without her permission. He later opined, “Finally a woman on paper,” and the duo eventually became lovers, and he was probably the only man with whom she shared sheets. Supported herself through commercial illustration initially, then abandoned art, until she began to study abstract design. In her mid-20s, she taught art in West Texas, where she came to love the stark land. Stieglitz took hundreds of photographs of her, although she refused to let his reputation influence her unique style. Discovered New Mexico in her early 30s, and began visiting in the summers, then accepted Steiglitz’s promise of financial support, and became a fulltime painter in NY. Married him when he was 60 and she was in her late 30s, after he left his wife and daughter for her. Spent increasing time away from him to pursue her own work, which would be a distinctive celebration of common forms: bones, skulls and flowers pared down to their pure design elements, and rendered in strong, clear, albeit formulaic colors. Employed strong sexual overtones to her sense of design, which became more abstract as she grew older, reflecting her own physical journey from sylph to desert sybil. Repetitive to the point of easy recognizability, she, nevertheless, staked out a stark territory of motifs and patterns that evoked fairly universal admiration. Steiglitz eventually needed an even younger woman to inspire him, which caused a nervous breakdown on her part, and the assessment on her part that he was a far better artist than human being. Moved permanently to Abiquiu, New Mexico before the death of Stieglitz, where she acted the role of grande dame, much to her neighbors displeasure. Suffered partial loss of vision in her mid-80s, and was taken care of by a younger artist in later years, before she finally died at the age of 98, as a revered national icon. A museum of her work was dedicated in Santa Fe, a decade after her demise. Created some 2300 canvases. Inner: Flinty, cantankerous, haughty, witty, with a determined sense of her own self and career. Felt “nothing is less real than realism. It is only by selection, by elimination, by emphasis, that we get at the real meaning of things.” Legendary lifetime of pursuing her own distinctive pathway to become an epic figure and highly memorable artist, rendering her inner life into her outer canvases, in most memorable fashion. Angelica Kauffman (Anna Maria Angelica Catharina Kauffman) (1741-1807) - Swiss/English/Italian painter. Outer: Only child of a minor Austrian ecclesiastical muralist and portraitist. Mother was his second wife, and died in 1757. Raised a Roman Catholic, she showed early talent in both art and music, and was recognized as a child prodigy, with a fine singing voice to complement her other abilities, forcing her to ultimately choose twixt the two for her intended career, which she did by her late teens. Had a peripatetic childhood, mostly in Italy, as her father roamed the continent in search of commissions, and she often helped him with his work. Received her first commissions for portraiture before she was 15, allowing her progenitor to later retire and manage his daughter’s finances. Gradually cut her name back to its shortened form in her signatures. Forced to learn anatomy through classical sculpture, rather than live models, as was the practice of the day, and was also fluent in four languages, which ennabled her to become a European painter, with the entire western part of the continent at her behest. Painted in the rococo style early in her career, then, after a return trip to Italy, became influenced by the neoclassical style of A.R. Mengs (Julian Schnabel). Given membership in a number of Italian academies, she was also popular with English tourists in Italy. Accompanied the wife of the English ambassador to London in 1766, and was well-received there, allowing her to move in the highest circles. The following year, she married a fraud and bigamist, the self-styled Count Frederick de Horn, who claimed to be a Swedish nobleman, but was exposed when he tried to extort money from her father, and was forced to flee the country. The union was eventually annulled by papal dispensation in 1778. Became a close friend of Joshua Reynolds (Tony Richardson), and did both portraits and self-portraits in a style reminiscent of his. A friend of Benjamin West (Alfred Stieglitz), as well, she quickly became an in-demand fashionable portrait painter. Did pastoral, literary and mythological paintings, with a focus on sentimental subject matter, but was best known for her portraits of women. In 1768, she became one of the 36 founding members of the Royal Academy, and only one of two women of the elect group. Painted many self-portraits, although as she grew older, she preferred not to age in them. In 1781, she married Venetian painter and English transplant Antonio Pietro Zucchi. Retained her own name and her wealth, and five days after the marriage, left England for good. Following her father’s death the following year, the couple retired to Rome in her early 40s, where she spent most of the rest of her life. Her husband died in 1795, and a cousin came to live with her and run her household. Received many honors, and was quite wealthy at life’s end, with her home and studio an attraction to both tourists and artists. Had few pupils, but was viewed as the unofficial head of the Roman school of painting, as well as a central figure in Roman society. Given a lavish funeral, s a much revered figure. Inner: Ambitious, materialistic, modest, charming, and well-served by the men in her life. Well-supported lifetime of establishing herself as an artist through imitation rather than unique abilities, while giving glimpse of the independent talent to come, as well as the obsessive self-involvement that often is prelude to greatness when coupled with the appropriate abilities. Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-c1656) - Italian artist. Outer: Oldest child of Orazio Gentileschi, a Baroque painter. Taught alongside her brothers, but was obviously superior to them, although she was denied access to any professional academy because of her gender. The artist Caravaggio (Jean-Luc Godard) was a family friend, and influenced her own work. An accomplished artist by her teens, she painted nudes quite like herself. Totally free-spirited, she liked to parade around the house naked. Raped in her bedroom by one of her father’s fellow painters, who was subsequently brought to trial in 1612 and found guilty, although she had to submit to a public gynecological exam in the process, and was also tortured with a thumbscrew to make sure she was telling the truth, while he only received one year of imprisonment. Her reputation as a wanton woman, however, followed her the rest of her life. Married Pierantonio Stiattesi, a family friend and an artist in an arranged union by her sire, immediately afterwards, an artist in an arranged union by her sire, immediately afterwards, and moved to Florence with her husband and father, and began painting canvases of women taking violent retribution against men, such as “Judith Decapitating Holofernes.” Most of her female protagonists looked quite like herself. Had four sons and a daughter, although only the latter survived to adulthood, and showed no discernible talent. Became the first woman accepted at Florence’s Academy of Drawing, and proved eminently successful in her career, although she and her husband were both dogged by creditors, because of a mutual inability to live within their means. Moved to Rome in 1621, and spent most the next decade there, while giving birth to another daughter. Neither of her daughters, however, would evince any artistic talent, despite her efforts at teaching them. Acclaimed throughout Europe, she was even courted by the great physicist, Galileo Galilei (Werner Heisenberg), with whom she had a long correspondence. Moved to Venice and then to Naples, before visiting her father in London in 1638, where he had become court painter to Charles I (Prince George) to help him complete a project. The following year her sire died, and she left England well before it fell into Civil War and settled for good in Naples, where she spent the rest of her life. The latter part of her life was less productive, although she was already the first woman in western art his’n’herstory to make a significant contribution to the canon of her time. Her final years are largely undocumented, although it is believed she died in a plague that had plagued Naples. Inner: Forceful, self-assured, with a desire to have complete control over her life. Felt on some level deep down she was a man, identifying with warrior figures of the past. Free-spirited lifetime of putting her inner rage on canvas, and acting out against the restrictions placed on medieval women through the sheer power of her indomitable will.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS INCREASINGLY CAUSTIC PORTRAITIST:
Storyline: The ironic commentator utilizes an empathy for lost and searching souls to fashion a telling oeuvre of displacement, while enjoying both shocking and stimulating social sensibilities through his choice of subject matter coupled with a fine eye for nuance and detail, while failing to maintain his consistency over a long career.

John Schlesinger (1926-2003) - English filmmaker. Outer: Father was a Jewish pediatrician, mother was a violinist. Parents were both amateur musicians, with his sire playing the cello. Eldest of 5, all of whom were musical. An accomplished child pianist and lifelong opera lover, as well as an amateur magician. Began making home movies at the age of 11, but felt the spectre of his successful father over him during his early schooling. Served with the Royal Engineers during WW II, and performed his magic act in the Combined Services Unit. Studied English Lit at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was active in drama, touring America his senior year in Shakespearean plays, then pursued acting in both television and film during the 1950s, touring England, Australia and New Zealand. Appeared in 5 feature films during this period. Began his directing career working for the BBC, doing several documentary series. Embarked on a commercial career after winning a prize at the Venice film festival for a documentary on London’s Waterloo station, Terminus. Established a solid reputation by portraying modern English urban life with caustic wit and a painterly style, beginning with A Kind of Loving in 1962, a gritty look at the industrial life of Northern England. Darling, a cynical chronicle of social rise, established him in 1965 as an international director of note. Best known feature was Midnight Cowboy, a bleak portrait of New York’s underside, seen through the relationship of two misfits, which won Academy Rewards for Best Picture and Best Director in 1969. Most of his work attempted to paint the corrosive interrelationships of people lost in themselves. Open about his same-sex orientation, he spent his last 36 years with a photographer. His Sunday, Bloody Sunday, featured the first commercial film kiss between 2 men in 1971. Also an acclaimed stage, TV and opera director. An ongoing fascination with American social byways proved less even, although an astute attention to detail and nuance made all his films intriguing, and kept him working into the millennium, despite a drop-off in quality in some of his works of his final 2 decades. Suffered a stroke and a triple bypass operation at century’s end, before finally succumbing to its aftereffects 3 years later. Inner: Witty, highly social, with a well-developed sense of irony, but also insecure. Considered an actor’s director. Transatlantic lifetime of combining his gift for both portraiture and telling social commentary, while trying to work out his own sense of displacement through a search for cinematic verite. John Millais (1829-1896) - English artist. Outer: Father was was the son of a lawyer and a man of independent means and amateur musician, who described himself as a gentleman. Mother was 11 years older than her husband and the daughter of a saddler, brewer and hop merchant. The widow of a draper, she had two sons from her first marriage. 3rd of 3 surviving children, with one brother becoming an artist, and a sister marrying actor Lester Wallack (Sting). Enjoyed a happy privileged upbringing, with a particular affinity for his father’s homeland, Jersey in the Channel Islands. Began his training in London at the age of 9, after his parents moved there specifically for his education. From 11 onwards, he studied at the Royal Academy where he won all the prizes. Had thick curly hair, which gave him an angelic appearance, and a handsome face. Tall, well-dressed, and manly. Founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with close friend William Holman Hunt (John Boorman) and Dante Rossetti (Brian Jones), as a protest against academic painting, and was clearly the superior artist of the three. Others soon joined to explore the tenets of the movement, which were dedicated to High Renaissance art from before the time of Raphael (Pablo Picasso). Shocked the cultural world with an irreverent painting of Jesus Christ, reducing his sacredness to the mundane. His early work was noted for its unusual composition, rich color and minute detail. In his mid-20s, he married Effie Gray Ruskin (Julie Christie), the former wife of critic John Ruskin (Kenneth Tynan), whose unconsummated union had been annulled. The couple removed to Perth for 8 years to escape the contumely surrounding their getting together. 8 children from the marriage, which caused him to paint in a broader more commercial style in order to support his burgeoning brood, who often modeled for him. Ruskin condemned the stylistic change, as did other critics with less of a personal interest in him, as well as his fellow pre-Raphaelites, who accused him of selling out. Thanks to compromising himself, his later work was less vibrant and more sentimental, including landscapes, and fashionable portraits, since he had already spent the controversial coin of his youth, and was now content to be merely acceptable in his renderings, rather than provocative. Close friend of Punch caricaturist John Leech (Harvey Kurtzman), with whom he often hunted and fished, and was devastated by his early death in 1864. Afterwards, he turned to the Old Masters for his inspiration, visiting museums on the continent to study them closely. Became a Royal Academician, officer of the Legion d'Honneur, and was made a baronet in 1885, becoming the first artist to be given an hereditary title. Quite proud of both his popularity and wealth, he was both loved and respected by many. Ended his career as president of the Royal Academy, but died later the same year of throat cancer. Inner: Witty, gregarious, ambitious. Frank, straightforward and unpretentious, as well as a good, loyal friend. Like his father, he had a great love of music, with eclectic tastes. Also an enthusiastic outdoorsman. Unable to differentiate between the profound and the sentimental, particularly after he became famous. Ultimately compromised lifetime of allowing fame to diminish his artistic capabilities, which he would try to redress in his next go-round, with inconsistent results. Henry Raeburn (1756-1823) - Scottish painter. Outer: Son of a successful manufacturer. Orphaned early, and educated as a scholar of Heriot’s Hospital. Apprenticed to a goldsmith who encouraged him to paint miniatures. Studied with a leading Edinburgh portraitist, but was self-taught in the main. In his mid-20s, he married Ann Edgar Leslie, a wealthy widow, which gave him financial stability. Studied in Rome on the advice of Joshua Reynolds (Tony Richardson), and returned as a portraitist of all the leading figures of Edinburgh. Called “the Scottish Reynolds.” The only painter of the first rank to come out of Scotland, thanks to his straightforward approach to sitters, and a good sense of combination, along with a warm feel for flesh. Exhibited in London as well. Known as a brilliant conversationalist, he was always put his sitters at ease, to which his portraits attest. Filled with honors, made president of the Edinburgh Society of Artists, member of Royal Academy and knighted. Died of a sudden mysterious atrophy. Inner: Witty, personable, highly social. harbored the Scottish virtues of honesty, simplicity and economy. Consistent lifetime of being well-rewarded for his self-discovered talent, and finding his natural metier in portraiture, as a reflection of his well-honed social skills, and his equal adeptness with composition and color. Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723) - German/English artist. Outer: From a distinguished family. Father served the reigning noble and was his city’s chief surveyor. Third son, and intended for a military career. Went to the Netherlands to study math at the Univ. of Leiden, but his draw towards drawing proved too strong and he wound up in Amsterdam under the tutelage of a pupil of Rembrandt (D.W. Griffith) and probably the master himself, before going to Italy with an older brother, John, also a painter, in 1672, where he began painting portraits. Settled in England 2 years later, and painted Charles II (Peter O’Toole), assuring himself of success. Succeeded Peter Lely (Steven Soderbergh), as official painter of the king, and served the next 3 monarchs, as well as doing virtually every prominent person in England of the time. Noted for his portraits of literary and cultural members of the Kit Kat Club, as well as his paintings of admirals and the “Hampton Court Beauties.” Facile with likenesses, he occasionally went beneath the surface, although often he had a horde of assistants do the backgrounds and details of his work. In 1704, he married Mrs. Susanna Graves, a widow and daughter of the archdeacon of London, in a childless union. Knighted in 1692 and made a baronet in 1715, although his line went extinct because he had no legitimate children. Had an illegitimate daughter by a mistress, then was godfather to her son when she wed another. Ultimately made him his heir. Inner: Vain, arrogant, but with a shrewd wit. Eminent émigré lifetime of enormous social and artistic success, bringing an alien sensibility into the English-speaking world, and learning how to deal with its peculiar culture of exaggerated personality. Johann Limbourg (?-1318) - Dutch artist. Outer: Father was a woodcarver, mother was the sister of artist Jean Manounel, who served both French nobility and France’s royal house. One of five brothers and a sister, including two brothers who were artists, Herman (Terence Malick) and Paul (Stanley Kubrick), and two more, who were a canon and a goldsmith. Probably the youngest of the trio of artists, since his name is always mentioned last in conjunction with them. On their sire’s death around 1398, their uncle called for him and Herman to come to Paris, where they studied gold-smithing, before being forced to leave because of an outbreak of the plague. On their way home in 1399, they were captured and held for ransom in Brussels. Eventually Philippe the Bold (Darryl Zanuck) supplied the money for them, since their uncle was in his employ, and they came to work for him in Burgundy. Contracted along with his brother Paul in 1402 to work on illuminating a bible for Phillippe, although their patron died two years later, before they could complete the work. The duc’s older brother, Jean duc de Berry, an enthusiastic art and book collector, hired the three brothers to illuminate a Book of Hours, a medieval devotional text, and they did so, which resulted in the Belles Heures du Duc de Berry. Their patron was so pleased with their work, which was completed in 1409, that he commissioned them to do a second tome, the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, which they did not quite live long enough to finish, since all three, along with their patron, perished from the plague. The manuscript was completed by unknown artists, and remains an example of the highest order of medieval illumination, and in some circles is considered the most valuable tome in the world. Inner: Worked in the Northern European gothic style, with a touch of the Italianate. Largely subsumed by his siblings, so as to be a remembered member of a trio, rather than an individual in the annals of medieval art. Teamwork lifetime of laboring in close concert with his brothers, and in so doing, bringing medieval manuscript illumination to its peak, before later forging a unique career of his own.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS DEEP-SEATED SPIRITUALIST:
Storyline: The questioning self-seeker slowly marshals his story-telling skills in service of his moral vision, while expanding his conventional sense of Christianity via an interest in more esoteric means of expression, so as to open his heart more to accepting his own innate abilities, as well as himself.

John Boorman (1933) - English filmmaker. Outer: Father was a pub landlord of Dutch extract, who was a distant, disappointed man. Mother was restless, and eventually took on a kindly lover. As a boy, he suffered the Nazi blitz, making his home uninhabitable. Despite being from a Protestant family, he was educated at a Jesuit school, which disengaged him from religiosity, but not spirituality. The Christian ideal of the grail quest would become central to his work, and he also had a strong interest in astrology. Opened a thriving dry-cleaning business at 16 in partnership with a friend, which ended with 2 years of national military service, then pursued a journalistic career afterwards. Wrote occasional film reviews, before entering British television as an assistant film editor in 1955. Married Chrystel Kruse, a German woman, 7 children from the union, 3 of whom have appeared in his films, and a 3rd, Telsche, collaborated on his screenplays before succumbing to cancer in 1997. Worked his way up from the provinces to the BBC, becoming head of their documentary unit in Bristol. 3 years later, at 32, he made his first feature with a popular rock’n’roll group. Moved to County Wicklow, Ireland, in his early 30s, where he would permanently reside. Came to the US and directed 2 features there, showing skill in both use of narrative and action, while writing or co-writing all his films. Reached one of his peaks in with Deliverance in 1972, a tale of male survival. Also known for the Arthurian Excalibur and the ecologically correct, Emerald Forest, in his ongoing reverence for nature and irreverence for the humanity who populate it. Won numerous awards, and was chairman of the National Film Studios of Ireland and governor of the British Film Institute. Formed his own production company, Merlin, and later a film journal, “Projection,” when he had trouble financing his projects in the early 1990s. Criticized for his intellectual pretentiousness in his works, despite a genuine moral sense and a desire to uplift through entertainment, as well as explore arenas deemed non-commercial. Inner: Genial, breezy and robust, as well as willful and eccentric, with a longtime fascination with human folly. Very open to suggestions from actors and film crew. Heartfelt lifetime of searching for spiritual truths through his works, from a far more integrated interior and surety of vision than in artistic lives past. William Holman Hunt (1827-1910) - English artist. Outer: Father was a warehouseman for a haberdasher, with a taste for art & literature. 3rd of 7 children. Educated at boarding schools, although his artistic ambitions were not encouraged by his sire, who wanted him to be a warehouseman as well. Arranged instead to be a copying clerk for an auctioneer, and his parents reluctantly allowed him to attend art school at night, although they were finally won over to his talent by one of his portraits of a familiar local figure, an orange seller. Studied at the British Museum, then after failing, entered the Royal Academy schools, where he met his lifelong friend, John Millais (John Schlesinger), with whom he became a member of the initial Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848, along with fellow co-founder Dante Rossetti (Brian Jones). Blue-eyed and genial-looking with a musical voice. Convinced by critic John Ruskin (Kenneth Tynan) to pursue overarching religious themes, and combine realism with symbolism, which would be his subsequent artistic modus operandi. Used clear, hard colors, and like other Pre-Raphaelites, paid great attention to meticulous detail. Ill-received by the public because of the rampant Romanism of the time, he fell into debt, and depressedly considered giving up art for farming. Finally won fame in 1854 for “The Light of the World,” a picture of Christ knocking at the door of the human soul, which would become an iconic Protestant image, with thousands of reproductions over the next century and a half. Made a 2 year visit to Syria and Palestine in order to get authentic backgrounds for his works, and was deeply moved the first time he saw Jerusalem, renting a house inside the city gates. Returned to London in 1856, had a volatile but failed relationship with one of his models, while doing battle with the starch Royal Academy. In 1865, he married Fannie Waugh, the daughter of a prosperous chemist, in what seemed an ideal union, but after settling in Florence with her, she died after giving birth to a son. Plunged deeply into his work to assuage his sorrow, and returned once again to London in 1867, before coming back to Florence to supervise an elaborate ark-like tomb he had devised for his wife. Made several more trips to Jerusalem over the next 20 years, while using Florence as one of his bases. Married a second time in 1875 to his wife’s youngest sister, Edith, who had long been in love with him, a daughter and son from the union. His sight began to fail because of glaucoma, towards the end of his life. Ultimately settled in Kensington and wrote a 2 volume work on the Pre-Raphaelites in 1905. Died of emphysema, chronic bronchitis and respiratory and cardiac failure. Inner: Questioning, highly spiritual. His artistic power came from the details of his work. Conscientious about pictorial facts, although more the illustrator than the true artist. Saw himself as a priest of sorts, and took himself far ore seriously than others did. Self-seeking lifetime of exploring himself through his ongoing sense of conventional spirituality, despite continuous doubts about his own craftsmanship, and whether or not to pursue it as a means of support and self-knowledge. John Crome (1768-1821) - English artist. Outer: Father was a journeyman weaver who also kept an alehouse known as ‘The Griffen’. Served as an errand boy to a doctor, who recognized his artistic abilities. Apprenticed for 7 years, beginning in 1783 to a coach, house & sign painter, during which time he sketched from nature. Thanks to a wealthy friend, he became a drawing master, which gave him the financial wherewithal to pursue his vocation of landscape painting, while introducing him to his collection of Dutch and Flemish masters. Married Phoebe Berney in 1792, 11 children all told from the union, with 4 dying in infancy. Known as Old Crome to distinguish him from his same-named son, John Bernars Crome, a somewhat indifferent landscapist. Highly social, he became a Freemason, joined a philosophical society and was a member of the oddly named Dirty Shirts Club, a smoking and drinking society. Became one of the founders and the president of the Norwich Society of Artists. Exhibited with the Society, as well as at the Royal Academy. Concentrated on his local landscapes, painting in the style of the Dutch masters of the previous century. Brought his own sense of romanticism to his realistic portrayal of nature, working towards atmosphere and luminosity, while showing a particular affinity for the pictorial majesty of trees, as well as the effects of both sun and moonlight. “Household Heath,” is considered his masterpiece. Visited Paris to see Napoleon’s art collection in 1814, and also painted scenes from the French countryside. Noted for his fidelity to nature, and in turn was imitated faithfully by others. Produced over 300 paintings. Became a churchwarden shortly before his death from an inflammatory malady brought on by his earlier stint house painting, and had a well-attended funeral. Inner: Romantic realist, careful craftsman, and a genuine student of nature. Well-liked and good-humored. Luminous lifetime of celebrating the form and color of nature from an outer visual perspective, before complementing this go-round with an opposing inner viewpoint, his next go-round in this series. Jan van Goyen (1596-1656) - Dutch artist. Outer: Father was a cobbler. Began receiving painting lessons at 10, then studied under several mediocre artists, before apprenticing to the celebrated landscapist, Esaias van de Velde in Haarlem. Made a tour of France, then settled in Leiden, where he married Annetje Willems van Raelst in his early 20s. Several daughters from the union including one who married artist Jan Steen (Quentin Tarantino). Initially worked as an auctioneer and art appraiser to support his family, while also speculating in real estate and tulips, although evinced little facility in making money. Eventually settled at The Hague in his mid-30s, and became dean of the painter’s guild there in 1640, while establishing a pictorial affinity with the towns and rivers of the south Netherlands. Worked in a landscape style where detail was subordinate to mood, space and atmosphere, creating a new course for Dutch art, while continually growing as an artist as he matured. Gradually simplified his compositions, using low landscapes, and painting with oil on wood panels. Best known for vistas of Dutch towns, and also rivers and skies, although preferred calm and windless waters, which probably reflected his own temperament. An accomplished etcher as well. Remained constantly in debt, which may have contributed to a melancholy sense to some of his compositions. Highly prolific, he produced some 1200 paintings and 800 drawings, and would be a strong influence on both his contemporaries and those who followed him. Inner: Tranquil and focused, with a serene view of nature as an artwork in itself. Completely out of his depth in the material world, which ultimately bankrupted him. Divided lifetime of celebrating his surroundings as the sublime works of a gentle God, while failing to transliterate those sentiments into the far less forgiving realm of profit and loss.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS SELF-SEARCHING DESIGNER:
Storyline: The self-referential self-promoter is eventually forced to isolate himself from the world-at-large in order to redesign his own self-view without the distortions of a highly active social life and his tendency to remain preternaturally young within it.

David Hockney (1937) - English artist, photographer and stage designer. Outer: From a workingclass family. Father was an accountant’s clerk, pacifist, and amateur artist. Mother was a Methodist, teetotaler, nonsmoker and vegetarian. 4th of 5 children. Exempted from the service as a conscientious objector. Studied at the Bradford College of Art and Royal College of Art where he received a gold medal in graduate competition. His conservative early training led to an opposing interest in the avant-garde. Acknowledged himself as a homophile in the early 1960s, with paintings like ‘Erection.’ Visited the United States in his mid-20s and returned there to teach at several universities, becoming a transatlantic commuter, while bleaching his hair blond, which would become a trademark. Early in his career, he identified with the Pop Art movement, as a linear and illustrative artist. In the mid-1960s, he began painting what he saw more directly, and his style became both more straightforward and integrated. Particular effected by the esthetic of Los Angeles, and its glaring light and sleek style, which would figure prominently in his work. Eventually settled there. Used himself as a primary source of subject matter, both in portraiture and limning his residences, while also employing his friends in similar manner. Published several series of graphic works in book form, and did considerable stage and set designs, as well as photo-montages, earning an international reputation for himself. Once stopped at customs for nude male photos. Began losing his hearing in 1979, which isolated him, making for a more lonely middle-age, as well as a desire to re-explore other media for self-expression. Had numerous one man shows, wrote two oral autobiographies, David Hockney and That’s the Way I See It, and became one of the few living artists able to fetch over $2 million for his works. Suffered a heart attack in 1990. After the turn of the century, he moved back to his Yorkshire homeland, while also maintaining studios in London and L.A. The former move was primarily to paint landscapes over the seasons in order to catch the shifting light patterns. Always fascinated with the new, he became enthralled with the iPhone application of Brushes, and it became yet another imagistic medium for him via e-mails to friends, in another prolific burst to inaugurate his 70s. Inner: Keen awareness of the tastes of his times. Constantly drawing and sketching. Excellent self-promoter, with an eye for the contemporary and the ability to translate it into pleasing visuals. Personal sense of boyish flamboyance. Rarely accepted commissions, preferring to do portraits of friends, lovers and family. Fascinated by space, particularly between people. Self-inventing lifetime of rising from modest beginnings, in contrast with his previous go-round, so as to learn how to to sell himself as a unique artistic entity, while later on unconsciously closing himself off from the larger world in order to more intensely pursue his own brand of self-awareness from a more mature viewpoint. Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) - American painter and glassworker. Outer: Father, Charles Lewis Tiffany, was a well-known mercantilist and jeweler who spent much of his life studying and encouraging the fine arts. Eldest surviving son and one of 6 children. Despite the wealth and cultural position of his family, he was simply and strictly reared, but imbued with a strong esthetic, while his formal education ended with graduation from a military academy at Civil War’s completion. Took advantage of contacts via his sire’s firm to shape his finely-honed aesthetic, and his sense of color was heightened by a trip to the far East as a youth, as well as other extensive travels, including the pre-requisite Grand Tour in 1865, the first of several. Studied art under several well-known painters, beginning with George Inness (George Stevens) in America and Europe, and gradually progressed in his works from landscapes to human figures. Painted oils and watercolors in Europe and Morocco, and throughout the 1870s, he would use images from the Near East as a continual theme in his works. Married May Goddard, 4 children from the union, which ended with her death in 1884. Two years later, he wed Louise Wakeman Knox, and had 5 more children with her. Helped organize the Society of American Artists in 1877, and in 1880 was elected to the National Academy. Established the Tiffany Glass and Decorating Company in 1878, which specialized in colorful art nouveau glassworks, after he invented a process for staining glass. Commissioned by Pres. Chester Arthur (Hugh Carey) in 1882 to redecorate the reception rooms at the White House. Established his own plant for producing window and blown glass in 1892, using the name “Favrile.” Reorganized his firm as Tiffany Studios in 1900, and Tiffany lamps became a vogue, while he also began designing jewelry and textiles. Did a huge glass curtain for the national theater in Mexico City in 1911. Owned 4 homes, enjoying great wealth and popularity, without being challenged on a personal level through his end-to-end run as both the child of wealth, and a successful entrepreneur in his own right. In 1919, he established a foundation for study and travel grants for art students, and like his father was made a chevalier of the French Legion d'Honneur. Still handsome and elegant into old age, he died a month before his 85th birthday. His luxurious self-designed Long Island home was eventually sold to provide scholarship funds, while his name has become synonymous with upscale tastes. Inner: Prolific, energetic and highly ambitious. Kind, generous and well-loved by his employees, who numbered in the hundreds. World-is-my-oyster lifetime of living well off his gifts for color in a relatively conflict-free existence dedicated to thoroughly enjoying and celebrating the material sphere. Johann Tischbein (1722-1789) - German artist. Outer: Father was an artist, from whom he learned the same trade. His family produced 20 artists within 3 generations. 5th of 7 sons. Studied with a court painter, then went to Paris and worked for 5 years under an artist there. Greatly influenced by the paintings of Antoine Watteau (Francois Truffaut) and Francois Boucher (Yves St. Laurent). Traveled in Europe, and returned to Germany in his late 20s. Stayed with an art dealer cousin in Hamburg, and restored and copied old masters, developing an eclectic style. Married and began his public career painting portraits at the German court, becoming court painter to the Landgrave of Hesse, although disliked the work, despite its remunerative side. Met the giant of letters, Johann Goethe (Thomas Mann), traveled with him to Naples, and later settled there. Appointed director of the Naples Academy of Arts, spending 16 years there. Eventually returned to Germany. His great interest was his/story painting, although portraiture was his mainstay. Inner: Compromised lifetime of being forced to paint what sold, rather than what he wanted, inspiring him to open up his artistic and designing skills his next appearance in this series in order to teach the public to see in a more sophisticated fashion. Dosso Dossi (Giovanni Dossi) (1486?-1542) - Italian painter. Outer: Little known of his early life, other than his father was the bursar at the local ducal court. Influenced by Giorgione (Diego Rivera), whose dreamy landscapes and people would prove compelling subject matter for him as well. His younger brother Battista, who studied with Raphael (Pablo Picasso), eventually became his chief assistant. Became a favorite of the duke of Ferrara, Alfonso d’Este (Tim Buckley) and later his son, and was protected his entire working life by their court. Probably spent 5 years in Rome, and another 5 in Venice, with the rest of his adult life in Ferrara. All his works were subject to the approval of his noble patrons, and he was adept at flattering them and illustrating their interests. Did some set designs as well as paintings around the work of the poet Ludovico Ariosto (Ezra Pound), who was in charge of the lavish theatrical productions that the duke enjoyed. Painted in a mannerist style, with an uneven output, that was equally capable of cliche as it was of lyrical beauty, while exhibiting a confused sense of artistic and literary depth. When the first duke passed, the 2nd duke proved to be more of a classicist in his tastes, and he was forced to reign in his excesses and give him what he wanted, sometimes to unintended ludicrous effect, thanks to his sense of fun and fantasy. Well after his death, in 1598, papal troops sacked the ducal palace, and much of his work was either carried off or destroyed. Inner: Affable, fun-loving, charming and good-humored. Fey lifetime of putting his talents totally at the disposal of his wealthy masters, in an ongoing attempt to both become and transcend them as an ongoing artist whose sense of richness is both material and esthetic.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS LORD OF HIS OWN THREE-RINGED CIRCUS:
Storyline: The shamanic ringmaster dazzles all with the scope and breadth of his ability to render fantasy into celluloid reality. as he continually looks for larger and larger worlds to illumine.

Peter Jackson (1961) - New Zealand filmmaker. Outer: Father was a civil engineer. Only child. Used his parents’ Super 8 film camera to make shorts, then created an impromptu studio in his home, while using his backyard as a stage, and talent from a local theater for his actors. Became obsessed with King Kong at the age of 9, and attempted a remake at 13. 5’7”, and scruffy. At 17, he left school to become a photo engraver with a New Zealand newspaper. Bought a camera and studied cinema at nearby Kapiti College, then cranked out gore-laden films, with miniature figures and buckets of blood, while educating himself on all aspects of filmmaking in the process. In 1987, he married his co-writer and producer Fran Walsh, 2 children from union. Began his career with Bad Taste, a cult horror film, in 1988, then hit an early peak with a true-story murder in Heavenly Creatures in 1994. Made his first Hollywood feature, The Frighteners in 1996, which allowed him to expand his production crew, as well as his sights on much larger productions. Able to convince New Line Cinema to invest $300 million in the Lord of the Rings trilogy, despite his modest output prior to it, largely because of tax laws in New Zealand. Got a $200 million break, after the New Zealand Parliament approved it, although they later rescinded the law. Created Weta Ltd. as part of a huge production complex in his native city to service his vision for the trilogy, while doing everything from forging his own armor and weapons to all the complex special effects. The trilogy proved a worldwide phenomenon, thanks to the equal care taken for every aspect of the films, making him a major player in the movie industry. Won 17 Oscars all told for his effort, including sweeping the boards at the 2004 Oscars, with an 11 for 11 run for the third part of his trilogy, Return of the King, including best picture and best director, as well as earning nearly $3 billion for it, while privately bemoaning it would probably be the best film he would ever do. Following its overwhelming success, he assayed a remake of King Kong, which was not quite as well-received, despite being, once again, a superior product of his imagination, although he was too wedded to all his special effects to give it an overall, and much-needed trim. Taken off The Hobbit, a prequel to the Ring’s trilogy, much to the shock of his fans, after insisting on auditing his studio partner, New Line’s accounting of his trilogy. The matter was ultimately resolved and he decided to make the concluding series a tri-parter, without bridging back to Lord of the Rings. Ended his Middle-Earth saga in 2014, with little that was in the actual books, and much padding and spectacular CGI effects, in a triumph of form over substance to conclude his fascination with the multi-part epic.. Knighted as a New Year’s honor at the end of 2009. Inner: Focused, fiercely loyal, and a total iconoclast. Shy and internal, with an affinity for wearing shorts, and a dislike for shoes, while maintaining a scraggly, bearded countenance. Also grandiose, with extreme self-confidence in his abilities. Cinematic emperor lifetime of bringing all his skills to bear in the forging of a huge entertainment empire, and seeing if he has the ability to make it a longterm reality. Alexander Korda (Sandor Laszlo Kellner)(1893-1956) - Hungarian/English producer and filmmaker. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Father was an estate manager and Hussar officer. Younger brothers Zoltan (Chrstopher Nolan) and Vincent followed him into the film industry, with the former also becoming a notable director, and the latter an art director. Attended a local Hebrew school at 5, but the death of his sire four years later threw the family into poverty, and he was raised by his mean-spirited paternal grandfather (Matthew Nolan). Joined some cousins in Budapest and became a journalist, as well as active in left-wing politics, using the name Sandor Korda. 6’ and distinguished looking. Visited Paris, and then entered the Hungarian film industry in 1912 as a publicist and caption translator. Also initiated a short-lived film magazine 2 years later, while beginning his career as a director. By 1917, he had formed his own production company with a partner, Corvin, which became one of Hungary’s largest production studios. Focused on high quality works, some of which he directed. Utilized his brothers as art director and editor. Made commissioner of film production immediately following WW I, and helped nationalize the Hungarian movie industry. Married Maria Corda, one of his protégés, in 1919, divorced 11 years later. One son from the union. His communist affiliation forced him to flee Vienna when a right-wing government came to power in 1919, and he ultimately wound up in Hollywood, after successful stints in Vienna and Berlin. Directed in Hollywood during the end of the silent era, then returned to Europe and settled in England in 1932, where he proved both an artistic and commercial success, through the next two and half decades. Founded and headed London Films, serving as both producer and director for a goodly number of high-quality, lavishly produced films, often collaborating with his brother Vincent as art director, particularly on large-scale productions. Launched the careers of several British stars, including Charles Laughton, in the 1933 production of The Private Life of Henry VIIIwhich was the first British talkie to enjoy an international success. Also helped the careers of several British directors. In 1939, he married actress Merle Oberon, divorced in 1945. Overextended himself financially in 1939, losing control of Denham Studios, which forced him to return to Hollywood, before coming back to England in 1942. Knighted the same year for his contributions to the British film industry, the first knighthood ever conferred on anyone connected with his line of work. His final union was to Alexandra Boycun in 1953. Revived London Films, and worked steadily until the end of his life, before dying of a heart attack. Despite his many successes, he also had to do battle with financial over-extensions, but always managed to prevail in his desire to bring high quality work to his audiences. Inner: Romantic at heart and called the most scholarly of producers. Expatriate lifetime of of uniting his central European sensibilities with English language culture to producing an enduring legacy in a whole new art form. Thomas Couture (1815-1879) - French painter. Outer: Father was a wealthy manufacturer of rubber boots. Sickly child, and originally thought to be mentally handicapped as well, which allowed him to opt out of his father’s profession and pursue his artistic interests. Sent to Paris and studied under Baron Antoine Gros (Andre Derain), as well as Paul Delaroche. Tried 6 times for the Prix de Rome between 1834 and 1839, but had only one second place finish in 1837, which totally turned him off the competition, and later, he discouraged his students from entering the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Most of his works had moralizing themes, as was the custom of the times, but it was not until a decade later that he became a truly celebrated artist, with “Romans of the Decadence,” which caused a sensation when it was exhibited. Subsequently won both government patronage and many official commissions. Combined soft bright coloring with 19th century classicism, in his/storical, genre and portrait paintings, which showed off his unique abilities at bringing together composition and coloration with detailed execution. Renowned for his technical skill, as well as being an enthusiastic teacher, which brought him many students, including Edouard Manet (Diego Rivera), as well as a host of other future big name artists. Named imperial court painter and selected by Napoleon III (Darryl F. Zanuck) to paint a ceiling for the Louvre, celebrating the birth of the Prince Imperial, but he quarreled with the Empress Eugenia (Paloma Picasso) about the details, and thenceforth rarely sent paintings to the Salon, while remaining hostile to the government. Many of his works were destroyed during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and he fell out of fashion afterwards, although remained popular as a teacher, and also continued to receive commissions from other countries. Eventually retired to the country, and left his studio and later works to his daughter. Despite his high standing in the art world of his day, he was largely an extremely skilled product of his time, and remains in the second rank of 19th century French artists. Inner: Prickly, but an enthusiastic teacher with a great grasp of technique, and an equal facility for rendering his subject matter according to the tastes of his times. Second tier lifetime of giving vent to his technical mastery, without imbuing it with the added depth of his interior, making him a highly successful painter of his era, but not the ages. Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere) (1443-1513) - Italian Pope. Outer: His father’s brother would become Pope Sixtus IV. From a poor family, who wanted him to enter commerce, but at his uncle’s insistence, he was educated by the Franciscans, with a focus on a scientific education. Had one brother, who became the progenitor of the dukes of Urbino. Remained a member of the secular clergy, but when his his uncle became Sixtus IV in 1471, he made him bishop of Carpentras, France, and shortly afterwards, he got his red cardinal hat, and took over his uncle’s old offices, enjoying enormous influence, despite his relatively young age, amidst numerous bishoprics, some six in France and 3 in Italy. Enjoyed enormous wealth and power and fathered 3 illegitimate daughters, while showing little real interest in spiritual affairs. Instead, he used his newfound position to become an outstanding patron of the arts. Spent two years in France as a papal legate, then, following his uncle’s death, engineered his successor’s pontificate, Innocent VIII, through bribery. Won the jealous enmity of Alexander VI (Maxim Gorki) for his manipulations, when he was elected pope in 1492, and was forced to flee to the court of Charles VIII (Hermann Goering) in France, to escape assassination. Took part in the Louis XII’s (Ferdinand Foch) invasion of Italy in 1502, and once more escaped the long hands of the Borgia pope. When the latter died in 1503, his long exile was finally over, and after one more brief pontificate, he was elected pope in the same year, following lavish promises and bribes. Saw as his main task, the restoration of the Papal States, which had been ruined and depleted by the greed and corruption of the Borgias. Subjugated nearby states, and then joined an an anti-Venetian alliance in 1509, which defeated Venice that year, restoring the Papal States. Despite allying with Louis XII, for the restoration, he next tried to evict France from Italy, but failed in that martial objective over the next 2 years. Made four members of his family cardinals. When Swiss troops came to his aid, the French revolted in the north, and he achieved his aim of an independent papacy and an Italy freed of foreign domination, although his greatest achievement by far, would be in his artistic patronage, particularly that of the brilliant sculptor Michelangelo (Henri Matisse). In addition to his various building projects, for his crowning achievement, he had a new basilica built for St. Peter’s, and had Michelangelo paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, which would prove a Renaissance artistic highlight, as a synthesis of his brilliant patronage and the artist’s unearthly skills. Also commissioned Raphael (Pablo Picasso) to do frescoes for the Vatican. Despite his wars and building projects, he left his treasury more than full, after inheriting an empty one, thanks to his frugal administration. Died of a fever, and was ultimately interred in St. Peter’s. Succeeded by Leo X (Brett Ratner), of the de’ Medici clan. Inner: Volatile, headstrong, irascible, with a violent temper, and a rude, crude manner. Despised informers and flatterers, while seeking greatness as a reflection of both himself and his office. Candid, and uncontrollable, earning the sobriquet of ‘terrible.’ Far more the patron than the priest, although he had a great desire to celebrate the grandeur of the church, and managed to resuscitate the papacy following the great damage done by its most corrupt and worldly pontiff. Supreme patron lifetime of bringing his artistic vision to a heady head, while proving himself politically and financially adroit, although it would be the field of aesthetics that would draw his future interest. Francesco I Gonzaga (1366-1407) - Italian Renaissance noble. Outer: Father was captain-general Ludovico Gonzaga, mother was from the d’Este family. Married a daughter of the powerful Visconti family in 1380, which cemented an alliance with Milan. Made a formal visit to Venice afterwards, so as to make Mantova or Mantua a player in Italian politics. Succeeded his father in 1382. Recognized by the HRE as Imperial Vicar of Mantova, and was accepted by the city council, but he had to wait until he was 21 to be formally designated as a captain-general. Thanks to murderous perfidy among the Visconti, he was forced, for political reasons, to falsely accuse his wife of adultery and have her beheaded in 1391, at which point he switched allegiances to Venice. Traveled throughout Italy afterwards, and when his sister married into the Malatesta family, in 1393, he did the same, although his new wife, who lived only 6 more years, brought the degenerative condition of osteomalacia into the family, which would manifest in subsequent generations of the Gonzagas. Nevertheless, he got his requisite heir, Gian Francesco, from the union. Made a count in 1394, although never lived long enough to gain the coveted imperial title of marquis, which his son actualized. Forced by the ambitions of Gian Galeazzo Visconti to both make diplomatic alliances against him and fight alongside him when greater enemies threatened. His position improved when the latter died in 1402, and he was forced to fight only once more for the interests of his allies in Venice. Best remembered as a builder of the Castle of San Giorgio, which would be the base for the Ducal Palace of Mantua, thanks to his desire to make Mantova reflective of his family. Reorganized the administration of the city, and allowed a large Jewish community to develop under his tolerant rule, which made the city considerably richer. Established a bank and also founded the Gonzaga library. Able to hand over an established family name and a growing city to his 12 year old heir. Inner: Strong esthetic sense, as well as a natural leader and administrator. Warrior lifetime of giving ballast to a great Renaissance family for the centuries to come thanks to a combination of political, esthetic and swordsman skills.

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PATHWAY OF THE FILMMAKER AS FULL SPECTRUM STORYTELLER:
Storyline: The incisive cineaste loves to play with notions of intersected reality, in his desire to be a master of the limitless possibilities of the intertwining of shadows and light as an illuminating means of creating elevating entertainment.

Christopher Nolan (Christopher Edward Nolan) (1970) - British/American filmmaker. Outer: Of Irish, Welsh, Danish and British descent. Father was a British copywriter, mother was an American flight attendant, giving him dual citizenship, and allowing him to spend his youth in both London and Chicago. Middle of three brothers. His oldest sibling, Matthew, was arrested for kidnapping and murdering a Florida businessman in Costa Rica in 2009, then later convicted of a Batman-like escape attempt from prison. Younger brother Jonathan became a writer and producer, as well as a collaborator with him on scripts. Began shooting stop-motion films at 7 with his father’s super 8 mm camera and his toy action figures. Went to boarding school, and was fascinated with crime novels and different storytelling techniques while growing up. Got a BA in English Literature from University College, London, where he took full advantage of the school’s film making facility, serving as president of its cinema society. After graduating in 1993, he produced corporate training videos, while getting hand’s-on experience on virtually every aspect of creating cinema. 5’11”. Married producer Emma Thomas in 1997, four children from the union, which would see her work closely with him as a producer. After doing several shorts, he turned to features, with his second, a $4M indie, Memento, written by his brother, bringing him to public attention, in its unusual subject matter, of a memory-less protagonist. Having established himself as a unique stylist in the action real, he was entrusted with the resurrection of the Batman franchise in 2003, and did so with considerable panache, using Christian Bale to good effect as the caped crusader in a trilogy which would ultimately be marred by a real life tragedy in 2012, when a gunman opened fire at a multiplex midnight showing in Aurora, Colorado. Some characterized the assault as a false flag operation geared towards limiting arms in the U.S., with the symbols of Aurora or dawn played out against the film’s title The Dark Knight Rising, in a perfect point-counterpoint, that unconsciously reflected his ongoing fascination with what is real and what is not. Deplored the act, which added to the mystique of the trilogy, that also featured the premature death of Heath Ledger, its primary villain, the Joker. Despite the excesses surrounding them, the cinematic triumvirate would enter filmdom’s comic book canon as an exquisite example of the genre, thanks to his brooding sense of image and seriousness of intent. His other oeuvre in between its completion would be equally compelling, particularly Inception, which would explore shared dreaming space, in his continued explorations of the many levels of reality, a theme also investigated in The Prestige, a competition between two 19th century stage illusionists. In addition to the high critical acclaim that virtually all his efforts have won, he has also proved to be an extremely solid performer at the box office, enjoying cult status among self-proclaimed Nolanoids as a highly cerebral action director with the ability to continually dazzle his audiences with his visuals, storylines and ability to abrade and reshape the ordinary realms of perception. His 2014 offering, Interstellar, a tale of the search for a new planet for humanity after the devastation of the Earth was roundly hooted for clunky dialogue, but hurrahed for his ongoing unquestionable pure movie-making skills. His 2017 work, Dunkirk, a first time war film for him, was seen by many as his best cinematic effort via a trio of stories he limned the British retreat from the continent during WW II, in most memorable fashion. Has a net worth of $135 million. Inner: Highly intelligent and articulate, with a true artist’s grasp of his medium. Color blind, despite the rich tapestries his films are usually woven from. Likes to work with the same stable of actors, as well as the same production crew, creating a loose company of sorts. Traditionalist at heart who avoids special effects and usually shoots with a single camera in his characterizations. Cinephile lifetime of realizing his full potential as a filmmaker, through a well-grounded sense of self, and an equally developed sense of craft. Zoltan Korda (Zoltan Kellner) (1896-1961) - Hungarian/English/American filmmaker. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Father was an estate manager and Hussar officer. Middle of three brothers including Alexander (Peter Jackson) and Vincent, with the former a noted filmmaker and the latter an art director. Their father died when he was six, forcing the boys to live with their paternal grandfather (Matthew Nolan), a cruel and ignorant man. 5’7”. Did odd jobs and served in the Great War as a cavalry officer, giving expression to his love of action, before following Alexander into the burgeoning film industry at Corvin studios in Budapest, which the latter had co-founded, working initially as a camera operator, then as an editor and screenwriter, while also changing his last name to Korda, as his brother had. Directed two shorts in Hungary in the post-WW I period, then followed Alexander to Vienna, before moving on to Hollywood with him at the dawn of the sound era. Married minor English actress Joan Gardner in 1930, who retired to raise their only child, a son. Returned to Europe, and continued working for Alexander, although the two would often have screaming disagreements, with the bond of brotherhood allowing them to continue to work together despite their opposing views. Their major point of contention was his brother’s simple desire to make colorful spectacles, while he wished to create works of greater depth with exotic overlays, that focused on social problems. Had an excellent feel for adventure films, with both Africa and India as his preferred locales. Worked with Sabu (Keanu Reeves) on some of them, as he reached one of his peaks in 1939 with The Four Feathers, a tale of heroic redemption. Joined the army for WWII, and returned to America to direct another Sabu adventure, before leaving his brother’s firm to pursue a more independent direction. Spent the rest of his life in America, and did two more productions under the Korda family label. Began to suffer from health problems, which curtailed his directing, limiting his role on further films to producer. Went into semiretirement following his brother’s death in 1956 and died after a lengthy illness five years later. Inner: Adventurous, with strong liberal social ideals, which he tried to transmute into film. Far less of a British imperialist than his sibling, with considerable feeling for colonial peoples and their desire for independence and self-determination. Sibling rivalry lifetime of learning the nuances of a new mode of entertainment as a lesser brother, as direct prelude to coming into his own as a true master of that medium.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS CONSECRATING LANDSCAPIST:
Storyline: The sanctifying shutterbug finds his spiritual esthetic in the great cathedrals of the outdoors, doing his best to reinterpret nature as a sacrosanct phenomenon worthy of the grace of God.

Ansel Adams (1902-1984) - American photographer. Outer: Father was a wealthy businessman. Had an upper middle-class upbringing, and was privately educated, showing himself to be an indifferent student, with his original ambition to become a concert pianist. First visited Yosemite National Park at 14, and was immediately entranced by it. Brought along a Kodak Box Brownie camera, which his sire had given him, and it became the recorder of all his early trips. After high school, he worked as an apprentice for a photo finishing company for two years, then served as a custodian for the Sierra Club in Yosemite, continually shooting the region, and also acting as a guide. Married Virginia Best, the daughter of a landscape painter and gallery owner, in his mid-20s, 2 children. His wife was an active environmentalist, and later collaborated on her mate’s photography books, adding text, while running her father’s gallery, which gave her husband the wherewithal to travel in his photographic pursuits, while she proved to be an extremely supportive partner in a mutually close relationship. Studied classical piano, then performed and taught until his late 20s, when he gave up music for a career in photography. Published his first book of photographs, shot in Taos, New Mexico, shortly afterwards. Rejected sentimental stills, and with fellow members of “Group f/64,” shot pictures in sharp focus and great depth of field, to make them look like photographs, rather than imitation paintings. Moved from soft focus and impressionistic works to a starker style during this period, while totally eschewing color, feeling it was vulgar in photography. Had great control over his black, grey and white tones, and was far more interested in interesting pictorial composition than direct representation. Served as a bridge figure between the nature romanticists of the past and the 20th century technicians, with absolute control over their medium. In 1955, he set up his own workshop in Yosemite and served as a mentor to generations of photographers, while acting as an assiduous lobbyist for environmental concerns. Won two Guggenheim grants to photograph national parks and monuments. Financial success arrived relatively late in life. In the interim, he was highly active in a number of causes. His later works were less effective, so he went back to his earlier work, reprinting them to greater dramatic contrast. Wrote numerous technical manuals, and lived long enough to see photography’s acceptance as a museum-worthy art. Suffered from heart problems his last decade, and died of heart disease. The year following his death, Mt. Ansel Adams, an 11,760 foot peak in his beloved Yosemite National Park, was named after him. Inner: Hearty, outdoorsy, and outspoken. Loved roughing it, but also enjoyed the pleasures of civilized life. Far more the artist than the recorder, consciously using his equipment to recreate nature according to his own vision of it. Would often wait weeks or months to capture an image at its light-enhanced best. Visually spiritual lifetime of worshiping actively and esthetically in the great church of the outdoors, while finding much support and love from intimates. Asher Durand (1796-1886) - American artist. Outer: Of French-Huguenot ancestry. Father was a watchmaker, silversmith, mechanic and farmer. 8th of 11 children. A delicate child, he inherited his sire’s mechanical ingenuity. Apprenticed to a steel engraver at 16 for 5 years, then was taken into partnership with him, although his competitiveness eventually dissolved the partnership. During that period, however, he came into contact with every kind of printed image imaginable, giving him an invaluable artistic education. Continued for the next decade doing engraved reproductions of American artists, as well as illustrating annuals. Along with his inventor younger brother, Cyrus Durand, formed a banknote engraving company. Cyrus invented mechanical drawing machines that revolutionized currency engraving, while he was influential in developing design schemas for U.S. paper currency. Through their combined efforts, he was able to introduce miniature landscapes and decorative motifs into commercial documents. In 1830, he collaborated with poet Wiliam Cullen Bryant (William Carlos Williams) on "The American Landscape." Although the venture failed, it would be the first of several collaborations with the latter. In his mid-20s, he married Lucy Baldwin, who died in 1830, 9 years into the union, leaving him with 3 young children. Married a second time in 1834 to Mary Frank, and the following year, he left the engraving business to devote fulltime to portraiture, before expanding into landscapes, for which he would become extremely well-known. Became a disciple of Thomas Cole (Thomas Hart Benton), as one of the founders of the Hudson River school of landscape painting, and through the former’s influence, he was one of the first Americans to work out-of-doors directly from nature. In 1840, he left for Europe, where he spent 13 months, and upon his return got into the habit over the next several decades, of spending several months a year on plein air sketching and painting expeditions. Took a meticulous approach to his art, trying to be truthful to his sense of God in nature. Became one of the original members of the National Academy of Design and its president for 16 years, beginning in 1845. On Cole’s death in 1848, he was recognized as his pre-eminent successor, despite his focus on the pastoral, while the latter primarily depicted heroic wilderness scenes. His reaction would be to turn briefly to allegorical landscape, before returning to the more comfortable confines of landscape solely as landscape. In 1855, he published “Letters on Landscape Painting,” which first appeared in an art journal edited by his son, John. Resigned his presidency of NAD six years later because of the politics and financial pressures of the position. At the end of the 1860s, he moved his studio from NYC to the family homestead in Maplewood, New Jersey, and was still actively painting outside into old age, until he finally laid down his brush for good in 1878. By the finish of his long life he was a revered figure, and fittingly, wound up in the perfectly named Green-Wood Cemetery. Inner: Highly self-confident, active, and resourceful. Deeply imbued with a strong love of nature, spending at least several months a year totally surrounded by it. Fully lived lifetime of taking care of business, then giving himself over to a profound love of the natural world and its truthful pictorial representation. Salomon van Ruysdael (Salomon de Goyer) (c1600-1670) - Dutch painter. Outer: Father was a moderately wealthy cabinet maker. Adopted his name from a castle his family once owned. Brother Izaack was also a landscape painter. Strongly influenced by Jan van Goyen (John Boorman), mirroring both his strengths and defects. Moved in his teens to Haarlem, and became a landscape painter, joining the Haarlem guild in his mid-20s, and ultimately rising to its presidency a quarter of a century later. Spent his entire life in his adopted home, finding the surrounding landscape precisely what he needed to express his own inner vision of the glories of nature, particularly the quiet colors it emanated. Painted from actual landscapes, unlike many contemporaries, and often repeated the same pleasing scene, remaining popular his entire career. Teacher of his more famous nephew Jacob van Ruysdael (Thomas Hart Benton). His son also became a landscape artist. His mature works show a more mannered style and a more powerful palette, as he went for more monumental scenarios, playing with both light and form to their maximum effects. Also did still lifes of game in later life. Inner: Harbored a deep love of nature, which comes through in all his work. Field and stream lifetime of association with some of his longtime cohorts, while developing his painterly skills through his ongoing sense of the divine in the natural world.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS ANIMAL-LOVER:
Storyline: The successful seer finds his strength in the details of his art, only to continually lose his vision in his larger triumphs, while trying to integrate the third man, the artist/visionary, into his reed/thin sense of self.

Sir Carol Reed (1906-1976) - British filmmaker. Outer: Father was actor Herbert Beerbohm Tree (Peter O’Toole), who was married to an actress, with whom he had a family of three daughters, but also maintained a second household with a clergyman’s daughter. Second son out of 6 children from the union. Originally intended on becoming a farmer. Went to England’s oldest private school, King’s School, Canterbury, and then was sent to the US to study chicken-ranching, but soon found he preferred a career in the theater, and returned after 6 months to become an actor. 6’2”, thin and oval-faced. Made his London debut in Heraclius in 1924, but only succeeded in getting secondary parts, before working for mystery writer Edgar Wallace in adapting his novels and plays for the stage, beginning in 1927. Served as actor, director and stage manager in the subsequent productions of them, until Wallace’s sudden death in 1932, at which point he entered film as a dialogue director. Began directing low budget features by mid-decade, and by WW II, he had built a solid reputation for himself. During the war, he worked for the British army’s film unit, and was commissioned to do a full-length documentary in 1944, The Way Ahead. Won an Oscar the following year for The True Glory, a documentary chronicling the last year of the war. Married actress Diana Wynyard in 1943, divorced 4 years later, and the following year wed actress Penelope Dudley-Ward. One son from the union. The late 1940s saw him reach his peak, with his most memorable film, The Third Man in 1949, an espionage thriller. Had an excellent sense of place, detail and atmosphere, and a good feel for both story and character. Knighted in 1952. After the mid-1950s, his work suffered because of larger budgets and a loss of focus on the particulars that had made his earlier works so engaging. Also felt disconnected from the new generation of English kitchen-sink realists, feeling they sacrificed the magic of cinema for dull grittiness. Suffered the ignominy of being replaced on Mutiny on the Bounty in 1962, after tangling with star Marlon Brando, but enjoyed one final hurrah with a best director Oscar for the musical Oliver in 1968. Made two eminently forgettable films afterwards, rather than retiring, then died of a heart attack at home. Inner: Serious, shy, private and somber. Seen as a player’s director, always considerate of his cast. Refused to append happy endings to his works, feeling they should end where they had to, rather than where the audience wanted them to. Healing lifetime of better integrating the seer with his own violent vision of life, while suffering once again from a surfeit of success. Sir Edwin Landseer (1803-1873) - English artist. Outer: 3rd son of painter, engraver and author John Landseer, who gave him his early training. One of 14 children, brothers Charles and Thomas also became artists, as did sister Jessica. His father felt ordinary education was unnecessary for artists, while he had little love for books. Entered the Royal Academy schools at 14, and began to exhibit 3 years later. Taught himself the musculature of animals through dissection in order to learn how to delineate them with scientific precision. By his late teens, he had already achieved considerable fame. Frequently visited Scotland, and was influenced by Romantic literature, but was also well aware of the vicissitudes of lower society, which he limned through his portraits of children of the downtrodden. Most noted for giving animals human characteristics, using dogs as a symbol of Victorian moral rectitude and strength. As his fame grew, he entered royal circles, painting Queen Victoria and her children numerous times, while becoming the official painter of the former, and also served as her close confidante. Reached his peak in the 1840s and was knighted in 1850. Did pet portraits for the English aristocracy, while also habituating London’s fashionable literary salons. The only English artist to receive the large Gold Medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1855, which marked the height of his influence as the most popular English artist of the day. Began to show signs of instability in 1862. Declined the presidency of the Royal Academy in 1865 for reasons of health. As he grew older, he suffered increasingly serious mental problems and severe depression, as well as profound loneliness, while battling the bottle in solitude. His later paintings reflected his struggles, as he dipped into sentimentality, rather than pictorial integrity, although his final allegories show the strength of his profound sadness. Inner: Initially genial, quick-witted, albeit sensitive to slights. Great love of nature, with a noble view of animals as personifications of the pure human spirit. Depressive, isolated and increasingly unhappy with his own success, and inability to integrate fulfillment with vast recognition. Landseer lifetime of looking at nature through increasingly sorrow-filled eyes, for his unwillingness to reconcile his success with his own sense of well-being. Melchior de Hondecoeter (1636-1695) - Dutch artist. Outer: Son, nephew and grandson of painters of animals and still lifes. Became a pupil of both his father and his uncle, after the former’s death. Extremely religious, while young, making great display of his spirituality. In his mid-20s, he spent four years at the Hague, where he was member of the guild, painting the menageries of the magnates of his time, including the ruler William III (Lyndon Johnson), and then ultimately moved to Amsterdam, ending his career there. Although he painted all manner of animal, he is best known for his bird pictures, particularly birds in flight and in motion, evincing a poetic feel for their soaring grandeur. Proved to be more conscientious in his earlier works, while building on his reputation, then later on, once he had established himself. Married Susanne Tradel in 1663, and had a daughter, but his household, which was filled with his wife’s sisters, proved inhospitable for him, and he spent as much time as he could in the local tavern drinking, which probably affected his later output. Moved several times and ultimately died at his daughter’s home. Inner: Religious with a soaring sense of nature, but an inability to ultimately transliterate it into his life. Rough sailing lifetime of being born into his life’s calling, and proving himself extremely adept at it, before creating an inimical homelife for himself, and a sinking into spirits, rather than continuing to soar on them.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS GRANDIOSE VISIONARY:
Storyline: The spectacular spectacle-maker tackles huge subjects on the giant screen, with a meticulous eye towards the grandiose, after earlier having been thwarted in integrating his story-telling sensibilities with his artistic gifts.

cSir David Lean (1908-1991) - British filmmaker. Outer: Both parents were of Cornish stock and devout Quakers who saw movies as sinful. Father was a handsome accountant, mother was from a family of artists, inventors and engineers, and had a harridan’s temper, which ultimately sent his father fleeing into someone else’s arms, when his son was a teenager. One younger brother. Given a Brownie camera at 11, although his parents had little use for photography. Wound up having to deal with his mother’s profound sadness at being abandoned, which probably dictated a mirroring effect on his own intimate relationships, whenever they became too emotionally demanding on him. Left school to become an apprentice in his father’s accounting firm, but found the work stultifying. Through his sire’s connections, he entered film as a clapper boy and factotum, then quickly worked his way up, so that by his early 20s he had become head film cutter for a cinema news organization, and soon earned a reputation as a gifted film editor. 6’1”, handsome and highly seductive, with an equal facility for abruptly cutting intimacies out of his life, much as if they were unwanted film. Married Isabel Lean, a cousin, in 1930, but a wandering eye and an inconstancy would mar all his unions, divorced in 1936, one son. Married actress/writer Kay Walsh in 1940, divorced at decade’s end. Began his directing career during WW II, with In Which We Serve, an award-winning patriotic war film he co-directed with Noel Coward, then continued doing movies based on Coward’s plays, after which he did 2 films based on the works of Charles Dickens (Richard Burton). In 1949, he married a third time to actress Ann Todd , who would star in a trio of his films. After divorcing her in 1957, he married 3 more times afterwards, to Leila Matkar from 1960 to 1978, to Sandra Hotz, from 1981 to 1984, and finally in 1990, to Sandra Cooke, who would outlive him. Beginning with The Bridge on the River Kwai in 1957, his oeuvre became larger and more grandiose, but always literate, with a fine sense of detail, often taking years to make, after his earlier works gave him the foundation for portraying filmic intimacy, which he then enlarged upon, carefully balancing exterior action with interior interrelationships, and always focusing on the visual, to the extent he would edit his films soundlessly on a Movieola, so that the images would dictate the cuts, rather than the dialogue. Won Oscars for Best Director and Best Film for Kwai in 1957, which also garnered 5 more Awards. His seminal film was Lawrence of Arabia, which also reaped 7 Academy Awards, including a 2nd Best Director and Best Picture in 1962. Continued in the same vein with Dr. Zhivago, but because of the negative reviews for Ryan’s Daughter, he waited 14 years to make his next film, Passage to India, which saw him revert to form, although all his films would wilt in their 2nd half, much as his life did. Eventually knighted for his work and also won a Life Achievement Award from the American Film Institute in 1990. Died from pneumonia after a long illness. Inner: A highly meticulous craftsman, with the ability to blend the active and the thoughtful. Far less successful in his personal life, because of his obsessive work nature and egocentricity. Had difficulty with emotional connections, and often ended friendships over imagined slights. Spent much time in silence or depressedly wandering in search of natural beauty. Large vision lifetime of early denial to give him a sense of patience and fortitude to allow his visions and dreams to realize themselves on the outer level, while paying far less heed to his own personal life, which was reflected in the flaws in his films. cGeorge Frederick Watts (1817-1904) - English artist and sculptor. Outer: Father was a piano maker and tuner, albeit a poor provider. Spent his childhood reading voluminously, despite having no formal schooling. Given the run of a sculptor’s studio, he took some lessons in oil painting, so that he was able to earn a living by 16 as a pencil and chalk portraitist. Attended the Royal Academy off and on for 2 years, exhibiting there, while gaining patronage through friendships. Twice won competitions for decoration of the Houses of Parliament, and went to Italy on the prize money, where he came under the influence of Titian (Pierre Renoir), as well as Greek sculpture. Taught drawing there to the daughters of nobleman, until an attachment to one forced him to earn his living doing portraits, when he would rather have done allegories and storytelling spectacles. In 1864, he married actress Ellen Terry (Vanessa Redgrave), who used to model for him, albeit both were incompatible and they amicably divorced soon afterwards. Married again in 1886, to Mary Fraser-Tytler, a Scottish designer and potter over 3 decades his junior. His 2nd wife wrote a biography of him, and also took passionate interest in his work, if not in him. Many of his paintings were filled with tendentious symbolism that seems to have been painted for effect rather than meaning. Although he despised portraiture, he was a shrewd observer of his famous contemporaries. Twice declined baronetcies, he was active to the near end of his long life, eventually opening up a gallery at his country house, while contributing paintings to national galleries. Inner: Believed art should preach in universal terms. Wanted to be uplifting, but sentimentality won out over sentiment. Neurotic, neuresthenic and largely sexless, but social with a gift for eliciting the support of the well-born. Compromised lifetime of allowing his beliefs to run counter to his method, so that his successes were not born out of his true desires, making him far more controlling of his career the next time around in this series. cGeorge Romney (1734-1802) - English artist. Outer: From yeoman stock, originally named Rumney, which may have been reflective of Romany or gypsy descent. Son of a cabinetmaker, with architectural, drawing and engineering skills, and a facility for practical invention. Mother was of a more genteel background. Grew up in modest circumstances, the 2nd of 5 brothers, with three of them dying in their 30s. One older sister, as well. Had a scanty education, and apprenticed his sire, learning to both fashion and play violins before being apprenticed for four years to a feckless portrait painter slightly older than himself. Fell ill and was nursed back to health by Mary Abbott, the daughter of his landlady, who was some 7 years his senior. The duo wed in his early 20s, son and short-lived daughter from the union. Toured the provinces as an itinerant portrait and genre painter, before moving to London, where he won a Royal Society prize for an his/storical painting. Largely abandoned his family, and became a fashionable society portrait painter, flattering his sitters, without capturing their deeper essence. An excellent craftsman and draftsman, ranking just below the top echelon of portraitists of his time, although his reputation suffered because of many paintings falsely attributed him. Did over 50 portraits of Lady Emma Hamilton (Gypsy Rose Lee), disguised as every possibly muse and nymph, which also made him suspect to segments of the public. Went to Rome for 2 years, beginning in 1773, which reaffirmed his belief in simple compositions. Became a full-time portraitist on his return to London, while forming a close friendship with poet William Haley (Philip Pullman), who would later serve as his biographer. Did a goodly number of drawings on the horrors of prison life, and became suspect for his radical friendships during the French revolutionary period. Really wanted to be a his/story and genre painter, but wasn’t able to establish himself in those modes, and suffered mental paralysis for it, causing him ultimately to retire to his native Kendal, where he rejoined his forgiving spouse after a 40 year absence. Ended his days in an unhappy state, while his wife lived to the age of 97. A fast worker, he produced over 2000 paintings, and as many as 5000 drawings. Largely forgotten and little exhibited after his death, despite his popularity during his life. His son, the Rev. John Romney, penned a biography of him in 1830. Inner: Poetic character, sensitive and introspective, preferring the company of writers and philosophers to artists. Largely unsociable, with few intimate friends. Had a prodigious capacity for work, and was a good craftsman. Curtailed lifetime of material success, but frustrations in his true goals, which ultimately caused him to internalize his failures and redesign his ambitions, in his ongoing quest to open up his storytelling abilities, and serve as a moral uplifter of his times.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS PURVEYOR OF CHILDHOOD’S INTERIOR:
Storyline: The vibrant visionary limns the magical dreamworks where fantasy and reality shake hands, although his own interior remains unclasped through his alternating need to dazzle, control and appease.

Terry Gilliam (Terence Vance Gilliam) (1940) - American/English filmmaker, animator, actor and comedian. Outer: Father was a carpenter. Raised in Los Angeles, he originally wanted to be a missionary, thanks to a zealot’s desire to open minds, until being turned away at Disneyland in his early 20s for his long hair, at which point, he realized he didn’t want to be subject to anyone’s decrees other than his own. 5’9”. Graduated Occidental College with a degree in political science, then went east, showing up on the doorstep of comicsmeister Harvey Kurtzman in NYC, who hired him as an assistant at ‘Help!’ magazine, where he organized photo comic strips. Worked as a writer/illustrator for advertising agencies and other magazines, but abandoned animation in his early 20s, dissatisfied with its commercialism. Left the U.S. for Paris, and then London, where he settled and began working for the BBC, eventually joining up with the popular comedy series, Monte Python’s Flying Circus, as their animator, after having previously met them before they formed their group. Provided the graphics as the single American of that sextet. Married Maggie Weston, a make-up artist in his mid-30s, 2 daughters and a son from the union. Worked on the movies that were generated by them, then became a director himself, with an offbeat vision and black humor. Beginning with Time Bandits in 1981, he created a trilogy that reflected his earlier “Little Nemo in Slumberland,” exploring the world that lies between fantasy and reality, and the illusions of time. His most realized film in this regard, would be The Adventures of Baron von Munchausen. Although his body of work would be met with mixed critical and commercial reception, all of his films are serpentine in their entangling images, most notably Brazil, exhibited in 1985, which had a happy ending appended to it in its initial showing before being restored to his dark vision of the future. Had to take out an ad in the trade paper “Variety,” to finally get it released. His later works have been less consistent, with more of a desire to ultimately please than provoke through his striking use of images. A longtime fascination with the character of Don Quixote turned into such a calamitous disaster, that it never reached the screen, although an effective documentary was shot around its failure, while many of his projects simply stalled out, including a double try in 2005 with Tideland and The Grimm Brothers, an ill-received set of pieces that showed his excesses but little of his earlier evinced skills, in a later life slide from his earlier brilliantly fey concoctions. Has a net worth of $50 million. Inner: Perfectionist, temperamental, lots of built-in paradoxes, alternately charming and petty, and a terror on the set, with a built in sense of paranoia about studios interfering with his work. Strong need to be in control of his product after his earlier go-round of giving away his genius. Missionary lifetime of bringing his child’s vision of the wonders of the world into full maturity, while struggling with his own inner impolitic dualities, in a world too eager to totally thwart its genius and turn it into cookie cutter profit. Winsor McCay (Zenas Winsor McKay) (1869-1934) - American cartoonist. Outer: Father was a teamster, grocer, real estate agent and lumberman, and named his son after one of his employers, although his son would later drop the first name. Had an unhappy childhood, and used to escape into drawing to relieve the tedium and harshness of a lumbering lumber town environment. Throughout his life, he would use drawing as a means to lose himself, which also helped him to maintain a childlike demeanor into adulthood. Never finished grade school, although his father registered him at a business school in order to learn a real trade. Worked as a house artist for a Detroit “dime museum,” doing quick portraits, then moved to Chicago in 1889, and worked for a printer, before moving on to Cincinnatti, where he hooked up with another “dime museum,” and did posters, stage backdrops and display art. The job required speed and versatility, and offered him the opportunity to interact with many freakish characters. Eloped with Maude Dufour, a 14 year old in his early 20s, 2 children from the union. Worked on a newspaper afterwards, picking up skills with pen and ink. His illustrations and editorial cartoons led to a job with the New York Herald, after century’s turn, where he began his ingenious comic strips, most notably “Little Nemo in Slumberland,” exploring the magical dreamworks of a little boy. A highly skilled draftsman, each strip was beautifully rendered, as was his “Dream of the Rarebit Fiend,” which ran from 1904 to 1911, and chronicled adult fears and phobias. Did several more concurrently, all following the same pattern of a protagonist’s inner life coming to life in 6 extremely well-etched panels. It would be “Little Nemo,” which debuted in 1905, that would give him his lasting reputation, thanks to his appearing on vaudeville with chalk and blackboard to give live performances of his art, while composing many of his strips backstage and in dressing-rooms as he toured, becoming in the process, a major NY attraction. Wanted to go to Europe and tour, but the Herald refused, so when his contract was up, he allowed himself to be lured away by William Randolph Hearst, who took him off the comic page and made him do heavy-handed editorial illustrations, despite the fact they totally stifled his extraordinary creativity. Hearst also used his influence to dry up his east coast vaudeville bookings In 1914, he produced one of the first animated cartoons, Gertie the Dinosaur, a huge child trapped inside a giant’s body. Left Hearst in 1924 and went back to the Tribune to try to revive “Nemo,” but the strip only lasted two years. Spent his final 8 years doing editorial cartoons for Hearst again. After his death of a cerebral hemorrhage, when his son visited Walt Disney, Uncle Walt gestured outside his window, and said, “All this should be your father’s.” Inner: Quick learner, with an astonishing imagination, but allowed himself to be dominated by others, and lost his brilliant vision in the sodden sight of more enterprising but far less insightful folk. Slumberland lifetime of compensating for lost childhood by remaining one and freezing his artistic consciousness in that extended state. Edward Hicks (1780-1849) - American artist and Quaker preacher. Outer: Born into a Tory family, during the latter days of the American Revolutionary War. His mother died when he was 18 months, and the war swept away his family fortune. Put in the care of a Quaker family with two daughters, and they gave him a loving home. Grew up an ardent patriot, and at 13, he left his sheltered boyhood, and became a coachmaker’s apprentice. Fell into the rough-and-tumble life of his trade, before having an epiphany while sick at 20. After being cured by what he felt was divine intervention, he saw his drinking and carousing as cause of great remorse, and became a member of the Society of Friends in 1803. The same year he married Sarah Worstall, a fellow Quaker, while maintaining his position as the junior partner of a coach-maker. As his family grew, he augmented his income by painting household objects and then rendering trade and tavern signs, which taught him how to do figures and handle pictorial space. Moved to Newton, the county seat of Bucks County in 1811, and that became his permanent homebase. Afflicted with TB during the decade, he became a Friends minister in 1819, although his constant riding and preaching on the Friends circuit, particularly during the winter, did nothing to help his ongoing chronic cough and consumption. Around 1820, he did the first of what would prove his most enduring contribution to primitive American folk art, “The Peaceable Kingdom,” which showed all sorts of animals, from the lion to the lamb, lying together, according to the Biblical prophecy of Isaiah of the coming kingdom of the Messiah. Did some 60 versions of the tableau during his life, never repeating any of them. Although he did not originate the image, it would be his, that would be embraced by subsequent art his/story. Also did a series of paintings of William Penn (Saul Williams), a personal hero of his, making a treaty with the Amerindians to buy Pennsylvania, as a practical reflection of the Peaceable Kingdom. After a cousin of his, Elias Hicks, made a breach with the mainstream Quakers over the Light Within as being more important than the Bible, he joined his relative’s schism in 1827, and did another not-so Peaceable Kingdom showing the divide. Became a well-known figure of his time, more for his sermons than his art, while continually trying to integrate his spiritual sensibilities into his acute aesthetic. Continually changed the symbolism of the Peaceable Kingdom, to reflect his own grasp of spiritual dynamics. Saw self-denial as a Quaker goal, and predatory animals as passions, if unchecked, that were capable of self-destruction, while the domestic animals were the gentleness that occurred when people yielded self-will to Divine Will. Painted a Noah’s ark in 1846, showing his vision of orderly salvation. Continued to expand as an artist, with a clear sense of color and composition, until his death from TB. Well-loved by his flock, he had over 3000 mourners at his funeral. Inner: Sweet-tempered, serenely devout and stubborn. Highly spiritual, and tender, with an orderly sensibility, and a great love of the maternal. Also held a messianic sense of himself. Preacherly lifetime of bringing not only the word, but the image as well, to a world he fervently hoped would one day be able to be lit from within and give itself over to the Divine Will of all-abiding peace and love.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS POET AND NON-CONFORMIST:
Storyline: The lower case iconoclast gives an artistic raspberry to life as lived by the plebian mass, while vaunting his own elitist sense of individuality as the only way to go in an intolerant go-round dedicated to his personal view of love, divinity and the sordid human condition.

e. e. cummings (Edward Estlin Cummings) (1894-1962) - American poet and artist. Outer: Son of a Unitarian minister who was once a Harvard instructor. Parents were introduced to one another by psychologist William James (Ram Dass). Mother felt he was destined for greatness, and kept all his early works for posterity. Graduated from Harvard, magna cum laude, receiving both his B.A. and M.A. there, and gave the commencement address for his class, then volunteered as an ambulance Corps driver in France during WW I. While in France, he was arrested for alleged treason for corresponding with anarchist Emma Goldman, and spent several months in an internment camp. Returned to the U.S. and was drafted into the army as a private, but spent his time in Massachusetts. Moved to NYC in 1920 to take up writing and painting, but also spent much time in Paris. His first book, The Enormous Room, was based on his experiences in the internment camp and was well-received. Published his initial collection of poetry the following year. Spent the rest of his life alternating between Greenwich Village in NYC, a farm in New Hampshire he had inherited, and traveling in Europe, as well as the Soviet Union. Took up with Elaine Orr, when she was married to a friend of his, and had a daughter with her, before marrying in 1924, when her divorce from her husband came through. Soon afterwards, she left him for an Irish banker, and he did not see his daughter again for over 20 years, despite having custody rightses to her. In 1929, he wed Anne Barton, who got a Mexican divorce from him in 1932. His third wife was Marion Morehouse, a fashion model and photographer, who may or may not have officially married him, but spent the rest of his life with him, from 1932 onwards. Used lower case type for his name in an attempt to create a visual syntax, while continuing experimenting in style, form, punctuation and grammar, so that his writing would have a painterly quality to it. Had several one-man shows of his paintings, and continued his prolific poetry output throughout his life. Had mixed critical reception to his blend of satire and moral contempt. Became a professor of poetry at Harvard, in 1952 for 2 semesters, later publishing his lectures, while growing more and more curmudgeonly as got older. Won several awards his last decade, including a National Book Award. Died of a brain hemorrhage at his family farm. Inner: Highly unconventional elitist and egotist, using the theme of the individual running counter to conformist society, in both his life and his work. Despised all social institutions and abstractions, feeling love was the saving grace of humanity, although showed a continuing intolerance for the ordinary and the great American mass. Buoyant, self-assured, despite feeling himself a victim of leftist politics. Doing it my way lifetime of expressing an intense sense of individualism, with the self as a manifestation of the divine, while maintaining a curiously adolescent and intolerant overview of life, despite a deepening feel for the human condition as he grew older. Washington Allston (1779-1843) - American artist and writer. Outer: From a prominent South Carolina family. Father was a military officer who was mysteriously poisoned, perhaps by a servant, when son was 2. Mother remarried a medical staff officer, stating her first marriage was to please her family, her second to please herself. The family was nervous about his drawing ability, seeing it as counter to a productive life, and sent him to Newport, but his interest continued. Graduated Harvard, where he wrote music and poetry. Loved theater, wine and dancing, and was called ‘Count’ by his classmates. Intensely shy with women, he had a long engagement to Ann Channing, the sister of minister William Ellery Channing (William Sloan Coffin), and the 2 eventually married when he was in his late 20s. His stepfather wanted him to be a physician, but his own will prevailed. Went to London to study painting with expatriate Benjamin West (Steven Soderbergh), then spent 4 years in Rome studying the Old Masters, before embarking on a career as a religious and allegorical storyteller in oil. Close friends with poet Samuel Coleridge (Ezra Pound), and writer Washington Irving (Damon Runyan). Began in a reserved classical style which grew more sophisticated as he matured. Returned to America, then lived again in England during the decade of the 1810s, during which time he became ill and never fully recovered. His wife died in 1814, which was followed on his part by a period of morbid depression, insomnia and dark thought. Confirmed as an Episcopalian and dedicated himself to Christian virtue, with a hypersensitive regard for purity. Supposed to succeed West as President of Royal Academy, but returned to America, instead. Unstimulated by its environs and his work lost its vitality. Made Boston his home, and spent 20 years on an unfinished allegory of Belshazzar’s Feast.. Suffered ill health and was in debt during this period. Married his cousin, but the end of his life was ruined by excessive piety and failing health. Inner: Highly self-critical, romantic, with a strong sense of being impure. Excessively esthetic and ascetic lifetime of struggling with integrating his self-expression and religious denial, but allowing the latter to ultimately prevail, before returning in far more cynical form to try to reclaim himself and his art.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS MASTER STORYTELLER:
Storyline: The dark dream/master plays with the fears of others, while exerting absolute control over his own unsettled interior in order to transmute his ongoing mind-games into enduring art, while transforming his largely unloving personality, save for intimates, into a much-beloved icon of grandfatherly wit and dry humor.

Sir Alfred Hitchcock (Alfred Joseph Hitchcock) (1899-1980) - British filmmaker. Outer: Youngest of 3 children of a London poultry dealer and greengrocer, who died when he was 15. As punishment, he was sent at 5 by his father down to the local police station and put in a jail cell for 5 minutes, engendering a lifelong repulsion for authority and fear of the police. Educated at a Jesuit school, where he was overweight with few friends. Left school at his sire’s death and worked as a draftsman for a telegraph company, before switching to their advertising department as an artist and layout designer. Studied engineering at the School of Engineering and Navigation and later art at the Univ. of London, attending classes at night. 5’8”, once ballooned up to 300 lbs, but tried to keep himself under 200. Began in the motion picture industry by designing title cards for the Islington studios, then became a scenario writer and assistant director. In his mid-20s, he married Alma Reville, a film editor who would later collaborate with him on the scripts of many of his films, as well as those of other directors. Their daughter Joan became an actress/director, appearing in three of her father’s works. Directed his first film in his mid-20s, The Pleasure Garden, and soon established himself as a master of the “thriller” form. Always plotted out his shots very carefully, editing them in his head before shooting, and rarely deviating from his storyboards. Viewed actors as cattle to be remolded to his fantasies, while controlling them via mindgames. Made his first successful British talkie, Blackmail, in 1929, and after a decade of classic suspense films in England, including The Man Who Knew Too Much, The Thirty-Nine Steps and The Lady Vanishes, he came to Hollywood at the age of 40. Averaged a movie a year for the next three decades, always placing himself in passing in one of the opening scenes. Best remembered for a host of films, including Rebecca, for which he won his only Oscar in 1941, Vertigo, North by Northwest and Psycho, which forever changed the taking of a simple shower into a potentially terrifying experience. In his late 40s, he began serving as his own producer as well. Used visually compelling techniques to further his plots, including one film seemingly done in one shot, Rope. Produced and hosted 2 popular TV series beginning in the mid-1950s, that he occasionally directed, focusing on tales of terror and the macabre. Held in high esteem throughout his career, and was one of the first of the name directors, thanks in large part to his TV exposure. Ultimately did some 55 features, while winning a host of awards, although felt he had lost touch in his last decade. In 1979, he was given the American Film Institute’s Lifetime Achievement Award. Suffered from chronic arthritis of the knees, a symbol of an unbending nature, as well as gall bladder problems, and was drinking heavily towards life’s end because of the pain. Knighted several months before his death at home from liver cancer. Inner: Mordant humor, with more than a touch of the sadistic, particularly towards actresses. Extremely sensitive to criticism, and seemingly obsessed with glacial blondes as his ultimate female ideal. Very formal, always dressed in a dark suit and tie on the set, while demanding perfection from everyone. Good raconteur, dutiful Catholic, and devoted husband and father, with an abiding fascination of America. Misogynistic control freak, and perfectionist self-publicist, but also sensitive, vulnerable, deeply emotional, and probably greatly fearful of his own femininity. Saw all his films internally before making them. Controlling lifetime of bringing his unique sense of the terrifying and macabre into the mass imagination, while continuing to hide from himself, and at the same time, remain in very public view. Ernest Meissonier (Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier) (1815-1891) - French artist. Outer: Raised in Lyons, and came to Paris at the age of 15, with his parents, who set up a chemical works. Studied under several artists, including Leon Cogniet, although his true teachers were the old masters of the Dutch school, whose paintings he rigorously analyzed. Began his career as an illustrator of books, then transferred to small canvases, working in a realistic vein. Made sculptures of figures and horses, which he would use in his paintings. In his early 30s, he began receiving the highest official honors from the French Salon, and his career was largely one of undiminished acceptance, proving himself both highly prolific and instantly recognizable, thanks to both his technique and subject matter. Largely a military and his/storical painter, who worked on a small scale, with a close attention to minute detail, taking great care to get his costumes and armor right, while showing a high fidelity to nature, faithfully capturing the movement of horses, as well as the outer scenes that framed his central subjects. Married Jenny Streinheill in 1838, with his wife dying 50 years later. Sported a long beard, and was corpulent. Well-rewarded for his efforts, he was famous throughout the art world in a long professional life largely free of outer conflict. Never succeeded, however, in producing a masterpiece, which bothered him greatly, and despite all his honors and wealth, was unhappy and discontented. A year before his death he married a second time to a Mlle. Bezancon. Inner: A storyteller at heart, who loved to work small, and had an excellent dramatic sense, as well as an obsession with detail. Auteur lifetime of evincing the same talents he would bring to the larger screen the next time up in this series, while once again gaining plaudits all around for his obvious skills at feeding into the public tastes of his times, despite a basically dissatisfied character yearning to be acclaimed a genius to assuage his large and seemingly bottomless ego.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS PROVOCATIVE PORTRAITIST:
Storyline: The trenchant truth-teller brings his penchant for realistic commentary to the silver screen, while using all his gifts of self-expression, from acting to writing to directing, to make his political presence felt on the English cultural landscape.

Lindsay Anderson (1923-1994) - British filmmaker and critic. Outer: Son of a Scottish major general stationed in India at his birth, mother was the daughter of a prosperous wool merchant. Raised in England from the age of 2 onwards. His parents divorced when he was 10, and his mother remarried. Spent 3 years as an army officer in the King’s Royal Rifles and intelligence corps, and was also a cryptographer in India. His military service interrupted his schooling but he finally graduated from Oxford and became a founding editor, along with Gavin Lambert, a lifelong friend, of an anti-establishment film journal, “Sequence” in 1947, which appeared quarterly for 3 years. Also wrote for various other journals. More of a theatrical director than a filmmaker, and more of a statement-maker than a true artist, although theater brought out his gifts far more than cinema did, allowing him to be interpreter rather than co-author. Began his career as a film director by make short documentaries for an industrial firm. Did documentary and TV work, winning an Academy award for the former in 1954. Coined the term “Free Cinema, “a leftist movement in the British film industry, which took as their subject matter contemporary working-class life. Won awards for his first series of provocative films, beginning in 1963 with This Sporting Life, about a rugby player, and directed for the stage as well, always winning acclaim for his well-thought out productions. Best remembered for If and O! Lucky Man, two cynical looks at elements of English society, and both starring Malcolm MacDowell. Served as governor of the British Film Institute, and appeared in several films as an actor. An admitted homophile, although never felt comfortable with his sexuality, seeing it as a source of shame, anxiety and guilt. Had an odd crush on macho filmmaker John Ford (David Fincher). Died of a heart attack while climbing out of a friend’s swimming pool. Inner: Provocative, idealistic, perceptive and political. Short, stocky, sharp-witted workaholic. Explosive temperament, with an imperiousness ill-suited to wedding art and statement. Self-disciplined anarchist, with a loathing for his native country. Trenchant lifetime of bringing his visual and verbal talents to many thought-provoking productions, giving full spleen to his ardently held beliefs, although never truly transcending the soap-box orator to discover the true artist beneath. Ford Madox Brown (1821-1893) - English artist. Outer: Grandfather was the son of a Scottish laborer who became an innovative doctor while showing a continued hostility to establishment types, traits that seemed to have been passed down to his grandson. Father was a retired ship’s purser. One sister. Grew up in reduced circumstances in Calais, traveling frequently between England and France, which curtailed his formal education. Learned to draw by copying, and was saved from a naval career, when his sire failed to have him follow in his footsteps. At the age of 14, he was taken to study art at Bruges Academy in Belgium. The following year he switched to an academy at Ghent, and then to Antwerp. After his parents returned home to England, he adopted a bohemian lifestyle, while his work began to reflect moral and political issues, which it would the rest of his life. 5’7”. Following the death of his mother in 1839, he began receiving an annuity, which let him continue at the Antwerp Academy. The following year his sister died. After grieving with a slightly older cousin, Elizabeth Bromley, he married her at 19, but she, too, would pass on, some 5 years later. Their first child, a daughter, died, as would his father in 1842, while his second daughter, Lucy (Carly Simon) survived. Went to Paris where he worked in somber colors and dramatic subject matter, trying to capture an emotional naturalistic sense in his early work, to the point of directly drawing from corpses. Initially a painter of romantic his/storical subjects. Returned to London but failed in several cartoon competitions, then traveled to Italy in 1845 for his wife’s health, where he brightened his palette considerably and became interested in medievalism. Painted in the open air to capture nature as it was. On the way back to London, his wife died of consumption in Paris. Came home to England and accepted Dante Rossetti (Brian Jones) as a pupil, and was drawn into the latter’s Pre-Raphaelite movement, which celebrated medievalism. Although he never officially joined the Brotherhood, he contributed to the group’s magazine, Germ, and also aped their realism and bright palettes. Had a daughter with his illiterate mistress and model, Emma Hill, and eventually married her in 1852, after teaching her to read and write. Two more sons followed, with one dying in infancy, while the union, which was close, was also pocked by Emma’s epileptic fits and alcoholism. Had great difficulty in selling his work, but by decade’s end, he found some patrons in northern England. Cut off his association with the Royal Academy, after being either poorly hung or outright rebuffed by them, and exhibited elsewhere. In 1858, he formed the Hogarth Club, having long identified with William Hogarth (Robert Altman), as an independent pictorial commentator on contemporary life. The Club, which was formed as an alternative to the Royal Academy, started off well, although he soon resigned from it when the hanging committee rejected his furniture designs. Had a close relationship with his two daughters, who often worked in his studio and acted as his assistants, while showing talent as artists as well. His surviving son, Oliver (Warren Zevon) who was a promising writer and painter, died of blood poisoning in 1874. Never fully recovered from this tragedy, becoming a virtual recluse immediately afterwards, and then maintaining a shrine-like room dedicated to him in all his subsequent homes. His oldest daughter, Lucy, married Rossetti’s son, and his other daughter became the mother of writer Ford Madox Ford. Lived in Manchester, and became involved in the work-life there, forming a labor bureau in 1886. Also did book illustration with William Morris (Philip Johnson), and like him, worked in stained glass, and also produced a series of murals for the Manchester town hall. Became a leading member of Morris’s firm for 13 years, which manufactured artistic furniture, although he severed all ties with that enterprise as well. Along with his wife, he always helped others, showing a strong social consciousness throughout his adult life, both in times of relative poverty and during his periods of being well-off. Moved back to London in 1887, and was deeply disturbed by his wife’s death 3 years later. Ultimately died of gout. Never really recognized in his lifetime, because of an erratic color sense, and his stance as more the storyteller than the artist, although he was quite original as a designer. Inner: Strong radical opinions, sardonic sense of humor, with a genuine sense of social concern. Touchy and hypersensitive to rejection, while seemingly courting it most of his working life. Eclectic lifetime of personal loss, travel and fascination with the past, while working without full public support in an effort to find his own self-expressive way in a variety of media.

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PATHWAY OF THE ARTIST AS LIMNER OF CHARGED SENSUAL STATES:
Storyline: The erotic explorer finds discretion is the better part of valor, as he comes to comfortable grips with his own sexuality, for a far more satisfying go-round than his earlier Victorian cruising, while switching his primary mode of storytelling from the pictorial to the verbal.

Gavin Lambert (1924-2005) - British/American screenwriter and novelist. Outer: Claimed to have been initiated sexually at 11 by a master at his prep school, leading to a ready acceptance of his true erotic make-up. Met Lindsay Anderson, his tormented homophile opposite, while schoolboys and the two went on to Magdalen College, Oxford, where they teamed with future filmmaker Karel Reisz to found “Sequence,” in 1948, a highbrow, albeit brief, film quarterly. Studied English Literature for a year, but left when he learned he would have to learn medieval English to get his degree. Called up for military service, but was rejected for not having the right stuff, when he showed up for his interview wearing gold eye shadow. Penned his first screenplay in 1954, Another Sky, about a prim Englishwoman’s sexual awakening, which he would direct the following year in Morocco, as a reflection of his own libidinous liberation in Tangier, a city that would eventually become his main abode. Edited “Sight & Sound” magazine from 1949-1955, while becoming involved, along with Anderson, with the Free Cinema Movement, which advocated more social realism in British films. Wrote film criticism for various periodicals, then moved to Los Angeles in 1956 to serve as personal assistant for director Nicholas Ray on Bigger than Life, while also briefly becoming lovers with him. Became a US citizen in 1964. Wrote numerous well-received screenplays, as well as novels, adopting his own Inside Daisy Clover for the screen, while also penning biographies of some of Hollywood’s female luminaries. Wrote seven novels, all with a Tinsel Town setting, while interweaving the full panoply of sexual desire into his characters, well before writing about same-sex attractions was literarily de rigeur. An active homophile, he was always comfortable with his sexuality, and able to find fulfilling relationships for himself. His longest was with Mart Crowley, the author of “The Boys in The Band,” a breakthrough same-sex play. Divided his time between Tangier, Morocco and Los Angeles between 1973 and 1990, with the former his place of choice, as a close friend of writer Paul Bowles. Spent his last fifteen years in the latter city. Penned his memoir, “Mainly About Lindsay Anderson,” in 2000, claiming the Indian guru Krishnamurti was the singular most influential person in his life. His final book was a bio of Natalie Wood, a close friend of his, who starred in his “Inside Daisy Clover.” Died of pulmonary fibrosis. Inner: Witty, highly social chronicler, with the priapic peccadilloes of Hollywood as his metropolitan métier of choice. Observant, quiet, always taking his various milieus in as future subject matter. Healing lifetime of coming to far more comfortable grips with himself, by finding far more accepting cultures to allow him the freedom of finding both satisfactory love and eros, as well equally rewarding atmospheres of creative expression. Simeon Solomon (1840-1905) - English painter. Outer: Of Jewish descent. Mother, Catherine Levy, was a miniaturist, father was a prominent merchant. Youngest of 8 children of a middle-class family, that produced several artists, including an older brother and sister, Abraham and Rebecca, both of whom influenced him. Shared studios with the former until his early 20s, after earlier taking lessons from him. Quickly proved to be a skilled draftsman and avid sketcher, forming a club with several other artists. Admitted to the Royal Academy Schools in 1856, where he met Dante Rossetti (Brian Jones), who introduced him as a teen, to the Pre-Raphaelite circle, a group who knelt at the esthetic altar of medievalia. A storyteller by nature in his art, he used both the Bible and Shakespeare for subject matter. His Old Testament paintings earned him important patronage, as he continued exhibiting at the Royal Academy. Set up his own studio in 1862, to allow him to move out from under his brother, who died later that year. Despite the latter’s solid reputation, his would subsequently soar past him, over the next decade. Strongly influenced by poet Algernon Swinburne (Mick Jagger), in his combination of erotica and classicism, as his art adopted the latter mode as his primary source of expression. Traveled to Italy in his late 20s, with Oscar Browning, a future headmaster of Eton, which inspired some of his pictorial paeans to the pagan past, as he reached a peak during the decade. Following his return to England, he and Browning broke up, which led to the beginning of his heavy drinking. Served on the administrative committee of the Dudley Gallery, which showed water colors and oils, and also provided another exhibition venue for him through 1872. Part of the Aesthete movement, he explored his own man-on-man erotica in a Victorian atmosphere of homophobia, before he was caught in a public loo with a sixty year old stableman, and arrested for attempted sodomy. Sentenced originally to 18 month’s hard labor, although only spent two weeks in prison, thanks to the help of a wealthy cousin, but on his release on bail in 1872, his professional life was largely over. Eventually only had to pay a fine while the stableman served the full sentence, but his condemned status lost him many of his former friends, and he spent the rest of his life in the demimondaine of Victorian sexual outlaws. Fled to France and was arrested again in Paris in 1874, spending three months in jail. Although his family and some friends continued to support him, he wound up in a workhouse in 1884, where he spent his last two decades. Forced to beg and sell matchsticks on the street, while scrounging for materials with which he could work. A victim of acute alcoholism by this juncture, he still managed to produce some evocative pastel and charcoal drawings. At the time of his death from heart failure brought on by bronchitis and heavy drinking, he was a pauper. Inner: Impulsive, and highly social, with a genuine feel for his heritage, and a storyteller’s sensibility to his art. Skip to my loo my darling lifetime of compulsively putting himself at great risk, through a furtive need for exposure via artless acts, thanks to an environment unwilling and unable to countenance any sexuality outside the proscribed biblical mandates of man and wife.

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PATHWAY OF THE MARTIAL ARTIST AS HIGHLY IMAGINATIVE VISUALIST:
Storyline: The cinematic time-tripper renders both past and future in exquisite detail in his desire to remain true to his inner projections of each.

Sir Ridley Scott (1937) - British filmmaker. Outer: From the northeast of England. Father was a colonel in the Royal Engineers, and was absent much of the time. The middle of three brothers, with his oldest joining the Merchant Navy. His youngest sibling, Tony, became a film director. The family moved often in the WW II era, until finally settling where he was born at the contest’s end. Originally wanted to join the military but his sire convinced him to pursue his artistic interests, since he obviously had a fascination with film from early on. Received a degree in design in 1958 from West Hartlepool College of Art, then studied at the Royal College of Art, where he helped establish a film studies department and also shot his first short. 5’8 1/2”. After he graduated in 1963, he became a trainee set designer with the BBC, working on a popular police series, “Z-Cars,” among other shows. In 1964, he married journalist Felicity Heywood, Two sons from the union, Jake and Luke, both of whom would direct commercials for the family concern. Began directing TV episodes in 1965, and three years later he and Tony founded Ridley Scott Associates, a production company, which produced numerous commercials in the 1970s. Began his career as a film director in 1977 with The Duellists, set in the Napoleonic Wars with American stars, which was noted for its martial authenticity. His next film, Alien, in 1979, established him as an effects-driven sci-fi director, a pursuit he would continue, gaining an international reputation for the memorable visual impact of his creations. After divorcing in 1975, he married ad exec Sandy Watson in 1979. Daughter Jordan from the union, which ended in divorce in 1989, also became a director. Lost his brother Frank to skin cancer, while directing Blade Runner, in 1982, a bleak futuristic adaptation of a Philip K. Dick novel, that failed to find its audience initially but eventually became a cult classic as a seminal sci-fi film, whose shadowed landscapes would be repeated in a host of imitative works, while he would view it as his most complete and personal creation. Continued working in a visionary mode, including a stunning commercial introducing Apple’s Macintosh computer, in which a rebel female smashes a Big Brother screen. For the rest of the century, his works proved a mixed bag, with both hits and misses in a variety of genres, while he and his brother formed Scott Free Productions in Los Angeles in 1995, and it would produce all his subsequent features, which would include TV series. At the same time, a consortium headed by himself and his brother bought Shepperton Studios in Surrey, and renovated them extensively, before they merged after the turn of the century into a global concern. Enjoyed his biggest commercial success with Gladiator in 2000, although his subsequent releases would only fare moderately well at the box office, save for a prequel to Alien, called Prometheus, one of his biggest commercial hits. Took up with Costa Rican actress Giannina Facio, some 18 years his junior, and she would subsequently appear in all his films after the century’s turn. Always busy, moving from one project to the next, he remains a visualist extraordinaire, with all his offerings giving memorable testament to his skills in conveying his highly-developed chimerical sensibilities, with an equal fascination with both the future and the past. Has homes in London, France and Los Angeles, and was knighted in 2003 for his service to the film industry. Lost his brother Tony to suicide in 2012. Added to his unique sci-fi oeuvre with The Martian in 2015, a study in singular survival on the red planet by a figure left to his own devices for four years before he can be rescued. Worked closely with NASA in getting the science right, and with excellent reviews and box office, showed that sci-fi is still his strong métier. Subsequently won a 2016 Golden Globe for it in the surreal category of beat musical or comedy. 2017 saw Alien: Covenant, the sixth in the series and the origin tale of the character he created for the original 1979 Alien. It easily made a covenant with both critical approval as well as huge domestic and foreign box office. Has a net worth of $200 million. Inner: Extremely detailed in his approach to everything he assays, right down to lighting, sound and production design, while favoring slowly building up to action sequences. Fascinated with artificial intelligence, and always employs strong female characters. Storyboards everything, and uses intricate camera set-ups, while preferring players with theater and drama school backgrounds. Eagle-eyed lifetime of searching for truth through film, as a detail-oriented documentarian of his highly imaginative interior. Redvers Henry Buller (1839-1908) - English general. Outer: From an old Cornish family who traced itself through the female line back to Edward I (JFK). Father was an M.P. Educated at Eton, before entering the army in 1858, serving with the Kings Royal Rifles in China. A captain by 1870, he was head of the Intelligence Department for Col. Garnet Wolesley (Sean Connery) in the 1870s, incurring a wound at the battle of Ordabai. Raised to the rank of major, he inherited his family’s considerable estates in 1874 in Devon and Cornwall, giving him a handsome income. Showed his military mettle in the Kaffir War and Zulu War at decade’s end, proving to be a popular leader with a reputation for doggedness and courage, which earned him the Victoria Cross. Elevated to the rank of lt. colonel and made Aide-de-camp to the Queen. Continued to serve in Africa, and was knighted in 1882 for his services in Egypt. The same year he wed Lady Audrey Jane Charlotte, the daughter of the 4th Marquess of Townshend. One daughter from the union, who later served as his secretary and companion. A major-general by 1884, he became Wolseley’s chief of staff in Sudan, again distinguishing himself under difficult circumstances. Briefly undersecretary for Ireland in 1886, and from 1890-1897 he rose to lieutenant general, while working at the war office, showing his skill at organization, so that by 1896, he became a full general. Selected to command the South African Field Force in 1899 during the Boer War, After an initial failure, he was superseded in command, which led to a second failure, and then a third. Never lost the confidence of his men, although his larger reputation was tarnished, despite later successes in the war. Severely criticized in the press, and returned to England to answer the criticisms in a speech, then retired to the life of a country gentleman, refusing to dignify any further attacks on his martial abilities. Given an elaborate monument in Devon following his death, whose inscription read, “A great leader - Beloved of his men.” Inner: Gallant martial artist who had the misfortune of being blamed for failures not of his making. Highly competent subordinate and good tactician with a keen sense of modern warfare. Others wound up credited for his tactics, in what would prove a go-round of taking the blame but not given the plaudits he deserved. Unfairly targeted lifetime of coming to the realization that he would be better served in another arena entirely than that of modern warfare and the unfounded reputations born out of it. William Petty, 2nd earl of Shelburne and 1st Marquess of Landsdowne (William Fitzmaurice) (1737-1805) - Irish/British Prime Minister and general. Outer: Father was the son of the 1st Earl of Kerry. His original name was FitzMaurice. Adopted the surname of Petty on inheriting his maternal uncles’ estates. Mother was the daughter of the surveyor general of Ireland. Elder son and first of five children, with another brother becoming an MP as well. Didn’t have much of a formal education, having been taught largely by a tutor until he went to Christ Church Oxford in 1755, only to leave two years later without taking a degree. His father bought him a commission in a Footguards regiment and he distinguished himself in battle during the Seven Years’ War. While still in active service overseas, he was elected to the House of Commons for the family borough of Chipping Wycombe as a Whig, although did not take his seat. Instead he became a colonel and aide-de-camp to George II (Chris Patten). Returned as MP in 1761, and was elevated to the House of Lords on his father’s death, becoming Earl of Shelburne. Served in the Earl of Bute’s administration (Eugene McCarthy), although his obvious ambition for high office made him unpopular with his fellow MPs. Dismissed from his post as aide-de-camp by George III (Jeffrey Archer) because of his support for the radical pamphleteer John Wilkes (Aneurin Bevan). Retired to his country estates, before taking his seat in the Irish House of Lords in 1764. The following year he wed Lady Sophia Carteret, daughter of an earl, through whom he obtained considerable land, including the Landsdowne estates near Bath. At least one son from the union, which ended with her death in 1771. Appointed a Major-General at the same time. Turned down the presidency of the Board of Trade because he opposed taxation of the American colonists. Became Secretary of State for the Southern Dept. in the first Rockingham (Nelson Rockefeller) ministry in 1766, only to have his will thwarted. After he was made Secretary of State for the Colonies in a newly created cabinet post, in Pitt the Elder’s (Al Sharpton) ministry, he resigned along with the latter and went into Opposition. At the death of his first wife, he went to France and Italy and on his return he was made a Lieutenant-General. Supported the withdrawal of troops for Boston at the outbreak of the American Revolution and on Pitt’s death in 1778, he took over leadership of the Whigs, although was held in contempt by the king while cartoonists nicknamed him “Malagrida” after a Portuguese Jesuit who had been convicted of heresy. Proved to be a poor leader with few friends. In 1779, he married Louisa FitzPatrick, daughter of an earl. At least two children from the union, which ended with his wife’s death in 1789. Fought a duel in 1780 over an imagined slight by a lieutenant-colonel and was wounded in the groin. In 1782 he was made Secretary of State for the Home Dept. in Rockingham’s second administration, and on the latter’s death later that year, he was appointed Prime Minister, with a number of ministers immediately resigning rather than serving him. Had great respect for the monarchy, which made his fellow Whigs suspect of him. Tried to institute utilitarian administrative reforms, while concluding the final peace negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles in 1783, which formally ended all European and American hostilities and generously expanded the latter’s territorial boundaries, in the hopes of making the newly formed U.S. a dynamic trading partner of Britain. Oversaw fairer and more honest use of government revenues, while choosing men of talent rather than influence in his administration. Despite an ambitious list of reforms, he was defeated by a combination of figures who completely misunderstood hi, thinking him a Tory at heart, while George III despised him. Forced to resign in 1783 after a series of parliamentary defeats, at which point he retired from public life. Created Marquess of Landsdowne, and continued to sit in the House of Lords, although much preferred staying completely out of the limelight. invested as a Fellow in the Society of Antiquarians in 1798, and was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1803. Died two years later. Inner: Despite his facility for alienating people, he was hard-working, talented, witty and cultured, collecting both antiquities and works of art. Also well-informed on diplomatic and financial affairs, while serving as a patron of scientists. Felt his career had been a failure, because of his poor education, although his unpleasant personality was his real undoing. Sarcastic and vituperative in debate, and unable to gain vital support for his reformist agenda, forcing him to try to do everything himself, instead of in concert with others. Frustrated lifetime of exhibiting an impolitic personality in a sphere which demanded quite the opposite, leading him into other venues in succeeding go-rounds in this series to satisfy his sense of accomplishment.


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PATHWAY OF THE FILMMAKER AS INNOVATIVE CINEMATICIAN:
Storyline: The panoramic producer literally crashes through to the other side of himself, allowing him to expand his creative skills, while once again partnering up with a world-class beauty.

Matthew Vaughn (Matthew de Vere Drummond) (1971) - English producer and director. Outer: Originally believed to be the product of an affair between his mother, Kathy Ceaton, a socialite beauty, and the actor Robert Vaughn. Actual father was George de Vere Drummond, an English aristocrat and a godson of King George VI (Prince George). Robert Vaughn asked that the boy’s name be his, and it has since sufficed as his professional calling, although in his private life, he prefers to reflect his Drummond paternity. Educated at boarding school, then after graduating, traveled the world on a Hard Rock Cafe tour, which took him to Los Angeles, where he began working as an assistant to a director. 6’, with thinning brown hair and brown eyes. Returned to University College in London, where he studied anthropology and ancient his/story, before dropping out after a couple of weeks, and returning to Los Angeles. Realized, however, he would be better served in the U.K. and returned there. Began his producing career in 1996 with an obscure thriller, The Innocent Sleep. Found an excellent writing partner two years later, with director Guy Ritchie’s offbeat crime dramas, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels in 1998, and Snatch, in 2000, making him an international player. Previously best man at the latter’s wedding to Madonna. In 2002, he wed German supermodel and entrepreneur Claudia Schiffer, son and two daughters from the close union. Formed his own production company, MARV films, and co-produced all his subsequent directorial efforts through it, beginning in 2004 with a crime thriller, Layer Cake. Followed that up with eclectic fare, including a superhero comedy with Kick-Ass in 2010 and X-Men: First Class the following annum. Denied speculation in 2011 he was the father of actress January Jones’s son, as one of the candidates put forth by the gossip media. Inner: Likes working with the same stable of actors and actresses, as well as writing partners. Continually looking for unusual properties, as both producer and director, with comic books as a favorite source of material, and a desire to infuse them with light, rather than dark conflict. Suffers from ADHD. Enjoys surprising his audiences, and sees both luck and recognizing opportunities as keys to his success. Amplified lifetime of bringing more of his cinematic skills to bear, while once again hooking up with a world-class beauty, as domestic ballast to his ongoing desire for both fame’n’fortune. Mike Todd (Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen) (1909-1958) - American producer: Outer: Both parents were Polish Jewish immigrants. Father worked as a laborer, peddler, painter and kosher slaughterer, while later embellishments had him as an Orthodox rabbi, although no proof exists of it, including no mention on his tombstone. His father’s father may have been one. The second youngest son and one of 8 children, with four brothers and three sisters. Nicknamed ‘Toat’ from his inability to pronounce the word ‘coat.’ The nickname would eventually turn into Todd, by which he would be known as an adult. When he was nine, the family moved to Chicago at the precise end of WW I. Allegedly expelled from grammar school for running a craps game inside the building. Later produced a play in high school, before dropping out and working at a variety of jobs, including shoe salesman and soda jerk. Went into the construction business with his brother Frank, and became a contractor to Hollywood studios, soundproofing stages during the transition to talkies. The company went bankrupt with the Depression, and he was already $1 million in debt before he reached 21. Married a childhood friend, Bertha Freshman in 1927, one son Mike Todd, Jr. from the union, who also became a producer. Changed his name to Todd when his father died in 1931, knowing full well the latter would never have approved of it. Returned to Chicago as an impresario for a flame dancer whose costume seemingly burned off, at the 1934 Century of Progress Exposition. The act led him to NYC, where he began producing Broadway shows, beginning with “The Hot Mikado,” in 1939 with an all African-American cast. Did well in NY, then lost his wife suddenly to a collapsed lung in 1946. They had been on the verge of a divorce at the time, having separated earlier, with rumors abounding that he had killed her, although no proof exists. Produced several racy Broadway shows, including burlesque reviews among the 17 or so he helped create, and went bankrupt a second time in 1950, when his huge gambling debts undid his large fortune. His instinct for making money, however, allowed him to rebound once again. Married his mistress, actress Joan Blondell (Zoe Daschenel) in 1947, in what would prove to be an extremely abusive relationship on his part, including his fleecing her of her money, before the two divorced in 1950. The same year he formed Cinerama, a wide-screen process that employed three cameras, with its inventor and announcer Lowell Thomas as his partners. Their first feature, in 1952, This is Cinerama, was a huge hit. Left the company to form Todd-AO, which eliminated some of the latter’s flaws. Produced his best-known film, Mike Todd’s Around the World in 80 Days, through it, in 1956, and it went on to win the Best Picture Award at Oscar time the following annum. Married for a third time to screen icon Elizabeth Taylor in 1957, who was nearly a quarter century younger at the time, at which point he bought two Chicago theatres, naming them after himself and using them as a showcase for his Todd-AO productions. One daughter from the union. Lived lavishly, taking full advantage of being wed to a Hollywood superstar, including a huge party at NY’s Madison Square Garden, which turned into a food fight. Burned beyond recognition in a plane crash aboard ‘the Lucky Liz,” a small twin engine craft, that was grossly overloaded and got buffeted in a storm. In addition to himself, the author of his intended biography, Art Cohn, and the pilot and co-pilot died. Elizabeth Taylor missed the flight because she had a cold. Left an estate estimated at $3 million to $5 million. His remains would ultimately be mysteriously stolen by grave-robbers in 1977, on the rumor that he had been buried with a huge diamond ring, although there wasn’t enough left of him to sport it The remains were eventually discovered nearby and reburied, while the professional thieves who dug him up, were prosecuted and served time for their act. Inner: Highly flamboyant with a ready wit and a good sense of humor. Inveterate gambler, and always willing to take chances in everything he did. Had his various possessions with Elizabeth Taylor engraved, “Liz” and “His.” Showman supreme lifetime of razzling and dazzling the American public with his various efforts, as an impish impresario who deliberately tried to be larger-than-life in all he did. Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd Duke of Grafton (1735-1811) - British Prime Minister. Outer: Family descended from an illegitimate offspring of Charles II (Peter O’Toole) and his mistress Barbara Villiers (Bette Davis). Grandson of the 2nd Duke of Grafton. Father was a captain in the Royal Navy who died when his heir was five. Mother was the daughter of a colonial governor of NY. His progenitor’s first marriage, which produced a short-lived son, was not recognized by his own sire, so that he was the eldest of two sons of the second union. Inherited the dark complexion of his kingly forbear, as well as his love of pleasure. Educated at Westminster and Peterhouse, Cambridge where he received an MA in 1753. Took a Grand Tour of the continent afterwards. Entered Commons in 1756 as a Whig MP for Boroughbridge, before representing his family’s borough Bury St. Edmonds. Succeeded to his family’s titles and estates in 1757 on the death of his grandfather and took up his seat in the House of Lords, while being made Lord Lieutenant of Suffolk. Deprived of that post, however, after attacking peace proposals by the king’s favorite, the Earl of Bute (Eugene McCarthy). In 1756 he married Anne Liddell, the daughter of a baron. One daughter and two sons from the stormy union, which saw both unfaithful to one another, as he openly kept a string of mistresses. In 1764, he left his wife to live openly with Anne Parsons, outraging his peers by taking her into high society. His wife began an affair with the Duke of Portland (Doris Lessing) at the same time. Held several important posts, before reluctantly becoming first lord of the Treasury in 1766, feeling he did not have the skills for the job. Led the Whig ministry after Wm. Pitt the Elder’s (Al Sharpton) resigned in 1768, but proved to be a diffident and ineffective PM in his dealings with the French. A poor harvest saw food prices soar and the radical John Wilkes (Aneurin Bevan), and his continual stirring of the political pot marred his time in office, as well. In addition, high unemployment and a severe winter caused riots and strikes, while he tried to repair the disintegrating administration he had inherited. After being attacked and satirized by the press, he resigned in 1770. The previous annum, he divorced his wife after she had a son with an earl, while he married Elizabeth Wriothesley, an amiable but not particularly attractive daughter of a clergyman and college dean. The fecund second union, produced 13 children within 16 years, while his former mistress, Anne Parsons, married the Duke of Cumberland. Also produced a score of illegitimate children, numbering 13 by some accounts. Served as lord privy seal in Lord North’s (Piers Morgan) ministry from 1771 to 1775, but resigned because he favored a conciliatory connection with the rebelling American colonies, then held that same post in two further ministries. Became a prominent Unitarian later in life, while spending his time attending to his Suffolk estates and pursuing his own sense of religious enlightenment, in a desire to purify his soul. Died at his home. while his little mourned first wife predeceased him in 1804, and his second spouse outlived him by a decade. Inner: Pleasure-oriented, with a limited interest in rule. Enjoyed hunting to the hounds, breeding racehorses, and collecting books. Founding member of the Jockey Club, thanks to a love of horse-racing, which earned him the nickname of “the turf Macaroni.” Pleasure-chasing lifetime of being far more interested in women and horses than politics after being reluctantly thrust into a leadership role at a relatively early age before ultimately finding true purpose and meaning in his later life through spiritual pursuit.


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